m.Name of the god who presides over the pitṛ-s (q.v) and rules the spirits of the dead etc. (he is regarded as the first of men and born from vivasvat-,"the Sun" , and his wife saraṇyū-;while his brother, the seventh manu-, another form of the first man, is the son of vivasvat- and saṃjñā-, the image of saraṇyū-;his twin-sister is yamī-, with whom he resists sexual alliance, but by whom he is mourned after his death, so that the gods, to make her forget her sorrow, create night;in the veda- he is called a king or saṃgamano janānām-,"the gatherer of men", and rules over the departed fathers in heaven, the road to which is guarded by two broad-nosed, four-eyed, spotted dogs, the children of śaramā-q.v;in Post-vedic mythology he is the appointed Judge and"Restrainer"or"Punisher"of the dead, in which capacity he is also called dharmarāja-or dharma-and corresponds to the Greek Pluto and to Minos;his abode is in some region of the lower world called yama-pura-;thither a soul when it leaves the body, is said to repair, and there, after the recorder, citra-gupta-, has read an account of its actions kept in a book called agra-saṃdhānā-, it receives a just sentence;in yama- is described as dressed in blood-red garments, with a glittering form, a crown on his head, glowing eyes and like varuṇa-, holding a noose, with which he binds the spirit after drawing it from the body, in size about the measure of a man's thumb;he is otherwise represented as grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hind and noose in the other;in the later mythology he is always represented as a terrible deity inflicting tortures, called yātanā-,on departed spirits;he is also one of the 8 guardians of the world as regent of the South quarter;he is the regent of the nakṣatra-apa-bharaṇī- or bharaṇī-, the supposed author of ,of a hymn to viṣṇu- and of a law-book; yamasyārkaḥ-Name of a sāman-)
यम a. [यम्-घञ्] 1 Twin, twinborn. -2 Coupled. -मः 1 Restraining, controlling, curbing; यमो राजा धार्मिकाणां मान्धातः परमेश्वरः Mb.12.91.42. -2 Control, restraint. -3 Self control. -4 Any great moral or religious duty or observance (opp. नियम); तप्तं यमेन नियमेन तपो$मुनैव N.13.16; यमनियमकृशीकृतस्थिराङ्गः Ki.1. 1. (यम and नियम are thus distinguished:-- शरीरसाधनापेक्षं नित्यं यत् कर्म तद् यमः । नियमस्तु स यत् कर्म नित्यमागन्तुसाधनम् ॥ Ak.2.49; See Malli. on Śi.13.23 and Ki.1.1 also. The yamas are usually said to be ten, but, their names are given differently by different writers; e. g. ब्रह्मचर्यं दया क्षान्तिर्दानं सत्यमकल्कता । अहिंसा$स्तेयमाधुर्ये दमश्चेति यमाः स्मृताः ॥ Y.3.312; or आनृशंस्यं दया सत्यमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् । प्रीतिः प्रसादो माधुर्यं मार्दवं च यमा दश ॥ sometimes only five yamas are mentioned:-- अहिंसा सत्यवचनं ब्रह्मचर्यमकल्कता । अस्तेयमिति पञ्चैते यमाख्यानि व्रतानि च ॥). -5 The first of the eight aṅgas. or means of attaining Yoga; the eight aṅgas are:-- यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयो$- ष्टाङ्गानि; Śāndilya Up.1.1.2. -6 The god of death, death personified, regarded as a son of the sun; he presides over the पितृs and rules the spirits of the dead; दत्ताभये त्वयि यमादपि दण्डधारे U.2.11. -7 A twin; धर्मात्मजं प्रति यमौ च (i. e. नकुलसहदेवौ) कथैव नास्ति Ve.2.25; यमयो- श्चैव गर्भेषु जन्मतो ज्येष्ठता मता Ms.9.126. -8 One of a pair or couple, a fellow. -9 N. of Saturn. -1 A crow. -11 A symbolical expression for the number 'two'. -12 Ved. A rein, bridle; पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः Ṛv.5. 61.2. -13 Ved. A driver, charioteer; अग्निं रथानां यमम् Ṛv.8.13.1. -14 N. of a deity who chastises beings for their misdeeds; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः Mb.12.2.3. -मम् 1 A pair or couple. -2 (In gram.) The twin letter of any consonant. -3 Pitch of the voice. -मी N. of the river Yamunā. -मौ (m. du.) 1 Twins; कथं त्वमेतौ धृतिसंयमौ यमौ Ki.1. 