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224 results for aded
acchamfn. (fr. a-+ cha-for chad-or chaya-, chad-),"not shaded","not dark, pellucid", transparent, clear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācitamfn. filled, loaded with (instrumental case or in compound;See yavācit/a-), covered, overspread, larded with etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agradāninm. a degraded Brahman who receives presents from śūdra-s, or takes things previously offered to the dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahīramaṇif. a two-headed snake (= ahīraṇi-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahīraṇim. (see /ahi-and ah/ī-) a two-headed snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajītamfn. ( jyā-,usually jina-), not faded, not faint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhimlātamfn. unfaded. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anabhimlātavarṇa(/anabhimlāta--) mfn. of unfaded colour or brightness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anubodham. reviving the scent of a faded perfume, replacing perfumes. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadhvaṃs -dhvaṃsati-, to scold, revile, [Comm. on] ("to drive or turn away") ; to fall away, be degraded () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadhvastamfn. degraded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariharaṇīyamfn. not to be degraded. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśaṅkitamfn. feared, dreaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśuklāntamfn. quickly faded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aurvam. (in later mythology he is called aurva- bhārgava- as son of cyavana- and grandson of bhṛgu-;he is the subject of a legend told in ;there it is said that the sons of kṛtavīrya-, wishing to destroy the descendants of bhṛgu- in order to recover the wealth left them by their father, slew even the children in the womb;one of the women of the family of bhṛgu-, in order to preserve her embryo, secreted it in her thigh[ ūru-],whence the child at its birth was named aurva-;on beholding whom, the sons of kṛtavīrya- were struck with blindness, and from whose wrath proceeded a flame that threatened to destroy the world, had not aurva- at the persuasion of the bhārgava-s cast it into the ocean, where it remained concealed, and having the face of a horse; aurva- was afterwards preceptor to sagara- and gave him the āgneyāstram-, with which he conquered the barbarians who invaded his possessions; see vaḍavā-mukha-, vaḍavāgni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantyam. (according to the āvantya-s are offsprings of degraded Brahmans.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avyāptamfn. not pervaded with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayājyamfn. ( yaj-), a person for whom one must not offer sacrifices, outcast, degraded , not to be offered in a sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
babhrumf(u-,or -)n. bald-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuguṇamfn. many-threaded (as a rope) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahumūrdhanmfn. many-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baindam. Name of a degraded tribe (equals niṣādha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktapulākam. or n. (?) a mouthful of rice kneaded into a ball View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhārakam. (prob.) a burden, load, weight (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ikā-).,loaded with; see phaṇi-bhārikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhārākrāntamf(ā-)n. overloaded (as a ship) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāravatmfn. loaded, weighty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭam. plural Name of a degraded tribe (see bhaṭṭa-, bhaḍa-, bhaṇḍa-;according to some "a person whose father is a Brahman and whose mother is a naṭī-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvitamfn. pervaded or inspired by, occupied or engrossed with, devoted to, intent upon (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhetavyamfn. to be feared or dreaded (n. often impersonal or used impersonally, especially na bhetavyam-,with abl, or genitive case,"one need not be afraid of") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇacāṇḍālam. " cāṇḍāla- among brāhmaṇa-", a degraded or out-caste brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇīf. a kind of large-headed ant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaspatiśirasmfn. " bṛhaspati--headed", (prob.) having the head shaved like bṛhaspati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chidratāf. "perforatedness", the (air's, ākāśasya-) being pervaded by everything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cl.3. d/adāti- (plural dati- etc.; A1. datte- ;1. sg. dadmi- ; imperative d/adātu- plural dahu-;2. sg. daddh/i- ; deh/i-[ ] ;2. plural d/adāta- , tana- , datt/a- etc.;2. dual number tt/am- etc.; Potential dady/āt- etc.; imperfect tense /adadāt-; plural /adadur- ;2. dual number /adattam- etc.;2. plural ttana-, , /adadāta- ; subjunctive d/adat- , das- dan- parasmE-pada m. Nominal verb sg. d/adat- plural tas- etc.; parasmE-pada A1. d/adāna-, ; n/a-, ; sg. dadati-, ; plural danti-, ; imperative da-, ; data- ; Potential det- ; imperfect tense /adadat- ; A1. sg. d/adate- ; plural dante-, ; imperative sg. datām- ; dasva- etc.; imperfect tense plural /adadanta- ; parasmE-pada d/adamāna- ; Aorist /adāt-[ ], dat-, /adur-, d/ur-etc.; subjunctive 2. dual number dāsathas- [ confer, compare ]; Potential 1. plural deṣma- ; perfect tense dad/au-, d/ur-, d/athur-, datur-, d/o- etc.; Passive voice d/e-, ; dadade-, dāte-, dire- ; parasmE-pada genitive case dad/uṣas- , ṣām- ; Nominal verb dv/ān-, ; dāvan- ; accusative div/āṃsam-, [ confer, compare ]; future parasmE-pada dāsy/at- ; A1. syate-, syante-,1. sg. sye- ; preceding deyāt- ; infinitive mood dāv/ane- ; d/ātos-, ; tave-, ; d/ātav/ai-[ ] ; tum-, etc.: ind.p. dattv/āya-[ ] ; ttv/ā- etc.; -d/āya-[ ] etc.: Passive voice dīyate-[ ]; parasmE-pada y/amāna- ; Aorist adāyi- ; preceding dāsīṣṭa-, dāyis-, ) cl.1. d/āti- (; imperative tu-, ; confer, compare Va1rtt. 3 ) to give, bestow, grant, yield, impart, present, offer to (dative case,in later language also genitive case or locative case) etc. ; to give (a daughter, kanyām-) in marriage etc. ; to hand over ; (with haste-) ; to give back, ; to pay (daṇḍam-,"a fine"; ṛṇam-,"a debt", ) ; to give up, cede (āsanam-,"one's seat") ; (panthānam-or mārgam-,"to give up the road, allow to pass") and ; to sell (with instrumental case of the price), ; to sacrifice (ātmānam-,"one's self."; āt- khedāya-,"to give one's self up to grief", ) ; to offer (an oblation etc.) etc. ; to communicate, teach, utter (blessings, āśiṣas- ), give (answer, prati-vacas-, canam-, praty-uttaram- etc.), speak (satyaṃ vacas-,the truth, ; vacam-,to address a speech to [ dative case ] ) ; to permit, allow (with infinitive mood) ; to permit sexual intercourse ; to place, put, apply (in med.) etc. ; to add ; with varam-,"to grant a boon" etc. ; śoham-,"to cause grief", ; avakāśam-,"to give room or space, allow to enter" etc. ; prāṇān- or jīvitam-,"to spare any one's life" ; talam- or lān-, to slap with the palms of the hands ; la-prahāram-, to strike with the palm tālam-, to beat time with the hands ; saṃjñām-, to make a sign ; saṃketakam-, to make an appointment samayam-, to propose an agreement ; upamām-, to compare with [ genitive case ] ; paṭaham-, to proclaim with the drum ; śabdam-, to make a noise, call out ; śāpam-, to utter a curse etc. ; gāīh-. idem or 'm. fire ' ; anuyātram-, to accompany ; āliṅganane-, parirambhaṇam-, to embrace, ; jhampam-, to jump ; śrāddham-, to perform a śrāddha- ; vratakam-, to accomplish a vow ; yuddham-, niy-, saṃgrāmam-, to give battle, fight with ; ājñām- ādeśam-, to give an order, command, ; saṃdeśam-, to give information ; prayogam-, to give a dramatic representation vṛtim-, to fence in ; darśanam-, to show one's self ; dṛṣṭim-, dṛśam-, akṣi-, caksus-, to fix the eyes on (locative case) ; karṇam-, to give ear, listen ; manas-, to direct the mind to (locative case) ; kars- kapolam-, to rest the cheek on the hand ; nigaḍāni- to put on or apply fetters pāvakam-, to set on fire ; agnīn- to consume by fire ; śāram-, to move a chess-man ; argalam-, to draw a bolt, bar ; jānu-, to kneel upon (genitive case) ; padam-, to tread upon [loc.] ; to direct the steps ; viṣam-, to poison (with accusative !) ; garam- idem or 'm. fire ' (with genitive case) ; -- A1. to carry, hold, keep, preserve ; to show (Aorist adadiṣṭa-; aded-fr. diś- ) : Causal dāpayati- (; Aorist adīdapat-, ) to cause to give or be given, cause to bestow or present or give up, oblige to pay, make restore etc. ; to demand from (ablative) ; to cause to utter or speak ghoṣaṇām-, to cause to be made known ; to cause to place or advance, ; to cause to perform, to cause to be put on (locative case) : Desiderative d/itsati- (; parasmE-pada d/idāsat- ; d/itsat-, ; Potential tseyam- ; perfect tense 2. sg. didāsitha- ; confer, compare ) to wish to give, be ready to bestow etc. ; to wish to give in marriage etc.: Intensive dedīyate- ; ([ confer, compare ; Latin do;etc.])
daśaśirasm. "ten-headed", rāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśaśīrṣamfn. (d/aś-) ten-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmarājam. of yudhiṣṭhira- ( dharmarājapurogama -purogama- mfn.headed by yudhiṣṭhira- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
draviḍam. Name of a people (regarded as degraded kṣatriya-s and said to be descendants of draviḍa-, sons of vṛṣabha-svāmin- ) and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvālamfn. baldheaded (commentator or commentary"red-haired"or"afflicted with a skin-disease"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvidagdhamfn. wrongly taught, wrongheaded, silly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durviṣam. "difficult to be pervaded or approached", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvimūrdhamf(ī-)n. 2-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dviśiras() () mfn. 2-headed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dviśiraska() mfn. 2-headed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajaśirasm. "elephant-headed", Name of an attendant in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajaśīrṣam. "elephant-headed", Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṅgācillīf. "Gangetic kite", the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauraśirasm. "white-headed", Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
goagra(g/o--) mf(ā-)n. ( ) headed by cows, having cows or milk as the chief or most excellent part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gośīrṣam. "cow-headed", Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛdhraśīrṣan(g/ṛdh-) mf(ṣṇī-)n. vulture-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hanumatkavacan. " hanumat-'s breast-plate", Name of various hymns (addressed to the five-headed hanumat- in various purāṇa-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harikeśamfn. (h/ari--) fair-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariścandram. Name of the 28th king of the solar dynasty in the tretā- age (he was son of tri-śaṅku-, and was celebrated for his piety; according to to the mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa- he gave up his country, his wife and his son, and finally himself, to satisfy the demands of viśvāmitra-;after enduring incredible sufferings, he won the pity of the gods and was raised with his subjects to heaven : according to to , his performance of the rāja-sūya- sacrifice was the cause of his elevation, and in the aitareya-brāhmaṇa- quite another legend is told about himSee under śunaḥśepa-, : in later legends hari-ścandra- is represented as insidiously induced by nārada- to relate his actions with unbecoming pride, whereupon he was degraded from svarga-, one stage at each sentence, till stopping in time and doing homage to the gods he was fixed with his capital in mid-air;his aerial city is popularly believed to be still visible in the skies at particular times; see saubha-) etc.
hīnajātimfn. of low caste, outcaste, degraded, vile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyamūrdhan(hiraṇya--) mf(dhnī-)n. golden-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyaśīrṣanmf(ṣṇī-)n. golden-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
īśāvāsya n. "to be clothed or pervaded by the Supreme", Name of the īśopaniṣad- (q.v) which commences with that expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
īśāvāsyan. "to be clothed or pervaded by the Supreme", Name of the īśopaniṣad- (q.v) which commences with that expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalakukkuṭīf. the black-headed gull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jihmaśirasmfn. oblique-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
juṅgitamfn. of degraded caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatamfn. bald-headed (see khalati-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmbojam. a native of kamboja- (a race who, like the yavana-s, shave the whole head;originally a kṣatriya- tribe, but degraded through its omission of the necessary rites ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karaṭam. a man of a low or degraded profession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇamukhamfn. headed by karṇa-, having karṇa- as leader. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārttikeyam. Name of a son of śiva- and pārvatī- (popularly regarded as god of war, because he leads the gaṇa-s or hosts of śiva- against the demon hostsSee p.213; according to to one legend he was son of śiva- without the intervention of pārvatī-, the generative energy of śiva- being cast into the fire and then received by the Ganges, whence he is sometimes described as son of agni- and gaṅgā-;when born he was fostered by the six kṛttikā-s q.v,and these offering their six breasts to the child he became six-headed;he is also called kumāra-, skanda-, and subrahmaṇya-;his N. kārttikeya- may be derived from his foster mothers or from the month kārttika- as the best for warfare: in the and elsewhere he is regarded as presiding over thieves) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautsam. Name of a degraded family (See kuts-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatimfn. (gaRa bhīmādi-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or in compound gaRa kaḍārādi-; khal- ) bald-headed, bald etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalvāṭamfn. (equals khalliṭa-) bald-headed, bald View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khasam. a native of that country (considered as a degraded kṣatriya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātam. plural Name of a degraded mountain-tribe (inhabiting woods and mountains and living by hunting, having become śūdra-s by their neglect of all prescribed religious rites;also regarded as mleccha-s;the Kirrhadae of Arrian) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolam. Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (outcast, one degraded by sagara- from the military order) (varia lectio koli-sarpa- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolisarpam. plural Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (varia lectio -sparśa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
konvaśiram. plural Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (see kolvagireya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇaśīrṣan(ṣṇ/a--), mfn. black-headed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubrahmam. a degraded or contemptible Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubrahmanm. a degraded or contemptible Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhamūrdhanm. "pot-headed", a particular demon causing diseases View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūṭākṣam. loaded or false dice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madrakam. (plural) Name of a degraded people (equals madra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākapālam. "large-headed", Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāmūrdhanmfn. great-headed, large-headed (Name of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśirasmfn. large-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitram. a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of an out-caste vaiśya-; see maitreyaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyakam. Name of a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of a vaideha- and an ayogavī-, whose business is to praise great men and announce the dawn by ringing a bell) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medabhilla(?) m. Name of a degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlānamfn. faded, withered, exhausted, languid, weak, feeble etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlānan. withered or faded condition, absence of brightness or lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlānasrajmfn. having a withered or faded garland View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlānatvan. withered or faded condition, dejectedness, languor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlānimanm. withered or faded condition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlātamfn. faded, withered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mliṣṭamfn. withered, faded, faint (equals mlāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṇḍam. a man with a shaven head, bald-headed man (also applied to śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṇḍitamuṇḍamfn. shaven-headed, bald-pated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṇḍitamurdhanmfn. shaven-headed, bald-pated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṇḍitaśirasmfn. shaven-headed, bald-pated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrchitamfn. intensified, augmented increased, grown, swollen (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = filled or pervaded or mixed with) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandīṭam. a bald-headed man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naṭam. Name of a particular caste (sons of degraded kṣatriya-s ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nicchivim. Name of one of the degraded castes sprung from the outcast or vrātya- kṣatriya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīlaśīrṣṇī(n/ī-) f. "black-headed", a kind of animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīraktamfn. colourless, faded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niruṣṇīṣamfn. without a turban or head-dress, bareheaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirviṇṇamfn. abused, degraded, humble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣādam. a man of any degraded tribe, an out-caste (especially the son of a Brahman by a śūdra- woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pahlavam. plural Name of a people (the Parthians or Persians) etc. (also spelt pahnava-; in the they are said to be a degraded kṣatriya- race conquered by sagara- and sentenced to wear beards). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcamukhamf(ī-)n. 5-faced or 5-headed (also applied to prajā-pati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcaśīrṣamf(ā-)n. 5-headed ; 5-eared(as corn, sc. on one stalk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāsyamfn. 5-faced, 5-headed ; 5-pointed (as an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcavaṭam. "5-threaded", the Brahmanical cord (but see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parābhūtamfn. defeated, overcome, harmed, injured, degraded, humbled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāradam. plural Name of a people or of a degraded tribe etc. (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhāvitamfn. penetrated, pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhraṣṭamfn. sunk, degraded etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parijīrṇamfn. worn out, old, withered, faded, decayed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimilitamfn. mixed or filled with, pervaded by (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimlānamfn. faded, withered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimṛṣṭamfn. spread, pervaded, filled with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivītamfn. (p/ari--) veiled, covered, pervaded, overspread, surrounded, encompassed by (instrumental case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paroparuddhamfn. besieged by an enemy, blockaded, invested View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryuṣṭamfn. old, faded, withered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patitamfn. fallen (morally), wicked, degraded, out-caste ( patitatva -tva- n.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauṇḍrakam. Name of a particular mixed caste of hereditary sugar-boilers (the son of a vaiśya- by a woman of the distiller class, regarded as one of the degraded races of kṣatriya-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṣṭamfn. kneaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramlānamfn. faded, withered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramukhamfn. (generally in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; f(ā-).) having as foremost or chief, headed or preceded by, accompanied by or with ([ see prīti-p-; vasiṣṭhap-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratāritamfn. persuaded or seduced to (dative case) (varia lectio pra-codita-). 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyākalitan. judicial decision as to which of the litigants is to prove his case after the defendant has pleaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praveṣṭavyamfn. to be entered or penetrated or pervaded, accessible, open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
protamfn. contained in (locative case), pervaded by (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthuśirasmfn. (pṛth/u--) broad-headed, flat-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajakam. a washerman (so called from his cleaning or whitening clothes;regarded as a degraded caste; according to to either "the son of a pāra-dhenuka- and a brāhmaṇī-"or"the son of a niṣṭhya- and an ugrī-") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājāpasadam. a degraded or outcast king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktamastakam. "red-headed", Ardea Sibirica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ruddhamfn. invested, besieged, blockaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ruruśīrṣan(r/uru--) mfn. "deer-headed", having a deer's horn or a destructive point (said of an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhukam. Name of a low or degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrakamfn. (for sahasraka-See p.1196) thousand-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasramūrdham. "thousand -headed"Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasramūrdhanmfn. thousand-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraśirasmfn. thousand-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraśīrṣamfn. thousand-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraśīrṣan(sah/asra--) mfn. thousand-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrāsyam. "thousand-faced","thousand-headed", Name of the Serpent ananta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakam. plural Name of a particular white-skinned tribe or race of people (in the legends which relate the contests between vasiṣṭha- and viśvāmitra- the śaka-s are fabled to have been produced by the Cow of vasiṣṭha-, from her sweat, for the destruction of viśvāmitra-'s army; in , they are mentioned together with the pauṇḍraka-s, oḍra-s, draviḍa-s, kāmboja-s, javana-s or yavana-s, pārada-s, pahlava-s, cīna-s, kirāta-s, darada-s, and khaśa-s, described by as degraded tribes of kṣatriya-s called after the districts in which they reside: according to the ,king sagara- attempted to rid his kingdom of these tribes, but did not succeed in destroying them all : they are sometimes regarded as the followers of śaka- or śāli-vāhana-, and are probably to be identified with the Tartars or Indo-Scythians [ Latin saca-]who overran India before the Aryans, and were conquered by the great vikramāditya- [q.v.]; they really seem to have been dominant in the north-west of India in the last century before and the first two centuries after the beginning of our era) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālagrāmamn. a sacred stone worshipped by the vaiṣṇava-s and supposed to be pervaded by the presence of viṣṇu- (it is a black stone which contains a fossil ammonite and is chiefly found near the above village in the gaṇḍakī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalyamn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a dart, javelin, lance, spear, iron-headed weapon (see upa-ś-), pike, arrow, shaft (also the point of an arrow or spear and its socket) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samānamūrdhanmf(dhnī-)n. equal-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samanugatamfn. gone after or through, followed, pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃghaṭṭitamfn. kneaded (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samprabodhitamfn. (fr. Causal) convinced, persuaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvāhyamfn. to be rubbed or kneaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvartam. anything rolled or kneaded, a lump or ball (of cake)
saṃvyāpyamfn. ( āp-) to be pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkuśirasmfn. spear-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaśirasmfn. 7-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaśīrṣamfn. 7-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaśīrṣan(t/a--) mf(ṣṇī-)n. 7-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatantumfn. (t/a--) "7-threaded", consisting of 7 parts (as a sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpaśirasm. (scilicet hasta-) "snake-headed", Name of a particular position of the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpaśīrṣan m. "snake-headed", a kind of fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpaśīrṣinm. "snake-headed", a kind of fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatamūrdhanmfn. hundred-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataśīrṣamfn. hundred-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataśīrṣanmfn. (śat/a--) hundred-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataśīrṣarudraśamanīyamfn. fit to appease the hundred-headed rudra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śeṣam. Name of a celebrated mythological thousand-headed serpent regarded as the emblem of eternity (whence he is also called an-anta-,"the infinite" ; in the viṣṇu-purāṇa- he and the serpents vāsuki- and takṣaka- are described as sons of kadru-, but in one place śeṣa- alone is called king of the nāga-s or snakes inhabiting pātāla-, while elsewhere vāsuki- also is described as king of the naga-s and takṣaka- of the serpents; the thousand headed śeṣa- is sometimes represented as forming the couch and canopy of viṣṇu- whilst sleeping during the intervals of creation, sometimes as supporting the seven pātāla-s with the seven regions above them and therefore the entire world; he is said to have taught astronomy to garga-; according to some legends he became incarnate in bala-rāma- q.v) etc. ()
siktham. a lump or mouthful of boiled rice kneaded into a ball View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śipiviṣṭamfn. (according to to ) pervaded by rays (applied to rudra-- śiva- and viṣṇu-; see ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śipiviṣṭamfn. bald-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīrṇamfn. withered, faded, shrivelled, shrunk, decayed, rotten etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopākam. (perhaps for śva-pāka-) a man of a degraded caste (the son of a caṇḍāla- by a pulkasī-, and only to be employed as public executioner etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthitamfn. firmly convinced or persuaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlaśirasm. "large-headed", Name of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlaśīrṣikāf. "thick-headed", a kind of small ant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūcīprotamfn. threaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudurāvartamfn. very hard to be dissuaded or convinced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suduṣkulan. a very low or degraded race or family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugrīvam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) Name of a monkey-king (who, with his army of monkeys headed by hanumat-, assisted rāmacandra- in conquering rāvaṇa-;he was believed to be the son of the Sun, and was re-established by rāma- in the throne of kiṣkindha- [ q.v ], usurped by his brother vālin-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmaśiraskamfn. small-headed (applied as a nickname to a Buddhist) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svayammlānamfn. faded or withered of itself (id est naturally) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāntamfn. faded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanuśirasf. "small-headed", a kind of uṣṇih- metre (of 2 x 11 and 1 x 6 syllables). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapurmūrdhanmfn. (t/ap-) burning-headed (agni-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toditamfn. goaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
traiśīrṣamf(ā-)n. relating to (id est committed against) the three-headed (tri-śīrṣan-) viśva-rūpa- (a murder) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trimūrdhamfn. three-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triśaṅkum. of a king of ayodhyā- (aspiring to ascend to heaven in his mortal body, he first requested vasiṣṭha- to perform a great sacrifice for him;on vasiṣṭha-'s refusing he applied to vasiṣṭha-'s hundred sons, who cursed and degraded him to the rank of a caṇḍāla- [hence called a caṇḍāla- king ]; viśvā-mitra- then undertook the sacrifice for him and invited all the gods, who declined to come and thereby so enraged the sage that, by his own power, he transported triśaṅku- to heaven;on his being hurled down again head foremost by the gods, he was arrested in his course by viśvā-mitra- and remained suspended in the sky, forming the southern cross constellation [son of pṛthu-]; and [son of trayyāruṇa-];[son of tri-bandhana-] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triśirasmfn. three-headed (tvāṣṭra-, author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triśīrṣamfn. three-headed (śiva-, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triśīrṣanmfn. three-headed (tvāṣṭra-, d/āsa-,etc.) (tr/i-ś-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivṛcchirasmfn. trivṛt--headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tunnamfn. struck, goaded, hurt, cut etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayaśirasmfn. "having a head towards both ways"or"two-headed", a pregnant female (see -mukha-above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayataḥśīrṣanmf(śīrṣṇ/ī-)n. having a head towards either way, two-headed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udvartitamfn. perfumed, scented, rubbed, kneaded, shampooed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upacchanditamfn. persuaded, coaxed, enticed (Prakrituba-cchandido.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upamantritamfn. summoned, invited, persuaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. invaded, afflicted, visited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparuddhamfn. locked in, shut up, besieged, blockaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpalapattran. a broad-bladed knife or lancet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpalapattrakam. a broad-bladed knife or lancet used by surgeons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijanmanm. a bastard, illegitimate child, the son of an out-caste or degraded vaiśya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimastakitamfn. beheaded, decapitated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimlānamfn. (for 2.See vi-mlai-) unfaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimlānamfn. (for 1.See) faded or withered away, bereft of lustre or beauty, fresh, pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīṇāvaṃśaśalākāf. around-headed peg round which the string of a lute is bound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparimlānamfn. ( mlai-) entirely faded or withered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viruddhamfn. surrounded, blockaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapadiṣṭamfn. pleaded as an excuse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpanīyamfn. to be pervaded or penetrated, permeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptamfn. spread through, pervaded, extended, covered or filled with, thoroughly occupied or penetrated by (as the universe by spirit), filled up, full etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptamfn. comprehended or included under (a general notion), having invariably inherent properties, invariably pervaded or attended or accompanied by (in logic; exempli gratia, 'for example' dhūmo vahninnā vyāptaḥ-,"smoke is invariably attended by fire"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptif. pervasion, inherence, inherent and inseparable presence of any one thing in another (as of oil in sesamum seed, heat in fire etc.), universal pervasion, invariable concomitance, universal distribution or accompaniment (exempli gratia, 'for example'"smoke is always pervaded by fire", or"fire is necessarily attended with smoke"see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptimatmfn. pervaded, attended by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpyan. that which may be the site or locality of universal pervasion or of an invariably concomitant cause or characteristic (exempli gratia, 'for example'"smoke which is invariably pervaded by fire") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpyamānamfn. being pervaded or permeated or comprehended or included View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpyatāf. permeableness, the state of being pervaded or attended by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpyatvan. permeableness, the state of being pervaded or attended by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyastamfn. inherent in or pervading all the several parts of anything (in phil opp. to sam-asta-), penetrated, pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaratikṛtamfn. pervaded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavasoP. -syati- (Epic also -syate-[with act. and pass. meaning];1. sg. proper -sāmi-; Potential -seyam-, -set-; future -siṣyati-), to settle down or dwell separately ; to differ (in opinion), contest, quarrel ; to separate, divide (opp. to sam-as-) ; to determine, resolve, decide, be willing to (accusative dative case, artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',or infinitive mood) etc. ; to settle, ascertain, be convinced or persuaded of take for (accusative) etc. ; to ponder, reflect, consider ; to make strenuous effort, labour or seek after, make an attempt upon (accusative) : Passive voice -sīyate-, to be settled or ascertained or fixed on or determined or decided (often impersonal or used impersonally) etc.: Causal -sāyayati-, to cause to resolve, encourage to undertake, embolden ; to incite or instigate to (infinitive mood)
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akarman अकर्मन् a. [न. ब] 1 Without work, idle; inefficient. -2 Disqualified for performing the necessary rites, wicked, degraded; अकर्मा दस्युरभि नो Rv.10.22.8. -3 (Gram.) intransitive, generally in this sense अकर्मक. --n. (र्म) [न. त] 1 Absence of work; absence of necessary observances; neglect of essential observances; inaction; अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः Bg.4.17,18. -2 An improper act; crime, sin. -3 Not doing (= अकरणम्), non-performance; प्रतिषेधादकर्म MS.1.8.1. -4 What should not be done; अकर्म वा कृतदूषा स्यात् । MS.12.1.1 (where शबर explains अकर्म by न वा कर्तव्या दार्शिकी वेदिः ।). -5 Non-act, non-activity: अन्यद्धि कर्म भक्षणं प्रतिषिध्यमानम् अन्यद् अकर्म मानसः संकल्पः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.19. -6 Not doing, violation. तदकर्मणि च दोषः MS.6.3.3. (where तदकर्मणि is explained as प्रधानातिक्रमे by शबर); अकर्मणि चाप्रत्यवायात् । MS 6.3.1. -7 A wrong act, an improper act. अकर्म च दारक्रिया या आधानोत्तरकाले । ŚB. on MS.6.8.14; अकर्म चोर्ध्वमाधानात्˚ । MS.6.8.14. -Comp. -अन्वित a. 1 un-engaged, unoccupied, idle. -2 criminal. -कृत् a. free from action; न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् । Bg.3.5 doing an improper act. -भोगः 1 enjoyment of freedom from the fruits of action. -2 renunciation of self-righteousness. -शील a. lazy, indolent.
akliṣṭa अक्लिष्ट a. [न. त.] 1 Unwearied, untroubled, not annoyed, undisturbed, indefatigable. -2 Not marred, unimpaired; इदमुपनतमेवं रूपमक्लिष्टकान्ति Ś.5.19 of unimpaired or unblemished beauty; अन्यथा कथमियम् ˚ता लावण्यस्य K.12 unmarred state, perfection. -3 Not laboured or elaborate. -Comp. -कर्मन्, -कारिन् a. unwearied in actions. -वर्ण a. not confused, distinct; ˚र्णां गमनाभ्यनुज्ञां K.293 given in plain, distinct terms; of unfaded colour. -व्रत a. not swerving from religious vows, unwearied in observing them.
agra अग्र a. [अङ्ग्-रन् नलोपः Uṇ.2.28] 1 First, foremost, chief, best, prominent, principal, pre-eminent; ˚महिषी chief queen; ˚वातमासेवमाना M.1. front (and hence, fresh) breeze; ˚आसनम् chief seat, seat of honour; माम- ग्रासनतो$वकृष्टमवशं ये दृष्टवन्तः पुरा Mu.1.12. -2 Excessive, over and above, surplus; supernumerary, projecting (अधिक). -ग्रः Setting mountain; अग्रसानुषु नितान्तपिशङ्गैः Ki.9.7. -ग्रम् 1 (a) The foremost or topmost point, tip, point (opp. मूलम्, मध्यम्); (fig.) sharpness, keenness; धर्मस्य ब्राह्मणो मूलम् मग्रं राजन्य उच्यते Ms.11.83; दर्व्याम् अग्रं मूलम् मध्यम् &c.; नासिका˚ tip of the nose; सूचि˚ &c.; समस्ता एव विद्या जिह्वाग्रे$भवन् K.346 stood on the tip of the tongue; अमुष्य विद्या रसनाग्रनर्तकी N.1.5. (b) Top, summit, surface; कैलास˚, पर्वत˚, &c. -2 Front, van; अग्रे कृ put in the front or at the head; तामग्रे कृत्वा Pt.4. See अग्रे. -3 The best of any kind; स्यन्दनाग्रेण with the best of chariots; प्रासादाग्रैः Rām. -4 Superiority, excellence (उत्कर्ष); अग्रादग्रं रोहति Tāṇḍya. -5 Goal, aim, resting place (आलम्बनम्); मनुमेकाग्रमासीनम् Ms.1.1, See ˚भूमि also. -6 Beginning, See अग्रे. -7 A multitude, assemblage. -8 Overplus, excess, surplus; साग्रं स्त्रीसहस्रम् Rām. 1 women and more; so साग्रकोटी च रक्षसाम्. -9 A weight = पल q. v. -1 A measure of food given as alms (ब्राह्मणभोजनम् occurring in अग्रहार); प्रयतो ब्राह्मणाग्रे यः श्रद्धया परया युतः । Mb.13.65.13. -11 (Astr.) Amplitude of the sun (˚ग्रा, अग्रका also). cf. ...अग्रमालम्बने$धिके । पुरोपरिप्रान्ताद्येषु न पुंसि प्रमिताशने । Nm. -12 Forepart of time; नैवेह किंचनाग्र आसीत् Bṛi. Up.1.2.1. In compounds as first member meaning 'the forepart', 'front', 'tip' &c.; e. g. ˚अक्चयः First procurement (cf. Daṇḍa-viveka G. O. S.52, p.43). ˚पादः -चरणः the forepart of the foot, toe; so ˚हस्तः, ˚करः, ˚पाणिः &c.; ˚सरोरूहम् the topmost lotus. पद्मानि यस्याग्रसरोरुहाणि Ku.1.16. ˚कर्णम् Tip-ear; top of the ear; Mātaṅga L.5.7. ˚कायः forepart of the body; so ˚नखम्, ˚नासिका tip of the nail, nose &c., -adv. In front, before, ahead. -Comp. -अंशुः [अग्रम् अंशोः] the focal point. -अक्षि n. [कर्म.] sharp or pointed vision, side-look (अपाङ्गवीक्षण); अग्राक्ष्णा वीक्षमाणस्तु तिर्यग् भ्रातरमब्रवीत् Rām. -अद्वन् a. having precedence in eating. -अनी (णी) कः (कम्) vanguard; दीर्घाल्लँघूंश्चैव नरानग्रानीकेषु योधयेत् Ms.7.193; [अग्राणीकं रघुव्याघ्रौ राक्षसानां बभञ्जतुः Rām. -अयणीयम [अग्रं श्रेष्टं अयनं ज्ञानं तत्र साधु छ]. 1 N. of a Buddhistic tenet (उत्पादपूर्वमग्रायणीयमथ वीर्यता प्रवादः स्यात् -हेमचन्द्रः). -2 title of the second of the fourteen oldest Jain books (Pūrvas). -अवलेहितम् [अग्रम् अव- लेहितम् आस्वादितं यस्य] food at a Śrāddha ceremony, the chief part of which has been tested. -आसनम् First seat of honour; मामग्रासनतो$वकृष्टमवशम् Mu.1.12. -उत्सर्गः taking a thing by leaving its first portion in conformity with the rule of laying by nothing for the next day (i. e. the rule of non hoarding); cf. Daṇḍaviveka G. O. S.52, pp.43-44. -उपहरणम् first supply. -उपहरणीय a. [अग्रे उपह्रियते कर्मणि अनीयर्] 1 that which is first offered or supplied. -2 [अग्रम् उपह्रियते यस्मै हृ- संप्रदाने अनीयर्] श्राद्धाद्यर्थमुपकल्पितस्य अन्नादेरग्रे दानोद्देश्यः वास्तु- देवादिः Tv. -करः 1 = अग्रहस्तः q. v. -2 the focal point. -केशः front line of hair; ˚शेषु रेणुः अपहरति K.86. -गः [अग्रे गच्छतीति, गम्-ड] a leader, a guide; taking the lead; marching foremost. -गण्य a. [अग्रे गण्यते$सौ] foremost, to be ranked first; शमनभवनयाने यद्भवानग्रगण्यः Mahān. -गामिन् a. [अग्रे गच्छति] a leader; प्रष्ठो$ग्रगामिनि P.VIII.3.92. -ज a. [अग्रे जायते; जन्-ड.] first born or produced; आनन्देनाग्रजेनेव R.1.78. (-जः) 1 the first born, an elder brother; सुमतिं ममाग्रजमवगच्छ M.5; अस्त्येव मन्युर्भरताग्रजे मे R.14.73. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. (-जा) an elder sister; so ˚जात, ˚जातक, ˚जाति. -जङ्घा the forepart of the calf. -जन्मन् m. [अग्रे जन्म यस्य सः] 1 the first-born, an elder brother; जनकाग्रजन्मनोः शासनमतिक्रम्य Dk.2. -2 a Brāhmaṇa (वर्णेषु मध्ये अग्रजातत्वात्, or अग्रात् प्रधानाङ्गात् मुखात् जातत्वात्, ब्राह्मणो$स्य मुखमासीत्, तस्मात् त्रिवृत् स्तोमानां मुखम... अग्निर्देवतानां ब्राह्मणो मनुष्याणाम्; तस्माद् ब्राह्मणो मुखेन वीर्यं करोति मुखतो हि सृष्टः Tāṇḍya); अतिवयसमग्रजन्मानम् K.12; अवो- चत् ˚न्मा Dk.13.3; N. of Brahmā, as he was the first to be born in the waters. cf. अग्रजन्मा द्विजे ज्येष्ठभ्रातरि ब्रह्मणि स्मृतम् Nm. -जिह्वा the tip of the tongue. -ज्या (astr.) the sign of the amplitude. -दानिन् [अग्रे दानम् अस्य; अग्र- दान-इनि] a (degraded) Brāhmaṇa who takes presents offered in honour of the dead (प्रेतोद्देशेन यद्दानं दीयते तत्प्रति- ग्राही); लोभी विप्रश्च शूद्राणामग्रेदानं गृहीतवान् । ग्रहणे मृतदानानां (ग्रहणात्तिलदानानां Tv.) अग्रदानी बभूव सः ॥ -दानीयः [अग्रे दानमर्हति छ] = अग्रदानिन्. -दूतः a harbinger; कृष्णाक्रोधा- ग्रदूतः Ve.1.22; ˚दूतिका Dk.2; महीपतीनां प्रणयाग्रदूत्यः R.6.12; -देवी the chief queen; समग्रदेवीनिवहाग्र- देवी... । -धान्यम a cereal grain. (Mar. जोंधळा), Holcus soraghum or Holcus spicatus. (Mar. बाजरी). -निरूपणम् predestination; prophecy, determining beforehand. -नीः (णीः) [अग्रे नीयते असौ नी-क्विप्, णत्वम्] 1 a leader, foremost, first, chief; ˚णी- र्विरागहेतुः K.195; अप्यग्रणीर्मन्त्रकृतामृषीणाम् R.5.4. chief. -2 fire. -पर्णी [अग्रे पर्णं यस्याः सा-ङीप्] cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens (अजलोमन्). [Mar. कुयली]. -पातिन् a. [अग्रे आदौ पतति; पत्-णिनि] happening beforehand, antecedent; [˚तीनि शुभानि निमित्तानि K.65. -पादः the forepart of the foot; toes; नवकिसलयरागेणाग्रपादेन M.3.12; ˚स्थिता standing on tiptoe. Ś.5. -पाणिः = ˚हस्तः q. v. -पूजा the highest or first mark of reverence or respect; ˚जामिह स्थित्वा गृहाणेदं विषं प्रभो Rām. -पेयम् precedence in drinking. -प्रदायिन् a. giving in advance; तेषामग्र- प्रदायी स्याः कल्पोत्थायी प्रियंवदः Mb.5.135.35. -बीज a. [अग्रं शाखाग्रं बीजमुत्पादकं यस्य] growing by means of the tip or end of branches, growing on the stock or stem of another tree, such as 'कलम' in Mar. (-जः) a viviparous plant. -भागः [कर्म.] 1 the first or best part (श्राद्धादौ प्रथममुद्धृत्य देयं द्रव्यम्) -2 remnant, remainder (शेषभाग). -3 fore-part, tip, point. -4 (astr.) a degree of amplitude. -भागिन् a. [अग्र- भागो$स्यास्ति; अस्त्यर्थे इनि] first to take or claim (the remnant); अलङ्क्रियमाणस्य तस्य अनुलेपनमाल्ये ˚गी भवामि V. 5, claiming the first share of the remnant etc. -भावः precedence. उदारसंख्यैः सचिवैरसंख्यैः कृताग्रभावः स उदाग्रभावः -भुज् a. 1 having precedence in eating. स तानग्रभुजस्तात धान्येन च धनेन च Mb.1.178.12. -2 gluttonous, voracious (औदरिक). -भूः [अग्रे भवति भू-क्विप्] = ˚ज. -भूमिः f. 1 goal of ambition or object aimed at; ततो$ग्रभूमिं व्यवसायासिद्धेः Ki.17.55; त्वमग्र- भूमिर्निरपायसंश्रया Śi.1.32 (प्राप्यस्थानम्). -2 the topmost part, pinnacle; विमान˚ Me.71. -महिषी the principal queen. -मांसम् [अग्रं भक्ष्यत्वेन प्रधानं मांसम्] flesh in the heart, the heart itself; ˚सं चानीतं Ve.3.2. morbid protuberance of the liver. -यणम् [अग्रम् अयनात् उत्तरायणात् णत्वं शकं˚ तद्विधानकालो$स्य अच् (?) Tv.] a kind of sacrificial ceremony. See आग्रयण. -यान a. [अग्रे यानं यस्य, या-ल्युट्] taking the lead, foremost. (-नम्) an army that stops in front to defy the enemy. मनो$ग्रयानं वचसा निरुक्तं नमामहे Bhāg.8.5.26. -यायिन् a. [अग्रे यास्यति या-णिनि] taking the lead, leading the van; पुत्रस्य ते रणशिरस्ययमग्रयायी Ś.7.26. मान- धनाग्रयायी R.5.3, -योधिन् [अग्रे स्थित्वा युध्यते] the principal hero, champion राक्षसानां वधे तेषां ˚धी भविष्यति Rām.; so ˚वीर; कर्मसु चाग्रवीरः. -रन्ध्रम् opening fore-part; त्रासान्नासाग्ररन्ध्रं विशति Māl.1.1. -लोहिता [अग्रं लोहितं यस्याः सा] a kind of pot-herb (चिल्लीशाक). -संख्या the first place or rank; पुत्रः समारोपयदग्रसंख्याम् R.18.3. -वक्त्रम् N. of a surgical instrument, Suśr. -वातः fresh breeze; अग्रवातमासेवमाना M.1. -शोमा towering beauty or the beauty of the peaks; कैलासशैलस्य यदग्रशोभाम् । Bu. ch.1.3. -संधानी [अग्रे फलोत्पत्तेः प्राक् संधी- यते ज्ञायते $नया कार्यम् Tv.] the register of human actions kept by Yama (यत्र हि प्राणिवर्गस्य प्राग्भवीयकर्मानुसारेण शुभा- शुभसूचकं सर्वं लिख्यते सा यमपञ्जिका). -सन्ध्या early dawn; कर्कन्धूनामुपरि तुहिनं रञ़्जयत्यग्रसन्ध्या Ś.4. v.1. -सर = यायिन् taking the lead; आयोधनाग्रसरतां त्वयि वीर याते R.5.71. -सारा [अग्रं शीर्षमात्रं सारो यस्याः सा] 1 a sprout which has tips without fruits. -2 a short method of counting immense numbers. -हर a. [अग्रे ह्रियते दीयते$सौ; हृ-अच्] 1 that which must be given first. -2 = अग्रहारिन्. -हस्त (˚कर; ˚पाणिः,) the forepart of the hand or arm; अग्रहस्तेन गृहीत्वा प्रसादयैनाम् Ratn.3; forepart of the trunk (of an elephant); often used for a finger or fingers taken collectively; शीतलस्ते ˚स्तः Mk.3; अतिसाध्वसेन वेपते मे ˚स्तः Ratn.1; कुसुमित इव ते ˚स्तः प्रतिभाति M.1.; प्रसारिते ˚स्ते M.4; ˚हस्तात्प्रभ्रष्टं पुष्पभाजनम् Ś.4. slipped from the fingers; also the right hand; अथ ˚हस्ते मुकुलीकृताङ्गुलौ Ku.5.63. (अग्रश्चासौ हस्तश्च Malli.). Ki.5.29. -हायनः (णः) [अग्रः श्रेष्ठः हायनो व्रीहिः अत्र, णत्वम्] the beginning of the year; N. of the month मार्गशीर्ष; (मासानां मार्गशीर्षो$हम् Bg. 1.35.); ˚इष्टिः नवशस्येष्टिर्यागभेदः. -हारः 1 a grant of land given by kings (to Brāhmaṇas) for sustenance (अग्रं ब्राह्मणभोजनं, तदर्थं ह्रियन्ते राजधनात् पृथक् क्रियन्ते ते क्षेत्रादयः- नीलकण्ठ; क्षेत्रोत्पन्नशस्यादुद्धृत्य ब्राह्मणोद्देशेन स्थाप्यं धान्यादि, गुरुकुला- दावृत्तब्रह्मचारिणे देयं क्षेत्रादि, ग्रामभेदश्च Tv.); अग्रहारांश्च दास्यामि ग्रामं नगरसंमितम् Mb.3.64.4. कस्मिंश्चिदग्रहारे Dk.8.9. -2 the first offering in वैश्वदेव Mb.3.234.47.
aṅkuśita अङ्कुशित a. [इतच्] Urged on by a hook, goaded.
ajīta अजीत a. [न. त.] Not faded or withered, not faint. -Comp. -पुनर्वर्ण्यम् N. of a two-fold rite to be performed by Kṣatriyas (अप्राप्तप्राप्तिकरणार्थो विधिः).
anabhimlāta अनभिम्लात a. [न. त.] Not faded. -Comp. -वर्ण a. Ved. of unfaded or undiminished lustre, resplendent. सो अपां नपादनभिम्लातवर्णः Rv.2.35.13.
