Definition: (Nominal verb and accusative sg. n.and base in compound of 3. ya-), who, which, what, whichever, whatever, that etc. etc. (with correlatives tad-, tyad-, etad-, idam-, adas-, tad etad-, etad tyad-, idaṃ tad-, tad idam-, tādṛśa-, īdṛśa-, īdṛś-, etāvad-,by which it is oftener followed than preceded;or the correl. is dropped exempli gratia, 'for example' yas tu nārabhate karma kṣipram bhavati nirdravyaḥ-,"[he] indeed who does not begin work soon becomes poor" ;or the rel. is dropped exempli gratia, 'for example' andhakam bhartāraṃ na tyajet sā mahā-satī-,"she who does not desert a blind husband is a very faithful wife" yad-is often repeated to express"whoever","whatever","whichever", exempli gratia, 'for example' yo yaḥ-,"whatever man"; yā yā-,"whatever woman"; yo yaj jayati tasya tat-,"whatever he wins [in war] belongs to him" ; yad yad vadati tad tad bhavati-,"whatever he says is true", or the two relatives may be separated by hi-,and are followed by the doubled or single correl. tad- exempli gratia, 'for example' upyate yad dhi yad bījam tat tad eva prarohati-,"whatever seed is sown, that even comes forth" ;similar indefinite meanings are expressed by the relative joined with tad- exempli gratia, 'for example' yasmai tasmai-,"to any one whatever", especially in yadvā tadvā-,"anything whatever";or by yaḥ-with kaśca-, kaścana-, kaścit-,or [in later language, not in manu-] ko'pi- exempli gratia, 'for example' yaḥ kaścit-,"whosoever"; yāni kāni ca mitrāṇi-,"any friends whatsoever"; yena kenāpy upāyena-,"by any means whatsoever." yad-is joined with tvad-to express generalization exempli gratia, 'for example' śūdrāṃs tvad yāṃs tvad-,"either the śūdra-s or anybody else" ;or immediately followed by a Persian pronoun on which it lays emphasis exempli gratia, 'for example' yo 'ham-,"I that very person who"; yas tvaṃ kathaṃ vettha-,"how do you know?" ;it is also used in the sense of"si quis" exempli gratia, 'for example' striyaṃ spṛśed yaḥ-,"should any one touch a woman." yad-is also used without the copula exempli gratia, 'for example' andho jaḍaḥ pīṭha sarpī saptatyā sthaviraśca yaḥ-,"a blind man, an idiot, a cripple, and a man seventy years old" ;sometimes there is a change of construction in such cases exempli gratia, 'for example' ye ca mānuṣāḥ-for mānuṣāṃś-ca- ;the Nominal verb sg. n. yad-is then often used without regard to gender or number and may be translated by"as regards","as for", exempli gratia, 'for example' kṣatraṃ vā etad vanaspatīnāṃ yan nyag-rodhaḥ-,"as for the nyag-rodha-, it is certainly the prince among trees" ;or by"that is to say","to wit" exempli gratia, 'for example' tato devā etaṃ vajraṃ dadṛśur yad apaḥ-,"the gods then saw this thunderbolt, to wit, the water" yad-as an adverb conjunction generally ="that", especially after verbs of saying, thinking etc., often introducing an oratio directa with or without iti-; iti yad-,at the end of a sentence ="thinking that","under the impression that" exempli gratia, 'for example' yad-also ="so that","in order that","wherefore","whence","as","in as much as","since","because"[the correlative being tad-,"therefore"],"when","if" etc.; /adha y/ad-,"even if","although" yad api- idem or ' yathāṃśa-tas- etc. See p.841, columns 2 and 3 etc.' yad u-- evam-,"as - so" ; yad uta-,"that" ;"that is to say","scilicet" ; yat kila-,"that" ; yac ca-,"if","that is to say" ; yac ca-yac ca-,"both - and" ;"that"[accord. to after expressions of"impossibility","disbelief","hope","disregard","reproach"and,"wonder"]; yad vā-,"or else","whether" ;[ yad vā-,"or else", is very often in commentators];"however" ; yad vā-- yadi vā-,"if-or it" ; yad bhūyasā-,"for the most part" ; yat satyam-,"certainly","indeed","of course" ; yan nu-,with 1st Persian,"what if I","let me" )
Literary Sources: RV., R., Vet., Mn. vii , 96, Mn. ix , 40, S3Br., S3Br., Mn. viii , 394, Mn. x , 86, AitBr., S3Br., Ratna7v. ii , 28., RV., RV., Megh., S3vetUp., Ba1lar., Ka1ran2d2., DivyA7v., Prasannar., Car., DivyA7v., Pa1n2. 3-3 , 148, Ka1v., Ra1jat., Ba1lar., Bhag., DivyA7v., Mr2icch., Ratna7v., DivyA7v.
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