|ᳶ upadhmānīya ᳶ उपध्मानीय|
Definition: lit. blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w, or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; cf. उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा com. on Kāt. I:; : cf. also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.