anukīrṇa अनुकीर्ण a. Filled, Pervaded; अनुकीर्णं महारण्यं ब्राह्मणैः समपद्यत Mb.3.26.1. Crowded, crammed.
anubodhaḥ अनुबोधः 1 An after-thought, recollection. -2 Reviving the scent of faded perfumes, replacing them when removed by bathing.
anuviddha अनुविद्ध p. p. 1 Pierced, bored; कीटानुविद्धरत्नादि- साधारण्येन काव्यता S. D. -2 Overspread, intertwined; surrounded, full of; pervaded by, replete or filled with, abounding in, mixed or blended with, intermixed; सरसिजमनुविद्धं शैवलेनापि रम्यम् Ś.1.2; क्वचित्प्रभालेपिभिरिन्द्र- नीलैर्मुक्तामयी यष्टिरिवानुविद्धा R.13.54 interwoven with emeralds; 16.48,6.18; अलके बालकुन्दानुविद्धम् Me.67; सौरभ्य˚ Mk.1; कोपानुविद्धां चिन्तां नाटयन् Mu.3.; Ku.3.35; पाण्डुतानुविद्धेव देहच्छविः Dk.112;137; Māl.1. -3 Connected with, relating to; adhering to; देशवार्तानुविद्धा संकथा Dk.117,124; उद्गूर्णलोष्टलगुडैः परितो$नुविद्धम् Śi.5.25 chased, closely followed or pursued. -4 Set, inlaid; variegated; रत्नानुविद्धार्णवमेखलाया दिशः सपत्नी भव दक्षिणस्याः R.6.63,14; Śi.4.49.
apakarman अपकर्मन् a. [बहु. स.] Of bad or degraded actions, corrupted, depraved. -n (˚र्म) 1 Discharge, paying off (of a debt); दत्तस्यानपकर्म च Ms.8.4. -2 An improper or unworthy act; evil doing, conduct, or course; any degrading or impure act. -3 Wickedness, violence, oppression. -4 Incompetence, laziness.
apakāraḥ अपकारः 1 Harm, wrong; injury, hurt, offence, misdeed, wrong deed (opp. उपकार); स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति Pt.1.66; उपकर्त्रारिणा सन्धिर्न मित्रेणाप- कारिणा। उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षणमेतयोः Śi.2.37; अपकारो- प्युपकारायैव संवृत्तः &c. -2 Thinking ill of, desire to offend or hurt (अनिष्टचिन्ता). -3 Wickedness, violence, oppression, enmity. -4 A mean or degraded action. -Comp. -अर्थिन् a. meaning to harm, malevolent, malicious. -गिर् f. (-गीः), -शब्दः abusive words, menacing or insulting speech; भर्त्सनं त्वपकारगीः Ak.
apadhvaṃsaḥ अपध्वंसः 1 Degradation, falling off or from, disgrace. -2 Concealment. -Comp. -जः, -जा a person of a mixed, degraded and impure caste (where the mother belongs to a higher caste than the father's) एको विड्वर्ण एवाथ तथा$त्रैवोपलक्षितः । षडपध्वंसजास्ते हि...Mb.13.49.8. अपध्वंसजाः स्मृताः Ms.1.41.46.
apama अपम a. [अपकृष्टं मीयते, मा बाहु ˚क] Ved. The most distant or remote, the last, lowest in caste, most degraded (जात्यातिनिकृष्ट) युवं भगो$नाशोश्चिदवितारापमस्य चित् । Rv.1.39.3. -मः (In astr.) Declination. (कलन, क्रान्ति, गति) the ecliptic (क्रान्तिवृत्त); परिसरतां गगनसदां चलनं किंचिद् भवेदपमः Sid. Śir. -Comp. -ज्या the line of the ecliptic; see क्रान्तिज्या. -मण्डलम् -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
apariskanda अपरिस्कन्द a. Motionless. अपरिहरणीय apariharaṇīya अपरिहार्य aparihārya अपरिहरणीय अपरिहार्य a. 1 Inevitable. -2 Not to be abandoned. -3 Not to be degraded.
apākṣa अपाक्ष a. [अपनतः अक्षमिन्द्रियम्] 1 Present, perceptible. -2 [अपगते अपकृष्टे वा अक्षिणी यस्य] Eyeless; having bad eyes. अपाङ्क्त apāṅkta पाङ्क्तेय pāṅktēya पाङ्क्त्य pāṅktya अपाङ्क्त पाङ्क्तेय पाङ्क्त्य a. 'Not in the same row or line'; especially one who is not allowed by his castemen to sit in the same row with them at meals; degraded, excommunicated, excluded from or inadmissible into society, an outcast; ˚उपहत defiled by the presence of excommunicated or impious persons. एतान्वि- गर्हिताचारानपाङ्क्तेयान्द्विजाधमान् (विवर्जयेत्) Ms.3.167.
abhipāṇḍu अभिपाण्डु a. Faded, pale; मनोभुवा तप्त इवाभिपाण्डुताम् Ki. 4.34.
abhimlāta अभिम्लात न a. Ved. Altogether faded or withered, decayed.
abhyātta अभ्यात्त p. p. 1 Obtained, got. -2 Occupied or pervaded; epithet of the Supreme Being.
amlāna अम्लान a. 1 Not withered or faded (flowers &c.). -2 Clean, clear, bright (face); pure, unclouded; परार्थन्यायवादेषु काणो$प्यम्लानदर्शनः. -नः Globe-amaranth (Mar. आंबोली). -नम् A lotus.
ayājya अयाज्य a. 1 (A person) for whom one must not perform sacrifices, not competent to offer sacrifices (as a Śūdra &c.). -2 (Hence), Out-cast; degraded, not admissible to or incapable of religious ceremonies. -3 Not fit for sacrificial offerings. -Comp. याजनम्, -संयाज्यम् sacrificing for a person for whom one must not perform sacrifices; अयाज्ययाजनैश्चैव नास्तिक्येन च कर्मणाम् Ms.3.65; गोवधो$याज्यसंयाज्यपारदार्यात्मविक्रयाः Ms.11.59.
arjuna अर्जुन a. [अर्ज्-उनन् णिलुक् च Uṇ.3.58] (-ना, -नी f.). 1 White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च Rv.6.9.1; पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् Śi.1.6. -2 Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना Av.4.37.5. -नः 1 The white colour. -2 A peacock. -3 A sort of cutaneous disease. -4 A tree (Mar. अर्जुनसादडा), with useful rind; Mb.3.64.3. -5 N. of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (पृथिव्यां चतुरन्तायां वर्णो मे दुर्लभः समः । करोमि कर्म शुद्धं च तेन मामर्जनं विदुः). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṁvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛiṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛiṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharata-khaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛiṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛiṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu- on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. अर्जनः फाल्गुनो जिष्णुः किरीटी श्वेतवाहनः । बीभत्सुर्विजयः कृष्णः सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः ॥ -6 N. of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See कार्तवीर्य. -7 N. of a country Bṛi. S.14. 25. -8 The only son of his mother. -9 N. of Indra. -1 N. of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. अईन). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree. -नी 1 A procuress, bawd. -2 A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा Mb.13.73.42. -3 A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु˚ Av.2.24.7. -4 N. of Uṣhā, wife of Aniruddha. -5 N. of a river commonly called करतोया. -6 (न्यौ, -न्यः dual and pl.) N. of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावो$र्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते Rv.1.85.13. -नम् 1 Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् Av.5.28.5. -2 Gold. -3 Slight inflammation of the white of the eye. -4 Grass. -न (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् ...Nm. -Comp. -अभ्रम N. of a medicament. -ईश्वरतीर्थम् N. of a holy place. Siva P. -उपमः the teak tree; also शाकद्रुम and महापत्राख्यवृक्ष. -काण्ड a. having a white stem or appendage. बभ्रोरर्जनकाण्डस्य यवस्य ते Av.2.8.3. -च्छवि a. white, of a white colour. -ध्वजः 'white-bannered', N. of Hanūmat. -पाकी N. of a plant and its fruits. -बदरः The fibre of the Arjuna plant; अर्जुन- बदरा मेखलाः क्रियन्ताभू । ŚB. on MS.9.4.25 -मिश्रः Name of a commentator on the Mb. -सखिः (L.) Kriṣṇa. -सिंहः N. of a prince (Inscriptions).
ādatta आदत्त आत्त p. p. [आ -दा -क्त] 1 Taken, received, assumed, accepted; आत्तसारश्चक्षुषा स्वविषयः M.2; एवमा- त्तरतिः R.11.57; M.5.1; ˚हासः Ratn. 1 smiling; -2 Agreed to, undertaken, begun. -3 Attracted. -4 Drawn out, extracted; गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य R.5. 26; ˚बलम् 11.76 taken away. -5 Seized, overpowered; दृष्ट्वाग्रे वरमात्तसाध्वसरसा गौरी नवे संगमे Ratn.1.2. -Comp. -गन्ध a. 1 having one's pride humbled, attacked, insulted, defeated; पक्षच्छिदा गोत्रभिदात्तगन्धाः R.13.7; केनात्तगन्धो माणवकः Ś.6. -2 already smelt (as a flower); आत्तगन्धमवधूय शत्रुभिः Śi.14.84 (where आ˚ has sense 1 also). -गर्व a. humiliated, insulted, degraded. -दण्ड a. assuming the royal sceptre; नियम- यसि विमार्गप्रस्थितानात्तदण्डः Ś5.8. -मनस्क a. one whose mind is transported (with joy &c.). -लक्ष्मी a. stripped of wealth. -वचस् a. Ved. 1 destitute of speech. -2 having commenced speaking.
āvantya आवन्त्य a. [अवन्तिषु भवः ञ्य] Coming from or belonging to Avantī. -त्यः 1 A prince or an inhabitant of Avantī. -2 The offspring of a degraded Brāhmaṇa; see Ms.1.21.
āśaṅkita आशङ्कित p. p. 1 Feared, dreaded; इदं तदाशङ्कितं गुरुजनेनापि U.3; doubted, suspected. -तम् 1 Fear; apprehension. -2 Doubt, uncertainty.
āhīraṇin आहीरणिन् m. A two-headed snake.
āhārya आहार्य pot. p. 1 To be taken or seized. अनीहया गताहार्यनिर्वर्तितनिजक्रियः Bhāg.1.86.14. -2 To be fetched or brought near. -3 To be extracted or removed. -4 To be pervaded (व्याप्य). -5 Artificial, adventitious, incidental, external, accessary; आहार्यशोभारहितैरमायैः Bk. 2.14; न रम्यमाहार्यमपेक्षते गुणम् Ki.4.23; निसर्गसुभगस्य किमा- हार्यकाडम्बरेण Malli. on Ku.7.2. -6 Purposed, intended (as for instance, the identification or आरोप of उपमान or उपमेय in रूपक of which the speaker is fully cognisant); अयं चन्द्रो मुखमित्यादौ चन्द्रभिन्ने मुखे चन्द्राभेदज्ञानं तच्चाहार्यमेव Tv. -7 Conveyed or effected by decoration or ornamentation, one of the 4 kinds of अभिनय q. v. -8 To be eaten. -9 To be worshipped (as Agni). -र्यः A kind of bandage (बन्ध). -र्यम् 1 Any disease to be treated by means of extracting. -2 Extraction. -3 A vessel. -4 The ornamentative part of the drama, such as dress, decoration &c. -शोभा Adventitious beauty (not natural).
utkrānta उत्क्रान्त p. p. 1 Gone forth or out, departed; उत्क्रान्तमिवासुभिः K.33; R.7.53. -2 Faded, effaced (as colour); उत्क्रान्तवर्णक्रमधूसराणाम् R.16.17. -3 Gone over or beyond, passed, surpassed. -4 Dead. -5 Trespassing, exceeding, surpassing (actively used).
utpala उत्पल a. [उत्क्रान्तः पलं मांसम्] Fleshless, emaciated, lean. -ली A kind of cake made with unwinnowed corn. -लम् 1 A blue lotus, any lotus or water lily; नवावतारं कमलादिवोत्पलम् R.3.36,12.86; Me.26; नीलो- त्पलपत्रधारया Ś.1.18; so रक्त˚. -2 The plant Costus Speciosus (कोष्ठ). -3 A plant in general. -Comp. -अक्ष, -चक्षुस् a. lotus-eyed. -आभ a. lotus-like. -कोष्ठम् N. of a plant (Mar. कोष्ठकोळिंजन). -गोपा N. of a plant (Mar. श्वेत उपळसरी), the प्रियंगु creeper. -गन्धिकम् a variety of sandal of the colour of brass (which is very fragrant). -पत्रम् 1 a lotus-leaf. -2 a wound on the breast caused by a female's finger-nail, (generally made by lover's finger-nail); nail-print. -3 a Tilaka or mark on the forehead made with sandal. -4 a broad-bladed knife or lancet. -पत्रकम् a broad-bladed knife or lancet. -भेद्यकः a kind of bandage. -माला N. of a lexicon compiled by Utpala -राजः N. of a poet. -शारिवा see उत्पलगोपा (= श्यामा Ichno Carpus Frutescens (Mar. काळी उपळसरी). -श्रीगर्भः N. of a Bodhisattva.
udvartita उद्वर्तित a. 1 Risen, elevated. -2 Sprung up, drawn out. -3 Perfumed, scented, rubbed, kneaded.
upeta उपेत p. p. 1 Come near, approached, arrived at; लोकाश्च वो मयोपेता देवा अप्यनुमन्वते Bhāg.1.23.32. -2 Present. -3 Endowed with, possessed of, having; with instr. or in comp.; पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनवाप्नुहि Ś.1.12. -4 Blockaded. -5 Fallen into. -6 Approached for sexual gratification.
aupadharmyam औपधर्म्यम् [उपधर्म-ष्यञ्] 1 A false doctrine, heresy वेशं विधाय बहुभाष्यत औपधर्म्यम् Bhāg.2.7.37. -2 Inferior virtue, or a degraded principle of virtue.
kaṃsaḥ कंसः सम् 1 A drinking vessel, cup, can, goblet; उदुम्बरे कंसे चमसे वा सर्वौषधं फलानीति संभृत्य Bṛi. Up.6.3.1. -2 Bell-metal, white copper. किं यत्तद्देवदत्तः कंसपात्र्यां पाणि- नौदनं भुङ्क्ते Mbh. on P.I.3.1. -3 A particular measure known as आढक, q. v. -सः 1 N. of a king of Mathurā, son of Ugrasena and enemy of Kriṣṇa. [He is identified with the Asura Kālanemi, and acted inimically towards Kṛiṣṇa and became his implacable foe. The circumstance which made him so was the following. While, after the marriage of Devakī with Vasudeva, he was driving the happy pair home, a heavenly voice warned Kaṁsa that the eighth child of Devakī would kill him. Thereupon he threw both of them into prison, loaded them with strong fetters, and kept the strictest watch over them. He took from Devakī every child as soon as it was born and slew it, and in this way he disposed of her first six children. But the 7th and 8th, Balarāma and Kṛiṣṇa, were safely conveyed to Nanda's house in spite of his vigilance, and Kṛiṣṇa grew up to be his slayer according to the prophecy. When Kaṁsa heard this, he was very much enraged and sent several demons to kill Kṛiṣṇa, who killed them all with ease. At last he sent Akrūra to bring the boys to Mathurā. A severe duel was fought between Kaṁsa and Kṛiṣṇa, in which the former was slain by the latter.] cf. कंसं जघान कृष्णः which is an answer to the query कं संज- घान कृष्णः । -2 Anything metallic. -3 Fire. -सा N. of a daughter of Ugrasena and sister of Kaṁsa. -Comp. -अरिः, अरातिः, जित्, कृष्, द्विष्, हन् m. 'slayer of Kaṁsa, i. e Kṛiṣṇa; स्वयं सन्धिकारिणा कंसारिणा दूतेन Ve.1; -अस्थि n. Bell mental. -उद्भवा A fragrant earth. -कारः (-री f.) 1 a mixed tribe; कंसकारशङ्खकारौ ब्राह्मणात्सं- बभूवतुः Śabdak. -2 a worker in pewter or whitebrass, a bell-founder, -कृषः Vāsudeva Śrikṛṣṇa; निषेदिवान् कंसकृषः स विष्टरे Śi.1.16. -माक्षिकम् a metallic substance in large grains; a sort of pyrites. -वणिक् m. a brazier or seller of brass vessels. -वधः, -हननम् the slaying of Kaṁsa. कंसवधमाचष्टे कंसं घातयति Mbh. on P.III.1.26. -वधम् N. of a drama by Śeṣakriṣṇa
kakud ककुद् f. 1 A summit, peak. -2 Chief, head; see ककुद below; अग्निर्मूर्धा दिवः ककुत् Rv.8.44.16. -3 The hump on the shoulders of the Indian bull; ककुद्दोषणीं याचते महादेवः Mbh. on VI.1.63. ककुदे वृषस्य कृतबाहुम् Ki.12.2; R.4.22. -4 A horn. -5 An ensign or symbol of royalty (as the छत्र, चामर &c.); 'ककुद्धत्ककुदं श्रेष्ठे वृषाङ्के राजलक्ष्मणि' इति विश्वः; नृपतिककुदं दत्त्वा यूने सितातपवारणम् R.3.7. -6 Any projecting corner; Bhāg.5.25.7. -7 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma. According to Pāṇini V.4.146-147 ककुद् is the form to be substituted for ककुद in adj. or Bah. comps.; e. g. त्रिककुद्. -Comp. -स्थः [ककुदि तिष्ठतीति] an epithet of Purañjaya, son of Śaśāda, a king of the solar race, and a descendant of Ikṣvāku; इक्ष्वाकुवंश्यः ककुदं नृपाणां ककुत्स्थ इत्याहितलक्षणो$भूत R.6.71. [Mythology relates that, when in their war with the demons, the gods were often worsted, they, headed by Indra, went to the powerful king Purañjaya, and requested him to be their friend in battle. The latter consented to do so, provided Indra carried him on his shoulders. Indra accordingly assumed the form of a bull, and Purañjaya, seated on its hump, completely vanquished the demons. Purañjaya is, therefore, called Kakutstha 'standing on a hump'].
kaṭola कटोल a. Pungent. -लः 1 A pungent flavour. -2 A man of an inferior and degraded tribe, a Chāṇḍāla. -Comp. -वीणा a kind of lute played by the Chāṇḍālas.
karaṭaḥ करटः [किरति मदं, कॄ-अटन् Uṇ.4.81.] 1 An elephant's cheek; प्रभिन्नकरटौ मत्तौ भूत्वा कुञ्जररूपिणौ Mb.1.21.2. -2 Safflower. -3 A crow; Śānti.4.19. -4 An atheist, unbeliever. -5 A degraded Brāhmaṇa. -6 A man of a low profession. -7 A musical instrument. -8 The first Śrāddha ceremony performed in honour of a dead man; करट त्वं रट कस्तवापराधः Udb. -टम् Hard. (a variety of coral); Kau. A.2.11. -टा 1 An elephant's cheek. -2 A cow difficult to be milked. -मुखम् A spot where an elephant's temple bursts; Mb.
kalata कलत a. Bald-headed.
kirātaḥ किरातः [किरं पर्यन्तभूमिं अतति गच्छतीति किरातः] 1 N. of a degraded mountain tribe who live by hunting, a mountaineer; वैयाकरणकिरातादपशब्दमृगाः क्व यान्तु संत्रस्ताः । यदि नटगणकचिकित्सकवैतालिकवदनकन्दरा न स्युः ॥ Subhāṣ.; Pt.1.17; पर्यन्ताश्रयिभिर्निजस्य सदृशं नाम्नः किरातैः कृतम् Ratn.2.3; Ku.1.6,15. जवार इति यद्राज्यं किरातानां पुरातनम् Parṇāl 1.39. -2 A savage, barbarian. -3 A dwarf. -4 A groom, a horseman. -5 N. of Śiva in the disguise of a Kirāta. -6 A species of fish; किरातो लुब्धके देववाहिनीमत्स्यभेदयोः Nm. -7 N. of a medicinal herb (Mar. किराईत, चिराईत, भूनिंब) -ताः (pl.) N. of a country. -Comp. -अर्जुनीयम् N. of a poem by Bhāravi (in which the combat of Arjuna with Śiva in the form of a Kirāta or mountaineer is poetically described.) -आशिन् m. an epithet of Garuḍa. -तिक्तः N. of a medicinal herb (Mar. किराईत, चिराईत).
ku कु ind. A prefix implying 'badness', 'deterioration', 'depreciation', 'sin', 'reproach', 'littleness', 'want', 'deficiency', &c. Its various substitutes are कद् (कदश्व), कव (कवोष्ण), का (कोष्ण), किं (किंप्रभुः); cf. Pt.5.17. -Comp. -कर्मन् n. a bad deed, a mean act. -a. wicked, Bhāg.1.16.22. -कु-वाच् m. jackal. -कूलम् A hole filled with stakes. ˚लः A fire made of chaff; कुकूलं शङ्कुभिः कीर्णे श्वभ्रे ना तु तुषानले Nm. -ग्रहः an unpropitious planet. -ग्रामः a petty village or hamlet (without a king's officer, an agnihotrin, a physician, or a river.) -चन्दनम् Red sandal-wood. -चर a. of bad conduct, a thief; दृष्ट्वा त्वादित्यमुद्यन्तं कुचराणां भयं भवेत् Mb.14.39.13. -चेल a. wearing bad or ragged garments; कपालं वृक्ष- मूलानि कुचेलमसहायता । समता चैव सर्वस्मिन्नेतन्मुक्तस्य लक्षणम् ॥ Ms.6.44. -चरित्रम्, -चर्या wickedness, evil conduct, impropriety; Ms.9.17. -चोद्यम् an unsuitable question. -जन्मन् a. low born. -तनु a. deformed, ugly. (-नुः) an epithet of Kubera. -तन्त्री a bad lute. -तपः 1 a sort of blanket (made of the hair of the mountain goat). -2 the eighth Muhūrta or portion of the day. -3 a daughter's or sister's son. -4 the sun. -तर्कः 1 sophistical or fallacious argument. -2 a heterodox doctrine, free thinking; कुतर्केष्वभ्यासः सततपरपैशुन्यमननम् G. L.31. ˚पथः a sophistical mode of arguing. -तीर्थम् a bad teacher. -दिनम् an evil or unpropitious day. -दृष्टिः f. 1 weak sight. -2 an evil eye, sinister eye (fig.). -3 an opinion or doctrine opposed to the Vedas, heterodox doctrines; या वेदबाह्याः स्मृतयो याश्च काश्च कुदृष्टयः Ms.12.95. -देशः 1 a bad place or country. -2 a country where the necessaries of life are not available or which is subject to oppression. -देह a. ugly, deformed; कुदेहमानाहिविदष्टदृष्टेर्ब्रह्मन्वचस्ते$मृतमौषधं मे Bhāg.5.12.2. (-हः) an epithet of Kubera. -द्वारम् back door. -धी a. foolish, silly, stupid. -2 wicked. -नखम् a disease of the nails; Mb.3. -नटः 1 a bad actor. -2 a sort of trumpet flower. -3 red arsenic. -नदिका a small river, rill; सुपूरा स्यात्कुनदिका Pt.1.25. -नाथः a bad master; हतास्म्यहं कुनाथेन न पुंसा वीरमानिना Bhāg.9.14.28. -नामन् m. a miser. -नीतः bad counsel, leading; तृणैश्छन्ना भूमिर्मतिरिव कुनीतैव विदुषः Mu.6.11. -पटः, -टम् a miserable garment; कुपटावृतकटिः Bhāg.5.9.1. -पथः 1 a wrong road, bad way (fig. also). -2 a heterodox doctrine. -पथ्य a. unwholesome, improper. -परीक्षक a. examining badly, not valuing rightly; कुत्स्याः स्युः कुपरीक्षका न मणयो यैरर्घतः पातिताः Bh.2.15. -पात्रम् an unfit recipient. -पुत्रः a bad or wicked son: यादृशं फल- माप्नोति कुप्लवैः संतरन् जलम् । तादृशं फलमाप्नोति कुपुत्रैः संतरंस्तमः ॥ Ms.9.161. कुपुत्रो जायेत क्वचिदपि कुमाता न भवति, देव्यपराध- क्षमापनस्तोत्र (ascribed to a later शङ्कराचार्य). -पुरुषः 1 a low or wicked man. -2 a spiritless coward. -पूय a. low, vile, contemptible. -प्रिय a. disagreeable, contemptible, low, mean. -प्लवः a bad boat; कुप्लवैः संतरन् जलम् Ms.9.161. -बन्धः a disgraceful stigma; अन्त्याभिगमने त्वङ्क्यः कुबन्धेन प्रवासयेत् Y.2.294. -ब्रह्मः, -ब्रह्मन् m. a bad or degraded Brāhmaṇa. -मन्त्रः 1 bad advice. -2 a charm used to secure success in a bad cause. -मुद्विन् a. Unfriendly; उदहृष्यन्वारिजानि सूर्योत्थाने कुमुद्विना । राज्ञा तु निर्भया लोकाः Bhāg.1.21.47. -मेरुः The southern hemisphere or pole. -योगः an inauspicious conjunction (of planets). -योगिन् m. a false devotee, impostor. -रस a. having bad juice or flavour. (-सः) a kind of spirituous liquor. -रूप a. ugly, deformed; कुपुत्रो$पि भवेत्पुंसां हृदयानन्दकारकः । दुर्विनीतः कुरूपो$पि मूर्खो$पि व्यसनी खलः ॥ Pt.5.19. -रूप्यम् tin. -लक्षण a. having fatal marks on the body. कुलक्षणेत्यहं राज्ञा त्यक्तेत्यात्तविमानना Ks.91.19. -वङ्गः lead. -वचस्, -वाच्, -वाक्य a. abusive, bad, scurrilous; using abusive or foul language; संस्मारितो मर्मभिदः कुवाग्रिपून् Bhāg.4.3.15. (-n.) abuse, bad language. -वज्रकम् crystal; a stone resembling a diamond. -वर्षः a sudden or violent shower; Rām.6. -विक्रमः bravery exhibited in a wrong place; धिगीदृशं ते नृपते कुविक्रमं कृपाश्रये यः कृपणे पतत्त्रिणि N.1.132. -विवाहः a degraded or improper form of marriage; Ms.3.63. -वृत्तिः f. bad bebaviour. -वेधस् m. bad fate; हृतरत्नेन मुषितो दत्त्वा काचं कुवेधसा Ks. 71.232. -वैद्यः a bad physician, quack. -शील a. rude, wicked, unmannerly, ill tempered, of bad character; कुतो गम्यमगम्यं वा कुशीलोन्मादिनः प्रभोः Ks.32.152. -ष्ठलम् 1 a bad place. -2 the earth; शयानां कुष्ठले Bk.9.84. -सरित् f. a small river, rill; उच्छिद्यन्ते क्रियाः सर्वा ग्रीष्मे कुसरितो यथा Pt.2.89. -सृतिः f. 1 evil conduct, wickedness; कस्माद्वयं कुसृतयः खलयोनयस्ते Bhāg.8.23.7. -2 conjuring, magic. -3 roguery. -स्त्री a bad woman.
kūṭa कूट a. 1 False; as in कूटाः स्युः पूर्वसाक्षिणः Y.2.8; दुस्तोषः कूटयोगिनाम् Bhāg.2.9.19. -2 Immovable, steady. -3 Despised. -टः, -टम् 1 Fraud, illusion, deception. -2 A trick, fraudulent or roguish scheme; अक्षकूटमधि- ष्ठाय हृतं दुर्योधनेन वै Mb.3.33.3. -3 A puzzling question, knotty or intricate point, as in कूटश्लोक, कूटान्योक्ति; वाचः कूटं तु देवर्षेः स्वयं विभमृशुर्धिया Bhāg.6.5.1. -4 Falsehood, untruth; oft. used in comp. with the force of an adjective; ˚वचनम् false or deceitful words; ˚तुला, ˚मानम् &c. -5 A summit or peak of a mountain; वर्धयन्निव तत्कूटानु- द्धतैर्धातुरेणुभिः R.4.71, Me.115; Māl.5.32. -6 Any projection or prominence. -7 The bone of the forehead with its projections, the crown of the head. -8 A horn, सम्परेतमयःकूटैश्छिन्दन्त्युत्थितमन्यवः Bhāg.4.25.8. -9 End, corner; Y.3.96. -1 Head, chief. -11 A heap, mass, multitude; अभ्रकूटम् 'a heap of clouds'; so अन्नकूटम् 'a heap of food'; Mv.6.32. -12 A hammer, an iron mallet. -13 A plough-share, the body of a plough. -14 A trap for catching deer; नश्येदभिमृशन्सद्यो मृगः कूट- मिव स्पृशन् Mb.12.68.52. -15 A concealed weapon, as a dagger in a woollen case or a sword in a stick. -16 A water-jar. -17 The door of a city; निर्ययुर्भवनात्त- स्मात्कूटमुद्गरपाणयः Rām.5.42.25. -18 A false coin; कूटं हि निषादानामेवोपकारकं न आर्याणाम् ŚB. on MS.6.1.52. -टः 1 A house, dwelling. -2 An ox whose horns are broken. -3 An epithet of Agastya. -Comp. -अक्षः a false or loaded die; कूटाक्षोपधिदेविनः Y.2.22. -अगारम् an apartment on the top of a house; कूटागारैश्च संपूर्णामि- न्द्रस्येवामरावतीम् Rām.1.5.15. -अर्थः ambiguity of meaning. ˚भाषिता a tale, fiction. -उपायः a fraudulent plan, trick, stratagem. -कारः, -कारकः a rogue, a false witness; Ms.3.158. -कृत् a. 1 cheating, deceiving. -2 forging a document; Y.2.7. -3 bribing. (-m.) 1 a man of the writer caste (कायस्थ). -2 an epithet of Śiva. -कार्षापणः a false कार्षापण q. v. -कोष्ठम् a. compartment on the top of a building (Kāmikāgama 55.123-3); (कूटशाला and कूटागार are synonyms). -खङ्गः a sword-stick. -च्छद्मन् m. a cheat; पीड्यमानाः प्रजा रक्ष्याः कूटच्छद्मादिभिस्तथा Pt.1.343. -तुला a false pair of scales. -धर्म a. where falsehood is considered a duty (as a place, house, country, &c.). -पाकलः, -पर्वः -पूर्वः bilious fever to which elephants are subject (हस्तिवातज्वर); अचिरेण वैकृतविवर्तदारुणः कलभं कठोर इव कूट- पाकलः (अभिहन्ति Māl.1.39); (also sometimes written as कूटपालक). -पालकः a potter; a potter's kiln. -पाशः, -बन्धः a trap, snare, समाधिभीतेन किलोपनीतः पञ्चाप्सरोयौवन- कूटबन्धम् R.13.39. -मानम् false measure or weight. -मोहनः an epithet of Skanda. -यन्त्रम् a trap, a snare for deer, birds &c. -युद्धम् treacherous or unfair warfare; कूटयुद्धविधिज्ञे$पि तस्मिन्सन्मार्गयोधिनि R.17.69. -रचना 1 a trap laid; Pt.2.85. -2 artifice, trick; अतर्क्या कुट्टनीकूटरचना हि विधेरपि Ks.57.115. -लेखः a falsified document; कृत्वाथ कूटलेखं सा विदग्धा मह्यमर्पयत् Ks.124.197. -शाल्मलिः f., m. 1 a species of the Śālmali tree. -2 a kind of tree with sharp thorns (regarded as one of the several instruments-perhaps a club-with which the wicked are tortured in the world of Yama); see R.12.95 and Malli. thereon. -शासनम् a forged grant or decree; Ms.9.232. -संक्रान्तिः the passing of the sun into another zodiac when half the night is over. -साक्षिन् m. a false witness. -स्थ a. 1 standing at the top, occupying the highest place (said of a person who stands at the head in a geneological table). -2 silent; not at all moving or working; Mb.12.179.6. (-स्थः) the Supreme Soul (immovable, unchangeable, and perpetually the same); क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थो$क्षर उच्यते Bg.6.8;12.3. (-स्थः, -स्थम्) a kind of perfume (Mar. नखला). -स्वर्णम् counterfeit gold; Y.2.297. -हेमन् (as above); रज्यत्तुषारद्युतिकूटहेम तत्पाण्डु जातं रजतं क्षणेन N.22.52.
kolaḥ कोलः [कुल् संस्त्याने अच्] 1 A hog, boar; Y.3.273; Śi.14.43,86. -2 A raft, boat. -3 The breast. -4 The haunch, hip, lap. -5 An embrace. -6 The planet Saturn. -7 An out-cast, one of a degraded tribe. -8 A barbarian. -9 N. of a tribe inhabiting the hills in Central India. -लम् 1 The weight of one Tola. -2 Black pepper. -3 A kind of berry. -Comp. -अञ्चः N. of the country of the Kaliṅgas. -पुच्छः a heron.
kautsam कौत्सम् A Sāman composed by Kutsa. -त्सः 1 N. of a sage; माण्डव्यः कौत्सात् Bṛi. Up.6.5.4; उपसेदित्वात् कौत्सः पाणिनिम् Mbh. on P.III.2.18. -2 N. of a pupil of Varatantu; R.5.1. -3 N. of a degraded family.
klānta क्लान्त p. p. [क्लम्-क्त] 1 Fatigued, tired out; तमातप- क्लान्तम् R.2.13, Me.37; V.2.23. -2 Withered, faded : क्लान्तो मम्यथलेख एष नलिनीपत्रे नखैरर्पितः Ś.3.25; R.1.48. -3 Lean, thin, emaciated. -4 Depressed in spirits, exhausted. -Comp. -मनस् a. languid, low spirited.
kliśita क्लिशित क्लिष्ट p. p. 1 Distressed, suffering pain or misery. -2 Afflicted, tormented. -3 Faded. -4 Inconsistent, contradictory; e. g. माता मे वन्ध्या. -5 Elaborate, artificial (as a composition.). -6 Put to shame. -7 Wearied; hurt, injured. -8 Being in a bad condition, worn; पीतेनैकेन संवीतां क्लिष्टतोत्तमवाससा Rām.5.15.21. -9 Marred, impaired; Ś.5.19; Pt.1.11; Ś.6.1; disordered, Ś 7.14. -1 Dimmed, made faint; हिमक्लिष्ट- प्रकाशानि ज्योतींषीव मुखानि वः Ku.2.19. -11 Injured, hurt; Ś.6.19. -12 Bothersome, tedious; यथा शरीरो बालस्य गुप्ता सन्क्लिष्टकर्मणः Rām.7.75.4. (the commentator Rāma Tilaka gives क्लिष्टकर्मणः = शुभाचारस्य, which seems doubtful). -ष्टम् a contradictory statement. -Comp. -वर्त्मन् n. a disease of the eyelids.
khalati खलति a. Bald-headed, bald; युवखलतिः.
khalli खल्लि (ल्ली) ट a. Bald-headed.
khalvāṭa खल्वाट a. Bald, bald-headed; खल्वाटो दिवसेश्वरस्य किरणैः संतापितो मस्तके Bh.2.9; Vikr.18.99; Ks.61.53.
gata गत p. p. [गम्-क्त] 1 Gone, departed, gone for ever; Mu.1.25; किं गते सलिले सेतुबन्धेन, किं गते विवाहे नक्षत्रपरीक्षया Vb.4. 'what is the use of locking the stable-door when the steed is stolen ?' -2 Passed away, elapsed, past; गदायां रात्रौ. -3 Dead, deceased, departed to the next world; गत एव न ते निवर्तते Ku.4.3. -4 Gone to, arrived at, reaching to. -5 Being in, situated in, resting on, contained in; usually in comp.; प्रासादप्रान्तगतः Pt.1 seated on &c.; सदोगतः R.3.66 seated in the assembly; भर्तारं गता Ś.4.13 united to a husband; so आद्य˚; सर्वगत existing everywhere. -6 Fallen into, reduced to; e. g. आपद्गतः -7 Referring or relating to, with regard to, about, concerning, connected with (usually in comp.); राजा शकुन्तलागतमेव चिन्तयति Ś.5; भर्तृगतया चिन्तया Ś4; वयमपि भवत्यौ सखीगतं किमपि पृच्छामः Ś1; so पुत्रगतः स्नेहः &c. -8 Frequented, resorted to; सुहृद्˚ Ku.4.24. -9 Known, celebrated. -1 Directed towards, belonging to. -11 Known, understood. -तम् 1 Motion, going; गतमुपरि घनानां वारिगर्भोदराणाम् Ś.7.7; Śi.1.2, 7.4. -2 Gait, manner of going; Ku.1.34; हंस प्रयच्छ मे कान्ता गतिरस्यास्त्वया हृता V.4.16. -3 An event. -4 The place where one has gone. -5 Celebration, being known, diffusion; यावन्नाम्नो गतम् Ch. Up.7.1.5. -6 Manner. (As first member of comp. translated by 'free from', 'bereft of', 'deprived of', 'without'.) -Comp. -अक्ष a. sightless, blind. -अध्वन् a. 1 one who has accomplished or finished a journey; बलैरध्युषि- तास्तस्य विजिगीषोर्गताध्वनः R.4.46,11.33. -2 conversant, familiar (with anything); त्रिविधे मोक्षधर्मे$स्मिन्गताध्वा छिन्नसंशयः Mb.12.32.25. (-f.) the time immediately preceding new moon when a small streak of the moon is still visible; (चतुर्दशीयुक्ता$मावास्या). -अनुगतम् following custom or precedent. -अनुगतिक a. doing as others do, a blind follower; गतानुगतिको लोको न लोकः पार- मार्थिकः Pt.1.342 'people are blind followers or servile imitators'; Mu.6.5. -अन्त a. one whose end has arrived. -अर्थ a. 1 poor. -2 meaningless (the meaning being already expressed). -असु, -जीवित, -प्राण a. expired, dead; गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण़्डिताः Bg.2.11. -आगतम् 1 going and coming, frequent visits; आदित्यस्य गतागतैरहरहः संक्षीयते जीवितम् Bh.3.7; Bg.9.21; Mu.2.3; 4.1. -2 interchange of place; कष्टं स्मरामि तव तानि गता- गतानि Māl.9.47. -3 the flight of a bird backward and forward. -4 irregular course of the stars (in astronomy). -5 Narration of past and future; स सर्वमखिलं राज्ञो वंशस्याह गतागतम् Rām.7.51.23. -आधि a. free from anxiety, happy. -आयुस् a. decrepit, infirm, very old. -आर्तवा 1 a woman past her child-bearing. -2 a barren woman. -उत्साह a. disspirited, dejected. -ओजस् a. bereft of strength or energy. -कल्मष a. freed from crime or sin, purified. -क्लम a. refreshed; संविशेत्तु यथाकालमुत्तिष्ठेच्च गतक्लमः Ms.7.225. -चेतन a. deprived of sense or consciousness, insensible, senseless. -त्रप a. bold, without fear or shame; Bhāg.8.8.29. -दिनम्, -दिवसः the past day, yesterday. -दिनम् ind.. yesterday. -प्रत्यागत a. returned after having gone away; Ms.7.186. -प्रभ a. bereft of splendour, dim, obscured, faded. -प्राण a. lifeless, dead. -प्राय a. almost gone, nearly passed away; गतप्राया रजनी. -भर्तृका 1 a widow. -2 (rarely) a woman whose husband has gone abroad (= प्रोषितभर्तृका); किमु मुहुर्मुहुर्गतमर्तृकाः Śi. -मनस्क a. thinking of (loc.); सपदि गतमनस्कः (प्रियायाः केशपाशे) R. 9.67. -लक्ष्मीक a. 1 bereft of lustre or splendour, faded. -2 deprived of wealth, impoverished, suffering losses. -वयस्, -वयस्क a. advanced in years, aged, old; गतवयसामपि पुंसां येषामर्था भवन्ति ते तरुणाः Pt.1.1. -वर्षः, -र्षम् the past year. -वैर a. at peace (with), reconciled. -व्यथ a. free from pain; प्रत्तां दुहितरं सम्राट् सदृक्षाय गत- व्यथः Bhāg.3.22.24. -शैशव a. past child-hood. -श्रम a. unmindful of troubles; आदित्यपथमाश्रित्य जगाम स गतश्रमः Rām.6.74.5. -सङ्ग a. 1 free from attachment; गतसङ्गस्य युक्तस्य Bg.4.23. -2 adverse or indifferent to. -सत्त्व a. 1 dead, annihilated, lifeless. -2 base. -सन्नकः an elephant out of rut. -स्पृह a. indifferent to worldly attachments; गतस्पृहो धैर्यधरः कृपालुः Vaidyajīvanam.
grāmaḥ ग्रामः [ग्रस्-मन् आदन्तादेशः] 1 A village, hamlet; पत्तने विद्यमाने$पि ग्रामे रत्नपरीक्षा M.1; त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् । ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे स्वात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥ H.1.129; R.1.44; Me.3. -2 A race, community; कथा ग्रामं न पृच्छसि Rv.1.146.1. -3 A multitude, collection (of anything); e. g. गुणग्राम, इन्द्रियग्राम; Bg.8.19;9.8. शस्त्रास्त्र- ग्रामकोविदः Bm.1.611,613. -4 A gamut, scale in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम् Śi.1.1. -Comp. -अक्षपटलिकः a village archioist; Hch.7.23. -अधिकृतः, -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः, -अध्यक्षः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः superintendent, head, chief of a village; ग्रामाधिपस्य तरुणीमहं भार्यां सदा भजे Ks.64.115; Ms.7.115. -अन्तः the border of a village, space near a village; Ms.4.116;11.78. -अन्तरम् another village. -अन्तिकम् the neighbourhood of a village. -अन्तीय a. situated in the neighbourhood of a village; Ms.8.24. -यम् space near a village. -आचारः a village custom. -आधानम् hunting. -उपाध्यायः the village priest. -कण्टकः 1 'the village-pest', one who is a source of trouble to the village. -2 a tale-bearer. -काम a. 1 one wishing to take possession of a village. -2 fond of living in villages. -कायस्थ a village scribe. -कुक्कुटः a domestic cock; Ms.5.12,19. -कुमारः 1 one beautiful in a village. -2 a village-boy. -कूटः 1 the noblest man in a village. -2 a Śūdra. -गृह्य a. being outside a village. -गृह्यकः a village-carpenter. -गोदुहः the herdsman of a village. -घातः plundering a village; Ms.9.274. -घोषिन् a. sounding among men or armies (as a drum); प्रवेदकृद् बहुधा ग्रामघोषी Av. 5.2.9. -m. an epithet of Indra. -चर्या sexual intercourse; (स्त्रीसंभोग). -चैत्यः a sacred fig-tree of a village; नीडारम्भैर्गृहबलिभुजामाकुलग्रामचैत्याः Me.23. -ज, -जात a. 1 village-born, rustic. -2 grown in cultivated ground; Ms.6.16. -जालम् a number of villages, a district. -णीः 1 the leader or chief of a village or community; तयोर्युद्धं समभवद्रक्षोग्रामणिमुख्ययोः Mb.7.19.3. -2 a leader or chief in general. -3 a barber. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 a libidinous man. -6 a yakṣa; उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः Mb.12.11.48. (-f.) 1 a whore, harlot. -2 the indigo plant. ˚पुत्रः a bastard, the son of a harlot. -तक्षः a village-carpenter; P.V.4.95. -देवता the tutelary deity of a village. -द्रुमः a sacred tree in a village. -धर्मः 1 the observances or customs of a village. -2 sexual intercourse. -धान्यम् a cultivated grain (like rice); ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः Mb.12.36.48. See ग्राम्यधान्यम्. -पालः 1 the guardian of a village. -2 army for the protection of a village. -पुरुषः the chief of a village. -प्रेष्यः the messenger or servant of a community or village. -मद्गुरिका 1 a riot, fray, village tumult. -2 N. of a fish (or a plant) -मुखम् a market. -मृगः a dog. -याजकः, -याजिन् m. 1 'the village priest,' a priest who conducts the religious ceremonies for all classes and is consequently considered as a degraded Brāhmaṇa; Ms.4.25. -2 the attendant of an idol. -युद्धम् a riot, fray. -लुण्ठनम् plundering a village. -वासः (ग्रामेवासः also) 1 a villager. -2 residence in a village. -विशेषः a variety of scales in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छना Śi. -वृद्धः an old villager; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. -षण्डः an impotent man (क्लीब). -संकरः the common sewer or drain of a village. -संघः a villagecorporation. -सिंहः a dog; व्यमुञ्चन्विविधा वाचो ग्रामसिंहास्त- तस्ततः Bhāg.3.17.1. -स्थः a. 1 a villager. -2 a covillager. -हासकः a sister's husband.