36. -2 N. of the Aśvins; यमौ यमोपमौ चैव ददौ दानान्यनेकशः Mb.14.61.38. -3 Nakula and Sahadeva; भीमार्जुनयमा- श्चापि तद्युक्तं प्रतिपेदिरे Mb.3.6.14. ˚मैथुनौ twins of different sex. -Comp. -अनुगः, -अनुचरः a servant or attendant of Yama. -अनुजा N. of the river Yamunā मघोनि वर्षत्य- सकृद् यमानुजा Bhāg.1.3.51. -अन्तकः an epithet of 1 Śiva. -2 of Yama. -अरिः, -घ्नः, -रिपुः &c. N. of Viṣṇu. -ईशम् the Nakṣatra Bharaṇī. -किङ्करः a messenger of death. -कीटः 1 a wood-louse. -2 an earth-worm. -कीलः N. of Viṣṇu. -कोटिः, -टी N. of a mythical town to the east of Laṅkā लङ्का कुमध्ये यमकोटिरस्याः Siddhāntaśiromaṇi. -घण्टः N. of an astrological Yoga (this is inauspicious). -जः a. twin-born, twin; यमजौ चापि भद्रं ते नैतदन्यत्र विद्यते Mb.3.14.19; भ्रातरौ आवां यमजौ U.6;4; also यमजात-जातक. -दंष्ट्रा 'Yama's tooth', the jaws of death. (-ष्ट्राः pl.) the last eight days of the month Aśvina and the whole of Kārtika (regarded as a period of general sickness). -दिश् f. the south. -दूतः, -दूतकः 1 a messenger of death. -2 a crow. -दूतिका tamarind. -देवता the asterism Bharaṇī. -द्रुमः Bombax Heptaphyllum (Mar. सांवरी). -द्वितीया the second day in the bright half of Kārtika when sisters entertain their brothers (Mar. भाऊबीज); cf. भ्रातृद्वितीया. -धानी the abode of Yama; नरः संसारान्ते विशति यमधानीजवनिकाम् Bh.3.112. -धारः a kind of double-edged weapon. -पटः, -पट्टिका a piece of cloth on which Yama with his attendants and the punishments of hell are represented (Mar. यमपुरी); याव- देतद् गृहं प्रविश्य यमपटं दर्शयन्न् गीतानि गायामि Mu.1.18/19. -पदम् a repeated word. -पाशः the noose of Yama. -पुरुषः Yama's servant or minister. -प्रियः the fig tree. -भगिनी N. of the river Yamunā. -यातना the tortures inflicted by Yama upon sinners after death, (the word is sometimes used to denote horrible tortures', 'extreme pain'). -रथः a buffalo. -राज् m. Yama, the god of death. -वाहनः = यमरथः q. v. -व्रतम् 1 an observance or vow made to Yama. -2 an impartial punishment (as given by Yama); यथा यमः प्रियद्वेष्यौ प्राप्ते काले नियच्छति । तथा राज्ञा नियन्तव्याः प्रजास्तद् हि यमव्रतम् ॥ Ms.9. 37. -शासनः the lord Śiva; यशो यदीयं यमशासनालय-क्षमाधर- स्पर्धनमाचचार सः Rām. Ch.2.12; (यमशासनालयः = हिमा- लयः). -श्रायम् the abode of Yama; यात यूयं यमश्रायं दिशं नायेन दक्षिणाम् Bk.7.36. -सभा the tribunal of Yama. -सूर्यम् a building with two halls, one facing the west and the other facing the north. -स्वसृ f. 1 N. of the river Yamunā; क्षणमिव पुलिने यमस्वसुस्ताम् Bhāg.3.4.27. -2 N. of Durgā.
a. (&asharp;, &isharp;) forming a pair; m. twin (du. twins; designation of the Asvins); N. of the male Twin of Yamî, the first man, son of Vivasvat (RV.); in the Veda Yama is the god who rules over the departed fathers in heaven; in C. he is regarded as the god of death, presiding in the lower regions (his name being supposed to mean subduer or punisher), younger brother of Manu (the first man), regent of the south, and reputed author of hymns and of a law-book; planet Saturn; n. pair.
Denotes ‘twins,’ the birth of which is frequently alluded to in Vedic literature. Twins of different sex seem to be indicated by the expression yamau mithunau. There are traces of the belief—widely spread among negro and other races—that twins are uncanny and of evil omen, but there are also vestiges of the opposite opinion, that twins are lucky.
Denotes ‘ twins,’ the birth of which is frequently alluded to in Vedic literature. Twins of different sex seem to be indicated by the expression yamau mithunau. There are traces of the belief—widely spread among negro and other races—that twins are uncanny and of evil omen, but there are also vestiges of the opposite opinion, that twins are lucky.
noun (masculine) a bad horse (whose limbs are either too small or too large) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a driver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a fellow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a rein (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a symbolical name for the number "two" (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a twin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bridle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
charioteer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
curb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (mentioned together with Atiyama) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the god who presides over the Pitṛs and rules the spirits of the dead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the planet Saturn (regarded as the son of Vivasvat and Chāyā) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of a pair or couple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restraint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suppression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of checking or curbing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] the root yam Frequency rank 434/72933
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