upaniṣad उपनिषद्

Definition: उपनिषद् f. [said to be from उपनि-सद् 'knowledge derived from sitting at the feet of the preceptor'; but, according to Indian authorities, it means 'to destroy ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit and cutting off the bonds of worldly existence'; यथा य इमां ब्रह्मविद्यामुपयन्त्यात्मभावेन श्रद्धाभक्तिपुरःसराः सन्तस्तेषां गर्भजन्मजरारोगाद्यनर्थपूगं निशातयति परं वा ब्रह्म गमयति अविद्यादि- संसारकारणं चात्यन्तमवसादयति विनाशयतीत्युपनिषद् । उपनिपूर्वस्य सदेरेवमर्थस्मरणात्; Śaṅkara] 1 Name of certain mystical writings attached to the Brāhmaṇas, the chief aim of which is to ascertain the secret meaning of the Vedas; Bv.2.4; Māl 1.7; (other etymologies also are given to explain the name:- (1) उपनीय तमात्मानं ब्रह्मापास्तद्वयं यतः । निहन्त्यविद्यां तज्जं च तस्मादुपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ or (2) निहत्यानर्थमूलं स्वाविद्यां प्रत्यक्तया परम् । नयत्यपास्तसंभेदमतो वोपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ or (3) प्रवृत्तिहेतून्निःशेषास्तन्मूलोच्छेदकत्वतः । यतोवसादयेद्विद्या तस्मा- दुपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ In the मुक्तकोपनिषद् 18 Upaniṣads are mentioned, but some more have been added to this number. They are said to have been the source of the six Darśanas or systems of philosophy, particularly of the Vedānta Philosophy. The more important Upaniṣads are:- ईशकेनकठप्रश्नमुण्डमाण्डूक्यतित्तिरः । ऐतरेयं च छान्दोग्यं बृहदारण्यकं तथा ॥. -2 (a) An esoteric or secret doctrine, mystical meaning, words of mystery; साङ्गोपाङ्गोपनिषदः सरहस्यः प्रदीयताम् Rām.1.55.16. (b) Mystical knowledge or instruction; मन्त्रपारायण˚ U.6; दिव्यामस्त्रोपनिषदमृषेर्यः कृशाश्वस्य शिष्यात् Mv.2.2. -3 True knowledge regarding the Supreme Spirit. -4 Sacred or religious lore. -5 Secrecy, seclusion. -6 A neighbouring mansion. -7 A lonely place. -8 A religious observance. -9 Me- ditation, यदेव विद्यया करोति श्रद्धयोपनिषदा तदेव वीर्यवत्तरं भवति Ch. Up.1.1.1. -1 One that takes to (like a boat); तस्योपनिषत्सत्यस्य सत्यमिति Bṛi. Up.2.1.2.


Dictionary: Apte
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