jala जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$- यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा. -Comp. -अञ्चलम् 1 a spring. -2 a natural water-course. -3 moss. -अञ्जलिः 1 a handful of water. -2 a libation of water presented to the manes of a deceased person; कुपुत्रमासाद्य कुतो जलाञ्जलिः Chāṇ 69; मानस्यापि जलाञ्जलिः सरभसं लोके न दत्तो यथा Amaru. 97 (where, जलाञ्जलिं दा means 'to leave or give up'). -अटनः a heron. -अटनी a leech. -अणुकम्, -अण्डकम् the fry of fish. -अण्टकः a shark. -अत्ययः autumn (शरद्); पृष्ठतो$नुप्रयातानि मेघानिव जलात्यये Rām.2.45.22. -अधिदैवतः, -तम् an epithet of Varuṇa. (-तम्) the constellation called पूर्वाषाढा. -अधिपः an epithet of Varuṇa. -अम्बिका a well. -अर्कः the image of the sun reflected in water. -अर्णवः 1 the rainy season. -2 the ocean of sweet water. -अर्थिन् a. thirsty. -अवतारः a landing-place at a river-side. -अष्ठीला a large square pond. -असुका a leech. -आकरः a spring, fountain, well. -आकाङ्क्षः, -काङ्क्षः, -काङ्क्षिन् m. an elephant. -आखुः an otter. -आगमः rain; तपति प्रावृषि सुतरामभ्यर्ण- जलागमो दिवसः Ratn.3.1. -आढ्य a. watery, marshy. -आत्मिका a leech. -आधारः a pond, lake, reservoir of water. -आयुका a leech. -आर्द्र a. wet. (-र्द्रम्) wet garment or clothes. (-र्द्रा) a fan wetted with water. -आलोका a leech. -आवर्तः eddy, whirl-pool. -आशय a. 1 resting or lying in water. -2 stupid, dull, apathetic. (-यः) 1 a pond, lake, reservoir. -2 a fish. -3 the ocean. -4 the fragrant root of a plant (उशीर). -आश्रयः 1 a pond. -2 water-house. -आह्वयम् a lotus. -इन्द्रः 1 an epithet of Varuṇa. -2 N. of Mahādeva. -3 the ocean; जलेन्द्रः पुंसि वरुणे जम्भले च महोदधौ Medinī. -इन्धनः the submarine fire. -इभः a water-elephant. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Varuṇa; भीमोद्भवां प्रति नले च जलेश्वरे च N. -2 the ocean. -उच्छ्वासः 1 a channel made for carrying off excess of water, drain, (cf. परीवाह). -2 overflow of a river. -उदरम् dropsy. -उद्भव a. aquatic. (-वा) benzoin. -उरगा, -ओकस् m., -ओकसः a leech. -कण्टकः a crocodile. -कपिः the Gangetic porpoise. -कपोतः a water-pigeon. -कर a. making or pouring forth water. (-रः) tax for water. -करङ्कः 1 a shell. -2 a cocoa-nut. -3 a cloud. -4 a wave. -5 a lotus. -कल्कः mud. -कल्मषः the poison produced at the churning of the ocean; तस्यापि दर्शयामास स्ववीर्यं जलकल्मषः Bhāg.8. 7.44. -काकः the diver-bird. -कान्तः the wind. -कान्तारः an epithet of Varuṇa. -किराटः a shark. -कुक्कुटः a water-fowl; जलकुक्कुटकोयष्टिदात्यूहकुलकूजितम् Bhāg.8.2.16. (-टी) the black-headed gull. -कुन्तलः, -कोशः moss. -कूपी 1 a spring, well. -2 a pond. -3 a whirlpool; जलकूपी कूपगर्ते पुष्करिण्यां च योषिति Medinī. -कूर्मः the porpoise. -कृत् a. Causing rain; दिवसकृतः प्रतिसूर्यो जलकृत् (मेघः) Bṛi. S. -केलिः, m. or f., -क्रीडा playing in water, splashing one another with water. -केशः moss. -क्रिया presenting libations of water to the manes of the deceased. -गुल्मः 1 a turtle. -2 a quadrangular tank. -3 a whirlpool. -चर a. (also जलेचर) aquatic. (-रः) 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish. -3 any kind of water-fowl. ˚आजीवः, ˚जीवः a fisherman. -चत्वरम् a square tank. -चारिन् m. 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish. -ज a. born or produced in water. (-जः) 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish; स्वयमेव हतः पित्रा जलजेनात्मजो यथा Rām.2.61.22. -3 sea-salt. -4 a collective name for several signs of the zodiac. -5 moss. -6 the moon. (-जः, जम्) 1 a shell. -2 the conch-shell; अधरोष्ठे निवेश्य दघ्मौ जलजं कुमारः R.7. 63,1.6; इत्यादिश्य हृषीकेशः प्रध्माय जलजोत्तमम् Bhāg.8.4. 26. -3 (-जः) The Kaustubha gem; जलजः कौस्तुभे मीने तत् क्लीबे शङ्खपद्मयोः । Nm. (जः) -4 A kind of horse born in water; वाजिनो जलजाः केचिद् वह्निजातास्तथापरे । शालिहोत्र of भोज, Appendix II,12. (-जम्) a lotus. ˚आजीवः a fisherman. ˚आसनः an epithet of Brahmā; वाचस्पतिरुवाचेदं प्राञ्जलिर्जलजासनम् Ku.2.3. ˚कुसुमम् the lotus. ˚द्रव्यम् a pearl, shell or any other thing produced from the sea. -जन्तुः 1 a fish, -2 any aquatic animal. -जन्तुका a leech. -जन्मन् a lotus. -जिह्वः a crocodile. -जीविन् m. a fisherman. -डिम्बः a bivalve shell. -तरङ्गः 1 a wave. -2 a metal cup filled with water producing harmonic notes like a musical glass. -ताडनम् (lit.) 'beating water'; (fig.) any useless occupation. -तापिकः, -तापिन्, -तालः The Hilsa fish; L. D. B. -त्रा an umbrella. -त्रासः hydrophobia. -दः 1 a cloud; जायन्ते विरला लोके जलदा इव सज्जनाः Pt.1.29. -2 camphor. ˚अशनः the Śāla tree. -आगमः the rainy season; सरस्तदा मानसं तु ववृधे जलदागमे Rām.7.12.26. ˚आभ a. black, dark. ˚कालः the rainy season. ˚क्षयः autumn. -दर्दुरः a kind of musical instrument. -देवः the constellation पूर्वाषाढा. -देवता a naiad, water-nymph. -द्रोणी a bucket. -द्वारम् A gutter, a drain, Māna.31.99. -धरः 1 a cloud. -2 the ocean. -धारा a stream of water. -धिः 1 the ocean. -2 a hundred billions. -3 the number 'four'. ˚गा a river. ˚जः the moon. ˚जा Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. ˚रशना the earth. -नकुलः an otter. -नरः a merman. -नाडी, -ली a water-course. -निधिः 1 the ocean. -2 the number 'four'. -निर्गमः 1 a drain, water-course. -2 a water-fall, descent of a spring &c. into a river below. -नीलिः moss. -पक्षिन् m. a water-fowl. -पटलम् a cloud. -पतिः 1 the ocean. -2 an epithet of Varuṇa. -पथः a sea voyage; R.17.81. -पद्धतिः f. a gutter, drain. -पात्रम् 'a water-pot', drinking-vessel. -पारावतः a water-pigeon. -पित्तम् fire. -पुष्पम् an aquatic flower. -पूरः 1 a flood of water. -2 a full stream of water. -पृष्ठजा moss. -प्रदानम् presenting libations of water to the manes of the deceased. -प्रपातः 1 a water-fall. -2 rainy season; शरत्प्रतीक्षः क्षमतामिमं भवाञ्जलप्रपातं रिपुनिग्रहे धृतः Rām.4.27.47. -प्रलयः destruction by water. -प्रान्तः the bank of a river. -प्रायम् a country abounding with water; जलप्रायमनूपं स्यात् Ak. -प्रियः 1 the Chātaka bird. -2 a fish. (-या) an epithet of Dākṣāyaṇī. -प्लवः an otter. -प्लावनम् a deluge, an inundation. -बन्धः, बन्धकः a dam, dike, rocks or stones impeding a current. -बन्धुः a fish. -बालकः, -वालकः the Vindhya mountain. -बालिका lightning. -बिडालः an otter. -बिम्बः, -म्बम् a bubble. -बिल्वः 1 a (quadrangular) pond, lake. -2 a tortoise. -3 a crab. -भीतिः f. hydrophobia. -भू a. produced in water. -भूः m. 1 a cloud. -2 a place for holding water. -3 a kind of camphor. -भूषणः wind. -भृत् m. 1 a cloud. -2 a jar. -3 camphor. -मक्षिका a water-insect. -मण़्डूकम् a kind of musical instrument; (= जलदर्दुर). -मद्गुः a king-fisher. -मसिः 1 a cloud. -2 camphor. -मार्गः a drain, canal. -मार्जारः an otter. -मुच् m. 1 a cloud; Me.69. -2 a kind of camphor. -मूर्तिः an epithet of Śiva. -मूर्तिका hail. -मोदम् a fragrant root (उशीर). -यन्त्रम् 1 a machine for raising water (Mar. रहाट). -2 a waterclock, clepsydra. -3 a fountain. ˚गृहम्, ˚निकेतनम्, ˚मन्दिरम् a house erected in the midst of water (a summerhouse) or one supplied with artificial fountains; क्वचिद् विचित्रं जलयन्त्रमन्दिरम् Ṛs.1.2. -यात्रा a sea-voyage. -यानम् a ship. -रङ्कुः a kind of gallinule. -रण्डः, रुण्डः 1 a whirlpool. -2 a drop of water, drizzle, thin sprinkling. -3 a snake. -रसः sea-salt. -राशिः the ocean. -रुह्, -हम् a lotus. -रूपः a crocodile. -लता a wave, billow. -वरण्टः a watery pustule. -वाद्यम् a kind of musical instrument. -वायसः a diver-bird. -वासः residence in water. (-सम्) = उशीर q. v. -वाहः 1 a cloud; साद्रिजलधिजलवाहपथम् Ki.12.21. -2 a waterbearer. -3 a kind of camphor. -वाहकः, -नः a watercarrier. -वाहनी an aqueduct. -विषुवम् the autumnal equinox. -वृश्चिकः a prawn. -वैकृतम् any change in the waters of rivers indicating a bad omen. -व्यधः A kind of fish; L. D. B. -व्यालः 1 a water-snake. -2 a marine monster. -शयः, -शयनः, -शायिन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu; -शय्या lying in water (a kind of religious rite); द्वादशं हि गतं वर्षं जलशय्यां समासतः Rām.7. 76.17. -शर्करा A hailstone; तीव्रैर्मरुद्गणैर्नुन्ना ववृषुर्जलशर्कराः Bhāg.1.25.9. -शुक्तिः f. a bivalve shell. -शुचि a. bathed, washed. -शूकम् moss. -शूकरः a crocodile. -शोषः drought. -समुद्रः the ocean of fresh water. -संपर्कः mixture or dilution with water. -सर्पिणी a leech. -सूचिः f. 1 the Gangetic porpoise. -2 a kind of fish. -3 a crow. -4 a water-nut. -5 a leech. -स्थानम्, -स्थायः a pond, lake, reservoir; कदचित्तं जलस्थायं मत्स्य- बन्धाः समन्ततः Rām.12.137.5. -स्रावः A kind of eyedisease. -हम् a small water-house (rather summerhouse) furnished with artificial fountains. -हस्तिन् m. a water-elephant. -हारिणी a drain. -हासः 1 foam. -2 cuttle-fish-bone considered as the foam of the sea.
jālma जाल्म a. (-ल्मी f.) 1 Cruel, severe, harsh. -2 Rash, inconsiderate. -ल्मः (-ल्मी f.) 1 A rogue, rascal, villain, wretch, miscreant; आस्तां जाल्म उदरं स्रंसयित्वा Av.4.16.7; अपि ज्ञायते कतमेन दिग्भागेन गतः स जाल्म इति V.1. -2 A poor man, a low or degraded man. -3 One who reads or recites badly; cf. P.VI.2.158.
jīmūtaḥ जीमूतः [जयति नभः, जीयते अनिलेन जीवनस्योदकस्य मूतं बन्धो यत्र, जीवनं जलं मूतं बद्धम् अनेन, जीवनं मुञ्चतीति वा पृषो˚ Tv. cf. Uṇ.3.91] 1 cloud; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयीं हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् Me.4. -2 A mountain. -3 A nourisher, sustainer. -4 An epithet of Indra. -Comp. -कूटः a mountain. -केतुः an epithet of Śiva. -प्रभः A variety of gems; Kau. A.2.11. -वाहनः 1 N. of Indra. -2 N. of a king of the Vidyādharas, hero of the play called Nāgānanda; (mentioned also in कथासरित्सागर). [He was the son of Jīmūtaketu and renowned for his benevolent and charitable disposition. When his father's kingdom was invaded by his kinsmen, he scorned the idea of fighting with them and induced his father to leave it to those who sought for it and to repair with him to the Malaya mountain to lead a holy life. It is related that there he one day took the place of a young serpent who was, by virtue of an agreement, to be offered to Garuḍa as his daily meal, and induced, by his generous and touching behaviour, the enemy of serpents to give up his practice of devouring them. The story is very pathetically told in the play]. -वाहिन् Smoke.
juṅgita जुङ्गित a. Deserted, abandoned. -तः A man of a degraded caste, a Chāṇḍāla.
jyotiṣmat ज्योतिष्मत् a. [ज्योतिरस्त्यस्य मतुप्] 1 Luminous, bright, shining, possessed of luminous bodies; नक्षत्रतारा- ग्रहसङ्कुलापि ज्योतिष्मती चन्द्रमसैव रात्रिः R.6.22. -2 Celestial. -m. 1 The sun. -2 N. of the third foot of Brahmā. -3 N. of one of the seven suns appearing at the destruction of the world. -ती 1 The night (as illuminated by the stars). -2 (In phil.) A state of mind pervaded by सत्त्वगुण i. e. a tranquil state of mind.
jhallaḥ झल्लः 1 A prize-fighter. -2 N. of one of the degraded classes; Ms.1.22;12.45. -ल्ली A kind of drum.
tānta तान्त p. p. [तम्-क्त] 1 Wearied, languid, fatigued; सविलासरतान्ततान्तमूर्वोर्विवरे कान्तमिवाभिनीय शिश्ये Bu. Ch.5.56. -2 Troubled, afflicted. -3 Faded, withered; मृदुलतान्त- लता तमलोकयत् Śi.; see तम्.
tri त्रि num. a. [Uṇ.5.66] (declined in pl. only, nom. त्रयः m., तिस्त्रः f., त्रीणि n.) Three; त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः &c. Ms.2.229; प्रियतमाभिरसौ तिसृभिर्बभौ R.9.18; त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यृतुमती सती Ms.9.9 [cf. L. tres; Gr. treis; A. S., Zend thri; Eng. three]. -Comp. -अंशः 1 a three-fold share; त्र्यंशं दायाद्धरेद्विप्रः Ms.9.151. -2 a third part. -3 three-fourths. -अक्ष a. triocular. -अक्षः, -अक्षकः an epithet of Śiva; शुष्कस्नायु- स्वराह्लादात्त्र्यक्षं जग्राह रावणः Pt.5.57. -अक्षरः 1 the mystic syllable ओम् consisting of three letters; see under अ. आद्यं यत्त्र्यक्षरं ब्रह्म Ms.11.265. -2 a matchmaker or घटक (that word consisting of three syllables). -3 a genealogist. (-री) knowledge, learning; see विद्या. -अङ्कटम्, -अङ्गटम् 1 three strings suspended to either end of a pole for carrying burdens. -2 a sort of collyrium. (-टः) N. of Śiva. -अङ्गम् (pl.) a tripartite army (chariots, cavalry and infantry). -अङ्गुलम् three fingers' breadth. -अञ्जनम् the three kinds of collyrium; i. e. कालाञ्जन, रसाञ्जन and पुष्पाञ्जन. -अञ्जलम्, -लिः three handfuls taken collectively. -अधिपतिः (the lord of the 3 guṇas or worlds), an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.3.16.24. -अधिष्ठानः the soul. (नम्) spirit, life (चैतन्य). -a. having three stations; Ms.12.4. -अध्वगा, -मार्गगा, -वर्त्मगा epithets of the river Ganges (flowing through the three worlds). -अनीक a. having the three properties of heat, rain and cold; त्यनीकः पत्यते माहिनावान् Rv.3.56.3. (-का) an army consisting of horses, elephants and chariots. -अब्द a. three years old. -ब्दम् three years taken collectively. -अम्बकः (also त्रियम्बक in the same sense though rarely used in classical literature) 'having three eyes', N. of Śiva.; त्रियम्बकं संयमिनं ददर्श Ku.3.44; जडीकृतस्त्र्यम्बकवीक्षणेन R.2. 42;3.49. ˚सखः an epithet of Kubera; कुबेरस्त्र्यम्बकसखः Ak. -अम्बका an epithet of Pārvatī -अशीत a. eighty-third. -अशीतिः f. eighty-three. -अष्टन् a. twenty-four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. triangular. (-स्रम्) a triangle. -अहः 1 a period of three days. -2 a festival lasting three days. -आर्षेयाः deaf, dumb and blind persons. -आहिक a. 1 performed or produced in three days. -2 recurring after the third day, tertian (as fever). -3 having provision for three days कुशूलकुम्भीधान्यो वा त्र्याहिको$श्वस्तनो$पि वा Y.1.128. -ऋचम् (तृचम् also) three Riks taken collectively; Ms.8.16. -ऐहिक a. having provision for three days. -ककुद् m. 1 N. of the mountain Trikūṭa. -2 N. of Viṣnu or Kṛiṣṇa. -3 the highest, chief. -4 a sacrifice lasting for ten nights. -ककुभ् m. Ved. 1 Indra. -2 Indra's thunderbolt. -कटु dry ginger, black pepper and long pepper taken together as a drug; शिरामोक्षं विधायास्य दद्यात् त्रिकटुकं गुडम् Śālihotra 62. -कण्टः, -कण्टकः a kind of fish. -करणी the side of a square 3 times as great as another. -कर्मन् n. the chief three duties of a Brāhmaṇa i. e. sacrifice, study of the Vedas, and making gifts or charity. (-m.) one who engages in these three duties (as a Brāhmaṇa). -काण्डम् N. of Amarsiṁha's dictionary. -कायः N. of Buddha. -कालम् 1 the three times; the past, the present, and the future; or morning, noon and evening. -2 the three tenses (the past, present, and future) of a verb. (-लम् ind. three times, thrice; ˚ज्ञ, ˚दर्शिन् a. omniscient (m.) 1 a divine sage, seer. -2 a deity. -3 N. of Buddha. ˚विद् m. 1 a Buddha. -2 an Arhat (with the Jainas). -कूटः N. of a mountain in Ceylon on the top of which was situated Laṅkā, the capital of Rāvaṇa.; Śi.2.5. -कूटम् sea-salt. कूर्चकम् a knife with three edges. -कोण a. triangular, forming a triangle. (-णः) 1 a triangle. -2 the vulva. -खम् 1 tin. -2 a cucumber. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी three bedsteads taken collectively. -क्षाराणि n. (pl.) salt-petre, natron and borax. -गणः an aggregate of the three objects of worldly existence; i. e. धर्म, अर्थ and काम; न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11; see त्रिवर्ग below. -गत a. 1 tripled. -2 done in three days. -गर्ताः (pl.) 1 N. of a country, also called जलन्धर, in the northwest of India. -2 the people or rulers of that country. -3 a particular mode of calculation. -गर्ता 1 a lascivious woman, wanton. -2 a woman in general. -3 a pearl. -4 a kind of cricket. -गुण a. 1 consisting of three threads; व्रताय मौञ्जीं त्रिगुणां बभार याम् Ku.5.1. -2 three-times repeated, thrice, treble, threefold, triple; सप्त व्यतीयुस्त्रिगुणानि तस्य (दिनानि) R.2. 25. -3 containing the three Guṇas सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. (-णम्) the Pradhāna (in Sāṅ. phil.); (-ind.) three times; in three ways. -णाः m. (pl.) the three qualities or constituents of nature; त्रयीमयाय त्रिगुणात्मने नमः K.1. (-णा) 1 Māyā or illusion (in Vedānta phil.). -2 an epithet of Durgā. -गुणाकृतम् ploughed thrice. -चक्षुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -चतुर a. (pl.) three or four; गत्वा जवात्त्रिचतुराणि पदानि सीता B.R.6.34. -चत्वा- रिंश a. forty-third. -चत्वारिंशत् f, forty-three. -जगत् n. -जगती the three worlds, (1) the heaven, the atmosphere and the earth; or (2) the heaven, the earth, and the lower world; त्वत्कीर्तिः ...... त्रिजगति विहरत्येवमुर्वीश गुर्वी Sūkti.5.59. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा N. of a female demon, one of the Rākṣasa attendants kept by Rāvaṇa to watch over Sītā, when she was retained as a captive in the Aśoka-vanikā. She acted very kindly towards Sītā and induced her companions to do the same; सीतां मायेति शंसन्ति त्रिजटा समजीवयत् R.12.74. -जातम्, जातकम् The three spices (mace, cardamoms, cinnamon). -जीवा, -ज्या the sine of three signs or 9˚, a radius. -णता a bow; कामुकानिव नालीकांस्त्रिणताः सहसामुचन् Śi.19.61. -णव, -णवन् a. (pl.) three times nine; i. e. 27. -णाकः the heaven; तावत्त्रिणाकं नहुषः शशास Bhāg.6.13.16. -णाचिकेतः 1 a part of the Adhvaryu-sacrifice or Yajurveda, or one who performs a vow connected therewith (according to Kull. on Ms.3.185); Mb.13.9.26. -2 one who has thrice kindled the Nāchiketa fire or studied the Nāchiketa section of Kāṭhaka; त्रिणाचिकेत- स्त्रिभिरेत्य सन्धिम् Kaṭh.1.17. -णीता a wife ('thrice married'; it being supposed that a girl belongs to Soma, Gandharva and Agni before she obtains a human husband). -णेमि a. with three fellies; विचिन्वतो$भूत् सुमहांस्त्रिणेमिः Bhāg.3.8.2. -तक्षम्, तक्षी three carpenters taken collectively. -दण्डम् 1 the three staves of a Saṁnyāsin (who has resigned the world) tied togethar so as to form one. -2 the triple subjection of thought, word, and deed. (-ण्डः) the state of a religious ascetic; ज्ञानवैराग्यरहितस्त्रिदण्डमुपजीवति Bhāg.11.18.4. -दण्डिन् m. 1 a religious mendicant or Saṁnyāsin who has renounced all worldly attachments, and who carries three long staves tied together so as to form one in his right hand; तल्लिप्सुः स यतिर्भूत्वा त्रिदण्डी द्वारका- मगात् Bhāg.1.86.3. -2 one who has obtained command over his mind, speech, and body (or thought, word, and deed); cf. वाग्दण्डो$थ मनोदण्डः कायदण्डस्तथैव च । यस्यैते निहिता बुद्धौ त्रिदण्डीति स उच्यते ॥ Ms.12.1. -दशाः (pl.) 1 thirty. -2 the thirty-three gods:-- 12 Ādityas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 2 Aśvins. (-शः) a god, an immortal; तस्मिन्मघोनस्त्रिदशान्विहाय सहस्रमक्ष्णां युगपत्पपात Ku.3.1. ˚अङ्कुशः (-शम्) the heaven. ˚आयुधम् Indra's thunderbolt; R.9.54. ˚आयुधम् rainbow; अथ नभस्य इव त्रिदशायुधम् R.9.54. ˚अधिपः, ˚ईश्वरः, ˚पतिः epithets of Indra. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Śiva. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚अयनः an epithet of Viṣṇu. ˚अरिः a demon. ˚आचार्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚आधार Nectar. ˚आलयः, ˚आवासः 1 heaven. -2 the mountain Meru. -3 a god. ˚आहारः 'the food of the gods', nectar. ˚इन्द्रः 1 Indra. -2 Śiva. -3 Brahman. ˚गुरुः an epithet of Bṛihaspati, ˚गोपः a kind of insect; (cf. इन्द्रगोप) श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42. ˚दीर्घिका an epithet of the Ganges. ˚पतिः Indra; एषो$प्यैरावतस्थस्त्रिदशपतिः Ratn.4.11. ˚पुङ्गवः Viṣṇu; Rām.1. ˚मञ्जरी the holy basil. ˚वधू, ˚वनिता, an Apsaras or heavenly damsel; कैलासस्य त्रिदशवनितादर्पणस्यातिथिः स्याः Me.6. ˚वर्त्मन् the sky. ˚श्रेष्ठः 1 Agni. -2 Brahman. ˚दशीभूत Become divine; त्रिदशीभूतपौराणां स्वर्गान्तरमकल्पयत् R.15.12. -दिनम् three days collectively. ˚स्पृश् m. concurrence of three lunations with one solar day. -दिवम् 1 the heaven; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28; Ś.7.3. -2 sky, atmosphere. -3 paradise. -4 happiness. (-वा) cardamoms. ˚अधीशः, ˚ईशः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 a god. ˚आलयः the heaven; अश्वमेधजिताँल्लोका- नाप्नोति त्रिदिवालये Mb.13.141.53. ˚उद्भवा 1 the Ganges. -2 small cardamoms. ˚ओकस् m. a god; वपुषि त्रिदिवौकसां परं सह पुष्पैरपतत्र्छिलीमुखाः Vikr.15.72. ˚गत dead; त्रिदिवगतः किमु वक्ष्यते पिता मे Vikr.6.62. -दृश् m. an epithet of Śiva. -दोषम् vitiation or derangement of the three humours of the body, i. e. वात, पित्त and कफ. -धा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa; -तुम् 1 the triple world. -2 the aggregate of the 3 minerals or humours. -धामन् m. 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 of Vyāsa; -3 of Śiva. -4 of Agni. -5 death. -n. the heaven; हंसो हंसेन यानेन त्रिधाम परमं ययौ Bhāg.3.24.2. -धारा the Ganges. -नयन, -नेत्रः, -लोचनः epithets of Śiva; R.3. 66; Ku.3.66;5.72. -नवत a. ninety-third. -नवतिः f. ninety three. -नयना Pārvat&imacr. -नाभः Viṣṇu; Bhāg.8. 17.26. -नेत्रचूडामणिः the moon. -नेत्रफलः the cocoa-nut tree. -पञ्च a. three-fold five, i. e. fifteen. -पञ्चाश a. fiftythird. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-three. -पुटः glass (काच). -पताकः 1 the hand with three fingers stretched out or erect. -2 the forehead marked naturally with three horizontal lines. -पत्रकः the Palāśa tree. -पथम् 1 the three paths taken collectively, i. e. the sky, atmosphere, and the earth, or the sky, earth and the lower world. -2 a place where three roads meet. (-था) an epithet of Mathura. ˚गा, ˚गामिनी an epithet of the Ganges; गङ्गा त्रिपथगामिनी; धृतसत्पथस्त्रिपथगामभितः स तमारुरोह पुरुहूतसुतः Ki.6.1; Amaru.99. -पद्, -पाद्, -पात् m. Ved. 1 Viṣṇu. -2 fever (personified). -पद a. three-footed. (-दम्) a tripod; त्रिपदैः करकैः स्थालैः ...... Śiva. B.22. 62. -पदिका 1 a tripod. -2 a stand with three feet. -पदी 1 the girth of an elephant; नास्रसत्करिणां ग्रैवं त्रिपदी- च्छेदिनामपि R.4.48. -2 the Gāyatrī metre. -3 a tripod. -4 the plant गोधापदी. -परिक्रान्त a. one who walks thrice round a sacred fire. -पर्णः Kiṁśuka tree. -पाटः 1 intersection of a prolonged side and perpendicular (in a quadrangular figure). -2 the figure formed by such intersection. -पाटिका a beak. पाठिन् a. 1 familiar with Saṁhitā, Pada, and Krama. -2 one who learns a thing after three repetitions. -पादः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 fever. -पाद् a. 1 having three feet. -2 consisting of three parts, having three fourths; राघवः शिथिलं तस्थौ भुवि धर्मस्त्रिपादिव R.15.96. -3 trinomial. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation. -2 the Supreme Being. -पिटकम् the 3 collections of Buddhistic sacred writings (सुत्त, विनय and अभिधम्म). -पुट a. triangular. (-टः) 1 an arrow. -2 the palm of the hand. -3 a cubit. -4 a bank or shore. -पुटकः a triangle. -पुटा an epithet of Durgā. -पुटिन् m. the castor-oil plant. -पुण्ड्रम्, -पुण्ड्रक a mark on the forehead consisting of three lines made with cowdung ashes. -पुरम् 1 a collection of three cities. -2 the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt down, along the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of the gods); Ku.7.48; Amaru.2; संरक्ताभिस्त्रिपुरविजयो गीयते किन्नरीभिः Me.56; Bh.3.123; (-रः) N. of a demon or demons presiding over these cities. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Maya, ˚अन्तकः, ˚अरिः, ˚घ्नः, ˚दहनः, ˚द्विष् m., हरः &c. epithets of Śiva; अये गौरीनाथ त्रिपुरहर शम्भो त्रिनयन Bh.3.123; R.17.14. ˚दाहः burning of the three cities; मुहुरनुस्मरयन्तमनुक्षपं त्रिपुरदाहमुमापतिसेविनः Ki.5.14. ˚सुन्दरी Durgā. (-री) 1 N. of a place near Jabalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi. -2 N. of a country. -पुरुष a 1 having the length of three men. -2 having three assistants. (-षम्) the three ancestorsfather, grand-father and great-grand-father. -पृष्ठम् the highest heaven; Bhāg.1.19.23. (ष्ठः) Viṣṇu. -पौरुष a. 1 belonging to, or extending over, three generations of men. 2 offered to three (as oblations). -3 inherited from three (as an estate). -प्रस्रुतः an elephant in rut. -फला (1) the three myrobalans taken collectively, namely, Terminalia Chebula, T. Bellerica, and Phyllanthus (Mar. हिरडा, बेहडा and आंवळकाठी). Also (2) the three sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date); (3) the three fragrant fruits (nutmeg, arecanut, and cloves). -बन्धनः the individual soul. -बलिः, बली, -वलिः, -वली f. 1 the three folds or wrinkles of skin above the navel of a woman (regarded as a mark of beauty); क्षामोदरोपरिलसत्त्रिवलीलतानाम् Bh.1.93,81; cf. Ku.1.39. -2 the anus. -बलीकम् the anus. -बाहुः a kind of fighting with swords. -ब्रह्मन् a. with ब्रह्मा, विष्णु and महेश. -भम् three signs of the zodiac, or ninety degrees. -भङ्गम् a pose in which the image is bent at three parts of the body. -भद्रम् copulation, sexual union, cohabitation. -भागः 1 the third part; त्रिभागं ब्रह्महत्यायाः कन्या प्राप्नोति दुष्यती Mb.12.165.42. -2 the third part of a sign of the zodiac. -भुक्ल a. one possessed of learning, good conduct and good family-descent (Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica,274, Fasc.1, p.29). -भुजम् a triangle. -भुवनम् the three worlds; पुण्यं यायास्त्रिभुवन- गुरोर्धाम चण्डीश्वरस्य Me.35; Bh.1.99. ˚गुरु Śiva. ˚कीर्तिरसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. ˚पतिः Viṣṇu. -भूमः a palace with three floors. -मद the three narcotic plants; the three-fold haughtiness; Bhāg.3.1.43. -मधु n. -मधुरम् 1 sugar, honey, and ghee. -2 three verses of the Ṛigveda (1.9.6-8; मधु वाता ऋतायते˚). -3 a ceremony based on the same; L. D. B. -4 threefold utterance of a vedic stanza ˚मधु वाता -m. a reciter and performer of the above ceremony; L. D. B. -मार्गा the Ganges; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28. -मुकुटः the Trikūṭa mountain. -मुखः an epithet of Buddha. -मुनि ind. having the three sages पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि; त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम्. -मूर्तिः 1 the united form of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśa, the Hindu triad; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्रांक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने । गुणत्रयविभायाय पश्चाद्भेदमुपेयुषे ॥ Ku.2.4. -2 Buddha, or Jina. -मूर्धन् m. 1 a demon; त्रयश्च दूषण- खरस्त्रिमूर्धानो रणे हताः U.2.15. -2 a world called महर्लोक; G&imac;rvāṇa; cf. अमृतं क्षेममभयं त्रिमूर्ध्नो$धायि मूर्धसु Bhāg.2.6.19. -यव a. weighing 3 barley corns; Ms.8.134. -यष्टिः a necklace of three strings. -यामकम् sin. -यामा 1 night (consisting of 3 watches of praharas, the first and last half prahara being excluded); संक्षिप्येत क्षण इव कथं दीर्घयामा त्रियामा Me.11, Ku.7.21,26; R.9.7; V.3. 22. -2 turmeric. -3 the Indigo plant. -4 the river Yamuṇā. -युगः an epithet of Viṣṇu; धर्मं महापुरुष पासि युगानुवृत्तं छन्नः कलौ यदभवस्त्रियुगो$थ सत्त्वम् Bhāg.7.9.38; the god in the form of यज्ञपुरुष; Bhāg.5.18.35. -योनिः a law-suit (in which a person engages from anger, covetousness, or infatuation). -रसकम् spirituous liquor; see त्रिसरकम्. -रात्र a. lasting for three nights. (-त्रः) a festival lasting for three nights. (-त्रम्) a period of three nights. -रेखः a conch-shell. -लिङ्ग a. having three genders, i. e. an adjective. -2 possessing the three Guṇas. (-गाः) the country called Telaṅga. (-गी) the three genders taken collectively. -लोकम् the three worlds. (-कः) an inhabitant of the three worlds; यद्धर्मसूनोर्बत राजसूये निरीक्ष्य दृक्स्वस्त्ययनं त्रिलोकः Bhāg.3. 2.13. ˚आत्मन् m. the Supreme Being. ˚ईशः the sun. ˚नाथः 'lord of the three worlds', an epithet of 1 Indra; त्रिलोकनाथेन सदा मखद्विषस्त्वया नियम्या ननु दिव्यचक्षुषा R.3.45. -2 of Śiva; Ku.5.77. ˚रक्षिन् a. protecting the 3 worlds; त्रिलोकरक्षी महिमा हि वज्रिणः V.1.6. -लोकी the three worlds taken collectively, the universe; सत्यामेव त्रिलोकीसरिति हरशिरश्चुम्बिनीविच्छटायाम् Bh.3.95; Śānti.4.22. -लोचनः Śiva. (-ना) 1 an unchaste woman. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -लोहकम् the three metals:-- gold, silver, and copper. -वर्गः 1 the three objects of wordly existence, i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, and काम; अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्गसारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38; अन्योन्यानुबन्धम् (त्रिवर्गम्) Kau. A.1.7; प्राप त्रिवर्गं बुबुधे$त्रिवर्गम् (मोक्षम्) Bu. Ch.2.41. -2 the three states of loss, stability, and increase; क्षयः स्थानं च वृद्धिश्च त्रिवर्गो नीतिवेदिनाम् Ak. -3 the three qualities of nature, i. e. सत्त्व, रजस्, and तमस्. -4 the three higher castes. -5 the three myrobalans. -6 propriety, decorum. -वर्णकम् the first three of the four castes of Hindus taken collectively. -वर्ष a. three years old; Ms.5.7. -वलिः, -ली f. (in comp.) three folds over a woman's navel (regarded as a mark of beauty) -वली the anus. -वारम् ind. three times, thrice. -विक्रमः Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation. ˚रसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. -विद्यः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -विध a. of three kinds, three-fold. -विष्टपम्, -पिष्टपम् 1 the world of Indra, heaven; त्रिविष्टपस्येव पतिं जयन्तः R.6.78. -2 the three worlds. ˚सद् m. a god. -वृत् a. 1 threefold; मौञ्जी त्रिवृत्समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला Ms.2.42. -2 consisting of three parts (as three गुणs, विद्याs); Bhāg.3.24.33;1.23.39; (consisting of three letters- ओङ्कार); हिरण्यगर्भो वेदानां मन्त्राणां प्रणवस्त्रिवृत् Bhāg.11.16.12. (-m.) 1 a sacrifice. -2 a girdle of three strings; Mb.12.47.44. -3 an amulet of three strings. (-f.) a plant possessing valuable purgative properties. ˚करण combining three things, i. e. earth, water, and fire. -वृत्तिः livelihood through 3 things (sacrifice, study and alms). -वेणिः, -णी f. the place near Prayāga where the Ganges joins the Yamunā and receives under ground the Sarasvatī; the place called दक्षिणप्रयाग where the three sacred rivers separate. -वेणुः 1 The staff (त्रिदण्ड) of a Saṁnyāsin; केचित् त्रिवेणुं जगृहुरेके पात्रं कमण्डलुम् Bhāg.11.23.34. -2 The pole of a chariot; अथ त्रिवेणुसंपन्नं ...... बभञ्ज च महारथम् Rām.3. 51.16; Mb.7.156.83; a three bannered (chariot); Bhāg.4.26.1. -वेदः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -शक्तिः a deity (त्रिकला), Māyā; Bhāg.2.6.31. -शङ्कुः 1 N. of a celebrated king of the Solar race, king of Ayodhyā and father of Hariśchandra. [He was a wise, pious, and just king, but his chief fault was that he loved his person to an inordinate degree. Desiring to celebrate a sacrifice by virtue of which he could go up to heaven in his mortal body, he requested his family-priest Vasiṣṭha to officiate for him; but being refused he next requested his hundred sons who also rejected his absurd proposal. He, therefore, called them cowardly and impotent, and was, in return for these insults, cursed and degraded by them to be a Chāṇḍāla. While he was in this wretched condition, Viśvāmitra, whose family Triśaṅku had in times of famine laid under deep obligations, undertook to celebrate the sacrifice, and invited all the gods to be present. They, however, declined; whereupon the enraged Viśvāmitra. by his own power lifted up Triśaṅku to the skies with his cherished mortal body. He began to soar higher and higher till his head struck against the vault of the heaven, when he was hurled down head-foremost by Indra and the other gods. The mighty Viśvāmitra, however, arrested him in his downward course, saying 'Stay Triśaṅku', and the unfortunate monarch remained suspended with his head towards the earth as a constellation in the southern hemisphere. Hence the wellknown proverb:-- त्रिशङ्कुरिवान्तरा तिष्ठ Ś.2.] -2 the Chātaka bird. -3 a cat. -4 a grass-hopper. -5 a firefly. ˚जः an epithet of Hariśchandra. ˚याजिन् m. an epithet of Viśvāmitra. -शत a. three hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and three. -2 three hundred. -शरणः a Buddha. -शर्करा three kinds of sugar (गुडोत्पन्ना, हिमोत्था, and मधुरा). -शाख a. three-wrinkled; भ्रुकुट्या भीषणमुखः प्रकृत्यैव त्रिशाखया Ks.12.72. -शालम् a house with three halls or chambers. -शिखम् 1 a trident; तदापतद्वै त्रिशिखं गरुत्मते Bhāg.1.59.9. -2 a crown or crest (with three points). -शिरस् m. 1 N. of a demon killed by Rāma. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -3 fever. त्रिशिरस्ते प्रसन्नो$स्मि व्येतु ते मज्ज्वराद्भयम् Bhāg.1.63.29. -शीर्षः Śiva. -शीर्षकम्, -शूलम् a trident. ˚अङ्कः, ˚धारिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शुक्लम् the holy combination of 'three days' viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the moon (day of the manes) and daytime; त्रिशुक्ले मरणं यस्य, L. D. B. -शूलिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शृङ्गः 1 the Trikūṭa mountain. -2 a triangle. -शोकः the soul. -षष्टिः f. sixty-three. -ष्टुभ् f. a metre of 4 x 11 syllables. -संध्यम्, -संध्यी the three periods of the day, i. e. dawn, noon, and sunset; also -त्रिसवनम् (-षवणम्); Ms.11.216. -संध्यम् ind. at the time of the three Sandhyas; सान्निध्यं पुष्करे येषां त्रिसन्ध्यं कुरुनन्दन Mb. -सप्तत a. seventy-third. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-three. -सप्तन्, -सप्त a. (pl.) three times 7, i. e. 21. -सम a. (in geom.) having three equal sides, equilateral. -सरः milk, sesamum and rice boiled together. -सरकम् drinking wine thrice ('सरकं शीधुपात्रे स्यात् शीधुपाने च शीधुनि' इति विश्वः); प्रातिभं त्रिसरकेण गतानाम् Śi.1.12. -सर्गः the creation of the 3 Guṇas; Bhāg.1.1.1. -साधन a. having a threefold causality; R.3.13. -सामन् a. singing 3 Sāmans (an उद्गातृ); उद्गाता तत्र संग्रामे त्रिसामा दुन्दुभिर्नृप Mb.12.98.27. -साम्यम् an equilibrium of the three (qualities); Bhāg.2.7.4. -सुपर्णः, -र्णम् 1 N. of the three Ṛigvedic verses (Rv.1.114.3-5). -2 N. of T. Ār.1.48-5; -a. familiar with or reciting these verses; Ms.3.185. -स्थली the three sacred places : काशी, प्रयाग, and गया. -स्थानम् the head, neck and chest together; तन्त्रीलयसमायुक्तं त्रिस्थानकरणान्वितम् Rām.7.71.15. -a. 1 having 3 dwelling places. -2 extending through the 3 worlds. -स्रोतस् f. an epithet of the Ganges; त्रिस्रोतसं वहति यो गगनप्रतिष्ठाम् Ś.7.6; R.1.63; Ku.7.15. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed thrice (as a field). -हायण a. three years old.
dakṣa दक्ष a. [दक्ष्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 Able, competent, expert, clever, skilful; नाट्ये च दक्षा वयम् Ratn.1.6; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; R.12.11. -2 Fit, suitable; दक्षेण सूत्रेण ससर्जिथाध्वरम् Bhāg.4.6.44. -3 Ready, careful, attentive, prompt; Y.1.76; रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणां द्विषामामिषतां ययौ R.12.11. -4 Honest, upright. -क्षः 1 N. of a celebrated Prajāpti. [He was one of the ten sons of Brahman, being born from his right thumb, and was the chief of the patriarchs of mankind. He is said to have had many daughters, 27 of whom became the wives of the moon, thus forming the 27 lunar mansions, and 13 the wives of Kaśyapa, becoming by him the mothers of gods, demons, men, and animals; see कश्यप. At one time Daksa celebrated a great sacrifice, but did not invite his daughter Satī, nor her husband Śiva, the chief of the gods. Satī, however, went to the sacrifice, but being greatly insulted threw herself into fire and perished; cf. Ku.1.21. When Śiva heard this he was very much provoked, and according to one account, himself went to the sacrifice, completely destroyed it and pursued Dakṣa who assumed the form of a deer, and at last decapitated him. But Śiva is said to have afterwards restored him to life, and he thenceforward acknowledged the god's supremacy. According to another account, Śiva, when provoked, tore off a hair from his matted hair, and dashed it with great force against the ground when lo ! a powerful demon started up and awaited his orders. He was told to go and destroy Dakṣa's sacrifice; whereupon the mighty demon, attended by several demigods, went to the sacrifice, routed the gods and priests, and, according to one account, beheaded Dakṣa himself; Ms.9.128-29.] -2 A cock. -3 Fire. -4 The bull of Śiva. -5 A lover attached to many mistresses. -6 An epithet of Śiva. -7 Mental power, ability, capacity. -8 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -9 The right side or part; वामतो जानकी यस्य दक्षभागे च लक्ष्मणः -1 Ability, power, fitness. -11 Strength of will, energy, resoluteness. -12 Strength, power. -13 Bad disposition, wickedness; मा सख्युर्दक्षं रिपोर्भुजेम Rv.4.3.13. -क्षा 1 The earth. -2 An epithet of the Ganges. -क्षम् Strength, vigour. -Comp. -अध्वरध्वंसकः, क्रतु- ध्वंसिन्, -मथनः, -विध्वंसः Śiva; Hch.3. -m. epithets of Śiva. -कन्या, -जा, तनया, -यज्ञविनाशिनी 1 an epithet of Durgā. -2 a lunar mansion. -जापतिः 1 the moon -2 Śiva. -सावर्णः (र्णिः) N. of the 9th Manu; नवमो दक्षसावर्णिर्मनुर्वरुणसंभवः Bhāg.8.13.18. -सुतः a god. (-ता) a lunar mansion. नरेन्द्रकन्यास्तमवाप्य सत्पतिं तमोनुदं दक्षसुता इवाबभुः R.3.33.
