m. any offering or propitiatory oblation (especially an offering of portions of food, such as grain, rice etc., to certain gods, semi-divine beings, household divinities, spirits, men, birds, other animals and all creatures including even lifeless objects; it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or by throwing them into the air outside the house or into the sacred fire; it is also called bhūta-yajña-and was one of the 5 mahā-yajñas-,or great devotional acts; see) etc. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with the object, the receiver, the time, or the place of the offering)
m.Name of a daitya- (son of virocana-;priding himself on his empire over the three worlds, he was humiliated by viṣṇu-, who appeared before him in the form of a vāmana- or dwarf. son of kaśyapa- and aditi- and younger brother of indra-, and obtained from him the promise of as much land as he could pace in three steps, whereupon the dwarf expanding himself deprived him of heaven and earth in two steps, but left him the sovereignty of pātāla- or the lower regions) etc. (see)
m. tax, impost, tribute; offering, gift, oblation; offering of food (generally rice, grain, or ghee) thrown up into the air and made to living creatures, esp. birds (also called bhûta-yagña): very often --°ree; with the object, the time, the place, or material of the offering; handle (of a fly-whisk); N. of a Daitya, a son of Virokana, who obtained the sovereignty of the three worlds, but was deprived of it by Vishnu in the form of a dwarf after promising the latter as much land as he could measure in three steps; he was cast down by Vishnu to Pâtâla, which he was allowed to rule; N.; incorrect for vali, fold: -kara, m. pl. taxes and duties;-karman, n. performance of the Bali or food offering; -krit, a. paying taxes; -dâna, n. presentation of an offering or oblation.
Occurs several times in the Rigveda and often later in the sense of tribute to a king or offering to a god. Zimmer thinks that the offerings were in both cases voluntary. He compares the notices of the Germans in Tacitus, where the kings of the tribes are said to receive gifts in kind as presents, but not a regular tribute. There seems to be no ground whatever for this view. No doubt in origin the prerogatives of monarchy were due to voluntary action on the part of the tribesmen, but that the Vedic peoples, who were essentially a body of conquering invaders, were in this state is most improbable, and the attitude of the Vedic Indian to his gods was at least as compatible with tribute as with voluntary gifts. Zimmer admits that in the case of hostile tribes tribute must be meant even in the Rigveda. See also Rājan.
noun (masculine) a victim (often a goat or buffalo) offered to Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any offering or propitiatory oblation (esp. an offering of portions of food) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fragments of food at a meal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gift (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impost (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (son of Virocana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Siddha
name of a son of Sutapas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Indra in the 8th Manvantara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
oblation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
offering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
royal revenue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sulfur (Vāgbhaṭa (1952), 32)
tax (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the handle of a chowrie or fly-flapper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tribute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sulfur (?!? a substance?) Frequency rank 822/72933
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