Definition: personal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ，ब्रू in लट् or the pres. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st pers. (मिप्) cf. P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; cf. P. VII .1.34.