dur दुर् ind. (A prefix substituted for दुस् before words beginning with vowels or soft consonants in the sense of 'bad'. 'hard' or 'difficult to do a certain thing'; for compounds with दुस् as first member see दुस् s. v.). -Comp. -अक्ष a. 1 weak-eyed. -2 evileyed. (-क्षः) 1 a loaded or false die. -2 dishonest gambling. -अक्षरम् an evil word; श्रुतिं ममाविश्य भवद्दुरक्षरं सृजत्यदः कीटकवदुत्कटा रुजः N.9.63. -अतिक्रम a. difficult to be overcome or conquered, unconquerable; सर्वं तु तपसा साध्यं तपो हि दुरति- क्रमम् Ms.11.2.38; स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः 'nature cannot be changed'; स्वजातिर्दुरतिक्रमा Pt.1. -2 insurmountable, impassable; B. R.6.18-19. -3 inevitable. (-मः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अत्यय a. 1 difficult to be overcome; स्वर्गमार्गपरिघो दुरत्ययः R.11.88. -2 hard to be attained or fathomed; स एष आत्मा स्वपरेत्यबुद्धिभिर्दुरत्यया- नुक्रमणो निरूप्यते Bhāg.7.5.13. -अदृष्टम् ill-luck, misfortune. -अधिग, -अधिगम a. 1 hard to reach or attain, unattainable; Bhāg.3.23.8; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत्पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33. -2 insurmountable. -3 hard to be studied or understood; इह दुरधिगमैः किञ्चि- देवागमैः Ki.5.18. -अधिष्ठित a. badly performed, managed, or executed. (-तम्) improper stay at a place. -अधीत a. badly learnt or read. -अध्यय a. 1 difficult of attainment; सहस्रवर्त्मा चपलैर्दुरध्ययः Śi.12.11. -2 hard to be studied. -अध्यवसायः a foolish undertaking. -अध्वः a bad road; स्वयं दुरध्वार्णवनाविकाः कथं स्पृशन्तु विज्ञाय हृदापि तादृशीम् N.9.33. -अन्त a. 1 whose end is difficult to be reached, endless, infinite; संकर्षणाय सूक्ष्माय दुरन्तायान्तकाय च Bhāg. -2 ending ill or in misery, unhappy; अहो दुरन्ता बलवद्विरोधिता Ki.1.23; नृत्यति युवति- जनेन समं सखि विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते (वसन्ते) Gīt.1; इयमुदरदरी- दुरन्तधारा यदि न भवेदभिमानभङ्गभूमिः Udb. -3 hard to be understood or known. -4 insurmountable. -अन्तक a. = दुरन्त q. v. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -अन्वय a. 1 difficult to be passed along; Mb.14.51.17. -2 hard to be carried out or followed. -3 difficult to be attained. or understood; बुद्धिश्च ते महाप्राज्ञ देवैरपि दुरन्वया Rām.3. 66.18. -4 not suitable, improper; वचो दुरन्वयं विप्रास्तूष्णी- मासन्भ्रमद्धियः Bhāg.1.84.14. (-यः) 1 a wrong conclusion, one wrongly inferred from given premisses. -2 (in gram.) a false agreement. -अपवादः ill report. slander. -अभिग्रह a. difficult to be caught. -अभि- मानिन् a. vain-glorious, disagreeably proud. -अवगम a. incomprehensible; Bhāg.5.13.26. -अवग्रह a. 1 difficult to be restrained or subjugated; भक्ता भजस्व दुरवग्रह मा त्यजास्मान् Bhāg.1.29.31. -2 disagreeable. -अवग्राह a. difficult to be attained; Bhāg.7.1.19. -अवच्छद a. difficult to be hidden; हेतुभिर्लक्षयांचक्रुराप्रीतां दुरवच्छदैः Bhāg.1.62.28. -अवबोध a. unintelligible. Bhāg.1.49.29. -अवसित a. unfathomed, difficult to be ascertained, द्युपतिभिरजशक्रशंकराद्यैर्दुरवसितस्तवमच्युतं नतो$स्मि Bhāg.12.12.67. -अवस्थ a. ill off, badly or poorly circumstanced. -अवस्था, -स्थानम् a wretched or miserable state; Bhāg.5.3.12. -अवाप a. difficult to be gained or fulfilled; Ś.1. -अवेक्षितम् an improper look. -अह्नः a bad day. -आकृति a. ugly, mis-shaped. -आक्रन्द a. crying bitterly or miserably; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्ष- क्षयकारक Pt.4.29. -आक्रम a. 1 invincible, unconquerable. -2 difficult to be passed. -आक्रमणम् 1 unfair attack. -2 difficult approach. -आगमः improper or illegal acquisition. -आग्रहः foolish obstinacy, headstrongness, pertinacity; ममाहमित्यूढदुराग्रहाणां पुंसाम् Bhāg.3. 5.43. -आचर a. 1 hard to be performed. -2 incurable (as a disease). -आचार a. 1 ill-conducted, badly behaved. -2 following bad practices, wicked, depraved; अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् Bg.9.3. (-रः) bad practice, ill-conduct, wikedness. -आढ्य a. not rich, poor. -आत्मता vileness, baseness, wickedness. -आत्मन् a. evil-natured, low, wicked, vile, base, mean; ये च प्राहुर्दुरात्मानो दुराराध्या महीभुजः Pt.1.39. (-m.) a rascal, villain, scoundrel. -आधर a. difficult to be withstood or overpowered, irresistible. -आधर्ष a. hard to be approached or assailed, unassailable जगन्नाथो दुराधर्षो गङ्गां भागीरथीं प्रति Mb. -2 not to be attacked with impunity. -3 haughty. (-र्षः) white mustard. -आधारः an epithet of Śiva. -आधिः (m.) 1 distress or anxiety of mind; निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः Ki.1.28. -2 indignation. -आधी a. Ved. malignant, thinking ill of. -आनम a. difficult to bend or draw; स विचिन्त्य धनुर्दुरानमम् R.11.38. -आप a. 1 difficult to be obtained; श्रिया दुरापः कथमीप्सितो भवेत् Ś.3.13; R.1.72;6.62. -2 difficult to be approached; Pt.1.67. -3 hard to be overcome. -आपादन a. difficult to be brought about; किं दुरापादनं तेषाम् Bhāg.3.23.42. -आपूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; Bhāg.7.6.8. -आबाध a. hard to be molested. (-धः) N. of Śiva. -आमोदः bad scent, stench; शवधूमदुरामोदः शालिभक्ते$त्र विद्यते Ks.82.22. -आराध्य a. difficult to be propitiated, hard to be won over or conciliated; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.38. -आरुह a. difficult to be mounted. (-हः) 1 the Bilva tree. -2 the cocoanut tree. -3 the date tree. -आरोप a. difficult to be strung (bow); दुरारोपमैन्दुशेखरं धनुर्दुर्निवारा रावणभुजदण्डाः B. R.1.46-47. -आरोह a. difficult of ascent. (-हः) 1 The cocoanut tree. -2 the palm tree. -3 the date tree. -आलापः 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 foul of abusive language. -आलोक a. 1 difficult to be seen or perceived. -2 painfully bright, dazzling; दुरालोकः स समरे निदाघाम्बररत्नवत् K. P.1. (-कः) dazzling splendour. -आव(वा)र a. 1 difficult to be covered or filled up; दुरावरं त्वदन्येन राज्यखण्डमिदं महत् Rām.2.15.5. -2 difficult to be restrained, shut in, kept back or stopped. -आवर्त a. difficult to be convinced or set up; भवन्ति सुदुरावर्ता हेतुमन्तो$पि पण्डिताः Mb.12.19.23. -आशय a. 1 evil-minded, wicked, malicious, स्फुटनिर्भिन्नो दुराशयो$धमः Śi. उपेयिवान् मूलमशेषमूलं दुराशयः कामदुघाङ्घ्रिपस्य Bhāg.3.21.15. -2 having a bad place or rest. (-m.) the subtle body which is not destroyed by death (लिङ्गदेह); एतन्मे जन्म लोके$स्मिन्मुमुक्षूणां दुराशयात् Bhāg.3.24. 36. -आशा 1 a bad or wicked desire. -2 hoping against hope. -आस a. difficult to be abided or associated with; संघर्षिणा सह गुणाभ्यधिकैर्दुरासम् Śi.5.19. -आसद a. 1 difficult to be approached or overtaken; स सभूव दुरासदः परैः R.3.66; 8.4; Mv.2.5; 4.15. -2 difficult to be found or met with. -3 unequalled, unparalleled. -4 hard to be borne, insupportable. -5 difficult to be conquered, unassailable, unconquerable; जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् Bg.3.43. (-दः) an epithet of Śiva. -इत a. 1 difficult. -2 sinful. (-तम्) 1 a bad course, evil, sin; दरिद्राणां दैन्यं दुरितमथ दुर्वासनहृदां द्रुतं दूरीकुर्वन् G. L.2; R.8.2; Amaru.2; Mv.3.43. -2 a difficulty, danger. -3 a calamity, evil; अपत्ये यत्तादृग्- दुरितमभवत् U.4.3. -इतिः f. Ved. 1 a bad course. -2 difficulty. -इष्टम् 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 a spell or sacrificial rite performed to injure another person. -ईशः a bad lord or master. -ईषणा, -एषणा 1 a curse, an imprecation. -2 an evil eye. -उक्त a. harshly uttered; Pt.1.89. -उक्तम्, -उक्तिः f. offensive speech, reproach, abuse, censure; लक्ष्मि क्षमस्व वचनीयमिदं दुरुक्तम् Udb. -उच्छेद a. difficult to be destroyed. -उत्तर a. 1 unanswerable. -2 difficult to be crossed; दुरुत्तरे पङ्क इवान्धकारे Bk.11.2; प्राप्तः पङ्को दुरुत्तरः Ki.15.17. -उदय a. appearing with difficulty, not easily manifested; यो$ नात्मनां दुरुदयो भगवान्प्रतीतः Bhāg.3.16.5. -उदर्क a. having bad or no consequences; N.5.41. -उदाहर a. difficult to be pronounced or composed; अनुज्झितार्थसंबन्धः प्रबन्धो दुरुदाहरः Śi.2.73. -उद्वह a. burdensome, unbearable. -उपसद a. difficult of approach; Ki.7.9. -उपसर्पिन् a. approaching incautiously; एकमेव दहत्यग्निर्नरं दुरुपसर्पिणम् Ms.7.9. -ऊह a. abstruse; जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्ये दुरूहद्रुते Gīt. -एव a. Ved. 1 having evil ways. -2 irresistible, unassailable. (-वः) a wicked person. -ओषस् a. Ved. slow, lazy. -ग 1 difficult of access, inaccessible, impervious, impassable; दुर्गस्त्वेष महापन्थाः Mb.12.3. 5; दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति Kaṭh.1.3.14. -2 unattainable. -3 incomprehensible. -4 following wicked path, vicious; Rām.2.39.22. (-गः, -गम्) 1 a difficult or narrow passage through a wood or over a stream, mountain &c., a defile, narrow pass. -2 a citadel. fortress, castle; न दुर्गं दुर्गमित्येव दुर्गमं मन्यते जनः । तस्य दुर्गमता सैव यत्प्रभुस्तस्य दुर्गमः ॥ Śiva. B.16.61. -3 rough ground. -4 difficulty, adversity, calamity, distress, danger; निस्तारयतिं दुर्गाच्च Ms.3.98;11.43; मच्चित्तः सर्व- दुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि; Bg.18.58. (-गः) 1 bdellium. -2 the Supreme Being. -3 N. of an Asura slain by Durgā (thus receiving her name from him). ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚पतिः, ˚पालः the commandant or governor of a castle. ˚अन्तः The suburb of a fort; दुर्गान्ते सिद्धतापसाः Kau. A. 1.12. ˚कर्मन् n. fortification. ˚कारक a. making difficult. (-कः) the birch tree. ˚घ्नी N. of Durgā. ˚तरणी an epithet of Sāvitrī. सावित्री दुर्गतरणी वीणा सप्तविधा तथा Mb. ˚मार्गः a defile, gorge. ˚लङ्घनम् surmounting difficulties. (-नः) a camel. ˚संचरः 1 a difficult passage as to a fort &c., a bridge &c. over a defile. ˚संस्कारः Repairs to the old forts; अतो दुर्गसंस्कार आरब्धव्ये किं कौमुदीमहोत्सवेन Mu. ˚सिंहः N. of the author of कलापपरिशिष्ट. ˚व्यसनम् a defect or weak point in a fortress. (-र्गा) an epithet of Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. -2 the female cuckoo -3 N. of several plants. ˚नवमी the 9th day of the bright half of कार्तिक. ˚पूजा the chief festival in honour of दुर्गा in Bengal in the month of Āśvina. -गत a. 1 unfortunate, in bad circumstances; समाश्वसिमि केनाहं कथं प्राणिमि दुर्गतः Bk.18.1. -2 indigent, poor. -3 distressed, in trouble. -गतता ill-luck, poverty, misery; तावज्जन्मातिदुःखाय ततो दुर्गतता सदा Pt.1.265. -गतिः f. 1 misfortune, poverty, want, trouble, indigence; न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद् दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति Bg.6.4. -2 a difficult situation or path. -3 hell. -गन्ध a. ill-smelling. (-न्धः) 1 bad odour, stink -2 any ill-smelling substance. -3 an onion. -4 the mango tree. (-न्धम्) sochal salt. -गन्धि, -गन्धिन् a. ill-smelling. -गम a. 1 impassable, inaccessible, impervious; कामिनीकायकान्तारे कुचपर्वतदुर्गमे Bh.1.86; Śi. 12.49. -2 unattainable, difficult of attainment. -3 hard to be understood. (-मम्) a difficult place like hill etc; भ्राम्यन्ते दुर्गमेष्वपि Pt.5.81. -गाढ, -गाध, -गाह्य a. difficult to be fathomed or investigated, unfathomable. -गुणितम् not properly studied; चिराम्यस्तपथं याति शास्त्रं दुर्गुणितं यथा Avimārakam.2.4. -गोष्ठी evil association; conspiracy. वृद्धो रक्कः कम्पनेशो दुर्गोष्ठीमध्यगो$भवत् Rāj. T.6. 17. -ग्रह a. 1 difficult to be gained or accomplished. -2 difficult to be conquered or subjugated; दुर्गाणि दुर्ग्रहाण्यासन् तस्य रोद्धुरपि द्विषाम् R.17.52. -3 hard to be understood. (-हः) 1 a cramp, spasm. -2 obstinacy. -3 whim, monomania; कथं न वा दुर्ग्रहदोष एष ते हितेन सम्य- ग्गुरुणापि शम्यते N.9.41. -घट a. 1 difficult. कार्याणि घटयन्नासीद् दुर्घटान्यपि हेलया Rāj. T.4.364. -2 impossible. -घण a. 1 closely packed together, very compact. -घुरुटः An unbeliever; L. D. B. -घोषः 1 a harsh cry. -2 a bear. -जन a. 1 wicked, bad, vile. -2 slanderous, malicious, mischievous; यथा स्त्रीणां तथा वाचां साधुत्वे दुर्जनो जनः U.1.6. (-नः) a bad or wicked person, a malicious or mischievous man, villain; दुर्जनः प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वास- कारणम् Chāṇ.24,25; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. (दुर्जनायते Den. Ā. to become wicked; स्वजनो$पि दरिद्राणां तत्क्षणाद् दुर्जनायते Pt.1.5.). (दुर्जनीकृ [च्वि] to make blameworthy; दुर्जनीकृतास्मि अनेन मां चित्रगतां दर्शयता Nāg.2). -जय a. invincible. (-यः) N. of Viṣṇu. -जर a. 1 ever youthful; तस्मिन्स्तनं दुर्जरवीर्यमुल्बणं घोराङ्कमादाय शिशोर्दधावथ Bhāg.1.6.1. -2 hard (as food), indigestible. -3 difficult to be enjoyed; राजश्रीर्दुर्जरा तस्य नवत्वे भूभुजो$भवत् Rāj. T.5.19. -जात a. 1 unhappy, wretched. -2 bad-tempered, bad, wicked; Rāj. T.3. 142. -3 false, not genuine. ˚जीयिन् a. one who is born in vain; यो न यातयते वैरमल्पसत्त्वोद्यमः पुमान् । अफलं जन्म तस्याहं मन्ये दुर्जातजायिनः ॥ Mb. (-तम्) 1 a misfortune, calamity, difficulty; त्वं तावद् दुर्जाते मे$त्यन्तसाहाय्यकारिणी भव M.3; दुर्जातबन्धुः R.13.72. 'a friend in need or adversity.' -2 impropriety. -जाति a. 1 bad natured, vile, wicked; रुदितशरणा दुर्जातीनां सहस्व रुषां फलम् Amaru.96. -2 outcast. (-तिः f.) misfortune, ill condition. -ज्ञान, -ज्ञेय a. difficult to be known, incomprehensible. उच्चावचेषु भुतेषु दुर्ज्ञेयामकृतात्मभिः Ms.6.73. (-यः) N. of Śiva. -णयः, -नयः, -नीतिः 1 bad conduct. -2 impropriety -3 injustice. -णामन्, -नामन् a. having a bad name. -णीत a. 1 ill-behaved. -2 impolitic. -3 forward. (-तम्) misconduct; दुर्णीतं किमिहास्ति किं सुचरितं कः स्थानलाभे गुणः H. -दम, -दमन, -दम्य a. difficult to be subdued, untamable, indomitable. -दर्श a. 1 difficult to be seen. -2 dazzling; सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मन Bg.11.52. -दर्शन a. ugly, ill-looking; दुर्दर्शनेन घटतामियमप्यनेन Māl.2.8. -दशा a misfortune, calamity. -दान्त a. 1 hard to be tamed or subdued, untamable; Śi.12.22. -2 intractable, proud, insolent; दुर्दान्तानां दमनविधयः क्षत्रियेष्वायतन्ते Mv.3.34. (-तः) 1 a calf. -2 a strife, quarrel. -3 N. of Śiva. -दिन a. cloudy, rainy. (-नम्) 1 a bad day in general; तद्दिनं दुर्दिनं मन्ये यत्र मित्रागमो हि न Subhāṣ. -2 a rainy or cloudy day, stormy or rainy weather; उन्नमत्यकालदुर्दिनम् Mk.5; Ku.6 43; Mv.4.57. -3 a shower (of anything); द्विषां विषह्य काकुत्स्थस्तत्र नाराचदुर्दिनम् ॥ सन्मङ्गलस्नात इव R.4.41,82;5.47; U.5.5. -4 thick darkness; जीमूतैश्च दिशः सर्वाश्चक्रे तिमिरदुर्दिनाः Mb. (दुर्दिनायते Den. Ā. to become cloudy.) -दिवसः a dark or rainy day; Pt.1.173. -दुरूटः, -ढः 1 an unbeliever -2 an abusive word. -दृश a. 1 disagreeable to the sight, disgusting; दुर्दृशं तत्र राक्षसं घोररूपमपश्यत्सः Mb.1.2.298. -2 difficult to be seen; पादचारमिवादित्यं निष्पतन्तं सुदुर्दृशम् Rām.7.33.5. -दृष्ट a. illjudged or seen, wrongly decided; Y.2.35. -दैवम् ill-luck, misfortune. -द्यूतम् an unfair game. -द्रुमः onion (green). -धर a. 1 irresistible, difficult to be stopped. -2 difficult to be borne or suffered; दुर्धरेण मदनेन साद्यते Ghat.11; Ms.7.28. -3 difficult to be accomplished. -4 difficult to be kept in memory. (-रः) quicksilver. -धर्ष a. 1 inviolable, unassailable. -2 inaccessible; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्य- मतः परम् ॥ H. Pr.5. -3 fearful, dreadful. -4 haughty. -धी a. stupid, silly. -नयः 1 arrogance. -2 immorality. -3 evil strategy; उन्मूलयितुमीशो$हं त्रिवर्गमिव दुर्नयः Mu.5.22. -नामकः piles. ˚अरिः a kind of bulbous root (Mar. सुरण). -नामन् m. f. a cockle. (-n.) piles. -निग्रह a. irrepressible, unruly; मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् Bg.6.35. -निमित a. carelessly put or placed on the ground; पदे पदे दुर्निमिते गलन्ती R.7.1. -निमित्तम् 1 a bad omen; R.14.5. -2 a bad pretext. -निवार, -निवार्य a. difficult to be checked or warded off, irresistible, invincible. -नीतम् 1 misconduct, bad policy, demerit, misbehaviour; दुर्णीतं किमि- हास्ति Pt.2.21; H.1.49. -2 ill-luck. -नीतिः f. maladministration; दुर्नीतिं तव वीक्ष्य कोपदहनज्वालाजटालो$पि सन्; Bv.4.36. -नृपः a bad king; आसीत् पितृकुलं तस्य भक्ष्यं दुर्नृप- रक्षसः Rāj. T.5.417. -न्यस्त a. badly arranged; दुर्न्यस्त- पुष्परचितो$पि Māl.9.44. -बल a. 1 weak, feeble. -2 enfeebled, spiritless; दुर्बलान्यङ्गकानि U.1.24. -3 thin, lean, emaciated; U.3. -4 small, scanty, little; स्वार्थोप- पत्तिं प्रति दुर्बलाशः R.5.12. -बाध a. Unrestrained (अनिवार); दुर्बाधो जनिदिवसान्मम प्रवृद्धः (आधिः); Mv.6.28. -बाल a. 1 bald-headed. -2 void of prepuce. -3 having crooked hair. -बुद्धि a. 1 silly, foolish, stupid. -2 perverse, evil-minded, wicked; धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः (समा- गताः) Bg.1.23 -बुध a. wicked-minded, silly; Mb. 11.4.18. -बोध a. unintelligible, unfathomable, inscrutable; निसर्गदुर्बोधमबोधविक्लवाः क्व भूपतीनां चरितं क्व जन्तवः Ki. 1.6. -भग a. 1 unfortunate, unlucky; श्रीवल्लभं दुर्भगाः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -2 not possessed of good features, ill-looking. -भगा 1 a wife disliked by her husband; दुर्भगाभरणप्रायो ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना H.1.17. -2 an ill-tempered woman, a shrew. -3 a widow; -भर a. insupportable, burdensome, heavily laden with (comp.); ततो राजाब्रवीदेतं बहुव्यसनदुर्भरः Ks.112.156. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. (ग्यम्) ill-luck. -भावना 1 an evil thought. -2 a bad tendency. -भिक्षम् 1 scarcity of provisions, dearth, famine; Y.2.147; Ms.8.22; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे... यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः H.1.71; Pt.2. -2 want in general. -भिद, -भेद, -भेद्य a. firm; सुजनस्तु कनकघटवद् दुर्भेद्यश्चाशु संध्येयः Subhāṣ. -भृत्यः a bad servant. -भिषज्यम् incurability; Bṛi. Up.4.3.14. -भ्रातृ m. a bad brother. -मङ्कु a. obstinate, disobedient. -मति a. 1 silly, stupid, foolish, ignorant. -2 wicked, evilminded; न सांपरायिकं तस्य दुर्मतेर्विद्यते फलम् Ms.11.3. -मद a. drunken, ferocious, maddened, infatuated; Bhāg.1.15.7. -दः foolish pride, arrogance. -दम् the generative organ; ग्रामकं नाम विषयं दुर्मदेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.52. -मनस् a. troubled in mind, discouraged, disspirited, sad, malancholy; अद्य बार्हस्पतः श्रीमान् युक्तः पुष्येण राघवः । प्रोच्यतै ब्राह्मणैः प्राज्ञैः केन त्वमसि दुर्मनाः ॥ Rām. [दुर्मनायते Den. Ā. to be troubled in mind, be sad, meditate sorrowfully, to be disconsolate, become vexed or fretted; Māl.3]. -मनुष्यः a bad or wicked man. -मन्त्रः, -मन्त्रितम्, -मन्त्रणा evil advice, bad counsel; दुर्मन्त्रान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति; Pt.1.169. -मरम् a hard or difficult death; Mb.14.61.9. -मरी a kind of दूर्वा grass. -मरणम् violent or unnatural death. -मर्ष a. 1 unbearable; Bhāg.6.5.42. -2 obstinate, hostile. -मर्षणः N. of Viṣṇu. -मर्षित a. provocated, encouraged; एवं दुर्मर्षितो राजा स मात्रा बभ्रुवाहनः Mb.14. 79.13, -मर्याद a. immodest, wicked. -मल्लिका, -मल्ली a minor drama, comedy, farce; S. D.553. -मित्रः 1 a bad friend. -2 an enemy. -मुख a. 1 having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bh.1.9. -2 foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bh.2.69. (-खः) 1 a horse. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of a serpent king (Nm.) -4 N. of a monkey (Nm.) -5 N. of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle). -मूल्य a. highly priced, dear. -मेधस् a. silly, foolish, dull-headed, dull; Pt.1. (-m.) a dunce, dull-headed man, blockhead; ग्रन्थानधीत्य व्याकर्तु- मिति दुर्मेधसो$प्यलम् Śi.2.26. -मैत्र a. unfriendly, hostile; Bhāg.7.5.27. -यशस् n. ill-repute, dishonour. -योगः 1 bad or clumsy contrivance. -2 a bad combination. -योध, -योधन a. invincible, unconquerable. (-नः) the eldest of the 11 sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. [From his early years he conceived a deep hatred for his cousins the Pāṇḍavas, but particularly Bhīma, and made every effort he could to compass their destruction. When his father proposed to make Yudhiṣṭhira heir-apparent, Duryodhana did not like the idea, as his father was the reigning sovereign, and prevailed upon his blind father to send the Pāṇḍavas away into exile. Vāraṇāvata was fixed upon as their abode, and under pretext of constructing a palatial building for their residence, Duryodhana caused a palace to be built mostly of lac, resin and other combustible materials, thereby hoping to see them all destroyed when they should enter it. But the Paṇḍavas were forewarned and they safely escaped. They then lived at Indraprastha, and Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Rājasuya sacrifice with great pomp and splendour. This event further excited the anger and jealousy of Duryodhana, who was already vexed to find that his plot for burning them up had signally failed, and he induced his father to invite the Pāṇḍavas to Hastināpura to play with dice (of which Yudhiṣṭhira was particularly fond). In that gambling-match, Duryodhana, who was ably assisted by his maternal uncle Śakuni, won from Yudhiṣṭhira everything that he staked, till the infatuated gambler staked himself, his brothers, and Draupadī herself, all of whom shared the same fate. Yudhiṣṭhira, as a condition of the wager, was forced to go to the forest with his wife and brothers, and to remain there for twelve years and to pass one additional year incognito. But even this period, long as it was, expired, and after their return from exile both the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas made great preparations for the inevitable struggle and the great Bhāratī war commenced. It lasted for eighteen days during which all the Kauravas, with most of their allies, were slain. It was on the last day of the war that Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana and smashed his thigh with his club.] मोघं तवेदं भुवि नामधेयं दुर्योधनेतीह कृतं पुरस्तात् न हीह दुर्योधनता तवास्ति पलायमानस्य रणं विहाय Mb.4.65.17. -योनि a. of a low birth, न कथंचन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति Ms.1.59. -लक्ष्य a. difficult to be seen or perceived, hardly visible. -क्ष्यम् bad aim; मनः प्रकृत्यैव चलं दुर्लक्ष्यं च तथापि मे Ratn.3.2. -लभ a. 1 difficult to be attained, or accomplished; R.1.67;17.7; Ku.4.4;5.46,61; दुर्लभं भारते जन्म मानुष्यं तत्र दुर्लभम् Subhāṣ. -2 difficult to be found or met with, scarce, rare; शुद्धान्तदुर्लभम् Ś.1.17. -3 best, excellent, eminent. -ग्रामः a village situated close to a large village and inhabited by the free-holders (अग्र- हारोपजीविनः); Māna.1.79-8. -4 dear, beloved. -5 costly. -ललित a. 1 spoilt by fondling, fondled too much, hard to please; हा मदङ्कदुर्ललित Ve.4; V.2.8; Māl.9. -2 (hence) wayward, naughty, illbred, unruly; स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7. (-तम्) waywardness, rudeness. -लेख्यम् a forged document. Y.2.91. -वच a. 1 difficult to be described, indescribable. अपि वागधिपस्य दुर्वचं वचनं तद् विदधीत विस्मयम् Ki.2.2. -2 not to be talked about. -3 speaking improperly, abusing. (-चम्) abuse, censure, foul language. -वचस् n. abuse, censure; असह्यं दुर्वचो ज्ञातेर्मेघा- न्तरितरौद्रवत् Udb. -वर्ण a. bad-coloured. -र्णः 1 bad colour. -2 impurity; यथा हेम्नि स्थितो वह्निर्दुवर्णं हन्ति धातु- जम् Bhāg.12.3.47. (-र्णम्) 1 silver. दुर्वर्णभित्तिरिह सान्द्रसुधासुवर्णा Śi.4.28. -2 a kind of leprosy. -वस a. difficult to be resided in. -वसतिः f. painful residence; R.8.94. -वह a. heavy, difficult to be borne; दुर्वहगर्भखिन्नसीता U.2.1; Ku.1.11. -वाच् a. speaking ill. (-f.) 1 evil words, abuse. -2 inelegant language or speech. -वाच्य a. 1 difficult to be spoken or uttered. -2 abusive, scurrilous. -3 harsh, cruel (as words). (-च्यम्) 1 censure, abuse. -2 scandal, ill-repute. -वातः a fart. ˚वातय Den. P. to break wind or fart; इत्येके विहसन्त्येनमेके दुर्वातयन्ति च Bhāg.11.23.4. -वादः slander, defamation, calumny. -वार, -वारण a. irresistible, unbearable; R.14.87; किं चायमरिदुर्वारः पाणौ पाशः प्रचेतसः Ku.2.21. -वासना 1 evil propensity, wicked desire; कः शत्रुर्वद खेददानकुशलो दुर्वासनासंचयः Bv. 1.86. -2 a chimera. -वासस् a. 1 ill-dressed. -2 naked. (-m.) N. of a very irascible saint or Ṛiṣi, son of Atri and Anasūyā. (He was very hard to please, and he cursed many a male and female to suffer misery and degradation. His anger, like that of Jamadagni, has become almost proverbial.) -वाहितम् a heavy burden; उरोजपूर्णकुम्भाङ्का सदुर्वाहितविभ्रमा Rāj. T.4.18. -विगाह, -विगाह्य a. difficult to be penetrated or fathomed, unfathomable. -विचिन्त्य inconceivable, inscrutable -विद a. difficult to be known or discovered; नूनं गतिः कृतान्तस्य प्राज्ञैरपि सुदुर्विदा Mb.7.78. 2. -विदग्ध 1 unskilled, raw, foolish, stupid, silly. -2 wholly ignorant. -3 foolishly puffed up, elated. vainly proud; वृथाशस्त्रग्रहणदुर्विदग्ध Ve.3; ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति Bh.2.3. -विद्ध a. Badly perforated (a pearl); Kau. A.2.11. -विद्य a. uneducated; Rāj. T.1.354. -विध a. 1 mean, base, low. -2 wicked, vile. -3 poor, indigent; विदधाते रुचिगर्वदुर्विधम् N.2.23. -4 stupid, foolish, silly; विविनक्ति न बुद्धिदुर्विधः Śi.16.39. -विनयः misconduct, imprudence. -विनीत a. 1 (a) badly educated, ill-mannered; ill-behaved, wicked; शासितरि दुर्विनीतानाम् Ś.1.24. (b) rude, naughty, mischievous. -2 stubborn, obstinate. (-तः) 1 a restive or untrained horse. -2 a wayward person, reprobate. -विपाक a. producing bad fruit; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.46. (-कः) 1 bad result or consequence; U.1.4; किं नो विधिरिह वचने$प्यक्षमो दुर्विपाकः Mv. 6.7. -2 evil consequences of acts done either in this or in a former birth. -विभाव्य a. inconceivable; also दुर्विभाव; असद्वृत्तेरहो वृत्तं दुर्विभावं विधेरिव Ki.11.56. -विमर्श a. difficult to be tried or examined; यो दुर्विमर्शपथया निजमाययेदं सृष्ट्वा गुणान्विभजते तदनुप्रविष्टः Bhāg.1.49.29. -विलसितम् a wayward act, rudeness, naughtiness; डिम्भस्य दुर्विलसितानि मुदे गुरूणाम् B. R.4.6. -विलासः a bad or evil turn of fate; U.1. -विवाहः a censurable marriage; इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसानृतवादिनः । जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ Ms.3.41. -विष a. ill-natured, malignant. (-षः) N. of Śiva. -विषह a. unbearable, intolerable, irresistible. (-हः) N. of Śiva. -वृत्त a. 1 vile, wicked, ill-behaved. -2 roguish. (-त्तम्) misconduct, ill-behaviour. दुर्वृत्तवृत्तशमनं तव देवि शीलम् Devīmāhātmya. -वृत्तिः f. 1 misconduct. -2 misery, want, distress. -3 fraud. -वृष्टिः f. insufficient rain, drought. -वेद a. difficult to be known or ascertained. -व्यवहारः a wrong judgment in law. -व्यवहृतिः f. ill-report or rumour. -व्यसनम् 1 a fond pursuit or resolve; Mu.3. -2 bad propensity, vice; तेन दुर्व्यसनेनासीद्भोजने$पि कदर्थना Ks.73.73. -व्रत a. not conforming to rules, disobedient. -हुतम् a badly offered sacrifice. -हृद् a. wicked-hearted, ill-disposed, inimical; अकुर्वतोर्वां शुश्रूषां क्लिष्टयोर्दुर्हृदा भृशम् Bhāg.1.45.9. (-m.) an enemy. -हृदय a. evil-minded, evil-intentioned, wicked. -हृषीक a. having defective organs of sense.
draviḍaḥ द्रविडः 1 N. of a country on the east coast of the Deccan (pl.); अस्ति द्रविडेषु काञ्ची नाम नगरी Dk.13. -2 An inhabitant or native of that country; जरद्द्रविडधार्मिकस्ये- च्छया निसृष्टैः K.229. -3 N. of a degraded tribe; cf. Ms.1.22. -3 A collective name for five peoples (आन्ध्र, कर्नाटक, गुर्जर, तैलङ्ग and महाराष्ट्र); see द्राविड.
naṭaḥ नटः [नट्-अच्] 1 A dancer; न नटा न विटा न गायकाः Bh.3.27. -2 An actor; कुर्वन्नयं प्रहसनस्य नटः कृतो$सि Bh. 3.126,112; नटवद् व्यवतिष्ठते लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.42. -3 The son of a degraded Kṣatriya; Ms.1.22. -4 The Aśoka tree. -5 A kind of reed. -Comp. -अन्तिका shame, modesty. -ईश्वरः an epithet of Śiva. -चर्या the performance of an actor. -भूषणः, -मण़्डनः (yellow) orpiment. -रङ्गः 1 a theatrical stage. -2 anything illusory. -वरः 'the chief actor', the Sūtradhāra of a drama. -संज्ञकम् yellow orpiment. (-कः) an actor, dancer. -सूत्रम् directions or rules for actors. पाराशर्य- शिलालिभ्यां भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोः P.IV.3.11.
nicchiviḥ निच्छिविः N. of one of the degraded castes (sprung from outcast Kṣatriyas); see Ms.1.22.
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
nirmālya निर्माल्य a. Pure, clean, stainless. -ल्यम् 1 Purity, clearness, stainlessnes. -2 The remains of an offering to a deity, such as flowers; निर्माल्योज्झितपुष्पदामनिकरे का षट्- पदानां रतिः Ś. Til.1. -3 Flowers used and cast off, faded or withered flowers; निर्माल्यैरथ ननृते$वधीरितानां Si.8.6. -4 Remains in general; निर्माल्यं नयनश्रियः कुवलयम् B. R.1.4.
nirviṇṇa निर्विण्ण p. p. 1 Despondent, depressed; निर्विण्णः शुचमेति Mk.1.14. -2 Overcome with fear or sorrow. -3 Emaciated with grief. -4 Abused, degraded. -5 Disgusted with anything; मत्स्याशनस्य निर्विण्णः Pt.1. -6 Impaired, decayed. -7 Humble, modest. -8 Known, certain.
niṣādaḥ निषादः 1 N. of one of the wild aboriginal tribes in India, such as hunters, fishermen &c.; a mountaineer; मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समा Rām.1.2.15; R.14. 52,7; U.2.5. -2 A man of a degraded tribe in general, an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla. -3 Especially, the son of a Brāhmaṇa by a Sūdra woman. cf. ब्राह्मणाद्वैश्य- कन्यायामम्बष्ठो नाम जायते । निषादः शूद्रकन्यायां यः पारशव उच्यते ॥ Ms.1.8. -4 (In music) The first (more properly the last or seventh) note of the Hindu gamut; गीतकला- विन्यासमिव निषादानुगतम् K.31 (where it has sense 1 also). -5 N. of a Kalpa. -Comp. -वत् m. the निषाद note; Mb.12 184.39. -स्थपतिन्यायः The rule according to which when a compound expression is capable of being dissolved as a कर्मधारय or a तत्पुरुष, the former is to be preferred to the latter. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर in MS.6.1.51-52 in connection with the expression निषादस्थपति.
nyagbhāvita न्यग्भावित a. 1 Humiliated, degraded, slighted. -2 Surpassed, excelled, made inferior or secondary (अप्रधानीकृत); न्यग्भावितवाज्यव्यङ्ग्यव्यञ्जनक्षमस्य शब्दार्थयुगलस्य K. P.1.
patita पतित p. p. 1 Fallen, descended, alighted. -2 Dropped. -3 Fallen (in a moral sense), abandoned, wicked; नष्टे मृते प्रव्रजिते क्लीबे च पतिते पतौ । -4 Apostate. -5 Degraded, outcast. -6 Fallen in battle, defeated or overthrown. -7 Being in, fallen into; as in अवंशपतित. -8 Placed, kept; निक्षेपे पतिते हर्म्ये श्रेष्ठी स्तौति स्वदेवताम् Pt. I.14. -9 (with पादयोः or पाद-) Having thrown oneself at (a person's feet). -तम् Flying. -Comp. -उत्पन्न a. sprung from an outcast. -गर्भा a woman who miscarries. -मूर्धज a. one whose hair has fallen out. -वृत्त a. one leading a life of an out-cast. -सावित्रीकः a man of the first three classes whose thread-ceremony has been improperly performed, or not performed at all. -स्थित a. lying on the ground.
parābhūta पराभूत p. p. 1 Defeated, overcome. -2 Treated with contempt, degraded, dishonoured.
parijīrṇa परिजीर्ण a. 1 Worn out, faded. -2 Digested.
paribhāvita परिभावित p. p. 1 Contained, included. -2 Pervaded. -3 Penetrated. -4 Conceived.
paribhraṣṭa परिभ्रष्ट p. p. 1 Fallen or dropped off. -2 Escaped. -3 Cast down, degraded. -4 Deprived of, devoid of (with abl. or instr.); मत्स्यमांसपरिभ्रष्टे किं निरीक्षसि जम्बुके Pt.4.93. -5 Neglecting. -6 Vanished. -7 Lost.
parimṛṣṭa परिमृष्ट p. p. 1 Washed, cleaned, purified. -2 Rubbed, touched, stroked; Ve.3; कालेन भूयः परिमृष्टमुर्व्याम् Bu. Ch.3.31. -3 Embraced. -4 Spread, pervaded, filled with; उपमां ययावरुणदीधितिभिः परिमृष्टमूर्धनि तमालतरौ Ki.6.23. -5 Invested.
parimlāna परिम्लान p. p. 1 Faded, fainted, withered. -2 Languid, dull, faint. -3 Waned, impaired, diminished. -4 Soiled, stained; परिम्लानः पीनस्तनजघनसङ्गादुभयतः Ratn. 2.11. -नम् 1 Change of countenance by fear or grief. -2 A spot, stain.
parivīta परिवीत p. p. 1 Surrounded, encompassed. -2 Pervaded, overspread; उदन्वदम्भःपरिवीतमूर्तिः (पृथ्वी) Śi.3.34; Ki.5.42. -तम् The bow of Brahman.
parivṛta परिवृत p. p. 1 Surrounded, encompassed, encircled, attended. -2 Hidden, concealed. -3 Pervaded, overspread -4 Known. -5 Completely gained. -तम् Ved. An enclosed space for a sacrifice.
pāpa पाप a. [पाति रक्षत्यस्मादात्मानम्, पा-अपादाने प; Uṇ.3.23] 1 Evil, sinful, wicked, vicious; पापं कर्म च यत् परैरपि कृतं तत् तस्य संभाव्यते Mk.1.36; साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धि- र्विशिष्यते Bg.6.9. -2 Mischievous, destructive, accursed; पापेन मृत्युना गृहीतो$स्मि M.4. -3 Low, vile, abandoned; Ms.3.52; अधार्मिकाणां पापानामाशु पश्यन् विपर्ययम् 4.171. -4 Inauspicious, malignant, foreboding evil; as in पापग्रहः. -पम् 1 Evil, bad fortune or state; पापं पापाः कथयथ कथं शौर्यराशेः पितुर्मे Ve.3.6; शान्तं पापम् 'may the evil be averted', 'god forbid' (often used in dramas). -2 Sin, crime, vice, guilt; अपापानां कुले जाते मयि पापं न विद्यते Mk.9.37; Ms.11.231;4 181; R.12.19. -पम् ind. badly, sinfully, wrongly. -पः A wretch, sinful person, wicked or profligate person; पापस्तु दिग्देवतया हतौजास्तं नाभ्यभूदवितं विष्णुपत्न्या Bhāg.6.13.17. -पा 1 A beast of prey. -2 A witch. -Comp. -अङ्कुशा N. of the Ekādaśī in the light half of Āśvina. -अधम a. exceedingly wicked, vilest. -अनुबन्धः bad result or consequences. -अनुवसित a. sinful. -अपनुत्तिः f. expiation. -अहः an unlucky day. -आख्या one of the seven divisions of the planetary courses. -आचार a. following evil or sinful courses, leading a sinful life, vicious, wicked. -आत्मन् a. evil-minded, sinful, wicked; पापात्मा पापसंभवः Purāna. (-m.) a sinner. -आरम्भ a. wicked, villainous, committing murderous deeds; पापारम्भवतोर्मृगीव वृकयोर्भीरुर्गता गोचरम् Māl.5.24. -आशय, -चेतस् a. evil-intentioned, wicked-minded. -उक्त addressed in ill-omened words. -कर, -कारिन्, -कृत्, -कर्म(र्मि)न् &c. a. sinful, a sinner, villain. -क्षयः removal or destruction of sin. -गतिः ill-fated. -ग्रहः a planet of evil or malignant aspect, such as Mars, Saturn, Rāhu or Ketu. -घ्न a. destroying sin, expiating; मत्समः पातकी नास्ति पापघ्नी त्वत्समा न हि Śaṅkarāchārya. (-घ्नः) the sesamum plant. (-घ्नी) the Tulasī plant. -चर्यः 1 a sinner. -2 demon. -चेलिका, -चेली Clypea Hernandifolia (Mar. पहाडमूळ). -चैलम् an inauspicious garment. -जीव a. wicked, sinful. -दर्शन्, -दर्शिन् looking at faults, malevolent. -दृष्टि a. evileyed. -धी a. evil-minded, wicked. -नक्षत्रम् an inauspicious constellation. -नापितः a cunning or vile barber. -नाशन a. destroying or expiating sin. (-नः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. (-नम्) expiation, atonement. (-नी, -नाशिनी) 1 the wild Tulasī plant or Śamī. -2 N. of a river. -निरति a. wicked, sinful. -f. wickedness. -निष्कृतिः atonement for sin. -पतिः a paramour. -पुरुषः a villainous person. -फल a. evil, inauspicious; पापफल- नरकादिमांस्तु शुभकर्मफलस्वर्गमस्त्विति काङ्क्षते Maṅḍala Brā. Up.2.4. -बुद्धि, -भाव, -मति a. evil-minded, wicked, depraved. -भक्षणः N. of Kālabhairava. -भाज् a. sinful, a sinner; न केवलं यो महतो$पभाषते शृणोति तस्मादपि यः स पापभाक् Ku.5.83. -मित्रम् a bad counsellor or friend. -मुक्त a. freed from sin, purified. -मोचनम्, -विनाशनम् destruction of sin. -योनि a. lowborn. (-निः f.) vile birth, birth in an inferior condition. -रोगः 1 any bad disease. -2 small-pox. -लोक्य a. 1 infernal. -2 belonging to the wicked. -वशीयस् a. 1 inverted -2 confused. (-m.) inversion, confusion. -वंश a. born in a degraded family; शशाप तान् न राज्यार्हाः पापवंशा भविष्यथ Bm.1.349. -विनिग्रहः restraining wickedness. -शमन a. removing crime. -शील a. prone to evil, wicked by nature, evil minded. -संकल्प a. evil-minded, wicked. (-ल्पः) a wicked thought. -हन् a. destroying sin; यत्र श्यामो लोहिताक्षो दण्डश्चरति पापहा । प्रजास्तत्र न मुह्यन्ति नेता चेत् साधु पश्यति ॥ Ms.7.25.
piṣṭa पिष्ट p. p. [पिष-क्त] 1 Ground, powdered, crushed; यत् पिषतामपि नॄणां पिष्टो$पि तनोषि परिमलैः पुष्टिम् Bv.1.12. -2 Rubbed together, squeezed or clasped (as the hands). -3 Kneaded. -ष्टम् 1 Anything ground, a ground substance. -2 Flour, meal; पिष्टं पिनष्टि he 'grinds flour'; i. e. does a useless work or a profitless repetition. -3 Lead. -Comp. -अद a. eating flour. -उदकम् water mixed with flour; पिष्टोदकं सुतो यस्य पीत्वा क्षीरस्य तृष्णया Mb.1.131.57. -पचनम् a pan for parching flour, a boiler &c. -पशुः an effigy of a beast made with flour. -पाकभृत् m. a boiler. -पाकः a quantity of baked flour. -पाचकम् a boiler. -पिण्डः a cake or a ball of flour. -पूर see घृतपूर. -पेषः, -पेषणम् 'grinding flour' i.e. doing any useless work or vain or profitless repetition. ˚न्यायः see under न्याय. -मेहः a variety of diabetes. -वर्तिः a kind of small ball made of the flour of barley, pulse or rice. -सौरभम् (pounded) sandal wood.
pukkaśa पुक्कश a. (-शी f.), पुक्कस a. (-सी f.) Low, vile, -शः, -षः, -सः N. of a degraded mixed caste, the offspring of a Niṣāda by a Śūdra woman; जातो निषादाच्छूद्रायां जात्या भवति पुक्कसः Ms.1.18. -शी, -सी 1 A bud. -2 The Indigo plant. -3 A woman of the Pukkasa caste.
pracyuta प्रच्युत p. p. 1 Fallen off or from. -2 Strayed, deviated. -3 Dislodged, displaced, degraded; अस्माद- प्रच्युतो विप्रः प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.12.116. -4 Displaced, ejected. -5 Banished, expelled. -6 Routed, put to flight.
pratiruddha प्रतिरुद्ध p. p. 1 Impeded, obstructed, hindered. -2 Interrupted. -3 Impaired. -4 Disabled. -5 Invested, blockaded.
prabodhita प्रबोधित p. p. 1 Awakened, roused. -2 Instructed, informed, taught, acquainted with. -3 Convinced, persuaded.
pramukha प्रमुख a. 1 Facing, turning the face towards. -2 Chief, principal, foremost, first. -3 Respectable, honourable. -4 (At the end of comp.) (a) Headed by, having as chief or at the head; वासुकिप्रमुखाः Ku. 2.38. (b) Accompanied with; प्रीतिप्रमुखवचनं स्वागतं व्याजहार Me.4. -खः 1 A respectable man. -2 A heap, multitude. -3 The tree called Punnāga. -खम् 1 The mouth. -2 The beginning of a chapter or section. -3 The time being, the present. (प्रमुखतस् and प्रमुखे are used adverbially in the sense of 'in front of', 'before', 'opposite to'; भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् Bg.1.25; Ś.7.22.).
pramlāna प्रम्लान a. 1 Faded, withered away. -2 Soiled, dirty; cf. परिम्लान.
praveśya प्रवेश्य a. 1 To be entered. -2 To be penetrated or pervaded. -3 To be played (as a musical instrument).
babhru बभ्रु a. [भृ-कु द्वित्वम्; बभ्र्-उ वा Uṇ.1.21] 1 Deepbrown, tawny, reddish-brown; ज्वालाबभ्रुशिरोरुहः R.15. 16;19.25; बबन्ध बालारुणबभ्रु वल्कलम् Ku.5.8. -2 Baldheaded through disease. -भ्रुः 1 Fire. -2 An ichneumon; सखिभिर्न्यवसत् सार्धं व्याघ्राखुवृकबभ्रुभिः Mb.1.14.27. -3 The tawny colour. -4 A man with tawny hair. -5 N. of a Yādava; आलप्यालमिदं बभ्रोर्यत् स दारानपाहरत् Śi.2.1. -6 An epithet of Śiva. -7 Of Viṣṇu. -8 The Chātaka bird. -9 A sweeper, cleaner. -1 N. of a country. -n. 1 A tawny or brown colour. -2 Any object of a brown colour. -भ्रूः f. A reddish-brown cow (कपिला); अजानन्नहनद्बभ्रोः शिरः शार्दूलशङ्कया Bhāg.9.2.6. -Comp. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 red chalk (गौरिक), a kind of ochre. -वाहनः N. of a son of Arjuna by Chitrāṅgadā. [The sacrificial horse let loose by king Yudhiṣṭhira and guarded by Arjuna entered, in the course of its wanderings, the country of Maṇipura, which was then ruled by Babhruvāhana, unequalled in prowess. The horse was taken to the king; but when he read the writing on the plate on its head, he knew that it belonged to the Pāṇḍavas, and that his father Arjuna had arrived in the kingdom; and, hastening to him, respectfully offered his kingdom and his treasures along with the horse. Arjuna, in an evil hour, struck the head of Babhruvāhana and upbraided him for his cowardice saying that if he had possessed true valour and had been his true son, he should not have been afraid of his father and submitted to him so meekly. At these words the brave youth was exceedingly irritated and discharged a crescent-shaped arrow at Arjuna which severed his head from his body. He was, however, restored to life by Ulūpī who happened to be then with Chitrāṅgadā; and having acknowledged Babhruvāhana as his true son, he resumed his journey.]
baliṣṇu बलिष्णु a. Dishonoured, degraded, despised (अप- मानित).
brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण a. (-णी f.) [ब्रह्म वेदं शुद्धं चैतन्यं वा वेत्त्वधीते वा अण्] 1 Belonging to a Brāhmaṇa. -2 Befitting a Brāhmaṇa. -3 Given by a Brāhmaṇa. -4 Relating to religious worship. -5 One who knows Brahma. -णः 1 A man belonging to the first of the four original castes of the Hindus, a Brāhmaṇa (born from the mouth of the puruṣa); ब्राह्मणो$स्य मुखमासीत् Rv.1.9. 12; Ms.1.31,96; (जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारैर्द्विज उच्यते । विद्यया याति विप्रत्वं त्रिभिः श्रोत्रिय उच्यते ॥ or जात्या कुलेन वृत्तेन स्वाध्यायेन श्रुतेन च । एभिर्युक्तो हि यस्तिष्ठेन्नित्यं स द्विज उच्यते ॥). -2 A priest, theologian. -3 An epithet of Agni. -4 N. of the twentyeighth Nakṣatra. -णम् 1 An assemblage or society of Brāhmaṇas. -2 That portion of the Veda which states rules for the employment of the hymns at the various sacrifices, their origin and detailed explanation, with sometimes lengthy illustrations in the shape of legends or stories. It is distinct from the Mantra portion of the Veda. -3 N. of that class of the Vedic works which contain the Brāhmaṇa portion (regarded as Śruti or part of the revelation like the hymns themselves). Each of the four Vedas has its own Brāhmaṇa or Brāhmaṇas :-ऐतरेय or आश्व- लायन and कौषीतकी or सांख्यायन belonging to the Ṛigveda; शतपथ to the Yajurveda, पञ्चविंश and षड्विंश and six more to the Sāmaveda, and गोपथ to the Atharvaveda. -4 The Soma vessel of the Brahman priest. -Comp. -अतिक्रमः offensive or disrespectful conduct towards Brāhmaṇas, insult to Brāhmaṇas; ब्राह्मणातिक्रमत्यागो भवता- मेव भूतये Mv.2.1. -अगर्शनम् absence of Brahmanical instruction or guidance; वृषलत्वं गता लोके ब्राह्मणादर्शनेन च Ms.1.43. -अपाश्रयः seeking shelter with Brāhmaṇas. -अभ्युपपत्तिः f. protection or preservation of, or kindness shown to, a Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणाभ्युपपत्तौ च शपथे नास्ति पातकम् Ms.8.112. -आत्मक a. belonging to Brāhmaṇas. -घ्नः the slayer of a Brāhmaṇa; स्त्रीबाल- ब्राह्मणघ्नांश्च हन्याद् द्विट्सेविनस्तथा Ms.9.232. -चाण्डालः 1 a degraded or outcast Brāhmaṇa; यथा ब्राह्मणचाण्डालः पूर्व- दृष्टस्तथैव सः Ms.9.87. -2 the son of a Śūdra father by a Brāhmaṇa woman. -जातम्, -जातिः f. the Brāhmaṇa caste. -जीविका the occupation or means of livelihood prescribed for a Brāhmaṇa; अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहश्चैव षट्कर्माण्यग्रजन्मनः ॥ षण्णां तु कर्मणामस्य त्रीणि कर्माणि जीविका । याजनाध्यापने चैव विशुद्धाच्च प्रतिग्रहः ॥. -द्रव्यम्, -स्वम् a Brāhmaṇa's property. -निन्दकः a blasphemer or reviler of Brāhmaṇas. -प्रसंगः the applicability of the term Brāhmaṇa. -प्रातिवेश्यः a neighbouring Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणप्रातिवेश्यानामेतदेवानिमन्त्रणे Y.2.263. -प्रियः N. of Viṣṇu. -ब्रुवः one who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa, one who is a Brāhmaṇa only in name and neglects the duties of his caste; बहवो ब्राह्मणब्रुवा निवसन्ति Dk.; सममब्राह्मणे दानं द्विगुणं ब्राह्मणब्रुवे Ms.7.85;8.2. -भावः the rank or condition of a Brāhmaṇa. -भूयिष्ठ a. consisting for the most part of Brāhmaṇas. -यष्टिका, -यष्टी Clerodendrum Siphonantus (Mar. भारंग). -वधः the murder of a Brāhmaṇa, Brahmanicide. -वाचनम् the recitation of benedictions. -संतर्पणम् feeding or satisfying Brāhmaṇas.
bleṣkam ब्लेष्कम् A snare, net, noose. (Mar. पेज). -उपसाधकः; a cook. -कंसः a dish of food. -करः incense prepared from various fragrant resins and perfumes. -कारः a cook. -कृत्यम् preparations for a meal. -छन्दम् appetite. -जा nectar. -तूर्यम् a musical instrument played during meals. -द, -दातृ, दायक a. supporter, maintainer. -दासः a slave who agrees to serve another for maintenance, or who receives his meals as a return for his service; Ms.8.415 भक्तलोभाद्युपगतदास्यो भक्तदासः Kull. -द्वेषः dislike of food, loss of appetite. -पुलाकः a mouthful of rice kneaded into a lump or ball. -मण्डः the scum of boiled rice. -रुचिः f. appetite. -रोचन a. stimulating appetite. -वत्सल a. kind of worshippers or devotees. (-लः) N. of Viṣṇu. -शाला 1 an audience chamber (to admit petitioners and hear them). -2 a dining-hall. -साधनम् a. dish of pulse (Mar. वरण); Gīrvāṇa. -सिक्थम् = भक्तमण्ड q. v.
bhaṭaḥ भटः [भट्-अच्] 1 A warrior, soldier, combatant; दीन परिजनकृताश्रुजलो न भटीजनः स्थिरमना विचक्लमे Śi.15.93; तद्भटचातुरीतुरी N.1.12; वादित्रसृष्टिर्घटते भटस्य 22.22; Bk. 14.11. -2 A mercenary, hired soldier, hireling. -3 An outcast, a barbarian. -4 A demon. -5 N. of a degraded tribe. -6 A servant, slave. -टा Coloquintida (इंद्रवारुणी). -Comp. -पेटकम् a troop of soldiers. -बलाग्रः a hero; Buddh. (-ग्रम्) an army.
bhāraka भारक a. (At the end of comp.) Loaded with. -कः 1 A load, burden, weight. -2 A particular weight.
bhāvika भाविक a. (-की f.) [भावेन निर्वृत्तं ठक्] 1 Natural, real, inherent, innate. -2 Sentimental, pervaded by a feeling or sentiment; विभावितभाविकस्फुटरसमृशाभ्यक्ता वैतालिकै- र्जगिरे गिरः N.19.1; Śi.4.33. -3 Future. -कः An equation involving the products of unknown quantities. -कम् 1 Language full of love or passion. -2 (In Rhet.) A figure of speech which consists in describing the past or future so vividly that it appears to be actually present. It is thus defined by Mammaṭa; प्रत्यक्षा इव यद्भावाः क्रियन्ते भूतभाविनः । तद् भाविकम् K. P.1.
bhāvita भावित p. p. [भू-णिच् कर्मणि-क्त] 1 Created, produced; obtained, got. -2 Manifested, displayed, exhibited; भावितविषवेगविक्रियः Dk.; (भजे) भक्तेष्वलं भावितभूतभावनम् Bhāg. 5.17.18. -3 Cherished, fostered; तेषां दृष्ट्वा भावितानीङ्गितानि प्रोवाच राजा जनमेजयो$थ Mb.1.55.17. -4 (a) Conceived, imagined, supposed, presented to the imagination; तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः Bg.8.6. (b) Known, recognized, acknowledged. -5 Thought of, meditated upon. -6 Made to become, transformed into. -7 Sanctified by meditation; अनन्यभावे निजधर्मभाविते मनस्यवस्थाप्य भजस्व पूरुषम् Bhāg.4.8.22; see भावितात्मन्. -8 Proved, established. -9 Pervaded by, filled or saturated with, inspired by. -1 Soaked, steeped, infused in; किञ्चित् स्निग्धं यथा च स्याच्छुष्कचूर्णमभावितम् Mb.12.195.18. -11 Perfumed, scented. -12 Mixed with. -13 (In math.). Involving the products of unknown quantities. -14 Directed towards, fixed upon; यदीश्वरे भगवति कर्म ब्रह्मणि भावितम् Bhāg.1.5.32. -15 Possessed, captured (वशीकृत); ततो$न्ये यथाकामं दुदुहुः पृथुभाविताम् Bhāg.4.18.13. -16 Engrossed, filled; रथाङ्गपाणेरनुभावभावितम् Bhāg.12.1. 42. -17 Pleased, gladdened; इष्टान् भोगान् हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः Bg.3.12. -तम् Product obtained by multiplication, a factum. -Comp. -आत्मन्, -बुद्धि a. 1 one whose soul is purified by meditating on the Supreme Spirit, one who has perceived the Supreme Soul; तस्य देवप्रभावस्य तपसा भावितात्मनः Rām.3.5.4. -2 pure, devout, holy; एको भावः सदा शस्तो यतीनां भावितात्मनाम् Pt.3.65. -3 thoughtful, meditative; भावितात्मा भुवो भर्तुरथैनं प्रत्यबोधयत् R.1. 74. -4 engaged in, occupied with; स्वगोत्रसंकीर्तनभावितात्मनः Śi.12.38. (-m.) a sage, saint. -भावन a. being one's self furthered and furthering others.
madguḥ मद्गुः [मस्ज्-उ न्यक्वा˚; cf. Uṇ.1.7] 1 A kind of aquatic bird, a cormorant or driver; मांसं गृधो वपां मद्गुः (भवति) Ms.12.63. -2 A kind of snake. -3 A kind of wild animal. -4 A kind of galley or vessel of war; को$पि मद्गुरभ्यधावत् Dk. -5 N. of a degraded mixed tribe, the offspring of a Brāhmaṇa by a woman of the bard class; see Ms.1.48. -6 An outcast.
madguraḥ मद्गुरः [मद् गुक् उरच् न्यङक्वा˚; cf. Uṇ.4.41] 1 A diver, pearl-fisher. -2 A kind of sheat-fish. -3 N. of a degraded mixed tribe; see मद्गु (5).
madraka मद्रक a. Belonging to, or produced in, Madra. -कः A ruler or inhabitant of Madra. -काः (pl.) N. of a degraded tribe in the south.
manda मन्द a. [मन्द्-अच्] 1 Slow, tardy, inactive, lazy, dull, loitering; (न) भिन्दन्ति मन्दां गतिमश्वमुख्यः Ku.1.11; तच्चरितं गोविन्दे मनसिजमन्दे सखी प्राह Gīt.6. -2 Cold, indifferent, apathetic. -3 Stupid, dull-witted, foolish, ignorant, weak-brained; प्रयोजनमनुद्दिश्य न मन्दो$पि प्रवर्तते Subhāṣ.; मन्दो$प्यमन्दतामेति संसर्गेण विपश्चितः M.2.8; मन्दः कवियशःप्रार्थी गमिष्याम्युपहास्यताम् R.1.3; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75. -4 Low, deep, hollow (as sound). -5 Soft, faint, gentle; as in मन्दस्मितम्. -6 Small, little, slight; मन्दोदरी; see अ ind. 1 (d) also. -7 Weak, defective, feeble, as मन्दाग्नि. -8 Unlucky, unhappy. -9 Faded. -1 Wicked, vile. -11 Addicted to drinking. -12 Weak, slack (as a bow). -13 Sick, afflicted with disease. -14 Independent (स्वतन्त्र). -न्दः 1 The planet Saturn. -2 An epithet of Yama. -3 The dissolution of the world. -4 A kind of elephant; मन्दो$पि नाम न महानवगृह्य साध्यः Śi.5.49 (where मन्द means 'a fool' also). -5 The apsis of a planet's course. -न्दा A pot, vessel. -न्दम् ind. 1 Slowly, gradually, by degree; यातं यच्च नितम्बयो- र्गुरुतया मन्दं विलासादिव Ś.2.2. -2 Gently, softly, not violently; मन्दं मन्दं नुदति पवनश्चानुकूलो यथा त्वाम् Me.9. -3 Faintly, feebly, weakly, lightly. -4 In a low tone, deeply. -Comp. -अक्ष a. weak-eyed. (-क्षम्) sense of shame, modesty, bashfulness; मन्दाक्षं ह्रीस्त्रपा व्रीडा लज्जा सा$पत्रपा$न्यतः Ak; मन्दाक्षमन्दाक्षरमुद्रमुक्त्वा N.3.61;14.47; 22.33. -अग्नि a. having a weak digestion. (-ग्निः) slowness of digestion. -अनिलः a gentle breeze. -असु a. having weak or faint breath. -आक्रान्ता N. of a metre; see App.I; सुवशा कालिदासस्य मन्दाक्रान्ता प्रवल्गति । सदश्व- दमकस्येव काम्बोजतुरगाङ्गना ॥ According to prof. Sukumāra Sen, Kālidāsa is the inventor of this metre. -आचार a. badly conducted. -आत्मन् a. dull-witted, silly, ignorant; मन्दात्मानुजिघृक्षया Malli. -आदर a. 1 having little respect for, disregarding, caring little for. -2 neglectful. -आस्यम् shyness. -उच्चः the upper apsis of the course of a planet. -उत्साह a. discouraged, dispirited; मन्दोत्साहः कृतो$स्मि मृगयापवादिना माढव्येन Ś.2. -उदरी N. of the wife of Rāvaṇa, regarded as one of the five very chaste women; cf. अहल्या. She advised her husband to deliver Sītā to Rāma and thus save himself from certain ruin, but he did not heed her; मन्दोदरीकुटिलकोमलकेशपाशमन्दारदाममकरन्दरसं पिबन्तः P. R.1. 58. -उष्ण a. tepid, lukewarm. (-ष्णम्) gentle heat. -औत्सुक्य a. slackened in eagerness, cast down, disinclined; मन्दौत्सुक्यो$स्मि नगरगमनं प्रति Ś.1. -कर्ण a. slightly deaf; (Proverb:-बधिरान्मन्दकर्णः श्रेयान् 'something is better than nothing'). -कर्मन् a. inactive. -n. the process for determining the apsis of a planet's course. -कान्तिः the moon. -कारिन् a. acting slowly or foolishly. -गः Saturn. -गति, -गामिन् a. walking slowly, slow of pace. -चेतस् a. 1 dull-witted, silly, foolish. -2 absent-minded. -3 fainting away, scarcely conscious. -छाय a. dim, faint, lustreless; Me.82 (v. l.). -जननी the mother of Saturn. -जरस् a. slowly growing old. -धार a. flowing in a slow stream. -धी, -प्रज्ञ, -बुद्धि, -मति, -मेधस् a. dull-witted, silly, foolish. -परिधिः m. (in astr.) the epicycle of the apsis. -पुण्य a. unfortunate, ill-fated. -फलम् equation of the apsis. -भागिन्, -भाग्य, -भाज् unfortunate, ill-fated, wretched, miserable. -भास् a. dim, of fading lustre; सेनानिवेशान् पृथिवीक्षितो$पि जग्मुर्विभातग्रहमन्दभासः R.7.2. -मन्दम् ind. slowly, leisurely. -रश्मि a. dim. -विचेष्टित a. slowly moving. -विभव a. poor, impoverished; नश्यति विपुलमतेरपि बुद्धिः पुरुषस्य मन्दविभवस्य Pt.5.5. -विभ्रंश a. slightly purgative. -विसर्पिन् a. creeping along slowly (as a louse); cf. Pt.1.252 (N. of a louse). -वीर्य a. weak. -वृष्टिः f. slight rain. -स्मितम्, -हासः, -हास्यम् a gentle laugh, a smile.
mūrkha मूर्ख a. Stupid, dull-headed, foolish, silly. -र्खः 1 A fool, blockhead; न तु प्रतिनिविष्टमूर्खजनचित्तमाराधयेत् Bh.2.5,8; मूर्ख बलादपराधिनं मां प्रतिपादयिष्यसि V.2; मूर्खो$पि शोभते तावद्या- वत्किंचिन्न भाषते H. -2 A kind of bean. -Comp. -पण्डितः a learned fool; सर्वे ते हास्यतां यान्ति यथा ते मूर्खपण्डिताः Pt. 5.4. -भूयम् folly, stupidity, ignorance. -भ्रातृक a. one who has a foolish brother. -मण्डलम् an assembly of fools. -शतम् a hundred fools; वरमेको गुणी पुत्रो न च मूर्खशतान्य$पि H. मूर्खता mūrkhatā त्वम् tvam मूर्खिमन् mūrkhiman मूर्खता त्वम् मूर्खिमन् m. Stupidity, folly, silliness.
medaḥ मेदः 1 Fat. -2 A particular mixed tribe; cf. Ms. 1.36; Mb.13.22.22 (com. मेदा गोमहिष्यादीनां मृतानां मांसमश्नन्तः). -3 N. of a serpent-demon. -4 N. of a plant (अलंबुषा). -दा A root resembling ginger (one of the eight principal medicines). -Comp. -कृत् n. the flesh. -जम् a species of bdellium. -भिल्लः N. of a degraded tribe.
mliṣṭa म्लिष्ट a. 1 Spoken indistinctly (as by barbarians), indistinct; P.VII.2.18; म्लिष्टमस्फुटम् Abh. Chin.266. -2 Barbarous. -3 Withered, faded. -ष्टम् 1 An indistinct or barbarous speech. -2 A foreign language.
mlāta म्लात p. p. 1 Faded, withered. -2 Made white by tanning.
mlāna म्लान p. p. [म्लै-क्त तस्य नः] 1 Faded, withered. -2 Wearied, weary, languid. -3 Enfeebled, weak, feeble, faint. -4 Sad, dejected, melancholy. -5 Black. -6 Foul, dirty. -7 Ignominous; कः कुर्वीत शिरः प्रणाममलिनं म्लानं मनस्वी जनः Bh.1.32. -नम् Withering, fading. -Comp. -अङ्ग a. weak-bodied. (-ङ्गी) a woman during her menses. -मनस् a. depressed in mind, dispirited, disheartened. -मुख a. sad, dejected; see म्लानवक्त्र; द्राक्षा म्लानमुखी जाता शर्करा चाश्मतां गता । सुभाषितरसस्याग्रे सुधा भीता दिवं गता ॥ Subhāṣ. -वक्त्र a. having a blackened countenance. -व्रीड a. shameless.
mlāniman म्लानिमन् m. Withered or faded condition.
mlāsnu म्लास्नु a. 1 Becoming faded or withered. -2 Growing thin or emaciated. -3 Growing languid or weary.
rājan राजन् m. [राज्-कनिन् रञ्जयति रञ्ज्-कनिन् नि ˚ वा Uṇ.1.145] A king, ruler, prince, chief (changed to राजः at the end of Tat. comp.); वङ्गराजः, महाराजः &c.; तथैव सो$भूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् R.4.12; पित्रा न रञ्जितास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानु- रञ्जिताः । अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नाम राजेत्यभाषत ॥ V. P. -2 A man of the military casts; a Kṣatriya; Śi 14.14. -3 N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -4 N. of Indra. -5 The moon; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैःसह Bv.1.126. -6 Lord, master. -7 N. of Pṛithu. -8 A Yakṣa; तं राजराजानु- चरो$स्य साक्षात् Ki.3.3. -9 The Soma plant; ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिषुतो$नघः Rām.1.14.6; Bṛi. Up.1.3. 24. -Comp. -अग्निः wrath of a king. -अङ्गनम् a royal court, the court-yard of a palace. -अदनः 1 the Piyāla tree. -2 The seed of the tree Chirongia Sapida; राजादनं कन्दरालम् Śiva B.3.15. -अधिकारिन्, -अधिकृतः 1 a government officer or official. -2 a judge. -अधिराजः, -इन्द्रः a king of kings, a supreme king, paramount sovereign, an emperor. -अधिष्ठानम् the capital of a king, metropolis. -अध्वन् m. a principal or royal road, main street, highway. -अनकः 1 an inferior king, a petty prince. -2 a title of respect formerly given to distinguished scholars and poets. -अन्नम् 1 rice grown in Āndhra. -2 food obtained from a king; राजान्नं तेज आदत्ते Ms.4.218. -अपसदः an unworthy or degraded king. -अभिषेकः coronation of a king. -अम्लः a kind of vegetable plant; Rumex Vesicarius (Mar. चुका). -अर्कः Calotropis Gigantea (मन्दार; Mar. रुई). -अर्हम् 1 aloewood, a species of sandal. -2 a kind of rice (राजान्न). -अर्हणम् a royal gift of honour. -अहिः a large snake (having two mouths). -आज्ञा a king's edict, an ordinance, a royal decree. -आभरणम् a king's ornament. -आम्रः a superior kind of mango. -आवर्तः a diamond of an inferior quality. -2 a diamond from Virāṭa country. -आवलिः, -ली a royal dynasty or genealogy. -आसनम् a throne. -आसन्दी Ved. a stand on which the Soma is placed. -इन्दुः an excellent king; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12. -इष्टः a kind of onion. (-ष्टम्) = राजान्न q. v. -उपकरणम् (pl.) the paraphernalia of a king, the insignia of royalty. -उपसेवा royal service; Ms.3.64. -ऋषिः (राजऋषिः or राजर्षिः) a royal sage, a saint-like prince, a man of the Kṣatriya caste who, by his pious life and austere devotion, comes to be regarded as a sage or riṣi; e. g. पुरूरवस्, जनक, विश्वामित्र. -कन्या, -कन्यका a princess. -करः a tax or tribute paid to the king. -करणम् a law-court. -कर्णः an elephant's tusk. -कर्तृ m. a person who assists at a coronation; समेत्य राजकर्तारः सभामीयुर्द्विजातयः Rām.2.67.2. -कर्मन् n. 1 the duty of a king. -2 royal service; cf. Ms.7.125. -कला a crescent of the moon (the 16th part of the moon's disc). -कलिः a bad king; cf. अशरण्यः प्रजानां यः स राजा कलिरुच्यते Mb.12.12.29. -कार्यम्, -कृत्यम् 1 state-affairs. -2 royal command. -कुमारः a prince. -कुलम् 1 a royal family, a king's family; अग्निरापः स्त्रियो मूर्खः सर्पो राजकुलानि च H.; नदीनां शस्त्रपाणीनां नखिनां शृङ्गिणां तथा । विश्वासो नैव कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु राजकुलेषु च ॥ ibid. -2 the court of a king; आ दास्याः पुत्रि राजकुलं ल्येतत् Nāg.3.12/13. -3 a court of justice; (राजकुले कथ् or निविद् caus. means 'to sue one in a court of law, lodge a complaint against). -4 a royal palace. -5 a king, master (as a respectful mode of speaking). -6 a royal servant; बध्नन्ति घ्नन्ति लुम्पन्ति दृप्तं राजकुलानि वै Bhāg. 1.41.36. -कोशनिघण्टुः also -व्यवहारकोशः N. of a dictionary in Shivaji's time compiled by his minister Raghunātha Paṇḍita. -क्षवकः a kind of mustard. -गामिन् 1 a. escheating to the sovereign (as the property of a person having no heir). -2 brought before the king (as slander); Ms.11.55. -गिरिः N. of a mountain in Magadha. -गुरुः a royal counsellor. -गुह्यम् a royal mystery; राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् Bg.9.2. -गृहम् 1 a royal dwelling, royal palace. -2 N. of a chief city in Magadha (about 75 or 8 miles from Pāṭaliputra). -ग्रीवः a kind of fish. -घ a. sharp, hot. (-घः) a king-killer, regicide. -चिह्नम् 1 insignia of royalty, regalia. -2 the stamp on a coin. -चिह्नकम् the organ of generation (उपस्थ). -जक्ष्मन् = राजयक्ष्मन् q. v. -तरङ्गिणी N. of a celebrated historical poem treating of the kings of Kāśmīra by Kalhaṇa. -तरुः the कर्णि- कार tree, -तालः, ताली the betel-nut tree; राजतालीवनध्वनिः R. -दण्डः 1 a king's sceptre. -2 royal authority. -3 punishment inflicted by a king. -4 fine payable to a king. -दन्तः (for दन्तानां राजा) the front tooth; राजौ द्विजानामिह राजदन्ताः N.7.46; 'राजन्ते सुतनोर्मनोरमतमास्ते राज- दन्ताः पुरः' (शृङ्गारधनदशतकम् 67). -दूतः a king's ambassador, an envoy. -दृशद् f. the larger or lower millstone. -देयम्, -भागम् the royal claim, tax; न वृत्त्या परितुष्यन्ति राजदेयं हरन्ति च Mb.12.56.59. -दौवारिकः 1 = राजद्वारिकः q. v. -2 a royal messenger; Hch.4. -द्रोहः high treason, sedition, rebellion. -द्रोहिन् m. a traitor. -द्वार् f., -द्वारम् the gate of royal palace; राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः Subhāṣ. -द्वारिकः a royal porter. -धर्मः 1 a king's duty. -2 a law or rule relating to kings (oft. in pl.). -धानम्, -धानकम्, -धानिका, -धानी the king's residence, the capital, metropolis, the seat of government; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं (प्रस्थापयामास) R.2.7. -धान्यम् Panicum Frumentaceum (Mar. सांवा). -धामन् n. a royal palace. -धुर् f., -धुरा the burden or responsibility of government. -नयः, -नीतिः f. administration of a state, administration of government, politics, statesmanship. -नामन् m. Trichosanthes Dioeca (Mar. पडवळ). -नारायणः (in music) a kind of measure. -निघण्टुः N. of a dictionary of Materia Medica. -नीलम् an emerald. -पट्टः 1 a diamond of inferior quality. -2 a royal fillet. -पट्टिका f. the Chātaka bird. -पदम् royalty, sovereignty. -पथः, -पद्धतिः f. = राजमार्ग q. v. -पिण्डः the maintenance given by a king; अवश्यं राजपिण्डस्तैर्निवेश्य इति मे मतिः Mb.3.36.16. -पिण्डा a species of date. -पुंस् m. a royal servant. -पुत्रः 1 a prince. -2 a Kṣatriya, a man of the military tribe. -3 the planet Mercury. -4 N. of a mixed caste. -5 a Rajpoot. -5 A kind of mango. -पुत्रिका 1 a kind of bird. -2 Princess. -पुत्री 1 a princess. -2 a female of the Rajpoota tribe. -3 N. of several plants:-- जाती, मालती, कटुतुम्बी &c. -4 a kind of perfume (रेणुका). -5 a musk rat. -6 a kind of metal; also राजपत्नी. -पुरम् a royal city. -पुरुषः 1 a king's servant. -2 a minister. -पुष्पः the नागकेसर tree. -पूगः a kind of Areca-nut palm; Bhāg.4.6.17. -पौरुषिकः a royal servant; Mb.13.126.24. -प्रकृतिः a king's minister. -प्रसादः royal favour. -प्रेष्यः a king's servant. (-ष्यम्) royal service (more correctly राजप्रैष्य). -फणिञ्झकः an orange tree. -वदरम् salt. -बीजिन्, -वंश्य a. a scion of royalty, of royal descent. -भट्टिका a species of water-fowl. -भृतः a king's soldier. -भृत्यः 1 a royal servant or minister. -2 any public or government officer. -भोगः a king's meal, royal repast. -भोग्यम् nutmeg. -भौतः a king's fool or jester. -मणिः a royal gem. -मन्त्रधरः, -मन्त्रिन् m. a king's counsellor. -महिषी the chief queen. -मार्गः 1 a highway, high road, a royal or main road, principal street. -2 the way, method or procedure of kings. -मार्तण्डः, -मृगाङ्कः (in music) a kind of measure. -माषः a kind of bean. -मुद्रा the royal seal. -यक्ष्मः, -यक्ष्मन् m. 'consumption of the moon', pulmonary consumption, consumption in general; राजयक्ष्मपरिहानिराययौ कामयानसमवस्थया तुलाम् R.19.5; राजयक्ष्मेव रोगाणां समूहः स महीभृताम् Śi.2.96; (for explanation of the word see Malli. thereon, as well as on Śi. 13.29). -यानम् a royal vehicle, a palanouin. -युध्वन् m. 1 a king's soldier. -2 one who fights with a king; P.III.2.95. -योगः 1 a configuration of planets, asterisms &c. at the birth of a man which indicates that he is destined to be a king. -2 an easy mode of religious meditation (fit for kings to practise), as distinguished form the more rigorous one called हठयोग q. v. -रङ्गम् silver. -राक्षसः a bad king. -राज् m. 1 a supreme king. -2 the moon. -राजः 1 a supreme king, sovereign lord, an emperor. -2 N. of Kubera; अन्तर्बाष्प- श्चिरमनुचरो राजराजस्य दध्यौ Me.3. -3 the moon. -राज्यम् the state or dignity of Kubera; स्वर्लोके राजराज्येन सो$भि- षिच्येत भार्गव Mb.13.85.53. -रीतिः f. bell-metal. -लक्षणम् 1 any mark on a man's body indicating future royalty. royal insignia, regalia. -लक्ष्मन् n. royal insignia. (-m.) N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -लक्ष्मीः, -श्रीः f. the fortune or prosperity of a king (personified as a goddess), the glory or majesty of a king; स न्यस्तचिह्नामपि राजलक्ष्मीम् R.2.7. -लिङ्गम् a kingly mark. -लेखः a royal edict. -लोकः a. collection of princes or kings. -वंशः a dynasty of kings. -वंशावली genealogy of kings, royal pedigree. -वर्चसम् kingly rank or dignity. -वर्तः cloth of various colours. -वल्लभः 1 a king's favourite. -2 a kind of mango. -3 a kind of Jujube. -वसतिः 1 dwelling in a king's court. -2 a royal palace. -वाहः a horse. -वाह्यः a royal elephant. -विः the bluy jay. -विजयः (in music) a kind of Rāga. -विद्या 'royal policy', kingcraft, state-policy, statesmanship; Bg.9.2; (cf. राजनय); so -राजशास्त्रम्; वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः Rām.1. 7.12. -विहारः a royal convent. -वृक्षः the tree Cassia Fistula; गुच्छैः कृतच्छविरराजत राजवृक्षः Rām. Ch.5.9. -वृत्तम् the conduct or occupation of a king; (कच्चित्) प्रजाः पालयसे राजन् राजवृत्तेन धार्मिक Rām.1.52.7. -वृत्तिः the works of a king; प्रत्यक्षाप्रत्यक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः Kau. A.1.9. -शफरः a Hilsā fish; L. D. B. -शासनम् a royal edict; दिवा चरेयुः कार्यार्थं चिह्निता राजशासनैः Ms.1.55. -शृङ्गम् a royal umbrella with a golden handle. -शेखरः N. of a poet. -संसद् f., -सभा f. a court of justice. -सदनम् a palace. -सर्पः a kind of snake-devouring snake. -सर्षपः black mustard (the seed used as a weight; त्रसरेणवो$ष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः । ता राजसर्षपस्तिस्रस्ते त्रयो गौरसर्षपः ॥ Ms.8.133). -सायुज्यम् sovereignty. -सारसः a peacock. -सूयः, -यम् 1 a great sacrifice performed by a universal monarch (in which the tributary princes also took part) at the time of his coronation as a mark of his undisputed sovereignty; राजा वै राजसूयेनेष्ट्वा भवति Śat Br.; cf. सम्राट् also; राजा तत्र सूयते तस्माद् राजसूयः । राज्ञो वा यज्ञो राजसूयः ŚB. on MS.4.4.1. -2 a lotus. -3 a mountain. - सौधः a king's palace. -स्कन्धः a horse. -स्थानाधिकारः Viceroyalty. -स्थानीयः a viceroy, governor. -स्वम् 1 royal property; राजस्वं श्रोत्रियस्वं च न भोगेन प्रणश्यति Ms.8.149. -2 tribute, revenue. -स्वर्णः a kind of thorn-apple. -स्वामिन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -हंसः a flamingo (a sort of white goose with red legs and bill); संपत्स्यन्ते नभसि भवतो राजहंसाः सहायाः Me.11; कूजितं राजहंसानां नेदं नूपुरशिञ्जितम् V. -हत्या regicide. -हस्तिन् m. a royal elephant, i. e. a lordly and handsome elephant. -हासकः a kind of fish; L. D. B.
rāma राम a. [रम् कर्तरि घञ् ण वा] 1 Pleasing, delighting, rejoicing, -2 Beautiful, lovely, charming. -3 Obscure; dark-coloured, black. -4 White. -मः 1 N. of three celebrated personages; (a) Paraśurāma, son of Jamadagni; (b) Balarāma, son of Vasudeva and brother of Kṛiṣṇa, q.q.v.v.; (c) Rāmachandra or Sītārāma, son of Daśaratha and Kausalyā and the hero of the Rāmāyaṇa; (the word is thus derived in Purāṇas:-- राशब्दो विश्ववचनो मश्चापीश्वरवाचकः । विश्वाधीनेश्वरो यो हि तेन रामः प्रकीर्तितः ॥) cf. also राकारोच्चारमात्रेण मुखान्निर्याति पातकम् । पुनः प्रवेशशङ्कायां मकारो$स्ति कपाटवत् ॥ [When quite a boy, he with his brother was taken by Viśvāmitra, with the permission of Daśaratha, to his hermitage to protect his sacrifices from the demons that obstructed them. Rāma killed them all with perfect ease, and received from the sage several miraculous missiles as a reward. He then accompanied Viśvāmitra to the capital of Janaka where he married Sītā having performed the wonderful feat of bending Siva's bow, and then returned to Ayodhyā. Daśaratha, seeing that Rāma was growing fitter and fitter to rule the kingdom, resolved to install him as heir-apparent. But, on the eve of the day of coronation, his favourite wife Kaikeyī, at the instigation of her wicked nurse Mantharā, asked him to fulfil the two boons he had formerly promised to her, by one of which she demanded the exile of Rāma for fourteen years and by the other the installation of her own son Bharata as Yuvarāja. The king was terribly shocked, and tried his best to dissuade her from her wicked demands, but was at last obliged to yield. The dutiful son immediately prapared to go into exile accompanied by his beautiful young wife Sītā and his devoted brother Lakṣmana. The period of his exile was eventful, and the two brothers killed several powerful demons and at last roused the jealousy of Rāvaṇa himself. The wicked demon resolved to try Rāma by carrying off his beauteous wife for whom he had conceived an ardent passion, and accomplished his purpose being assisted by Mārīcha. After several fruitless inquiries as to her whereabouts, Hanumat ascertained that she was in Laṅkā and persuaded Rāma to invade the island and kill the ravisher. The monkeys built a bridge across the ocean over which Rāma with his numerous troops passed, conquered Laṅkā, and killed Rāvaṇa along with his whole host of demons. Rāma, attended by his wife and friends in battle, triumphantly returned to Ayodhyā where he was crowned king by Vasiṣṭha. He reigned long and righteously and was succeeded by his son Kuśa. Rāma is said to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu; cf. Jayadeva:-- वितरसि दिक्षु रणे दिक्पतिकमनीयं दशमुखमौलिबलिं रमणीयम् । केशव धृतरघुपति- रूप जय जगदीश हरे Gīt.1.]. -2 A kind of deer. -3 N. of Aruṇa. -4 A lover; cf. Śi.4.59. -5 A horse. -6 Pleasure, joy. -मम् 1 Darkness. -2 Leprosy (कृष्ठम्). -3 A tamāla leaf. -Comp. -अनुजः N. of a celebrated reformer, founder of a Vedāntic sect and author of several works. He was a Vaiṣṇava. -अयनम् (-णम्) 1 the adventures of Rāma. -2 N. of a celebrated epic by Vālmīki which contains about 24 verses in seven Kāṇḍas or books. -ईश्वरः N. of a sacred place of pilgrimage. -काण्डः a species of cane. -किल्बिषम् an offence against Rāma. -कृत् (in music) N. of a Rāga. -क्री N. of a Rāga. -गिरिः N. of a mountain; (चक्रे) स्निग्धच्छाया- तरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु Me.1. -चन्द्रः, -भद्रः N. of Rāma, son of Daśaratha. -जन्मन् n. the birth or birth-day of Rāma. -तापन, -तापनी, -तापनीय उपनिषद् N. of a well-known उपनिषद् (belonging to the अथर्ववेद). -दूतः 1 N. of Hanumat. -2 a monkey. (-ती) a kind of basil. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Chaitra, the anniversary of the birth of Rāma. -पूगः a kind of betel-nut tree. -लीला N. of a dramatic performance, on the story of Rāma. -वल्लभः the birch-tree. (-भम्) cinnamon. -शरः a kind of sugar cane. -सखः N. of Sugrīva. -सेतुः the bridge of Rāma', a bridge of sand between the Indian peninsula and Ceylon, now called Adam's bridge.
rāvaṇa रावण a. [रु-णिच् ल्यु] Crying, screaming, roaring, bewailing; इत्युक्त्वा परुषं वाक्यं रावणः शत्रुरावणः Rām.3.56. 26 (com. शत्रून् रावयति क्रोशयति शत्ररावणः). -णः N. of a celebrated demon, king of Laṅkā and the chief of the Rākṣhasas; स रावणो नाम निकामभीषणं बभूव रक्षः क्षतरक्षणं दिवः Śi.1.48. [He was the son of Viśravas by Keśinī or Kaikaśī and so half-brother of Kuber. He is called Paulastya as being a grandson of the sage Pulastya. Laṅkā was originally occupied by Kubera, but Rāvaṇa ousted him from it and made it his own capital. He had ten heads (and hence his names Daśagrīva, Daśa- vadana &c.) and twenty arms, and according to some, four legs (cf. R.12.88 and Malli.). He is represented to have practised the most austere penance for ten thousand years in order to propitiate the god Brahman, and to have offered one head at the end of each one thousand years. Thus he offered nine of his heads and was going to offer the tenth when the God was pleased and granted him immunity from death by either god or man. On the strength of this boon he grew very tyrannical and oppressed all beings. His power became so great that even the gods are said to have acted as his domestic servants. He conquered almost all the kings of the day, but is said to have been imprisoned by Kārtavīrya for some time when he went to attack his territory. On one occasion he tried to uplift the Kailāsa mountain, but Śiva pressed it down so as to crush his fingers under it. He, therefore, hymned Śiva for one thousand years so loudly that the God gave him the name Rāvaṇa and freed him from his painful position. But though he was so powerful and invincible, the day of retribution drew near. While Rāma who was Viṣṇu descended on earth for the destruction of this very demon was passing his years of exile in the forest, Rāvaṇa carried off his wife Sītā and urged her to become his wife but she persistently refused and remained loyal to her husband. At last Rāma assisted by his monkey-troops invaded Laṅkā, annihilated Rāvaṇa's troops and killed the demon himself. He was a worthy opponent of Rāma, and hence the expression:-- रामरावणयोर्युद्धं रामरावणयोरिव ।]. -णम् 1 The act of screaming. -2 N. of a Muhūrta. -Comp. -अरिः N. of Rāma. -गङ्गा N. of a river in Laṅkā.
rikta रिक्त p. p. [रिच्-क्त] 1 Emptied, cleared, evacuated; रिक्तः सर्वो भवति हि लघुः पूर्णता गौरवाय Me.2. -2 Empty, void; devoid or deprived of, without; रिक्तभाण्डानि यत् किंचित् पुमांसश्चापरिच्छदाः Ms.8.45. -4 Hollowed (as hands). -5 Indigent, poor; हाहेति जल्पति जने सुकृतीव रिक्तः Bhāg. 9.1.23. -6 Divided, separated. -7 Worthless, useless. -8 Unloaded; see रिच्. -क्तम् 1 An empty space, vacuum. -2 A forest, desert, wilderness. -Comp. -अर्कः a Sunday falling on one of the रिक्ता days. -पाणि, -हस्त a. empty-handed, bringing no present (of flowers &c.); रिक्तपाणिर्न पश्येत राजानं देवतां गुरुम् Subhāṣ; अहमपि देवीं प्रेक्षितुमरिक्तपाणिर्भवामि M.4. -मति a. empty-minded.
varṇaḥ वर्णः [वर्ण्-अच् Uṇ.3.1] 1 A colour, hue; अन्तः- शुद्धस्त्वमपि भविता वर्णमात्रेण कृष्णः Me.51. -2 A paint, dye, paint-colour; see वर्ण् (1). -3 Colour, complexion, beauty; विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः Ki.14.3; त्वय्यादातुं जलमवनते शार्ङ्गिणो वर्णचौरे Me.48; R.8.42. -4 Look, countenance; मध्यस्थवर्ण इव दृश्यते Madhyamavyāyoga 1; किं त्वं शङ्कितवर्ण इव Chārudatta 4; अवदातिका परशङ्कितवर्णेव दृश्यते Pratimā 1. -5 A class of men, tribe, caste (especially applied to the four principal castes, ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र); वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण Vārt; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमपकृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5. 1; R.5.19. -6 A class, race, tribe, kind, species; as in सवर्णम् अक्षरम्; ब्रह्मणा पूर्वसृष्टं हि कर्मभिर्वर्णतां गतम् Mb.12. 188.1. -7 (a) A letter, character, sound; न मे वर्ण- विचारक्षमा दृष्टिः V.5; Ki.14.3. (b) A word, syllable; S. D.9. -8 Fame, glory, celebrity, renown; राजा प्रजा- रञ्जनलब्धवर्णः R.6.21. -9 A good quality, merit, virtue; त्रिवर्णा वर्णिता$स्माभिः किं भूयः श्रोतुमिच्छसि Bhāg.11.3.16. -1 Praise; स्वगुणोच्चगिरो मुनिव्रताः परवर्णग्रहणेष्वसाधवः Śi.16. 29. -11 Dress, decoration. -12 Outward appearance, form, figure. -13 A cloak, mantle. -14 A covering, lid. -15 The order or arrangement of a subject in a song (गीतक्रम); अभिध्यायन्वर्णरतिप्रमोदानतिदीर्घे जीविते को रमेत Kaṭh.1.28; उपात्तवर्णे चरिते पिनाकिनः Ku.5.56 'celebrated in song, made the subject of a song.' -16 The housings of an elephant. -17 A quality, property; जङ्गमानामसंख्येयाः स्थावराणां च जातयः । तेषां विविधवर्णानां कुतो वर्णविनिश्चयः ॥ Mb.12.188.9. -18 A religious observance. -19 An unknown quantity. -2 The number 'one'. -21 Application of perfumed unguents to the body. -22 Gold. -23 A musical mode. -र्णा Cajanus Indicus (Mar. तूर). -र्णम् 1 Saffron. -2 A coloured unguent or perfume. -Comp. -अङ्का a pen. -अधिपः a planet presiding over a caste or class. -अनुप्रासः alliteration. -अन्तरम् 1 another caste. ˚गमनम् the passing into another caste. -2 change of sound. -अपसदः an outcast. -अपेत a. devoid of any cast, outcast, degraded; वर्णा- प्रेतमविज्ञातं ...... कर्मभिः स्वैर्विभावयेत् Ms.1.57. -अवकृष्टः a Śūdra; अपि वर्णावकृष्टस्तु नारी वा धर्मकाङ्क्षिणी Mb.12.24.34. -अर्हः a kind of bean. -अवर a. inferior in caste. -आगमः the addition of a letter; भवेद्वर्णागमाद्धंसः Sk. -आत्मन् m. a word. -आश्रमाः the (four) castes and stages of life; वर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी विचक्षणः प्रस्तुतमाचचक्षे R.5.19. ˚गुरुः N. of Śiva. ˚धर्मः the duties of caste and order. -उदकम् coloured water; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तै- स्तमायताक्ष्यः प्रणयादसिञ्चन् R.16.7. -कविः N. of a son of Kubera. -कूपिका an ink-stand. -क्रमः 1 the order of castes or colours. -2 alphabetical order or arrangement. -गत a. 1 coloured. -2 algebraical. -गुरुः a king, prince. -ग्रथणा a method (artificial) of writing verses. -चारकः a painter. -ज्येष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa. -तर्णकम्, -तर्णिका woollen cloth used as a mat. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -तूलिः, -तूलिका, -तूली f. a pencil, paint-brush. -द a. colouring. (-दम्) a kind of fragrant yellow wood. -दात्री turmeric. -दूतः a letter. -दूषक a. violating the distinctions of castes; यत्र त्वेते परिध्वंसा जायन्ते वर्णदूषकाः Ms.1.61. -धर्मः the peculiar duties of a caste. -नाथः the planetary regent of a caste. -पत्रम् a pallet. -परिचयः skill in song or music. -पातः the omission of a letter. -पात्रम् a paint-box. -पुष्पम् the flower of the globe-amaranth. -पुष्पकः the globeamaranth. -प्रकर्षः excellence of colour. -प्रसादनम् aloe-wood. -बुद्धिः the notion connected with particular letters or sounds. -भेदिनी millet. -मातृ f. a pen, pencil. -मातृका N. of Sarasvatī. -माला, -राशिः the alphabet. -रे(ले)खा, -लेखिका chalk. -वर्तिः, -वर्तिका f. 1 a paint-brush; फलकमादाय मणिसमुद्गकाद्वर्णवर्तिकामुद्धृत्य Dk.2.2. -2 a pencil. -वादिन् m. a panegyrist. -विक्रिया enmity against the castes. -विपर्ययः the substitution or change of letters; (भवेत्) सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् Sk. -विलासिनी turmeric. -विलोडकः 1 a house-breaker. -2 a plagiarist (lit. word-stealer). -वृत्तम् a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. मात्रावृत्त). -व्यव- -स्थितिः f. the institution of caste, caste-system. -शिक्षा instruction in letters. -श्रेष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa; वर्णश्रेष्ठो द्विजः पूज्यः H.4.21. -संयोगः marriage between persons of the same caste. -संसर्गः confusion of castes, marriage with members of other castes; Ms.8.172. -संहारः an assemblage of different castes. -संकरः 1 confusion of castes through intermarriage; स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्ण- संकरः Bg.1.41. -2 mixture or blending of colours; चित्रेषु वर्णसंकरः K. (where both senses are intended); Śi.14.37. -संघातः, -समाम्नायः the alphabet. -स्थानम् an organ of utterance. -हीन a. outcast.
vātula वातुल a. 1 Affected by wind-disease, gouty. -2 Mad, crazy-headed; मौनान्मूर्खः प्रवचनपटुर्वातुलो जल्पको वा H.2.26. -3 Babbler; see द्वादशपञ्जरिकास्तोत्रम् 11. -लः A whirl-wind. See वातलः.
vimlāna विम्लान a. 1 Faded, withered. -2 Unfaded, fresh, pure.
viruddha विरुद्ध p. p. 1 Hindered, checked, opposed, obstructed. -2 Blocked up, confined or shut up. -3 Besieged, blockaded. -4 Opposed to, inconsistent with, incongruous, inconsistent. -5 Contrary, opposite, opposed in quality. -6 Contradictory, proving the reverse, (as a hetu in Logic); साध्याभावव्याप्तो हेतुर्विरुद्धः Tarka K.; e. g. शब्दो नित्यः कृतकत्वात् T. S. -7 Hostile, adverse, inimical. -8 Unfavourable, unpropitious. -9 Prohibited, forbidden (as food). -1 Wrong, unfawful, improper. -11 Excluded. -12 Uncertain, doubtful. -द्धम् 1 Opposition, contrariety, hostility; स्वर्गे निवासे राजेन्द्र विरुद्धं चापि नश्यति Mb.18.1.11. -2 Discord, disagreement. -Comp. -धी a. Evil-minded, wicked. -भोजनम् Unwholesome meal. -मतिकृत् m. a fault or defect in composition; विपरीतार्थधीर्यस्मात् विरुद्धमतिकृन्मतम्. -रूपकम् a figure of speech in which an object compared to another object is not quite similar; अक्रिया चन्द्रकार्याणामन्यकार्यस्य च क्रिया । अत्र सन्दिश्यते यस्माद्विरुद्धं नाम रूपकम् ॥ Kāv.2.84.
veṣṭita वेष्टित p. p. [वेष्ट्-क्त] 1 Surrounded, enclosed, encircled, enveloped. -2 Wrapped up, dressed. -3 Stopped, blocked, impeded. -4 Blockaded, invested. -तम् 1 Encircling, surrounding. -2 One of the attitudes of dancing.
vyatikarita व्यतिकरित a. Pervaded, filled; व्यतिकरितदिगन्ताः श्वेत- मानैर्यशोभिः Māl.2.9.
vyapadiṣṭa व्यपदिष्ट p. p. 1 Named. -2 Shown, represented, signified. -3 Pleaded as a pretext or excuse.
vyavaso व्यवसो 4 P. 1 To strive, endeavour, try, seek, attempt, set about; यथा मे गौतमः प्राह ततो न व्यवसाम्यहम् Mb.3.185.9; ध्रुवं स नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया शमीलतां छेत्तुमृषि- व्यवस्यति Ś.1.18; V.4. -2 To think of, wish, desire; पातुं न प्रथमं व्यवस्यति जलं युष्मास्वपीतेषु या Ś.4.9. -3 To exert strenuously, be industrious or diligent. -4 To resolve, determine, settle, decide; य आत्मनो दृश्यगुणेषु सन्निति व्यवस्यते स्वव्यतिरेकतो$वुधः Bhāg.1.3.18; प्रथमपरि- गृहीतं स्यान्न वेत्यव्यवस्यन् Ś.5.19. -5 To accept, undertake; कच्चित् सौम्य व्यवसितमिदं बन्धुकृत्यं त्वया मे Me.116. -6 To be convinced or persuaded. -7 To reflect.
vyāpta व्याप्त p. p. 1 Spread through, penetrated, pervaded, extended over, permeated, covered. -2 Pervading, extending over all. -3 Filled with, full of. -4 Encompassed, surrounded. -5 Placed, fixed. -6 Obtained, possessed. -7 Comprehended, included. -8 Invariably accompanied (in logic); as in धूमो वह्निना व्याप्तः. -9 Famous, celebrated. -1 Expanded, stretched out.
vyāpya व्याप्य a. To be pervaded, filled, &c. -व्यम् The sign or middle term of a syllogism (= हेतु, साधन q. v.) (in logic).
śaśaḥ शशः 1 A hare, rabbit; Ms.3.27;5.18. -2 The spots on the moon (which are popularly considered to resemble the form of a hare). -3 One of the four classes into which men are divided by erotic writers; thus defined;-- मृदुवचनसुशीलः कोमलाङ्गः सुकेशः सकलगुणनिधानं सत्यवादी शशो$यम् Śabdak.; see Ratimañjarī 35 also. -4 The Lodhra tree. -5 Gum-myrrh. -6An antelope. -Comp. -अङ्कः 1 the moon; रामाभिधानमपरं जगतः शशाङ्कम् Pratimā 4.1. -2 camphor. ˚अर्धमुख a. crescent-headed (as an arrow). ˚मूर्तिः an epithet of the moon. -लेखा the digit of the moon, lunar crescent. -अदः 1 a hawk, falcon. -2 N. of a son of Ikṣvāku, father of पुरंजय. -अदनः a hawk, falcon. -ऊर्णम्, -लोमन् n. the hair of a rabbit, hair-skin. -धरः 1 the moon; उत्पातधूमलेखाक्रान्तेव कला शशधरस्य Māl.9.49; प्रसरति शशधर- बिम्बे Gīt.7. -2 camphor. ˚मौलिः an epithet of Śiva. -पदम् a hare's track (easily got over). -प्लुतकम् a scratch with a finger-nail. -भृत् m. the moon. ˚भृत् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् n. a particular measure. -लक्ष्मणः an epithet of the moon. -लाञ्छनः 1 the moon; यदि स्यात् पावकः शीतः प्रोष्णो वा शशलाञ्छनः Pt.4.51; Ku. 7.6. -2 camphor. -बि(वि)न्दु 1 the moon. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -विषाणम्, -शृङ्गम् a hare's horn; used to denote anything impossible, an utter impossibility; कदाचिदपि पर्यटञ् शशविषाणमासादयेत् Bh.2.5; शशशृङ्ग- धनुर्धरः; see खपुष्प. -स्थली the country between the Ganges and Yamunā, the Doab.
śānta शान्त p. p. [शम्-क्त] 1 Appeased, allayed, calmed, satisfied, pacified; चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतं युवा R. 12.2. -2 Cured, alleviated; शान्तरोगः. -3 Abated, subsided, put an end to, removed, extinguished; शान्त- रथक्षोभपरिश्रमम् R.1.58;5.47; शान्तार्चिषं दीपमिव प्रकाशः Ki.17.16. -4 Ceased, stopped; शान्तमृगप्रचारम् Ku.3.42. -5 Dead, deceased; तेषु सर्वेषु शान्तेषु गतेष्वविदितां गतिम् -6 Stilled, hushed. -7 Calm, quiet, undisturbed, tranquil, still; शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदम् Ś.1.16;4.19. -8 Tamed; स्वमाश्रमं शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदम् R.14.79. -9 Free from passions, at ease, contented; Bṛi. Up.4.4.23. -1 Shaded. -11 Gentle; शान्तानुकूलपवनश्च शिवश्च पन्थाः Ś.4.11; -12 Purified. -13 Meek, humble. -14 Auspicious (in augury); (the phrase शान्तं पापम् which is sometimes repeated, means 'oh no!', 'how can it be', 'God forbid such an untoward or unlucky event'; Ś.5; Mu.1). -15 Rendered ineffective, harmless (said of weapons). -न्तः 1 A man who has subdued his passions, an ascetic. -2 Tranquillity, quietism, the sentiment of quietism, the predominant feeling of which is indifference to worldly objects and pleasures; see निर्वेद and रस. -न्तम् Appeasing, pacifying. -न्तम् ind. Enough, no more, not so, for shame, hush!, god (heaven) forbid!; शान्तं कथं दुर्जनाः पौरजानपदाः U.1; तामेव शान्तमथवा किमिहोत्तरेण 3.26. -Comp. -आत्मन्, -चेतस् a. calm, tranquil-minded, sedate or composed in mind. -गुण a. deceased; नृपे शान्तगुणे जाते Rām.2.65.24. -तोय a. having still water. -रजस् a. 1 dustless. -2 passionless. -रव a. uttering auspicious sounds. -रसः the sentiment of quietism; see शान्त above. -लाभ a. that which has ceased to bear interest. -विवाद a. reconciled, appeased.
śipiḥ शिपिः A ray of light. -f. Skin, leather. -n. Water; शैत्याच्छयनयोगाच्च शिपि वारि प्रचक्षते Vyāsa. -Comp. -विष्ट a. (written शिपविष्ट or शिविपिष्ट also) 1 pervaded by rays. -2 bald, bald-headed. -3 leprous. (-ष्टः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu; नैकरूपो बृहद्रूपः शिपिविष्टः प्रकाशनः V. Sah.; पुरोडाशं निरवपन् शिपिविष्टाय विष्णवे Bhāg.4.13.35. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 a bald man. -4 a man without prepuce. -5 a leper.
śiśuḥ शिशुः [शो-कु सन्वद्भावः द्वित्वम् cf. Uṇ.1.2] 1 A child, an infant; शिशुर्वा शिष्या वा U.4.11. -2 The young of any animal (as a calf, puppy, fawn &c.); नष्टाशङ्का हरिणशिशवो मन्दमन्दं चरन्ति Ś.1.15;7.14,18. -3 A boy under eight or sixteen years of age. -4 A pupil, scholar. -5 An elephant in the sixth year; Mātaṅga L.5.8. -Comp. -कृच्छ्रम् a form of penance. -क्रन्दः, क्रन्दनम् the cry or weeping of a child. -क्रन्दीयः (i. e. ग्रन्थः) a work treating of the complaints of children; P.IV. 3.88. -गन्धा a kind of jasmine (double jasmine). -चान्द्रायणम् a lunar penance of children; चतुरः प्रातरश्नीयात् पिण्डान् विप्रः समाहितः । चतुरो$स्तमिते सूर्ये शिशुचान्द्रा- यणं स्मृतम् ॥ Ms.11.219. -नागः 1 a young elephant. -2 a young snake. -नामन् m. a camel. -पालः N. of of a king of the Chedis and son of Damaghoṣa. [According to the Viṣṇu Purāṇa this monarch was, in a previous existence, the unrighteous Hiraṇyakaśipu, king of the Asuras who was killed by Viṣṇu in the form of Narasiṁha. He was next born as the ten-headed Rāvaṇa who was killed by Rāma. Then he was born as the son of Damaghoṣa, and continued his enmity to Kṛiṣṇa, the eighth incarnation of Viṣṇu, with even greater implacability; see Śi.1. He denounced Kṛiṣṇa when they met at the Rājasūya sacrifice of Yudhiṣṭhira, but his head was cut off by Kṛiṣṇa with his discus. His death forms the subject of a celebrated poem by Māgha.] ˚हन् m. an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -प्रियः treacle. (-यम्) the white water-lily. -मारः 1 the Gangetic porpoise. -2 a collection of stars held to be a form of Viṣṇu. ˚शिरस् n. the north-east quarter; शिशुमार- शिरः प्राप्य न्यविशंस्ते स्म पार्थिवाः Mb.1.185.16. -वाहकः, -वाह्यकः a wild goat. -हत्या child-murder, infanticide.
śīrṣam शीर्षम् [शिरस्-पृषो ˚ शीर्षादेशः, शॄ-क सुक् च वा] 1 The head; शीर्षे सर्पो देशान्तरे वैद्यः Karpūr.; Mu.1.21. -2 The black variety of aloe-wood. -3 The upper part, tip, top; पञ्चशीर्षा यवाश्चापि शतशीर्षाश्च शालयः Mb.6.3.19. -4 The fore-part, front. -Comp. -अवशेषः the head only as the remainder. -आमयः any affection or disease of the head. -उदयः an epithet of the zodiacal signs, Gemini, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Aquarious, and Pisces. -घातिन् an executioner; P.III.2.51. -छेदः decapitation. -छेदिक, -छेद्य a. fit to be beheaded, deserving death by dacapitation; शीर्षच्छेद्यः स ते राम तं हत्वा जीवय द्विजम् U.2.8; R.15.51. -त्राणम्, -रक्षम् a helmet. -पट्टकः a turban. -वर्तनम् submission to punishment. -शोकः pain in the head.
śvan श्वन् m. [श्वि-कनिन् नि˚ Uṇ.1.158] (Nom. श्वा, श्वानौ, श्वानः acc. pl. शुनः; शुनी f.) A dog; श्वा यदि क्रियते राजा स किं नाश्नात्युपानहम् Subhāṣ; Bh.2.31; Ms.2.28. -Comp. -अदः = श्वपाकः q. v.; श्वादो$पि सद्यः सवनाय कल्पते Bhāg.3.33.6. -अश्वः an epithet of Bhairava. -क्रीडिन्, -वत् m. a keeper or breeder of sporting dogs; Ms.3.164;4.216. -गणः a pack of hounds. -गणिकः 1 a hunter. -2 a dog feeder. -जीविका dog's life, servitude. -दंष्ट्रा 1 a dog's tooth. -2 The गोक्षुर plant (Mar. गोखरू). -दयितम् a bone. -धूर्तः a jackal. -नरः a snappish or currish fellow. -निशम्, -निशा a night on which dogs bark; (the 14th day of the dark half of a month). -पच् m., -पचः 1 a man of a very low and degraded caste, an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla; Ms.3.92; श्वपचात्मभुवोर्निरन्तरा मम भूयात् परमात्मनि स्थितिः Bv.4.23. -2 a dog-feeder. -3 a public executioner. -पदम् 1 a dog's foot. -2 a mark like a dog's foot (to be branded on the forehead of a thief); स्तेये च श्वपदं कार्यम् Ms.9.237. -पाकः an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla; क्षत्तुर्जातस्तथोग्रायां श्वपाक इति कीर्त्यते Ms.1.19; श्वपाको जल्पाको भवति मधुपाकोपमगिरा । देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6; शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः Bg.5.18; G. L.29. -फलम् lime or citron. -फल्कः N. of the father of Akrūra. -भीरुः a jackal. -यूथ्यम् a pack of dogs. -वृत्तिः f. 1 the life of a dog (to which servitude is often likened); सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu.3.14; Ms.4.6. -2 servitude, service; सत्यानृताभ्यामपि वा न श्ववृत्त्या कदाचन (जीवेत्) Ms.4.4. -व्याघ्रः 1 a beast of prey. -2 a tiger. -3 a leopard. -हन् m. a hunter.
saṃruddha संरुद्ध p. p. 1 Checked, impeded, opposed. -2 Blocked up, filled up. -3 Blockaded, invested, besieged. -4 Covered over, concealed. -5 Refused, withheld. -6 Hindered, stopped (movement); फाल्गुनो गात्रसंरुद्धो देवदेवेन भारत Mb.3.39.62. -7 Imprisoned; मोचयामास राजन्यान् संरुद्धा मागधेन ये Bhāg.1.72.49. -Comp. -चेष्ट a. one whose motion is impeded.
saṃtapta संतप्त p. p. 1 Heated, inflamed, red-hot, glowing; संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न ज्ञायते Pt.1.25; संतप्त- चामीकरवल्गुवज्रम् Bk.3.3; चुक्रुशुर्दुःखसंतप्ता मृत्योरिव भयागमे Rām. 2.48.32. -2 Distressed, afflicted, tormented. -3 Burnt, scorched. -4 Exhausted, fatigued, wearied. -5 Dry, faded; संतप्तपद्मा पद्मिन्यो लीनमीनविहंगमाः Rām.2.59.7. -प्तम् Pain, grief, sorrow. -Comp. -अयस् n. red-hot iron; Pt.1.25. -वक्षस् a. short-breathed.
samāviṣṭa समाविष्ट p. p. 1 Entered thoroughly, completely occupied, pervaded. -2 Seized, overcome, engrossed. -3 Possessed by an evil spirit. -4 Endowed with. -5 Settled, fixed, seated. -6 Well-instructed. -7 Filled with; कौतूहलसमाविष्टाः सर्व एव समागताः Rām.7.96.6.
sahasram सहस्रम् [समानं हसति हस्-र Tv.] 1 A thousand. -2 A large number. -Comp. -अंशु, -अर्चिस्, -कर, -किरण, -दीधिति, -धामन्, -पाद, -मरीचि, -रश्मि m. the sun; तदण्डमभवद्धैमं सहस्रांशुसमप्रभम् Ms.1.9; तं चेत् सहस्रकिरणो धुरि नाकरिष्यत् Ś.7.4; पुनः सहस्रार्चिषि संनिधत्ते R.13.44; धाम्नाति- शाययति धाम सहस्रधाम्नः Mu.3.17; सहस्ररश्मेरिव यस्य दर्शनम् Śi.1.53. -अक्ष a. 1 thousand-eyed. -2 vigilant. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 of Puruṣa; सहस्र- शीर्षा पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् Rv.1.9 1. -3 of Śiva. -4 of Viṣṇu. -अरः, -रम् a kind of cavity in the top of the head, resembling a lotus reversed (said to be the seat of the soul). -आननः N. of Viṣṇu. -अधिपतिः a governor of one thousand villages. -अवरः a fine below a thousand, or from five hundred to a thousand Paṇas. -काण्डा white Dūrvā grass. -कृत्वस् ind. a thousand times. -गु a. possessing a thousand cows (epithet of the sun, also of Indra.) -गुण a. a thousand-fold. -णी a leader of thousands (epithet of Brahman); विलक्ष्य दैत्यं भगवान् सहस्रणीः Bhāg.3.18.21. -घातिन् n. a particular engine of war. -द a. liberal. (-दः) an epithet of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a kind of fish. -दृश्, -नयन, -नेत्र, -लोचन m. 1 epithets of Indra. -2 of Viṣṇu. -दोस् m. an epithet of Arjuna Kārtavīrya. -धारः the discus of Viṣṇu. (-रा) a stream of water for the ablution of an idol poured through a vessel pierced with a number of holes. -पत्रम् 1 a lotus; विलोलनेत्रभ्रमरैर्गवाक्षाः सहस्रपत्राभरणा इवासन् R.7.11. -2 the Sārasa bird. -पाद् m. 1 an epithet of Puruṣa; Rv.1.9.1. -2 of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of Brahman. -पादः 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 A kind of duck. -3 The sun; L. D. B. -बाहुः 1 an epithet of king Kārtavīrya q. v. -2 of the demon Bāṇa. -3 of Śiva (or of Viṣṇu according to some). -भक्तम् a particular festival at which thousands are treated. -भिद् m. musk. -भुजः, -मौलिः m. epithets of Viṣṇu. -भुजा f. N. of Durgā. -मूर्ति a. appearing in a thousand forms. -मूर्धन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -रुच् the sun. -रोमन् n. a blanket. -वदनः N. of Viṣṇu. -वीर्या Dūrvā grass. -वेधम् 1 sorrel -2 a kind of sour gruel. -वेधिन् m. musk. (-n.) asa-fœtida. -शिखरः an epithet of the Vindhya mountain. -शिरस्, शीर्षन्, शीर्ष a. thousandheaded (epithet of Viṣṇu); सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः Ṛv.1. 9.1; सहस्रशीर्षापि ततो गरुत्मता Bhāg.4.1.1. -श्रवणः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -हर्यश्वः the car of Indra. -हस्तः an epithet of Śiva.
sopaplava सोपप्लव a. 1 Afflicted with any great calamity. -2 Invaded or overrun by enemies. -3 Eclipsed (as the sun or moon); ब्रह्मघोषैर्विरहितः पर्वतो$यं न शोभते । रजसा तमसा चैव सोमः सोपप्लवो यथा ॥ Mb.12.328.13.
sopākaḥ सोपाकः A man of a degraded caste; चण्डालेन तु सोपाको मूलव्यसनवृत्तिमान् । पुक्कस्यां जायते पापः सदा सज्जनगर्हितः ॥ Ms.1.38.
sthūla स्थूल a. (compar. स्थवीयस् superl. स्थविष्ठ) 1 Large, great, big, bulky, huge; बहुस्पृशापि स्थूलेन स्थीयते बहिरश्मवत् Śi.2.78 (where it has sense 6 also); स्थूलहस्तावलेपान् Me.14,18; R.6.28. -2 Fat, corpulent, stout. -3 Strong, powerful; स्थूलं स्थूलं श्वसिति K. 'breathes hard'. -4 Thick, clumsy. -5 Gross, coarse, rough (fig. also) as in स्थूलमानम् q. v. -6 Foolish, doltish, silly, ignorant. -7 Stolid, dull, thick-headed. -8 Not exact. -9 (Inphil.) Material (opp. to सूक्ष्म). -लः The jack tree. -ला -1 Large cardamoms. -2 Scindaspus Officinalis (Mar. गजपिंपळी). -3 Cucumis Utilissimus (Mar. थोरकाकडी). -लम् 1 A heap, quantity. -2 A tent. -3 The summit of a mountain (कूट). -4 Sour milk, curds. -Comp. -अन्त्रम् the larger intestine near the anus. -आस्यः a snake. -इच्छ a. having immoderate desires. -उच्चयः 1 a large fragment of a crag or rock fallen from a mountain and forming an irregular mound. -2 incompleteness, deficiency, defect. -3 the middle pace of elephants; स्थूलोच्चयेनागमदन्तिकागताम् Śi.12.16. -4 an eruption of pimples on the face. -5 a hollow at the root of an elephant's tusks. -कण्टकिका the silk-cotton tree. -कण्टा the egg-plant. -कन्दः 1 a kind of esculent root. -2 red garlic. -काय a. fat, corpulent. -काष्ठाग्निः a tree-trunk or a large log of wood set on fire. -क्षेडः, -क्ष्वेडः an arrow. -चापः a large bow-like instrument used in cleaning cotton. -तालः the marshy date-tree. -त्वचा Gmelina Arborea (Mar. थोर शिवणी). -दला Aloe Perfoliata (Mar. कोरफड). -धी, -मति a. foolish, doltish. -नालः a kind of large reed. -नास, -नासिक a. thick-nosed. (-सः, -कः) a hog, boar. -नीलः a hawk, falcon. -पटः, -टम् coarse cloth. -पट्टः cotton. (-ट्टम्), -पट्टाकः coarse cloth. -पट्टः a. clubfooted, having swelled legs. (-दः) 1 an elephant. -2 a man with elephantiasis. -प्रपञ्चः the gross or material world. -फलः the silk-cotton tree. -भावः Bigness, grossness. -भूत n. pl. the five grosser elements (according to Sāṁkhya phil.). -मध्य a. thick in the middle. -मरिचम् a kind of berry (कक्कोल). -मानम् rough or inexact calculation, gross or rough computation. -मूलम् a kind of radish. -लक्ष, -क्ष्य a. 1 munificent, liberal, generous; अकत्थनो मानयिता स्थूललक्ष्यः प्रियंवदः Mb.3.45.1. -2 wise, learned. -3 inclined to recollect both benefits and injuries. -4 taking careless aim. -लक्षिता munificence, liberality. -वल्कलः the red Lodhra tree. -विषयः a gross or material object. -शङ्खा a woman having a large vulva. -शरीरम् the grosser or material and perishable body (opp. सूक्ष्म or लिङ्ग-शरीर q. v.) -शाटकः (-कम्), शाट(टि)का, -शाटिः a thick or coarse cloth. -शीर्षिका a small ant having a large head in proportion to its size. -शोफ a. greatly swollen. -षट्पदः 1 a large bee. -2 a wasp. -सूक्ष्म a. mighty and subtle (as the god). -स्कन्धः the lakucha tree. -स्थूल a. excessively thick. -हस्तः 1 an elephant's trunk; दिङ्ना- गानां पथि परिहरन् स्थूलहस्तावलेपान् Me.14. -2 a large or coarse hand.
hīna हीन p. p. [हा-क्त तस्य नः ईत्वम्] 1 Left, abandoned, forsaken &c.; यो वैश्यः स्याद् बहुपशुर्हीनक्रतुरसोमपः । कुटुम्बात् तस्य तद् द्रव्यमाहरेद्यज्ञसिद्धये ॥ Ms.11.12. -2 Destitute or deprived of, bereft of, without; (with instr. or in comp.); तया (संतत्या) हीनं विधातर्मां कथं पश्यन्न दूयसे R.1.7; गुणैर्हीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः Subhāṣ.; so द्रव्य˚, मति˚, उत्साह˚ &c.; अन्नहीनो देहद्राष्ट्रं मन्त्रहीनस्तु ऋत्विजः । दीक्षितं दक्षिणाहीनो नास्ति यज्ञसमो रिपुः Ms.11.4 (v. l.) -3 Excluded, shut out from (with abl.). -4 Decayed, wasted. -5 Deficient, defective; हीनातिरिक्तगात्रो वा तमप्यपनयेत्ततः Ms.3.242. -6 Subtracted. -7 Less, lower; हीनान्नवस्त्रवेषः स्यात् सर्वदा गुरु- संनिधौ Ms.2.194; हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते 1.31. -8 Low, base, mean, vile. -9 Defeated (in a low-suit). -1 Lost, strayed from (a caravan). -नः 1 A defective witness. -2 A faulty respondent; (Nārada enumarates five kinds:-- अन्यवादी क्रियाद्वेषी नोपस्थायी निरुत्तरः । आहूतप्रपलायी च हीनः पञ्चविधः स्मृतः ॥). -3 Substraction. -ना A female mouse; cf. दीना. -नम् Deficiency, want. -Comp. -अङ्ग a. deficient in a limb, crippled, maimed, defective; हीनाङ्गी वाधिकाङ्गी वा या भवेत् कन्यका नृणाम् । भर्तुः स्यात् सा विनाशाय स्वशीलनिधनाय च ॥ Pt.5.95; Ms.4.141; Y. 1.222. (-गी) a small ant. -कर्मन्, -क्रिय a. neglecting the customary religious rites; Ms.3.7. -कुल, -ज a. baseborn, of low family. -क्रतु a. one who neglects his sacrifice; Ms.11.12. -जाति a. 1 of a low caste. -2 excommunicated, outcaste, degraded; हीनजातिस्त्रियं मोहादुद्बहन्तो द्विजातयः । कुलान्येव नयन्त्याशु संसतानानि शूद्रताम् ॥ Ms.3.15. -पक्ष a. unprotected. -प्रतिज्ञा a. faithless. -यानम् N. of the earliest systems of Buddhist doctrine. -योनिः f. low birth or origin. -रोमन् a. bald. -वर्ण a. 1 of low caste. -2 of inferior rank. -वादः a defective statement, contradictory evidence, prevarication. -वादिन् a. 1 making a defective statement. -2 prevaricating. -3 dumb, speechless. -4 cast in law, defeated. -सख्यम् associating with low persons. -सामन्तः a deposed king; Śukra.1.189. -सन्धिः an agreement made by an inferior king. -सेवा attendance on base persons.
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anabhimlātavarṇa án-abhi-mlāta-varṇa, a. (Bv.) having an unfaded colour, ii. 35, 13.
sahasraśīrṣan sahásra-śīrṣan, a. thousand-headed, x. 34, 14.
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anapākṛṣṭa pp. not degraded.
apadravya n. bad ware; -dh&asharp;, f. hiding-place; -dhûma, a. smokeless: -tva, n. -ness; -dhyâna, n. disfavour, malice; -dhvam sá, m. degradation: -ga, m. child of a mixed marriage; -dhvasta,pp. degraded.
ākrānta pp. (√ kram) beset, over spread; in the power of, dominated by, per vaded with (--°ree;).
āpīḍa m. pressure; chaplet worn on the crown of the head; -ita, pp. loaded with; adorned with a chaplet of (--°ree;).
āśu a. swift: n. quickly, at once; m. horse; -kârin, a. operating quickly; -klânta, pp. quickly faded; -gá, a. moving swiftly; m. arrow; -gamana, n. rapid course; -tva, n. quickness; -mát, ad. quickly.
kūṭākṣa m. loaded die: -½upadhi-devin, a. playing with false dice or fraud; -½âgâra, m. n. room on the house-top; sum mer-house.
khalvāṭa a. bald-headed.
triśaṅku m. N. of an ancient sage and of a king of Ayodhyâ, raised to the stars as the Southern Cross: -tilaka, a. adorned with the Southern Cross: â dis, f.=the South; -satá, a. 103; 300; 300th; consisting of 300; n. 300; -sâkha, a. having three branches; -sikha, a. three-crested, three-pronged, shap ed like a trident; n. trident; -sikhara, a. three-peaked; -siras, a. three-headed; three-peaked; m. N. of aRishi with the patrony mic Tvâshtra, reputed author of RV. X, viii; N. of a Râkshasa slain by Râma; -sîrsha, -sîr shán, a. three-headed; -sûla, n. trident; a. wielding the trident (Siva).
daśamāsya a. ten months old; -mukha, m. (ten-faced), Râvana: -ripu, m. Râvana's foe, ep. of Râma; -yoganî, f. dis tance of ten yoganas; -ratha, m. N. of several kings, esp. of Râma's father, sovereign of Ayodhyâ; -rasmi-sata, m. (thousand-rayed), sun; -râtra, m. n. period of ten days: á, a. lasting ten days; m. festival of ten days; -a½ri- ka, having ten verses; -rûpa, n. sg. the ten kinds of dramas; T. of a treatise on rhetoric by Dhanamgaya (tenth century): -ka, n. id.; -lakshana-ka, a. having ten characteristics, tenfold; -varsha, -varshîya, a. ten years old; -vârshika, a. (î) id.; lasting ten years; occur ring after ten years; -vidha, a. tenfold; -satá, n. 110; 1000: î, f. 1000; -sata-kara-dhârin, a. having a thousand rays (moon); -sata½ak- sha, a. thousand-eyed (Indra); -siras, a. ten-headed; -sîrsha, a. id.; m. Râvana; -sâhas ra, a. consisting of ten thousand; n. ten thousand.
dīrghakarṇa m. Long-ear, N. of a cat; -kâlam, ac. ad. for a long time; -ga&ndot; gha, m. Long-shanks, N. of a Yaksha; -gîvin, a. long-lived; -tapas, m. N. of a Rishi; (á) tamas, m. N. of a sage; -tâ,f. length; -tva, n. id.; -tîkshna-mukha, a. (î) having a long and pointed mouth; -darsi-tâ, f. far-sightedness, providence; -darsin, a. far-seeing; -nidrâ, f. long sleep; sleep of death; -bâhu, a. long-armed; -mukha, a. (î) long-mouthed, long-beaked; -râva, m. Long-yell, N. of a jackal; -rosha, a. whose wrath lasts long, bearing a lingering grudge: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -roshana, a. id.; -lokana, a. long-eyed; -sri&ndot;ga, a. long-horned; -srút, afar; far-famed; -sattrá, n. Soma sacrifice of long duration; a. engaged in a --; -sattrín, a. id.; -samdhya, a. praying long at the Samdhyâs: -tva, n. long continuance of prayer at the Samdhyâs; -sûtra, a. (long-threaded), dila tory, procrastinating: -tâ, f. dilatoriness, pro crastination; -sûtrin, a. id.
durvaca a. ill-spoken, abusive (word); hard to answer; -vakana, n. pl. hard words, abuse (Pr.); -vakas, n. id.; stupid words; a. abusive; hard to answer; -vanig, m. rogue of a merchant; -varna, m. bad colour; im purity; (-várna), a. having a bad colour or complexion; of low caste; n. silver; -vala, a. having a skin disease; -vasa, a. (n. it is) hard to dwell; hard to pass (time); -vasati, f. painful residence; a. hard to bear; -execute or accomplish; -vâk, f. abuse; a. abu sive; -vâkya, a. difficult to utter, harsh (words); n. abuse; ill-tidings; -vâda, m. blame, reproach; -vânta, pp. that has not fully vomited the blood it has sucked (leech); -vâra,a. hard to restrain or check; irresist ible; -vârana, a. id.; -vârttâ, f. ill-tidings; -vârya, fp. hard to restrain or check, irre sistible: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -vâla, a. bald-headed or red-haired or afflicted with skin disease; -vâsanâ, f.false notion; -v&asharp;sas, a. ill-clad; m. N. of an irascible Brâhman; -vâhita, n. heavy burden; -vikatthana, a. disagreeably boastful; -vikalpa, m. unjustifiable irresolution; -vigâha, a. hard to fathom or penetrate; profound; serious, critical; -vigâhya, fp. id.; -vikâra, m. ill-timed hesitation; a. very irresolute; -vigñâna, n. difficult ascer tainment; a. (á) hard to comprehend; -vi- gñeya, fp. hard to distinguish; -vidagdha, pp. perverse;-vidya, a. uneducated; -vidha, a. mean, base; -vidhi, m. evil destiny; -vi naya, m. imprudent behaviour; -vinîta, pp. ill-bred, ill-behaved: -ka, a. id.; -vipâka, m. ill-ripening, evil issue; a. having evil conse quences; -vibhâva, a. hard to comprehend; -vibhâvana, a. hard to perceive; -vibhâvya, fp. id.; indistinctly visible; hard to compre hend; -vilasita, n. wicked trick; -vivâha, m. blamable marriage; -vivekana, a. hard to judge rightly; -vishaha, a. hard to en dure or overcome; irresistible; hard to per form or accomplish; -vritta, n. bad or base conduct, baseness; a. ill-conducted, wicked; poor; m. wicked man; -vritti, f. distress, misery; baseness; -vyavasita, n. evil intent; -vyavasthâpa-ka, a. pronouncing a bad or unfavourable decision; -vyavahâra, m. bad decision of a suit; -vyavahriti, f. evil rumour; -vyasana, n. evil passion, vice; -vyâhrita, pp. ill-spoken; n. unsuitable utterance.
dviśata a. (î) consisting of 200; 200th; n. 200 or 102; -sapha, a. cloven-hoofed; m. animal with cloven hoofs; -sas, ad. by twos; -siras, a. two-headed; -sri&ndot;ga, a. having two horns or peaks.
dvipravrājinī a. f. running after two men, unchaste; -bâhu, a. two-armed; m. man; -bhâga, m. half; -bhâdra, a. having two months of Bhâdra; -bhuga, a. two-armed; -mâtra, a. twice as great; con taining two morae; -mukha, a. (î) two-mouthed; -mûrdhan, a. two-headed; -rada, a. having two tusks; m. elephant; -râtrá, a. lasting two days; m. feast lasting two days.
nirukta pp. √ vak; n. explanation; etymological interpretation; esp. T. of Yâs ka's commentary on the Nighantus; -ukti, f. etymological explanation; -uñkhana, n. = nî-râgana; -uttara, a.having no superior; unable to give an answer; -utsava, a. devoid of festivals; -utsâha, a. destitute of energy, unenterprising, spiritless: -tâ, f. cowardice; -utsuka, a. unconcerned; having no desire for (prati); -utseka, m.modesty; a. unpre tentious, modest; -udara, a. trunkless; -ud desam, ad. without making any statement; -udyama, a. avoiding exertion, indolent; -udyoga, a. id.; -udvigna, pp. untroubled, unagitated: -manas, a. havingone's mind undisturbed; -udvega, a. free from agitation, calm; -unmâda, a. free from arrogance; -upakârin, a. unable to render a service; -upakriya, a. rendering no service; -upa-drava, a. unassailed by mischances orcalami ties, prosperous, faring well; free from danger, safe: -tâ, f. security; -upadhi, a. free from guile, honest; blameless; -upapatti, a. un suitable; -upapada, a. unaccompanied by a secondary word; -upaplava, a.undisturbed, uninterrupted; -upabhoga, a. not enjoying; -upama, a. having no equal; -upayoga, a. useless; -upâkhya, a. indescribable: -tva, n. abst. n.; -upâya, a. futile; -ushna-tâ, f. coldness: -m nî, make cold, kill; -ushnîsha, a. turbanless, bareheaded.
niṣāda m. N. of aboriginal Indian tribes described as fishermen, hunters, and robbers; considered a degraded caste, off- spring of Brâhmans and Sûdra women; a note in the musical scale; î, f.Nishâda woman.
pañcamaya a. (î) consisting of five (elements); -mâshaka (or ika), a. consisting of or amounting to five mâshas; -mâsya, a. needing five months for its development (seed); -mukha, a. five-faced; having five points (arrow); -mûla, m. N. of an attendant on Durgâ; -yâma, a. having five courses; -yoganî, f. distance of five yoganas; -râtra, n. period of five days; a. (á) lasting five days; n. general designation of the sacred book of Vishnuite sects: -ka, a. lasting five days; -lakshana, a. having five characteristics; -lambaka, m. T. of the 14th Lambaka in the Kathâsaritsâgara; -vata, m. N.; N. of a locality: î, f. id.; -varga, m. group orseries of five; -varna, a. five-coloured; of five kinds; -varsha: -ka, -varshîya, a. five years old; -vârshika, a. recurring every five years; -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-fifth; consisting of or containing twenty-five; -vimsati, f.twenty-five: -tama, a. twenty-fifth; -vidha, a. fivefold; -vrit, ad. five times; -sata, n. pl. five hundred; consisting of five hundred panas (fine); paying a fine of five hundred (panas); five-hundredth: e kâle, in the 500th year; n. 105; 500; î, f. 500; -sara, m. (five-arrowed), Kâma; -sikha, a. wearing five top-knots (ascetic); m. N. of an attendant of Siva; -sîrsha, a. five-headed.
pallavāpīḍita pp. loaded with sprouts.
puruṣaka n. vertical position, rearing (in horses); -kâra, m. human effort (opp. fate); manly act, heroism; haughtiness, pride: e-na hîna, destitute of human effort to save it (animal); -ghâ, a. f.having killed her husband; -kkhandása, n. metre appro priate to man (the dvipadâ); -gñâna, n. know ledge of men; -tantra, a. dependent on the subject, subjective; (á)-tâ, f. manhood: in. (id.) after the manner of men; -tr&asharp;, ad. among people; -tva, n. manhood; -datta, m. N.; -dravya-sampad, f. abundance of men and material; -pasu, m. man as a sacrificial victim; beast of a man; -mân-in, a. think ing himself a hero: (-i)-tva, n. abst. n.; -me dhá, m. human sacrifice; -½rishabha, m. bull among men, eminent man; -rûpa, n. human form: -ka, a. having a human form; -vyâ ghrá, m. man-tiger; tiger among men, pre eminent man; -sârdûla, m. tiger of men, chief of men; -sîrshaka, n. (?) (man-headed), kind of burglar's implement; -simha, m. lion among men, pre-eminent man; -sûkta, n. the Purusha-hymn (RV. X, 90) describing the primaeval soul.
pṛthuvakṣas a. broad-chested; -vyamsa, a. broad-shouldered; (ú)-siras, a. broador flat-headed; -srávas, a. far-famed; m. N.; -srî, a. of great prosperity, extremely fortunate; -sron&ibrevcirc;,a. f. broad-hipped; -sam pad, a. extremely wealthy.
pracyavana n. withdrawal, departure; loss of (ab.); -kyuta, pp. (√ kyu) fallen, degraded, banished, etc.; -kyuti, f. departure, withdrawal; loss of (ab.); abandonment of (--°ree;):sâmya½avasthânât--, loss of equilibrium.
pratyākalita (pp.) n. counter investigation: judicial consideration as to which of the litigants is to prove his case, after the defendant has pleaded; -kshepaka, a. mocking, deriding; -khyâta,pp. rejected, refused: -tva, n. rejection; -khyâtavya, fp. to be impugned or denied; -khyâtri, m. re fuser; -khyâna, n. rebuff, rejection; refusal; combating (feelings, etc.); impugnment, de nial, disavowal; -khyâyin, a.rejecting (--°ree;); -khyeya, fp. to be repelled or rejected; curable (disease); -gati, f., -gama, m. return; -gamana, n. coming back, return, to (--°ree;); -ghâta, m. repulse; -kakshâna-ka, a. in tending to dispute anything (ac.); -kâra, m. corresponding conduct.
phalita pp. √ phal; -itavya, fp. n. fruit should be borne by (in.); -ín, a. bearing or yielding fruit, fruitful; reaping advan tage (V.); iron-headed (arrow); m. fruit-tree: -î, f. a. plant.
bhārasaha a. bearing a heavy bur den, equal to great tasks; -sâdhana, a. ac complishing great things, very efficacious (weapons); -sâdhin, a. id.; -hârin, a. bear ing a heavy burden (Krishna); -½âkrânta, pp. overloaded (ship).
bhāvita cs. pp. (√ bhû) produced, manifested; cherished; good-humoured; elated, conscious of one's power; pervaded or inspired by, engrossed with (in. or --°ree;); directed towards (lc.); perfumed: -bhâvana, a. furthered and furthering; -buddhi, a. having purified or moulded one's intellect.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
mūrkha a. [√ mûrkh] dull, stupid, foolish; inexperienced in (lc.); m. fool, block head: -tâ, f., -tva, n. dullness, stupidity, folly; -vyasani-nâyaka, a. headed by a silly and vicious leader; -sata, n. pl.hundreds of fools.
mlāniman m. fading, decay, fadedness.
mlāna pp. faded etc.; n. fadedness, lack of brightness: -tâ, f. withered or faded condition; languor; -srag, a. having a faded garland.
rāvaṇa a. causing to wail (g., --°ree;); m. N. of a ten-headed demon, chief of the Râkshasas, king of La&ndot;kâ, younger brother of Kubera, vanquished by Râma; N. of a king of Cashmere: i, m. pat. of Indragit and Simhanâda: pl. the sons of Râvana.
riktaka a. empty; unloaded (man); -tâ, f. emptiness; -pâni, a. empty-handed, bringing no present; -hasta, a. id.; having received no present.
vimaliman m. pureness, clear ness; -mastak-ita, den. pp. beheaded.
vyatikara m. [√ krî] mixture, blending, intermingling, contact, confluence, union; engaging in, undertaking (--°ree;); acci dent, misfortune, calamity: --°ree; a. combined or united with: -vat,a. mixed, of different kinds; -karita, den. pp. mixed with, per vaded by (in., --°ree;); -krama, m. passing by, deviating, swerving, or escaping from (g.); violation, infringement, neglect, or non performance of (g. or --°ree;); offence, transgression, against (g., --°ree;); inverted order (rare); -kramana, n. transgression against any one (--°ree;); -kramin, a. transgressing against any one (--°ree;); -krânta, pp. √ kram; n.transgression, offence; -krânti, f. transgression against (--°ree;); -rikta-tâ, f. difference; -reka, m. separateness; exclusion, exception; nega tive; contradistinction or opposition to; con trast, antithesis (rh.): in., ab., --°ree;, to the exclusion of, excepting, without (--°ree;); -rekin, a. excluding, negativing (--°ree;); -rekana, n. con trasting (in a comparison); -la&ndot;gin, a. slipping off; -sha&ndot;ga, m. reciprocal connexion, relation; entanglement; conflict (of armies); interchange (rare); -sha&ndot;gin, a. attached or clinging to (--°ree;); -hâra, m. interchange; alternation, reciprocity.
vyāpana n. pervading, filling; -½âpa nîya, fp. to be pervaded or filled.
vyāpta pp. (√ âp) pervaded etc.: -deha, a. extending over the whole body; (í)½âpti, f. obtainment, accomplishment (V.); perva sion, permeation; invariable concomitance (in logic); universality; universal rule: -ka, --°ree; a. id., -mat, a. extending; all-pervading, universal; -½âpya, fp. that in which any thing is contained or inherent (e. g. smoke, in which fire inheres): -tva, n. inherence in (--°ree;).
śaṅkitavya fp. to be distrusted; -dreaded; -doubted; n. imps. one should distrust (lc.); -in, a. afraid of, dreading (--°ree;; ord. mg.); timid or distrustful as (a crow, --°ree;); supposing, assuming, anticipating; full of apprehension (service).
śīrṣa n. (--°ree; a. f. â, î) head; tip, top (also of a letter): (a)-ka, n. head; fine agreed to by the prosecutor when worsted in an ordeal; -kapâlá, n. skull (V.); -ka-stha, a. agreeing to a fine when worsted in an or deal; -kkheda, m. decapitation; -kkhedya, a. deserving to be beheaded, by (g.).
saptaka a. consisting of seven; n. (aggregate of) seven; -kathâ-maya, a. (î) consisting of seven stories; (á)-guna, a. sevenfold; -kkhada, m. (seven-leaved) N. of a tree (Alstonia scholaris); -gihva,; m. fire, god of fire; (á)-tantu, a. seven-threaded, consisting of seven courses (sacrifice; V., C.); m. sacrifice (C.).
samānakartṛka a. having the same subject (gr.); -karma-ka, a. having the same object; -karman, a. expressing the same action; -kâraka, a. making all things equal (time); -kâla, a.simultaneous; of equal length or quantity (vowel); -grâma, m. same village: î-ya, a. belonging to the same village; (á)-ganman, a. having the same origin (Br.); of equal age (C.); (á)-tas, ad. uniformly (RV.1); (á)-tâ, f.equality, with (g., --°ree;); -tva, n. equality, with (in.); -dharman, a. having the same qualities, similar, to (in.); -prasiddhi, a. having equal success; (á) bandhu, a. (f. id.) having the same kin, akin; -bala, a. of equal strength; -mâna, a. equally honoured with (in.); -mûrdhan, a. (nî) equal-headed; -rukí, a. agreeing in tastes; -rûpa, a. having the same colour, as (g., --°ree;); having the same appearance as (--°ree;); -vayas: -ka, a. of the same age; -vidya, a. possessing equal knowledge: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -vrata-bhrit, a. leading a similar life; -sîla, a. having a similar character; -sukha-duh kha, a. having joys and sorrows in common; -sthâna, a. being in the same place; occu pying the same position (in the mouth); -½akshara, n. simple vowel (short or long); -½adhikarana, n. grammatical agreement with (a case, --°ree;); a. involving the same case relation as (in., --°ree;); relating to the same subject; -½artha, a. having the same object in view; having the same meaning, as (in., --°ree;): -tva, n. identity of meaning, -prayog ana, a. having a common object and purpose.
sahasra m. (rare), n. thousand (also used to express a large number or great wealth); sp. a thousand cows, -Panas: con strued with an app. (sg. or pl.), g., sg. or pl., --°ree; (rarely °ree;--); in an a. cpd. it is always --°ree;: -ka, 1. n. thousand: --°ree; a. (ikâ) having or amounting to a thousand; 2. thousand-headed; -kara, m. (thousand-rayed), sun: -pan-netra, a. having a thousand hands, feet, and eyes; -kalâ, f. N.; -kirana, m. (thousand-rayed), sun; -kritvas, ad. a thou sand times; (sahásra)-ketu, a. having a thousand forms (RV.1); -gu, a. possessing a thousand cows; thousand-rayed; m. sun; -guna, a. thousandfold: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -gunita, pp. multiplied a thousand times; -kakshu, a. thousand-eyed (AV.); -git, a. con quering or winning a thousand (RV.); (-hás ra)-nîtha, a. having a thousand expedients or shifts (V.); m. N. (C.); -tama, spv. (î) thou sandth; -taya, n. a thousand; -da, a. giving a thousand (cows); (sahásra)-dakshina, a. attended with a fee of a thousand (kine; V.); -dîdhiti, m. sun; (á)-dvâr, a. thousand-doored (RV.1); -dhâ, ad. a thousand-fold; in a thousand ways or parts; -dhî, a. thousand-witted; m. N. of a fish; -nayana, a. thousand-eyed; m. ep. of Indra; -netra, a., m. id.; -pati, m. chief of a thousand (vil lages); -pattra, n. (having a thousand petals), lotus; -pûrana, a. thousandth; receiving a thousand; -poshá, m. thousandfold welfare (V.); a. thriving a thousandfold (S.); -buddhi, a. thousand-witted; m. N. of a fish; -bhakta, n. a certain festival at which thousands are fed; -bhânu, a. thousand-rayed; -bhrishti, a. thousand-pointed (V.); -ma&ndot;gala, N. of a locality; -mukha, a. having a thousand exits; -rasmi, a. thousand-rayed; m. sun; -li&ndot;gî, f. a thousand Li&ndot;gas; -lokana,a. thousand-eyed; m. ep. of Indra; -vartman, a. thousand-pathed; -vâka, a. containing a thousand verses or words; -satá-dakshina, a. attended with a fee of a hundred thousand (cows); -sás, ad. by thousands (referring to a nm., ac., in.); -sîrsha, a. thousand-headed: â, f. a certain verse (according to comm. the hymn RV. X, 90); (hásra)-sri&ndot;ga, a. thou sand-horned (RV.); -saní, a. gaining a thou sand (V.); -sâ, a. id.; -sâvá, m.thousand-fold Soma-pressing.
sopāka m. a degraded caste (off- spring of a Kândâla and of a Pulkasî).
sthūla a. thick, bulky, big, large, stout, massive; coarse, gross (also fig., e. g. crime); dull, stupid; material, tangible (phil.; opp. sûkshma); n. gross or material body: -kesa, m. N. of a Rishi; -tâ, f.largeness, fulness, bulkiness; clumsiness; stupidity; -tva, n. grossness (phil.); -datta, m. N.; -nâsika, m. (large-snouted), boar; -pra pañka, m. gross material world; -bâhu, m. N.; -buddhi, a. dull-witted; -bhuga, m. N. of a fairy; -bhûta, n. gross element; -mati, a. dull-witted; -madhya, a. thick in the middle; -roma, a. thick-haired; -laksha, a. liberal, munificent; shooting at a large tar get: -tva, n. abst. n.; -lakshi-tâ, f. liber ality; -lakshya, a.=-laksha: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -vishaya, m. gross material ob ject; -sarîra, n. gross material body; -siras, a. thick-headed; m. N. of a Rishi, a Râk shasa, and a Yaksha; -sûkshma, a. large and small: -prapañka, m. the gross and the subtle world, -sarîra, n. gross and subtle body; -hasta, m. elephant's trunk.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
12 results
iṣu Is the usual name for ‘arrow’ from the Rigveda onwards. Other names are Sarya, Sārī, and Bāna. In the hymn of the Rigveda, which gives a catalogue of armour, two kinds of arrows are distinctly referred to : the one is poisoned (ālāktā), and has a head of horn (ruru-śīrsnī); the other is copper-, bronze-, or iron-headed (ayo-mukham). Poisoned (1digdhā) arrows are also referred to in the Atharvaveda. The arrows were feathered. The parts of an arrow are enumerated in the Atharvaveda as the shaft (śalya), the feather-socket (parna-dhi), the point (śrñga), the neck of the point in which the shaft is fixed (kulmala), and the Apaskambha and Apāstha, which are of more doubtful significance. In the Aitareya Brāhmana6 the parts of an arrow are given as the point (anīka), the śalya, tejana, and the feathers (parnani), where śalya and tejana must apparently mean the upper and lower parts of the shaft, since it is reasonable to suppose that the arrow is described as a whole consecutively. So in the Atharvaveda the arrow of Kāma is described as having feathers, a shaft (śalya), and a firm fastening (kulmala). The arrow was shot from the ear, and so is described in the Rigveda as ‘ having the ear for its place of birth.
karambha Is the name, from the Rigveda onwards, of a kind of porridge made of grain (Yava), which was unhusked, parched slightly, and kneaded. It was the especial sacrificial portion of Pūsan, no doubt in his capacity of an agricultural deity. Karambha was also made of barley (Upavāka) or of sesame (Tirya).
kirāta Is a name applied to a people living in the caves of the mountains, as appears clearly from the dedication of the Kirāta to the caves (guhā) in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and from the reference in the Atharvaveda to a Kirāta girl (kairā- tikā), who digs a remedy on the ridges of the mountains. Later the people called Kirātas were located in Eastern Nepal, but the name seems to have been applied to any hill folk, no doubt aborigines, though the Mānava Dharma Sāstra regards them as degraded Ksatriyas.
kṛṣṭi Denotes ‘ people ’ in general from the Rigveda onwards. Its common and regular use in this sense appears to show that the Aryans, when they invaded India, were already agricul­turists, though the employment of the words referring to ploughing mentioned under Krsi indicates that not all of the people devoted themselves equally to that occupation. Indra and Agni are par excellence the lords of men (Krsti). Some­times the word is further defined by the addition of an adjective meaning c belonging to mankind,’ * of men ’ (mānuslh, mānavlh), Special mention is frequently made of the ‘five peoples’ (pañca krstayak). The exact sense of this expression is doubtful. See Panca Janāsah.
caṇḍāla Are the variant forms of the name of a despised caste, which in origin was probably a tribal body, but which in the Brahminical theory was the offspring of Sūdra fathers and Brahmin mothers. The references to the caste in the Yajurveda Samhitās and in the Upanisads show clearly that it was a degraded one, but they yield no particulars.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nīlaśīrṣṇī ‘Black-headed,’ is the name of an unknown animal in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha, or ‘horse sacrifice,’ in the Taittirīya Samhitā.
ruru Is one of the victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda. A kind of deer is meant. The Rigveda mentions ‘deer-headed’ (ruru-śīrsan) arrows, meaning such as have points made of deer’s horn.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vyādhi Disease,' occurs several times in Vedic literature. The specific diseases are dealt with under the separate names, but the Vedic texts also mention innumerable bodily defects. The list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) includes a ‘dwarf’ (vāmana, kubja), a ‘bald ’ person (khalati), a ‘blind’ man (andha), a ‘deaf’ man (badhira),δ a ‘dumb’ man (;mūka),θ a ‘fat’ man (plvan), a ‘leper’ (sidhmala, kilāsa), a ‘yellow-eyed’ man (hary-aksa), a ‘tawny-eyed’ man [ping- āksa), a ‘cripple’ (pitha-sarpin), a ‘lame’ man (srāma), a ‘sleepless’ man (jāgarana), a ‘sleepy’ man (svapana), one ‘too tall’ (ati-dīrgha), one ‘too short’ (ati-hrasva), one ‘too stout’ (ati-sthūla or aty-aηisala), one ‘too thin’ (ati-krśa), one ‘too white’ (ati-śukla), one ‘too dark’ (ati-kγṣna), one ‘too bald’ (ati-kulva), and one 'too hairy' (ati-lomaśa). In the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā the man with bad nails and the man with brown teeth are mentioned along with sinners like the Didhiçūpati. The śatapatha Brāhmana mentions a white-spotted (śtikla), bald-headed man, with projecting teeth (yiklidha) and reddish-brown eyes.’ Interesting is Zimmer’s suggestion that kirmira found in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā means ‘spotty’ as an intermixture of races, but it is only a conjecture, apparently based on a supposed connexion of the word with kr, ‘mix.’ In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa various epithets are applied to women, some of which seem to denote disease, and in the Atharvaveda16 the feminine adjectives, ‘ antelope-footed ’ (rśya-padī) and ‘ bulltoothed’ (vrsa-datl), probably refer to bodily defects.
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
saṃgrāma Denotes primarily, it seems, ‘assembly ’ either in peace or in war, when it means an ‘ armed band.’ Its normal sense in the Atharvaveda and later is ‘war,’ ‘battle.’ Little is known of Vedic warfare, but it seems to have been simple. A body of foot soldiers with charioteers composed every army, the two going together, and the foot soldiers being often overthrown by the charioteers, who were doubtless the Kṣatriyas and their foremost retainers. Probably the foot soldiers bore little armour, and used only the bow for offence, as is suggested by the account that Herodotus gives of the Indian contingent of the army with which Xerxes invaded Greece. The nobles, on the other hand, may have had cuirass (Varman), helmet (śiprā), and hand-guard (Hastaghna) as a protection from the friction of the bowstring. On the car was the charioteer, and on his left the warrior (Sārathi, Savya§thā). Riding is never mentioned in war, and would hardly have been suited to Vedic ideas, for the warrior mainly depended on his bow, which he could not have used effectively from horse¬back. The offensive weapon (Áyudha) was practically the bow; spear and sword and axe were very seldom used. Whether there was a strict tribal organization of the host, such as is once alluded to in the Homeric poems, and is also recognized in Germany by Tacitus, is uncertain (cf. Vrāta), but in the Epic relations (Jñāti) fight together, and this rule, no doubt, applied more or less in Vedic times also. Cities were besieged and invested (upa-sad, pra-bhid), probably as a rule by blockade, since the ineffective means of assault of the time would have rendered storming difficult and expensive. Hillebrandt thinks that the pur carisnū of the Rigveda was a kind of chariot; it may—like the Trojan horse—have been an Indian anticipation of the Roman means of assaulting a town. Besides ordinary wars of defence and conquest, raids into neighbouring territory seem to have been frequent and normal, no doubt because of the booty (Udāja, Nirāja) which wai to be won, and which the king had to share with the'people. Banners (Dhvaja) were borne in war, and musical instruments (Dundubhi, Bakura) were used by the combatants.
       Bloomfield Vedic
7 results
adediṣṭa vṛtrahā gopatir gāḥ RV.3.31.21a.
kadedam aśvinā yuvam # N.12.2c.
yaded adevīr asahiṣṭa māyāḥ # RV.7.98.5c; AVś.20.87.5c; GB.2.3.23.
yaded antā adadṛhanta (TS. adadṛṃh-) pūrve # RV.10.82.1c; VS.17.25c; TS.; MS.2.10.3c: 134.2. See ād id antā.
yaded ayukta haritaḥ sadhasthāt # RV.1.115.4c; AVś.20.123.1c; VS.33.37c; MS.4.10.2c: 147.2; TB.; N.4.11c.
yaded astambhīt prathayann amūṃ divam # RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).8c.
yaded enam adadhur yajñiyāsaḥ # RV.10.88.11a; MS.4.14.14a: 239.17; N.7.29a. P: yaded enam MG.1.19.3.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     KV Abhyankar
"aded" has 243 results.
aṃśugaṇaalso अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. confer, compare P. VI.2.193.
akṣadyūtādigaṇaa class of words headed by अक्षद्यूत which take the taddhita affix. affix hak ( इक) in the sense of 'resulting from' e. g. अाक्षद्यूतिकं वैरम्, जानुप्रहृतिक्रम्, गातागार्तकम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P IV.4.19.
agnipadādigaṇaa class of words headed by the word अग्निपद to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the senses of 'given there' or 'done there' e. g. अग्निपदम्. confer, compare अण्प्रकरणे अग्निपदादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् P. V.1.97 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
aṅgulyādigaṇaclass of words headed by अङ्गुलि to which the taddhita affix. afix ठक् ( इक् ) is added in the sense of comparison ( इवार्थे ); e. g. अङ्गुलीव अाड्गुलिक: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.3.108.
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
ājirādigaṇaclass of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिनवती et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś on P. VI.3.119.
atyādigaṇathe group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; confer, compare अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P. II. 2.18.
adhyātmādiname of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the taddhita affix. affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' id est, that is found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, et cetera, and otherscf M.Bh. on IV.3.60.
apabhraṃśadegraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, confer, compare गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः commentary on Vāk. Pad I. 149.
aśmādia class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddhita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; exempli gratia, for example अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
aśvapatyādia class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are technically called the Prāgdīvyatiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् et cetera, and others
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
ākarṣādia class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the taddhita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
uñchādia class of words headed by the word उञ्छ which have their final vowel accented acute (उदात्त) ; confer, compare उञ्छः म्लेच्छा, जल्पः । एते घञन्ता इति ञित्स्वरः प्राप्तः । Kāś. on P. VI.1.160.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
utkarādia class of words headed by the word उत्कर, to which the taddhita affix छ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly known as चातुरर्थिक; confer, compare उत्करीयम्, शफरीयम् et cetera, and others; Kāś. on P.V.2.90.
utsaṅgādia class of words headed by the word उत्सङ्ग, to which the taddhita affix इक् ( ठ ) is added in the sense of तेन हरति (takes away by means of): confer, compare हरतिर्देशान्तरप्रापणे वर्तते । उत्सङ्गेन हरति औत्सङ्गिकः । अौडुपिकः । Kāś. on P IV.4.15.
utsādia class of words headed by the word उत्स to which the taddhita affix अञ्, instead of the usual affixes अण् and others, is added in the sense of an offspring: confer, compare औत्स:, औदपानः et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.IV.1.86.
udgātrādia class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the taddhita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; confer, compare उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
uraḥprabhṛtia class of words headed by the word उरस् to which the samāsānta affix क (कप् ) is added, when these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; confer, compare व्यूढमुरोस्य व्यूढोरस्कः similarly प्रियसर्पिष्कः, Kāś. on P.V.I.151.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ṛgayanādia class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); confer, compare ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.
ṛśyādia class of words headed by the word ऋश्य to which the taddhita affix क is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. 2.67-70; e. g. ऋश्यकः, न्यग्रोधकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
aiṣukāryādia class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; exempli gratia, for example एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.
karkyādia class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; confer, compare P.VI.2.87.
kacchādia class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; exempli gratia, for example ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.
kaktaddhita affix. cāturarthika affix क (I) by P. IV.2.80 after words headed by वराह, exempli gratia, for example वराहकः, पलाशकः; (2) by P.IV.4.21, after the word अपमित्य exempli gratia, for example आपमित्यकः
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
karṇādi(1)a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फिञ् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कार्णायनिः वासिष्ठायनिः et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix जाह (जाहच्) is added in the sense of a 'root' exempli gratia, for example कर्णजाहम् ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.V.2.24.
kaṇḍvādia group of words which are headed by the word कण्डू and which are either nouns or roots or both to which the affix यक् is added to arrive at the secondary roots exempli gratia, for example कण्डूयति, कण्डूयते; हृणीयति, हृणीयते, महीयते confer, compare धातुप्रक्ररणाद्धातुः कस्य चासञ्जनादपि । आह चायमिमं दीर्घं मन्ये धातुर्विभाषितः ॥ Kāś. on P.III.1.27.
kaṇvādia class of words forming a portion of the class of words called गर्गादि, and headed by the word कण्व, to the derivatives of which, formed by the afix यञ् by the rule गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् (P.IV.1.105) the affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काण्वाः छात्राः; similarly गौकक्षाः, शाकलाः , अगस्तयः, कुण्डिनाः etc: confer, compare P.IV.2.111 and II. 4.70.
katryādia class of words headed by the word कत्रि to which the taddhita affix. affix एयक (ढकञ्) is applied in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example कात्रेयकः, ग्रामेयकः, कौलेयकः (from कुल्या); confer, compare P. IV.2.75.
kathādia class of words headed by कथा the word कथा to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'good therein' (तत्र साधुः); exempli gratia, for example काथिकः, वैतण्डिकः, गाणिकः, अायुर्वेदिकः confer, compare P.IV.4.102.
kambojādia class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, provided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; exempli gratia, for example कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV.1.175.
kalyāṇyādia class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्याणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kārtakaujapādia class of words headed by the word कार्तकौजप, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e. g. कार्तकौजपौ, आवन्त्यश्मकाः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.2.37.
kāśādia class of words headed by the word काश to which the taddhita affix इल is affixed in the four senses stated in P.IV.2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example काशिलम्, कर्दमिलम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.80.
kāśyādia class of words headed by the words काशि, चेदि and others to which the taddhita affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काशिकी, काशिका; वैदिकी, वैदिका et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.116. The feminine. afix ई is applied when the affix ठञ् is added to the word काशि; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
kāṣṭhādia class of words headed by the word काष्ठ after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accent for it,e. g. काष्ठाध्यापकः, परमाध्यापक et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII.1.67.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kirādia class of roots headed by the root कॄ, viz. the five roots कॄ, गॄ, दृ, धृ and प्रच्छ् after which the desiderative sign, id est, that is the affix सन्, gets the augment इ (इट्); exempli gratia, for example चिकरिषति, पिप्रच्छिषति: confer, compare Kāś. on P.VII.2.75.
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
kuṭādia group of roots headed by the root कुट् of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ञित् nor णित् becomes ङित्,and as a result prevents the substitution of गुण or वृद्धि for the preceding vowel e. g. कुटिता, कुटितुम् । confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिभ्योञ्णिन्डित् I.2.1.
kumbhapadyādia class of words headed by कुम्भपदी in which the word पाद at the end of the compound is changed into पाद् and further changed into पद् before the feminine affix ई; exempli gratia, for example कुम्भपदी, शतपदी, द्रुपदी, पञ्चपदी et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P. V.4.138, 139.
kurvādia class of words headed by the word कुरु to which the taddhita affix य ( ण्य ) is added in the sense of अपत्य or descendant; exempli gratia, for example कौरव्यः गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.51.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛśāśvādia class of words headed by the word कृशाश्वं to which the taddhita affix ईय (छण् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2. 67-70, exempli gratia, for example कार्शीश्वीयः, आरिष्टीयः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kratvādia class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; exempli gratia, for example सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.
kramādia class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on IV. 2.61.
kraiyādikaa root belonging to the class of roots which are headed by क्री and which are popularly known as roots of the ninth conjugation; confer, compare यथा तु वार्तिकं तथा कैयादिकस्याप्यत्र ग्रहणमिष्यते Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.48.
kroḍādia class of words headed by the word क्रोड to which the taddhita affix य ( ष्यङ् ) is added in the sense of a female descendant; exempli gratia, for example क्रौड्या, आपिशल्या, गौकक्ष्या et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.80.
krauḍyādia class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; exempli gratia, for example कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.
krayādigaṇaa class of roots headed by the root क्री ( डुक्रीञ् ) to which the conjugational sign ना ( श्ना ) is added; roots of the ninth conjugation.
khaṇḍikādia class of words headed by the word खण्डिका to which the affix अञ् is added in the sense of collection; e. g. खाण्डिकम्, वाडवम्, भैक्षुकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV.2.45.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
gargādigaṇaa class of words headed by गर्ग to which the affix यञ्, ( य ) causing Vṛddhi to the first vowel of the word, is added in the sense of a descendant barring the son or daughter; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105 and the instances गार्ग्यः, वात्स्यः, वैयाघ्रपद्यः, पौलस्यः confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 105.
gavādia class of words headed by the word गो to which the affix यत् is affixed in the senses mentioned in rules from P. V. 1, 5. to V. 1. 36; e. g. गव्यम् , हविष्यम् युग्यम् , मेध्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1,2.
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
guḍādia class of words headed by the word गुड to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good therein'; exempli gratia, for example गौडिकः इक्षुः, कौल्माषिको मुद्गः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on p. IV. 4.103.
guṇādia class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , et cetera, and others This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.
gṛṣṭyādia class of words headed by the word गृष्टि to which the taddhita affix एय (ढञ्) is affixed in the sense off 'an offspring' ( अपत्य): e g. गार्ष्टेयः, हालेयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.136.
gopavanādia class of eight words headed by the word गोपवन, the taddhita affix in the sense of गोत्र ( i. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix यञ् or अञू after which, is not elided in the plural number; c. g. गौपवना:, शौग्रवा: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.67.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
grahādia class of roots headed by the root ग्रह् to which the affix इन् (णिनि), causing vrddhi to the preceding vowel of the root, is added in the sense of an agent: exempli gratia, for example ग्राही, उत्साही, स्थायी, मन्त्री et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 1.134.
ḍīṃnfeminine. affix ई added to words in the class headed by शार्ङ्गरव: confer, compare P. IV. 1. 73. Words ending with this affix ङीन् have their first vowel accented acute.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
cāturvarṇyādiwords mentioned in the class headed by चातुर्वर्ण्य where the taddhita affix. affix ष्यञ् is applied although the words चतुर्वर्ण, चतुर्वेद and others are not गुणवचन words to which ष्यञ् is regularly applied by P. V-1-124. confer, compare ब्राह्मणादिषु चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम् P. V. I. 124 Vart. 1.
cādia class of words headed by च which are termed निपात by Panini e gच,वा,ह, एवम् नूनम्, चेत्, माङ् et cetera, and others; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे. P. I.4.57. For the meaning of the word असत्त्व see p.370 Vyakaranamahabhasya. Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
curādia class or group of roots headed by the root चुर्, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jvalitistanding for ज्वलादि, name of a class of 30 roots headed by the root ज्वल दीप्तौ and given as चल कम्पने, जल घातने etc; cf: ज्वलितिकसन्तेभ्यो णः P. III. 1.140.
ñiṭhataddhita affix. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;exempli gratia, for example काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाकलिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ḍatarāṃdia class of words headed by the word डतर which stands for डतरान्त id est, that is words ending with the affix डतर; similarly the word डतम which follows डतर stands for डतमान्त. This class डतरादि is a subdivision of the bigger class called सर्वादि. and it consists of only five words viz. डतरान्त, डतमान्त, अन्य, अन्यतर and इतरः cf P. VII.1.25 and I.1.27.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
tanādia class of roots headed by the root तन्, which is popularly caIIed as the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign उ is added: exempli gratia, for example तनोतेि, करोति, कुरुते confer, compare P. II. 4.79: III. 1.79.
tasilādia class of taddhita affixes headed by the affix तस् ( तसिल् ) as given by Panini in his sutras from पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् P. V. 3. 7. upto संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् V.3.17; confer, compare P. VI.3.35. The words ending with the affixes from तसिल् in P.V.3.7 upto पाशप् in P.V.3.47 (excluding पाशप्) become indeclinables; confer, compare Kas on P.I.1.38.
tārakādia class of words headed by the word तारका and containing prominently the words पुष्प, कण्टक, मुकुल, कुसुम, पल्लव, बुभुक्षा, ज्वर and many others numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affix इत (इतच्) is added in the sense of 'containing'. As this class, called तारकादि, is looked upon as आकृतिगण, nouns with इत added at their end, are supposed to be included in it; confer, compare P. V. 2.36.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tikādia class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; exempli gratia, for example तैकायनि:, कैतवायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.154.
tiṣṭhadguprabhṛticompound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava compounds and treated as indeclinables; exempli gratia, for example तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.17.
tudādia class of roots headed by the root तुद् which take the conjugational sign अ ( श ) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation, confer, compare P. III.1.77.
tundādia very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; exempli gratia, for example तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.117.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
tyadādia term used for the class of pronouns headed by त्यद् which are eight viz. त्यद्,तद्, यद्, एतद्, अदस्, इदम्, एक and द्वि; confer, compare P.I.1.74, I.2.72, III. 2. 60, VII. 2. 102.
tyadādividhia specific operation prescribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; confer, compare त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.
thā(1)taddhita affix. affix था in the sense of question or reason ( हेतु ) added to the pronoun किम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कथा देवा आसन् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.3.26; (2) taddhita affix. affix था (थाल् according to Panini) which gets caesura or avagraha after प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व, इम and ऋतु; exempli gratia, for example प्रत्नथेतिं प्रत्नSथा, पूर्वथेति पूर्वऽथा et cetera, and others: confer, compare Vij. Pr.V.12: (3) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of इव added to the words प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व and इम in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example तं प्रत्नथा पूर्वथा विश्वथेमथा; cf Kas, on P. V.3.111: (4) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of mannar ( प्रक्रार) added to किन् , pronouns excepting those headed by द्वि, and the word बहु; exempli gratia, for example सर्वथा, confer, compare P V.3.23.
daṇḍādia class of words headed by the word दण्ड to which the taddhita affix य, is added in the sense of 'deserving', confer, compare दण्डमर्हति दण्ड्यः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.66
dadhipayaādia class of compound words headed by the word दधिपयस् which are not compounded as समाहारद्वन्द्व which ends in the neuter gender and singular number; exempli gratia, for example दधिपयसी, शिववैश्रवणौ, श्रद्धातपसी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.14.
dāmanyādia class of words headed by the word दामनि to which the taddhita affix छ is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for exampleदामनीयः, औलपीयः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V, 3.116.
dāsībhārādia class of words headed by the word दासीभार which,although they are tatpurusa compounds, retain the accents of the first member of the compound: confer, compare P. VI.2.42.
digādia class of words headed by the word दिक् to which the taddhita affix.affix य ( यत् ) is added in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः ), exempli gratia, for example दिशि भवं दिश्यम्, similarly वर्ग्यम्, गण्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.54.
divādia class of roots of the fourth conjugation, headed by the root दिव् ( दीव्यति ), called also दीव्यत्यादि confer, compare P. I. 2.27.
dṛḍhādia class of words headed by दृढ to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) or इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added in the sense of nature ( भाव ); त्व and तल् ( ता ) can, of course, be added optionally exempli gratia, for example दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा दृढत्वम्, दृढता.See also लावण्य शैत्य, औष्ण्य, जाड्य, पाण्डित्य, मौर्ख्य et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1. 123.
devapathādia class of words headed by the word देवपथ, the affix कन् applied to which in the sense of a statue, or applied for the formation of a proper noun, is dropped देवपथः, हंसपथ:, शिवः, विष्णुः et cetera, and others; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.100.
dyutādia class of roots headed by the root द्युत् , the aorist sign च्लि after which gets ( अ ) अङ् substituted for it: exempli gratia, for example अद्युतत् , अश्वितत्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.55. and I.3.91. द्युस् taddhita affix. affix द्युस् applied to the word उभय in the sense of a day; exempli gratia, for example उभयद्युः confer, compare P. V. 3.22 Vart. 7.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dvidaṇḍyādia class of words, which are headed by the word द्विदण्डि and which are all bahuvrihi compounds, to which the affix इ is found added as a Samasanta affix e. gद्विदण्डिः, सपदि et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.1. varia lectio, another reading, 4.128.
dvyādia class of pronouns headed by the pronoun द्वि to which the taddhita affixes called विभक्ति, as prescribed by the rules of Panini in the rule पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् and the following ones, are not addedition confer, compare P. V. 3. 2.
dhūmādia class of words headed by the word धूम to which the taddhita affix.affix अक ( वुञ् ) is added in the miscellaneous(शैषिक ) senses; e. g. धौमकः खाण्डकः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.127.
na(1)the consonant न् (see न् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21 ; (2) taddhita affix. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; exempli gratia, for example पामनः, हेमनः et cetera, and others, cf P. V. 2.100; (3) taddhita affix. affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः et cetera, and others, cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which (id est, that is न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् et cetera, and others cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) taddhita affix.affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् confer, compare IV. 1.87.
naḍādi(1)a class of words headed by the word नड to which the taddhita affix.affix आयन ( फक् ) is added in the sense of गोत्र ( grandchild and further descendants); e. g, नाडायनः, चारायणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1. 99; (2) a class of words headed by नड to which the affix ईय (छ) is added, together with the augment क placed after the word and before the affix, in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2. 67-70; exempli gratia, for example नडकीयम् , प्लक्षकीयम् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2. 91.
nadyādia class of words headed by नदी, मही and other feminine. nouns to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक ) senses; exempli gratia, for example नादेयम्, माहेयम्, वाराणसेयम्, श्रावस्तेयम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.97.
nirudakādia class of compound words headed by the word निरुदक which have their last vowel accented acute; e. g निरुदकम्, निरुपलम्, निर्मक्षिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 184.
niṣkādia class of words headed by the word निष्क to which the affix इक ( ठक् ) is added, provided these words are not members of a compound; e. g. नैष्किकम् , पादिकम् , माषिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.20.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
pakṣādia class of words headed by the word पक्ष to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फक् ) causing vŗddhi is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67-70; e. g. पाक्षायण:, अाश्मायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.80.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
parpādia class of words headed by the word पर्प to which the taddhita affix. affix इक (ष्ठन्) is added in the sense of ’moving by' or eating along with' ( तेन चरति ); exempli gratia, for example पर्पिकः, पर्पिकी; अश्विकः, अश्विकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kaas. on P. IV.4.10.
parśvādia class of words headed by the word पर्शु to which the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) is added without any change of sense provided the words पर्शु and others, to which the affix अ is to be added mean fighting clans; e. g. पार्शव , आसुरः, राक्षसः, दाशार्हः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas. on V. 3.117.
paladyādia class of words headed by the word पलदी to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is applied in the miscellaneous ( शैषिक) senses; e gपालदः, पारिषदः, रौमकः; पाटच्चरः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaas, on P. IV. 2.110.
palāśādia class of words headed by the word पलाश to which the affix अ (अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a product of' or 'a part of;' e. g. पालाशः, खादिरः, वैकङ्कतः et cetera, and others cf Kaas. on P. IV. 3.141.
pātresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
pāmādia class of words headed by the word पामन् to which the taddhita affix. affix न is added optionally with मतुप् in the sense of ’possession', exempli gratia, for example पामनः, पामवान् ; वामनः, वामवान् et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāś. on V.2.100.
pāraskarādigaṇaor पारस्करप्रभृति, words headed by the word पारस्कर which have got some irregularity, especially the insertion of स् between the constituent words. For details see पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् P. VI. 1.153 and the commentary thereon.
pāśādia class of words headed by the word पाश to which the taddhita affix य is added in the sense of collection; exempli gratia, for example पाश्या, तृण्या, वात्या etc, confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.49.
picchādia class of words headed by the word पिच्छ to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added optionally with मत् ( मतुप् ), in the sense of 'possessed of'; exempli gratia, for exampleपिच्छिलः पिच्छवान्, उरसिलः उरस्वान् et cetera, and others: cf Kāś. om V. 2. 100.
pīlvādia class of words headed by the word पीलु to which the taddhita affix कुण ( कुणप्) is added in the sense of 'decoction' ( पाक ). e. g. पीलुकुण:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.2.24.
purohitādia class of words headed by the word पुरोहित to which the taddhita affix यक् is added in the sense of 'duly' or 'nature': e.g . पौरोहित्यम् , राज्यम् , बाल्यम् , मान्द्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P. V. !. 128.
puṣādia class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; exempli gratia, for example अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् et cetera, and others ofeminine. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
puṣkarādia class of words headed by the word पुष्कर, to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the name of a district. e. g. पुष्करिणी, पद्मिनी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.135.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
pailādia class of words headed by the word पैल, the taddhita affix. affix in the sense of युवन् applied to which (words) is elided; exempli gratia, for example पैलः पिता, पैलः पुत्रः ; for details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.4. 59.
pragadyādia class of words headed by the word प्रगदिन् to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ञ्य ) is added in the four senses prescribed in P. IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example प्रागद्यम् , शारद्यम् कौविदार्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P.IV.2.80
prajñādia class of words headed by the word प्रज्ञ to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण् ) is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for example प्राज्ञः, वाणिजः etc:; confer, compare प्रज्ञ एय प्राज्ञः । प्राज्ञी स्त्री । यस्यास्तु प्रज्ञा विद्यते सा प्राज्ञा भवति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4. 38.
pratijanādia class of words headed by the word प्रतिजन to which the taddhita affix. affix ईन ( खञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good at’ ( तत्र साधुः ); confer, compare प्रतिजने साधुः प्रातिजनीनः, जने जने साधुरित्यर्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.4.99.
pravṛddhādia class of compound words headed by the word प्रवृद्ध in which the second word, which is a past passive voice. part, has its last vowel accented acute; confer, compare प्रवृद्धं यानम्, प्रयुक्ताः सक्तवः, खट्वारूढः । आकृतिगणश्च प्रवृद्धादिर्द्रष्टव्यः । तेन पुनरुत्स्यूतं वासो देयमित्यादि सिद्धं भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on. on P.VI.2. 147.
prādisamāsaa compound with प्र and others prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P. II.2.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas headed by the Varttika प्रादयो गताद्यर्थे प्रथमया P. II. 2. 18 Vart. 4, which comes under the general head तत्पुरुष ; the compound is also called प्रादितत्पुरुष; confer, compare कथं प्रभावो राज्ञः । प्रकृष्टो भाव इति प्रादिसमासो भविष्यति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.24 cf also प्रान्तः पर्यन्तः । बहुव्रीहिरयं प्रादिसमासो वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 2. 180.
priyādia class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34.
plakṣādia class of words headed by the word प्लक्ष to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the sense of 'a fruit' exempli gratia, for example प्लाक्षम्,ऐङ्गुदम् confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.164
pvādia class of roots headed by the root पू which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational tenses as also before the present tense.participle. affix; exempli gratia, for example पुनाति पुनानः, लुनाति, लुनन् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.3.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
balādi(1)a class of words headed by the word बल, to which the taddhita affix. affix य is added in the four senses given by Panini in IV.2.67-70. e. g. बल्यः कुल्यम्, तुल्यम् , वन्यम् et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by बल which take the possessive taddhita affix. affix मत् optionally with the regular affix इन् ; e. g. बलवान् , बली; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.136.
bahvādia class of words headed by बहु to which the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) is added to form the feminine base; the words ending in अ in this class take the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) in case ई which is optional, is not added; other words remain as they are, if ई, is not added; e. g. बह्वी, बहुः; पद्धतिः, पद्धती; गतिः, _ गती; चण्डी, चण्डा; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.45.
bāhvādia class of words headed by the word बाहु to which the taddhita affix. affix इ ( इञ् ) is added in the sense of a descendant; e. g. बाहविः, पौष्करसादि:, पाञ्चिः et cetera, and others The class called बाह्वादि is looked upon as अाकृतिगण on the strength of the word च in the rule, so that similar words, not included in the class, could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.96.
bidādia class of words headed by the word बिद to which the affix अ (अञ्) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants; exempli gratia, for example बैदः, और्वः, काश्यप:, कौशिकः et cetera, and others The words in this class are mostly names of sages. In the case of such words as are not names of sages, the affix अ is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. exempli gratia, for example पौत्रः, दौहित्रः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.104.
bilvakādia class of words headed by the word बिल्वक the affix ईय ( छ ) placed after which is elided when another taddhita affix. affix such as अण् or the like is placed after them; confer, compare बिल्वा यस्यां सन्ति बिल्वकी तस्यां भवा: बैल्वकाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI.4.153.
bilvādia class of words headed by the word बिल्व, to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण् ) is added sense of 'a product' or 'a part'; exempli gratia, for example बैल्व: मौद्गः, वैणव: et cetera, and others; cf Kas on P. IV. 3.136.
brāhmaṇādia class of words headed by the word ब्राह्मण to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; e. g. ब्राह्मण्यं ( ब्राह्मणस्य भावः कर्म बां ); cf ब्राह्मणादिराकृतिगणः अादिशव्दः प्रकारवचन: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.24.
bhargādia class of words headed by भर्ग which are generally names of countries, the taddhita affixes अण् and others added to which are not elided; e. g. भार्गीं, कैकेयी, काश्मीरी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on IV. 1.178.
bhastrādia class of words headed by the word भस्त्रा to which the taddhita affix. affix इक ( ष्ठन् ) is added in the sense of 'carrying by' ; e. g. भस्त्रिक, भस्त्रिकी confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.4.16.
bhikṣādia class of words headed by the word भिक्षा to which the tad, affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of collection;exempli gratia, for example भैक्षम्,यौवतम्, पादातम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV.2.38.
bhidādia class of roots headed by the root भिद् to which the kṛt affix अ (always in the feminine. gender as अा ) is added in the sense of verbal activity: exempli gratia, for example भिदा, गुह्या, श्रद्धा, मेघा et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. III. 3.104.
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhūvādilit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
bhṛśādia class of nouns headed by भृश to which the denominative affix य is added in the sense of 'being or becoming what they were not before;' exempli gratia, for example अभृशो भृशो भवति भृशायते; similarly ,शीघ्रायते, मन्दायते, उन्मनायते, दुर्मनायते et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś.III.1.I3.
bhauvādikabelonging to the class of roots headed by भू; a root of the first conjugation; confer, compare अक्षू व्याप्तौ भौवादिक: Kāś. on P. III. 1.75.
bhvādigaṇathe class of roots headed by भू ; the first conjugation of roots.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
madhvādia class of words headed by the word मधु to which the taddhita affix मत् (मतुप्) is added as a Cāturarthika affix; exempli gratia, for example मधुमान् , विसमान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 2.86.
manojñādia class of words headed by the word मनोज्ञ, to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ्) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; exempli gratia, for example मनोज्ञकम्, काल्याणकम्, अाढयकम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 1.133.
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
mahiṅpersonal ending of the Atmanepada first person (उत्तमपुरुष) plural;confer, compare तिप्तस्झि ... वहिमहिङ् P. III.4.78. महिष्यादि a class of words headed by the word महिषी to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense Of 'proper for' ( धर्म्यम् ); exempli gratia, for example माहिषम् पौरोहितम् , हौत्रम्: confer, compare Kas,on P.IV.4.48.
mit(1)characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; confer, compare मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ et cetera, and others, as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yajādiroots headed by the root यज् which take the samhprasaarana substitute for their semivowel before terminations marked with the mute letter क्: c.g. इज्यते, इष्टिः confer, compare वचिस्वपियज्ञादीनां क्रिति P.VI.1.15. These roots are nine in number, यज् , वप् , वंद् , वस् and others which are of the first conjugation given by Paaini in his Dhaatupatha at the end of the roots of the first conjugation.
yavargathe class of the consonants headed by य् id est, that is the semi-vowels य, व्, र and लू
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yaskādiwords headed by the word यस्क, the affixes in the sense of ’a descendant' placed after which are elided and the words are to be used in the plural number in the masculine gender; e. g. यस्का:; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.4.63.
yājakādeia class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; exempli gratia, for exampleब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: et cetera, and others: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute;confer, compareP.VI . 2.151.
yāvādia class of words headed by the word याव to which the taddhita affix क ( कन् ) is added without any specific sense assigned to it; exempli gratia, for example यावकः: मणिक: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.29.
yuktārohyādia class of compound words headed by the word युक्तारोही which have their initial vowel accented acute in spite of the general dictum that a compound word except a Bahuvrihi compound word, has its last vowel accented acute: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V I. 2.81.
yuvādia class of words headed by the word युवन् which have the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of 'duty' or 'nature': exempli gratia, for example यौवनम् स्थाविरम्, हौत्रम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.130.
yaudheyādia class of nine words headed by the word यौधेय, a taddhita affix applied to which is not to be elided even though the word be used in the plural number
r(1)the consonant र, generally cited as रेफ; the vowel अ is added to र् for facility of utterance: confer, compare T. Pr.' I.21 ; (2) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for र् and ल्; confer, compare उरण् रपरः, P. I. 1.51: (3) krt affix र applied to the roots नम्रः, कम्प्रः et cetera, and others in the sense of agent who is habituated to, or expert in the action expressed by the root; e. g, नम्रः, कम्प्र:; confer, compare नमिकम्पिस्म्यजसकमहिंसदीपो रः P. III. 2. 167; (4) taddhita affix. affix र as a Caturarthika affix applied to the words headed by अश्मन्: e. g. अश्मरः; confer, compare वुञ्छण् P. IV. 2. 80; (5) tad affix र in the sense of possession affixed to the words ऊष, सुषि, मुष्क, मधु, and तमस् with अ of तमस् changed to इ: e. g. ऊषरम्, सुषिरम्, मधुर:, तमिस्रा: confer, compare Kas on. P.V. 2.107 and 114: (6) taddhita affix. affix र in the sense of diminution affixed to the words कुटी, शमी and शुण्डा: exempli gratia, for example कुटीर:, शमीर, शुण्डार:: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3. 88: (7) taddhita affix. affix रक् which see below; (8) krt affix रक् which see below; (9) a term for द्विगुसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
rajatādia class of words headed by the word रजत to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of ' a product ' or 'a part '; exempli gratia, for example राजतम् , लौहम् , औदुम्बरम् et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.154.
radhādia class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; exempli gratia, for example रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45.
rasādia class of words headed by the word रस which have the taddhita affix.affix मतुप् added to them in the sense of possession in preference to other affixes like इन्: exempli gratia, for example. रसवान् , रूपवान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.95.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
rudādia term used for the five roots headed by the root रुद्,which have the augment इ added to a Sārvadhātuka affix in certain cases; exempli gratia, for example रोदिति, श्वसिति, अरोदीत्, अस्वपीत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 76, VII.3.98.
rughādia class of roots headed by the root रुध् which take श्नम् ( न् ) as the conjugational sign inserted after the final vowel, e. g. रुणद्धि ( where रुध् becomes रुणध् ). These roots are popularly called roots of the 8th conjugation.
revatyādia class of words headed by the word रेवती to which the affix ठक् is added in the sense of 'an offspring ': e. g. रैवतिकः, आश्वपालिक:, द्वारपालिक: et cetera, and othersconfer, compareKāś. on P. IV.1.146.
raivatikādia class of words headed by रैवतिक to which the taddhita affix ईय ( छ ) is added in the sense of 'belonging to'; e. g. रैवतिकीय:, औदवाहीयः, बैजवापीय: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaś. on P. IV. 3.131.
rauḍhyādianother name given to the क्रौड्यादि class of words which are headed by क्रौडि and which take the affix ष्यङ् to form their base in the feminine; e. g. क्रौड्या लाड्या; confer, compare सिद्धं तु रौड्यादिषूपसंख्यानात् । के पुना रौढ्यादयः | ये क्रौड्यादय; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.79.
raudhādikaa root belonging to the class of roots headed by रुध् which take the conjugational sign न् (श्नम्). See रुधादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
lactaddhita affix. affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V. 2. 96-98.
lomādiclass of words headed by the word लोमन् to which the taddhita affix. affix, श, in the sense 'possessed of' is added optionally along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ); exempli gratia, for example लोमश:, लोमवान्, रोमश: रोमवान् बभ्रुशः, हरिश:, कपिश: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.100.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
lvādia class of roots, headed by the root लू, the past. passive voice.participle. affix त placed after which becomes changed into न; exempli gratia, for example लून:, लूनवान्; जीन:, जीनवान्; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII. 2.44.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
vanaspatyādia class of compound words headed by वनस्पति which retain the original accent of the members of the compound, as for example, in the compound word वनस्पति both the words वन and पति have got their initial vowel अ accented acute; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VI.2.140.
varaṇādia class of words headed by वरण which have the taddhita affix elided, if it is added to them in the four senses mentioned in P.IV.2.67-70 confer, compare वरणानामदूरभवं नगरं वरणाः | कटुकबदर्या अदूरभवो ग्रामः कटुकबदरी ! confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.82.
varāhādia class of words headed by वराह which have the taddhita affix क ( कक् ) added to them in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example वाराहकम्, पालाशकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80.
varganame given to the different classes of consonants which are headed by an unaspirate surd; e. g. कवर्ग, चवर्ग, टवर्ग, तवर्ग and पवर्ग. The several consonants in each group or class, are, in their serial order, named वगेप्रथम, वर्गद्वितीय et cetera, and others On the analogy of these five classes, the semivowels are called by the name यवर्ग and sibilants, are called by the name शवर्ग,
vargyādia class of words headed by the word वर्ग्य which have their initial vowel accented acute when they stand as second members of a tatpurusa compound other than the karmadharaya type of it; e. g. वासुदेववर्ग्य:, अर्जुनपक्ष्यः; cf Kas: on P, VI. 2,131. '
vasantādia class of words headed by the word वसन्त, which are mostly names of seasons, to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'that which one studies or knows'; confer, compareवसन्तसहचरितोयं ग्रन्थो वसन्तस्तमधीते वासन्तिकः 1 वार्षिक: Kas on P. IV. 2.63.
vākinādia class of words headed by the word वाकिन to which the taddhita affix आयनि( फिञ् ) is added in the sense of an 'offspring' when along with the taddhita affix. affix अायनि,the augment क् ( कुक् ) is added to the base ( वाकिन or the like ); e. g. वाकिनकायनिः ; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.158.
vādiroots headed by वा and similar to वा. Really there is no class of roots headed by वा given anywhere but in the interpretation of the rule भूवादयो धातव: it is suggested that ' the roots which are similar to वा are termed roots (धातु)' could also be the interpretation of the rule: confer, compare भ्वादय इति च वादय इति M.Bh. on P. I. 3. l . Vart. ll .
vidhyādithe senses headed by विधि as given in the rule विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् P. III. 3.16I ; confer, compare विध्यादिषु सप्तमी च Kat. III.1.20; confer, compare also विध्यादिषु क्रियार्थाल्लिङ् भवति Candra Vyak. I.3. l2l.
vinayādia class of words headed by विनय to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied without any change of sense:confer, compareविनय एव वैनयिक: शमयिकः । औपयिकः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.34.
vimuktādia class of words headed by the word विमुक्त to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'possessed of', provided the word so formed, denotes a chapter or a lesson of a sacred work; confer, compareविमुक्तशब्दोस्मिन्नस्ति वैमुक्तकोध्यायः अनुवाको वा | दैवासुरः । Kāś. on P. V. 2.61.
vispaṣṭādia class of words headed by the word विस्पष्ट which retain their own accents in a compound when they are the first members of a compound, provided that any word of quality is the second member e. g. विस्पष्टकटुकम् | व्यक्तलवणम् where the words विस्पष्ट and व्यक्त are used in the sense of clear, referring to the different tastes; confer, compare Kāś. On P. VI. 2.24.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vṛtādia class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; exempli gratia, for example वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, comparealso P.VII.2.59.
vṛddha(1)a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: exempli gratia, for example शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of taddhita affix. affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर्द, भोजकट et cetera, and others confer, compare एङ् प्राचां देशे, P.I.1.73, 74 and 75; (4) a term used in the Pratisakhya works for a protracted vowel ( प्लत ) which has three matras; cf तिस्रॊ वृद्धम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.44.
vṛṣādia class of words headed by the word वृष which have their initial vowel accented acute; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI.1.203.
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vetanādia class of words headed by वेतन which have the taddhita affix इक (ठक्) added to them in the sense of "earning a livelihood' exempli gratia, for example वेतनिक: | धानुष्क:; दाण्डिक:; confer, compare वेतनेन जीवति वैतनिकः कर्मकर: Kas on P. IV. 4.12.
vyāghrādia class of words headed by व्याघ्र which, as standards of comparison, are compounded with words showing objects of comparison provided the common property is not mentioned: exempli gratia, for example पुरुषव्याघ्र:, नृसिंहः et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.II. 1.56.
vyuṣṭādia class of words headed by the word व्युष्ट to which the taddhita affix अ (अण् ) is added in the sense of the place where something is given or prepared ; confer, compare व्युष्टे दीयते कार्ये वा वैयुष्टम् । नैत्यम्: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.97.
vrīhyādia class of words headed by व्रीहि to which the taddhita affixes इन् and ठन् are applied in the sense of possession along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ) ; e. g. व्रीही, व्रीह्रिक व्रीहिमान् । मायी, मायिकः मायावान् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2. 116.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śarādia class of words headed by the word शर which have the taddhita affix. affix मय (मयट्) added to them in the sense of 'product' or 'portion': exempli gratia, for example शरमयम् , दर्भमयम् , मृण्मयम्; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.144;(2) a class of words headed by शर which get their final vowel lengthened before the taddhita affix.affix मत् when the whole word forms a proper noun: exempli gratia, for example शरावती, वंशावती, हनूमान् ; confer, compare P.VI.3.119.
śarkarādia class of words headed by शर्करा to which the taddhita affix. affix अ (अण्) is added in the sense of इव viz. similarity:cf शर्करेव शार्करम् ,कापालिकम् पौण्डरीकम् Kas on P. V. 3.107.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śārṅgaravādia class of words headed by the word शार्ङ्गरव which take the feminine affix ई ( ङीन् ) making the initial vowel of the word (to which ई of the feminine is added) an acute-accented one: e.g: शार्ङ्गरवी;confer, compare शार्ङ्गरवाद्यञो ङीन् P. IV. 1.73.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śuṇḍikādia class of words headed by शुण्डिका to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'who has come from'; exempli gratia, for example शौण्डिक:, कार्कणः: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.76.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śauṇḍādia class of words headed by the word शौण्ड which are compounded with a noun in the locative case to form a locative tatpurusa compound; e. g. अक्षशौण्डः, अक्षधूर्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.40.
śaunakādia class of words headed by the word शौनक to which the taddhita affix इन् ( णिनि ) is added in the sense of 'instructed by', provided the word so formed is a portion of what is looked upon as a part of the sacred Vedic Literature; confer, compare शौनकेन प्रोक्तमधीयते शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिन: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 3.106.
śnāa vikarana or conjugational sign of the ninth conjugation, to be added to roots headed by क्री before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; exempli gratia, for example क्रीणाति; confer, compare क्र्यादिभ्य: श्ना. P.III.1.81. श्ना is added optionally with श्नुः ( नु ) to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ्, स्कम्भ् , स्कुम्भ् and स्कु. exempli gratia, for exampleस्तभ्नाति, स्तभ्नोति, स्कुभ्नाति, स्कुभ्नोति etc : confer, compare P.III.1.82.
śnua vikarana or a conjugational sign to be placed after the roots headed by सु (id est, that is roots of the fifth conjugation) as also after the root श्रु when श्रु is to be changed into शृ, and the roots अक्ष् and तक्ष्; exempli gratia, for example सुनोति, सुनुते; confer, compare स्वादिभ्यः श्नुः P.III. l.73. It is also added optionally with श्ना to the roots स्तम्भ्, स्तुम्भ् et cetera, and others See श्ना.
śyana vikarana or conjugational sign of the fourth conjugation added to roots headed by दिव्, before the Sarvadhatuka affixes; exempli gratia, for example. दीव्यति, पुष्यति, et cetera, and others श्यन् is added optionally with शप् (अ) to the roots भ्राश्, भ्रम् , क्लम् and others, as also to यस्.
śramaṇādia class of words headed by the word श्रमणा with which words in the masculine or the feminine gender are compounded when they stand in apposition; confer, compare कुमारी श्रमणा कुमारश्रमणा, युवा अध्यापकः युवाध्यापक: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.70.
śreṇyādia class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: confer, compare अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59.
ślua term used in the sense of elision or lopa in the case of the affix शप् when it is elided after the roots headed by हु, i. e. roots of the third conjugation as also after any root wherever it is so seen in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. III. 4. 76. This श्लु is looked upon as a substitute zero, or nil for the general vikarana शप् in the case of these roots; confer, compare जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः P. II. 4. 75. The specific feature of this elision of the vikarana शप् by means of the term श्लु, is that it causes reduplication of the roots to which it is added; confer, compare लुकि प्रकृते श्लुविधानं द्विर्वचनार्थम् Kas, on. P. II. 4. 75 and P. III. 1. 10.
ṣitan affix or sometimes a word marked by the mute letter ष्, The mute letter ष् attached to roots signifies the addition of the krt affix अङ् ( अ ) in the sense of the verbal activity: e. g. क्षमा from the root क्षमूष् ( क्षम् ), जरा from ज्ट्टष्ठ ( ज्दृ ); confer, compare षिद्भिदादिम्भोSङ् P. III. 3.104: attached to affixes, ष् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीष् ), e. g. वराकी, शतपथिकी et cetera, and others confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41. A few roots headed by घट् (roots from घट् to त्वर्) are to be looked upon as षित् for the purpose of the addition of the krt. affix अ; e. g. घटा, व्यथा et cetera, and others confer, compare घटादयः षितः । Gana sutra in Dhatupatha
ṣyañtaddhita affix. affix (1) in the sense of 'nature ' applied optionally with the affix इमनिच् to words showing colour as also to words headed by दृढ: e. g. शौक्ल्यम् , शुक्लिमा, कार्ष्ण्यम् कृष्णिमा, दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 1.123: (2) in the sense of nature as also in the sense of professional work to words of quality and words headed by ब्राम्हणः e. g. जाड्यम्, ब्राह्मण्यम् cf P.V. 1.124; (3) to the words चतुर्वर्ण, त्रिलोकी and others in the same sense as that of those very words; exempli gratia, for exampleचातुर्वर्ण्यम् त्रैलोक्यम् षाड्गुण्यम् सन्यम् etc, confer, compare P. V. 6.124 Vart, 1.
sarvanāmanpronoun: literally standing for any noun. There is no definition as such given, of the word pronoun, but the words, called pronouns, are enumerated in Panini's grammar one after another in the class or group headed by सर्व ( सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, words ending in the affixes डतर and डतम, अन्य et cetera, and others)which appear to be pronouns primarily. Some words such as पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर, स्व, अन्तर etc are treated as pronouns under certain conditions. In any case, attention has to be paid to the literal sense of the term सर्वनामन् which is an ancient term and none of these words when standing as a proper noun, is to be treated as a pronoun: confer, compare सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि P. I.1. 27, confer, compare also संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः: M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 2; ( 2 ) The word सर्वनामन् means also a common term, a general term; confer, compare एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम, यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 4.174 Vart 4.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
syādithe Vikaranas headed by the Vikarana स्य mentioned in P.III.1. 33 upto III.1.90.
svādithe affixes headed by सु: a general term for case-affixes; confer, compare स्वौजसमौट्शस्टभ्यां ... ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV.1.2.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
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693 results
abhramu-prabhṛtayaḥ headed by the she-elephant named AbhramuSB 8.8.5
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 12.70
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 15.28
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 3.43
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 10.114
ācārya-ādi-vaiṣṇavere unto all the Vaiṣṇavas, headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 12.32
śaunaka-ādayaḥ headed by the sage ŚaunakaSB 1.1.4
ādayaḥ headed bySB 1.14.28-29
satya-ādayaḥ queens headed by SatyabhāmāSB 1.14.37
indra-ādayaḥ demigods headed by the heavenly king, IndraSB 2.1.29
sanaka-ādayaḥ headed by SanakaSB 3.15.12
marīci-ādayaḥ great sages headed by MarīciSB 3.20.10
śakti-ādayaḥ sons headed by ŚaktiSB 4.1.41
sananda-ādayaḥ the four brahmacārīs headed by SanandanaSB 4.9.30
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ headed by BhṛguSB 4.14.1
sanaka-ādayaḥ headed by SanakaSB 4.19.6
kṣatriya-ādayaḥ other divisions of society, headed by the kṣatriyasSB 4.22.46
dakṣa-ādayaḥ headed by King DakṣaSB 4.29.42-44
sanaka-ādayaḥ headed by SanakaSB 4.29.42-44
nīla-ādayaḥ the mountains headed by NīlaSB 5.16.9
soma-ādayaḥ headed by the moonSB 5.21.11
agniṣvāttā-ādayaḥ headed by AgniṣvāttāSB 5.26.5
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ the great sages headed by BhṛguSB 6.3.14-15
viśākha-ādayaḥ headed by ViśākhaSB 6.6.14
dandaśūka-ādayaḥ headed by the dandaśūka snakesSB 6.6.28
indra-ādayaḥ and the demigods headed by IndraSB 6.13.2
vāsava-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by King IndraSB 7.7.3
aja-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.8.15
brahma-indra-giriśa-ādayaḥ headed by Lord Brahmā, King Indra and Lord ŚivaSB 7.8.37-39
sunanda-kumuda-ādayaḥ headed by Sunanda and KumudaSB 7.8.37-39
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.9.8
brahma-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.9.13
pramada-ādayaḥ headed by PramadaSB 8.1.24
jyotirdhāma-ādayaḥ headed by the celebrated JyotirdhāmaSB 8.1.28
brahma-ādayaḥ the great demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 8.3.22-24
bhūtaraya-ādayaḥ headed by the BhūtarayasSB 8.5.3
dakṣa-ādayaḥ headed by Mahārāja DakṣaSB 8.6.15
ādayaḥ headed bySB 8.7.14
airāvaṇa-ādayaḥ headed by AirāvaṇaSB 8.8.5
indra-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by IndraSB 8.10.53
aruṇa-ādayaḥ headed by AruṇaSB 8.13.25
harita-ādayaḥ headed by the HaritasSB 8.13.28
brahma-ādayaḥ great personalities, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 8.21.5
rāvaṇa-ādayaḥ headed by great Rākṣasas like RāvaṇaSB 9.6.33-34
aila-ādayaḥ headed by Aila (Purūravā)SB 9.14.1
vasumat-ādayaḥ many, headed by VasumānSB 9.15.11
priyamedha-ādayaḥ headed by PriyamedhaSB 9.21.21
mudgala-ādayaḥ headed by MudgalaSB 9.21.30
dhṛṣṭadyumna-ādayaḥ headed by DhṛṣṭadyumnaSB 9.22.3
dhṛtadevā-ādayaḥ headed by DhṛtadevāSB 9.24.20
santardana-ādayaḥ headed by SantardanaSB 9.24.38
gadā-ādayaḥ sons headed by GadāSB 9.24.52
nanda-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.6.31
nanda-ādayaḥ ca and the men, headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.7.8
nanda-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.11.1
nanda-ādayaḥ the cowherd men, headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.11.21
rāma-ādayaḥ arbhakāḥ all the other boys, headed by BalarāmaSB 10.11.49
rāma-ādayaḥ headed by BalarāmaSB 10.11.53
nanda-ādayaḥ all the cowherd men, headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.11.58
rāma-kṛṣṇa-ādayaḥ headed by Lord Balarāma and Lord KṛṣṇaSB 10.18.9
nanda-ādayaḥ the cowherd men headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.28.17
ajā-ādayaḥ headed by the total material natureSB 10.40.3
nanda-gopa-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda, the king of the cowherdsSB 10.41.8
nanda-gopa-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda GopaSB 10.42.38
rāma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BalarāmaSB 10.61.40
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 10.63.9
ugrasena-ādayaḥ headed by King UgrasenaSB 10.66.7
droṇa-bhīṣma-kṛpa-ādayaḥ headed by Droṇa, Bhīṣma and KṛpaSB 10.74.10-11
indra-ādayaḥ headed by Lord IndraSB 10.74.13-15
vipra-ādayaḥ headed by the brāhmaṇasSB 11.5.2
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 11.7.17
sanaka-ādayaḥ headed by Sanaka ṛṣiSB 11.13.16
sanaka-ādayaḥ ūcuḥ the sages headed by Sanaka saidSB 11.13.17
sanaka-ādayaḥ headed by Sanaka-kumāraSB 11.13.41
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ those headed by Bhṛgu MuniSB 11.14.4
uddhava-ādayaḥ headed by Śrī UddhavaCC Adi 4.163
uddhava-ādayaḥ all devotees, headed by UddhavaCC Madhya 8.216
adbhuta-darśana by seeing the wonderful calamity (that the heavily loaded cart had broken upon the small baby, who still lay there unhurt)SB 10.7.8
adhama degradedCC Madhya 1.196
āre adhama O most degraded oneCC Madhya 5.52
adhamaḥ very degradedSB 5.26.30
adhamasya most degradedMM 35
adhiyujya having loadedSB 10.71.16
gadādhara-paṇḍita-ādi headed by Śrī Gadādhara PaṇḍitaCC Adi 1.41
ādi headed byCC Adi 3.94
sanaka-ādi the great sages headed by Sanaka, Sananda, etc.CC Adi 5.122
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Adi 6.38
śrīdāmā-ādi Kṛṣṇa's friends, headed by ŚrīdāmāCC Adi 6.62
rukmiṇī-ādi headed by RukmiṇīCC Adi 6.72
śrīvāsa-ādi devotees headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Adi 7.16
ādi headed byCC Adi 7.17
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Adi 17.300
ādi headed byCC Adi 17.301
śrīvāsa-ādi to all the devotees, headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 1.7
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 1.46
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 1.138
śrīvāsa-ādi the devotees, headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 3.168
nityānanda-ādi all the devotees, headed by Nityānanda PrabhuCC Madhya 6.14
ādi headed byCC Madhya 8.145
kila-kiñcita-ādi headed by kila-kiñcitaCC Madhya 8.175
nityānanda-ādi headed by Lord NityānandaCC Madhya 10.34
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Madhya 10.77
sārvabhauma-ādi headed by Sārvabhauma BhaṭṭācāryaCC Madhya 10.130
rāmānanda-ādi headed by RāmānandaCC Madhya 11.91
śrīvāsa-ādi devotees headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 11.129
advaita-ādi devotees, headed by Advaita PrabhuCC Madhya 11.197
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Madhya 12.3
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 12.70
svarūpa-ādi headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Madhya 12.200
ādi headed byCC Madhya 13.7
govinda-ādi headed by GovindaCC Madhya 13.89
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Madhya 14.3
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 14.66
svarūpa-ādi headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Madhya 14.101
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 15.28
advaita-nityānanda-ādi headed by Advaita Ācārya and Nityānanda PrabhuCC Madhya 16.245-246
sanaka-ādi āra and the four Kumāras, headed by SanakaCC Madhya 19.189
saundarya-ādi-guṇa-grāma the transcendental qualities, headed by beautyCC Madhya 21.104
mādhurya-ādi-guṇa-khani the mine of transcendental mellows, headed by sweetnessCC Madhya 21.117
śaunaka-ādi muni-gaṇa the great sages headed by Śaunaka MuniCC Madhya 24.126
govinda-ādi sabe all the devotees, headed by GovindaCC Antya 2.155
svarūpa-ādi devotees headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 2.166
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 3.43
śrī-rāmadāsa-ādi headed by Śrī RāmadāsaCC Antya 6.90
svarūpa-ādi-saha in the company of devotees, headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 6.189
svarūpa-ādi headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 6.192
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Antya 8.5
ācārya-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 10.114
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Antya 10.139
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Antya 12.11
ācārya-ādi-vaiṣṇavere unto all the Vaiṣṇavas, headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Antya 12.32
svarūpa-ādi headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 13.104
svarūpa-ādi headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 13.116
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Antya 14.4
svarūpa-gosāñi-ādi all the devotees, headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 14.63
svarūpa-ādi-gaṇa the devotees, headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 14.98
śrīvāsa-ādi headed by Śrīvāsa ṭhākuraCC Antya 15.3
tulasī-ādi-gaṇe the plants and creepers, headed by the tulasī plantCC Antya 15.39
svarūpa-ādi the devotees, headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 15.57
rāmānanda-ādi headed by Rāmānanda RāyaCC Antya 15.94
brahmā-ādi headed by Lord BrahmāCC Antya 16.76
brahmā-ādi by the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāCC Antya 16.97
ādi headed byCC Antya 16.106
svarūpa-ādi-gaṇa the devotees headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 18.33
rādhikā-ādi headed by Śrīmatī RādhārāṇīCC Antya 18.81
kṣiti-ādibhiḥ by the ingredients of the material world, headed by earthSB 6.16.37
nārada-ādibhiḥ headed by Śrī Nārada MuniSB 7.1.4-5
viriñca-ādibhiḥ by all the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 8.6.16
mahat-ādibhiḥ headed by the mahat-tattvaSB 10.13.52
santardana-ādibhiḥ headed by SantardanaSB 10.58.56
ugrasena-ādibhiḥ headed by UgrasenaSB 10.79.29
sanaka-ādibhiḥ headed by Sanaka-kumāraSB 11.13.14
nanda-ādibhyaḥ headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.25.1
brahma-ādika the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāCC Madhya 13.59
vṛṣa-durmarṣaṇa-ādikān begot sons headed by Vṛṣa and DurmarṣaṇaSB 9.24.42
janamejaya-ādīn headed by Mahārāja JanamejayaSB 1.16.2
manuṣya-ādīn and other living entities, headed by the human beingsSB 6.4.19
indra-vāyu-ādīn all the demigods, headed by Lord Indra and VāyuSB 8.5.19-20
varuṇa-ādīn headed by Varuṇa and othersSB 9.7.21
prajā-īśa-ādīn headed by Lord BrahmāSB 9.16.31
paila-ādīn headed by PailaSB 9.22.21-24
takṣa-puṣkara-śāla-ādīn sons headed by Takṣa, Puṣkara and ŚālaSB 9.24.43
ādīn headed bySB 9.24.44
kṛta-ādīn the sons headed by KṛtaSB 9.24.46
uruvalka-ādīn sons headed by UruvalkaSB 9.24.49
nanda-ādīn headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.16.22
pradyumna-ādīn headed by PradyumnaSB 10.61.7
dāruka-jaitra-ādīn headed by Dāruka and JaitraSB 10.71.12
sāmba-ādīn headed by SāmbaSB 10.75.29
nanda-ādīn headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.82.12-13
bhṛgu-ādīnām of the great sages headed by BhṛguSB 4.24.72
indra-ādīnām headed by IndraSB 5.20.30
sūrya-ādīnām headed by the sunSB 5.22.2
kṛttikā-ādīni headed by KṛttikāSB 6.6.23
rukmiṇī-ādira of the queens, headed by RukmiṇīCC Madhya 24.51
plakṣa-ādiṣu in the islands headed by PlakṣaSB 5.20.6
makara-ādiṣu headed by the sign Makara (Capricorn)SB 5.21.3
vṛṣabha-ādiṣu headed by Vṛṣabha (Taurus) and Mithuna (Gemini)SB 5.21.4
vṛścika-ādiṣu headed by Vṛścika (Scorpio)SB 5.21.5
vasanta-ādiṣu headed by springSB 5.22.3
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 1.46
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 1.138
advaita-ādi devotees, headed by Advaita PrabhuCC Madhya 11.197
advaita-ādi headed by Advaita ĀcāryaCC Madhya 14.66
advaita-nityānanda-ādi headed by Advaita Ācārya and Nityānanda PrabhuCC Madhya 16.245-246
sūta-ādya O persons headed by the sūtaSB 4.15.26
ajā-ādyābhiḥ headed by AjāSB 10.13.52
brahma-indra-ādyāḥ headed by Brahmā and IndraSB 4.7.43
sanaka-ādyāḥ those headed by SanakaSB 4.8.1
sattva-ādyāḥ headed by the sattva-guṇaSB 5.25.9
brahma-ādyāḥ all the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.10.34
ādyāḥ headed bySB 8.1.27
bhṛgu-ādyāḥ headed by Bhṛgu Muni, one of the seven ṛṣisSB 8.23.26-27
mārīca-ādyāḥ headed by MārīcaSB 9.10.5
ańgada-ādyāḥ all the soldiers of Lord Rāmacandra, headed by Ańgada and othersSB 9.10.20
praskanna-ādyāḥ sons headed by PraskannaSB 9.20.7
ādyāḥ headed bySB 9.23.5
bhūta-ādyāḥ headed by BhūtaSB 9.24.46
vasudeva-ādyāḥ headed by VasudevaSB 10.1.61
devakī-ādyāḥ headed by DevakīSB 10.1.61
nanda-ādyāḥ headed by NandaSB 10.39.33
aja-ādyāḥ headed by BrahmāSB 10.60.37
sāmba-ādyāḥ headed by SāmbaSB 10.61.10-12
bhūn-ādyāḥ headed by BhūriśravāSB 10.75.4-7
ādyāḥ headed bySB 12.7.3
purāṇa-ādyāḥ headed by the PurāṇasCC Madhya 22.6
vyāsa-ādyaiḥ by great sages headed by VyāsaSB 1.8.46
sanandana-ādyaiḥ the four Kumāras, headed by SanandanaSB 4.6.34
aṇimā-ādyaiḥ headed by aṇimāSB 10.13.52
nanda-ādyaiḥ headed by NandaSB 10.36.31
brahma-rudra-ādyaiḥ headed by Brahmā and RudraSB 10.39.53-55
indra-ādyaiḥ headed by Lord IndraSB 10.51.15
vasudeva-ugrasena-ādyaiḥ headed by Vasudeva and UgrasenaSB 10.82.22
aja-śakra-śańkara-ādyaiḥ headed by Brahmā, Indra and ŚivaSB 12.12.67
sanaka-ādyera of the four Kumāras, headed by SanakaCC Madhya 24.114
agniṣvāttā-ādayaḥ headed by AgniṣvāttāSB 5.26.5
karṇa-agraṇyaḥ those headed by KarnaSB 10.68.7
aila-ādayaḥ headed by Aila (Purūravā)SB 9.14.1
airāvaṇa-ādayaḥ headed by AirāvaṇaSB 8.8.5
aja-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.8.15
ajā-ādyābhiḥ headed by AjāSB 10.13.52
ajā-ādayaḥ headed by the total material natureSB 10.40.3
aja-ādyāḥ headed by BrahmāSB 10.60.37
aja-parāḥ headed by BrahmāSB 12.8.49
aja-śakra-śańkara-ādyaiḥ headed by Brahmā, Indra and ŚivaSB 12.12.67
ajita-ātmabhiḥ who could not control their senses and thus were degradedSB 9.15.16
akuṇṭha unfadedSB 3.19.27
daśa-ānanaḥ the ten-headed RāvaṇaSB 9.15.21
ańgada-ādyāḥ all the soldiers of Lord Rāmacandra, headed by Ańgada and othersSB 9.10.20
vibudha-anīkam the host of demigods, headed by Lord Brahmā and Lord ŚivaSB 8.4.26
aṇimā-ādyaiḥ headed by aṇimāSB 10.13.52
apakṛṣṭa-cetanaḥ having degraded consciousnessSB 4.27.3
aparimlāna never fadedSB 5.25.7
sanaka-ādi āra and the four Kumāras, headed by SanakaCC Madhya 19.189
rāma-ādayaḥ arbhakāḥ all the other boys, headed by BalarāmaSB 10.11.49
āre adhama O most degraded oneCC Madhya 5.52
aruṇa-ādayaḥ headed by AruṇaSB 8.13.25
āruṇayaḥ saintly persons headed by Āruṇa ṛṣiCC Madhya 24.166
āruṇayaḥ saintly persons headed by Āruṇa ṛṣiCC Madhya 24.213
codayām āsa he goadedSB 10.43.5
āsādyamānaḥ being pervadedSB 11.24.21
asattamaḥ most degradedSB 12.1.20
daśa-āsya with ten-headed RāvaṇaSB 10.88.16
haya-āsye in the horse-headed incarnationSB 11.4.17
ātma-jaiḥ by his sons (headed by Sanaka)SB 11.6.1
ajita-ātmabhiḥ who could not control their senses and thus were degradedSB 9.15.16
mat-ātmakam pervaded by MeSB 11.7.12
āvṛtam is pervadedSB 10.33.8
brahma-bandhoḥ of a degraded brāhmaṇaSB 1.7.16
khara-triśira-dūṣaṇa-mukhya-bandhūn many friends, headed by Khara, Triśira and DūṣaṇaSB 9.10.9
gaura-bhakta-vṛnda to the devotees of Lord Caitanya, headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Adi 10.2
sahasrajit-śatajit-bhānu-mukhyaḥ headed by Sahasrajit, Śatajit and BhānuSB 11.30.17
bhāra loaded bySB 4.26.23
bhara loadedSB 5.8.13
phula-phala bhari' loaded with fruits and flowersCC Madhya 17.201
droṇa-bhīṣma-kṛpa-ādayaḥ headed by Droṇa, Bhīṣma and KṛpaSB 10.74.10-11
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ headed by BhṛguSB 4.14.1
bhṛgu-ādīnām of the great sages headed by BhṛguSB 4.24.72
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ the great sages headed by BhṛguSB 6.3.14-15
bhṛgu-ādyāḥ headed by Bhṛgu Muni, one of the seven ṛṣisSB 8.23.26-27
bhṛgu-ādayaḥ those headed by Bhṛgu MuniSB 11.14.4
bhṛgu-mukhyebhyaḥ headed by BhṛguSB 11.27.3-4
bhūn-ādyāḥ headed by BhūriśravāSB 10.75.4-7
bhūta-ādyāḥ headed by BhūtaSB 9.24.46
bhūtaraya-ādayaḥ headed by the BhūtarayasSB 8.5.3
brahma-bandhoḥ of a degraded brāhmaṇaSB 1.7.16
brahma-indra-ādyāḥ headed by Brahmā and IndraSB 4.7.43
brahma-indra-giriśa-ādayaḥ headed by Lord Brahmā, King Indra and Lord ŚivaSB 7.8.37-39
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.9.8
brahma-ādayaḥ the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.9.13
brahma-ādyāḥ all the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 7.10.34
brahma-ādayaḥ the great demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 8.3.22-24
brahma-īśāna-purogamāḥ headed by Lord Brahmā and Lord ŚivaSB 8.4.1
brahma-ādayaḥ great personalities, headed by Lord BrahmāSB 8.21.5
brahmā the supreme four-headed demigodSB 10.2.25
brahma-rudra-ādyaiḥ headed by Brahmā and RudraSB 10.39.53-55
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 10.63.9
brahma-ādayaḥ headed by Lord BrahmāSB 11.7.17
brahma-mukhyāḥ headed by BrahmāSB 11.31.8
nava-brahma of the nine brāhmaṇas (the sons of Lord Brahmā, headed by Marīci)SB 12.12.14-15
brahma-ādika the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāCC Madhya 13.59
brahmā-ādi headed by Lord BrahmāCC Antya 16.76
brahmā-ādi by the demigods, headed by Lord BrahmāCC Antya 16.97
catur-mukha brahmāra of the four-headed Brahmā of this universeCC Madhya 21.81
bṛhadratha-mukhāḥ headed by BṛhadrathaSB 9.22.6
nanda-ādayaḥ ca and the men, headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.7.8
carama-udbhavaḥ the source of one hundred sons (headed by Śatajit)SB 5.15.16
catur-mukha four-headedCC Madhya 21.61
catur-mukha brahmāra of the four-headed Brahmā of this universeCC Madhya 21.81
apakṛṣṭa-cetanaḥ having degraded consciousnessSB 4.27.3
codayām āsa he goadedSB 10.43.5
dainyam the degraded conditionSB 10.30.34
dakṣa-ādayaḥ headed by King DakṣaSB 4.29.42-44
dakṣa-ādayaḥ headed by Mahārāja DakṣaSB 8.6.15
dandaśūka-ādayaḥ headed by the dandaśūka snakesSB 6.6.28
adbhuta-darśana by seeing the wonderful calamity (that the heavily loaded cart had broken upon the small baby, who still lay there unhurt)SB 10.7.8
dāruka-jaitra-ādīn headed by Dāruka and JaitraSB 10.71.12
kumbhakarṇa-daśa-grīvau known as Kumbhakarṇa and the ten-headed Rāvaṇa (in their next birth)SB 7.10.36
daśa-ānanaḥ the ten-headed RāvaṇaSB 9.15.21
daśa-āsya with ten-headed RāvaṇaSB 10.88.16
daśa-vaktram the ten-headed RāvaṇaSB 11.4.21
devaiḥ by all the demigods (headed by Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva)SB 7.9.2
devakī-ādyāḥ headed by DevakīSB 10.1.61
jaḍa-dhiyām who are dull-headedSB 5.2.8
dhṛṣṭadyumna-ādayaḥ headed by DhṛṣṭadyumnaSB 9.22.3
dhṛtadevā-ādayaḥ headed by DhṛtadevāSB 9.24.20
droṇa-bhīṣma-kṛpa-ādayaḥ headed by Droṇa, Bhīṣma and KṛpaSB 10.74.10-11
durātmā degraded soulSB 8.4.10
vṛṣa-durmarṣaṇa-ādikān begot sons headed by Vṛṣa and DurmarṣaṇaSB 9.24.42
khara-triśira-dūṣaṇa-mukhya-bandhūn many friends, headed by Khara, Triśira and DūṣaṇaSB 9.10.9
dvi-mūrdhan Dvimūrdha (two-headed)SB 7.2.4-5
dvija-uttamaiḥ by the chief brāhmaṇas (headed by Marīci)SB 10.39.53-55
gadā-ādayaḥ sons headed by GadāSB 9.24.52
gadādhara-paṇḍita-ādi headed by Śrī Gadādhara PaṇḍitaCC Adi 1.41
puraḥ-gāḥ headed bySB 10.35.14-15
viśvāvasu-puraḥ-gamāḥ headed by ViśvāvasuSB 3.20.39
nanda-puraḥ-gamāḥ headed by Nanda MahārājaSB 10.16.13-15
puraḥ-gamāḥ headedSB 10.42.34
nanda-puraḥ-gamān headed by Mahārāja NandaSB 10.24.2
śaunaka-ādi muni-gaṇa the great sages headed by Śaunaka MuniCC Madhya 24.126
sannyāsīra gaṇa the groups of Māyāvādī sannyāsīs, headed by Prakāśānanda SarasvatīCC Madhya 25.70
svarūpa-ādi-gaṇa the devotees, headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 14.98
svarūpa-ādi-gaṇa the devotees headed by Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 18.33
gandharva-nagara-prakhyāḥ headed by the illusory sight of a gandharva-nagara, a big palace within the forestSB 6.15.21-23
tulasī-ādi-gaṇe the plants and creepers, headed by the tulasī plantCC Antya 15.39
gaura-bhakta-vṛnda to the devotees of Lord Caitanya, headed by ŚrīvāsaCC Adi 10.2
brahma-indra-giriśa-ādayaḥ headed by Lord Brahmā, King Indra and Lord ŚivaSB 7.8.37-39
nanda-gopa-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda, the king of the cowherdsSB 10.41.8
nanda-gopa-ādayaḥ headed by Nanda GopaSB 10.42.38
gopībhiḥ by the elderly gopīs, headed by mother YaśodāSB 10.6.30
svarūpa-gosāñi-ādi all the devotees, headed by Svarūpa Dāmodara GosvāmīCC Antya 14.63
govinda-ādi headed by GovindaCC Madhya 13.89
govinda-ādi sabe all the devotees, headed by GovindaCC Antya 2.155
saundarya-ādi-guṇa-grāma the transcendental qualities, headed by beautyCC Madhya 21.104
kumbhakarṇa-daśa-grīvau known as Kumbhakarṇa and the ten-headed Rāvaṇa (in their next birth)SB 7.10.36
saundarya-ādi-guṇa-grāma the transcendental qualities, headed by beautyCC Madhya 21.104
mādhurya-ādi-guṇa-khani the mine of transcendental mellows, headed by sweetnessCC Madhya 21.117
harita-ādayaḥ headed by the HaritasSB 8.13.28
hata-rucaḥ having faded lustersSB 4.7.23
haya-āsye in the horse-headed incarnationSB 11.4.17
hayagrīva Hayagrīva (horse-headed)SB 7.2.4-5
hena such degradedCC Adi 7.120
hiraṇyagarbhāya situated as the four-headed Hiraṇyagarbha, BrahmāSB 8.16.33
ikṣvāku-pramukhāḥ headed by IkṣvākuSB 9.1.2-3
indra-ādayaḥ demigods headed by the heavenly king, IndraSB 2.1.29
brahma-indra-ādyāḥ headed by Brahmā and IndraSB 4.7.43