Donate
 
   
Select your prefered input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
11 results for tato
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tatoin compound for tas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatobhavatm. His (or Your) Highness there (see tatra-bh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatobṛhatīkamfn. having the bṛhatī- metre at that place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatonidānamfn. caused by that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gatatoyadamfn. cloudless, cleared up, fair, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatof. (a woman) who has borne children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nipītatoyamfn. (a river) whose water has been drunk by (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdarbhāmṛtatoṣiṇīf. Name of a commentator or commentary on the mugdhabodha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntatoyamfn. having calm or still waters, gently flowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satatotthitamfn. always intent upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitatotsavamfn. one who has arranged a festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
72 results
     
akṛta अकृत a. [कृ-कर्मणि क्तः, न. त.] 1 Not done, undone, unperformed; सर्वान् बलकृतानर्थानकृतान् मनुरब्रवीत् Ms.8.168; कृतं चाप्यकृतं भवेत् 8.117. -2 Wrongly or differently done; कृताकृतावेक्षणादौ ब्रह्मा ऋत्विङ् नियुज्यते इति याज्ञिकाः. -3 Incomplete, not _x001F_/ready (as food); अकृतं च कृतात्क्षेत्रात् (अदोषवत्) Ms.1.144. not cultivated (अनुप्तशस्यम् Kull.); कृतान्नं चाकृता- न्नेन (निर्मातव्यम्) 1.94 (सिद्धान्नं चामान्नेन Kull.) -4 Uncreated. -5 One who has done no work. -6 Not developed or perfected, unripe, immature. -ता One not legally regarded as a daughter and placed on a level with sons, (पुत्रिकात्वेन अकल्पिता); अकृता वा कृता वापि यं विन्देत्सदृशात्सुतम् Ms.9.136; according to some, a daughter who is not by a formal declaration but only mentally appointed to supply an heir for her father (अभिसंधिमात्रकृता वाग्व्यवहारेण कृता; कृता = यदपत्यं भवेदस्यां तन्मम स्यात्स्वधाकरम् इत्यभिधाय कन्यादानकाले वरानुमत्या या क्रियते Kull.). -तम् An unperformed act; non-performance of an act; an unheard-of deed; अकृतं वै प्रजापतिः करोति Ait. Br. -Comp. -अर्थ a.. unsuccessful. -अस्त्र a. unpractised in arms. -आत्मन् a. 1 ignorant, foolish, having an uncontrolled mind. -2 not identified with Brahma or the Supreme Spirit. -उद्वाह a. unmarried. -एनस् a. not sinful or guilty, innocent. -कारम् adv. as has not been done before; ˚रं करोति Kāś.III.4.36. -ज्ञ a. ungrateful. -धी, --बुद्धि a. ignorant; पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः Bg.18.16 through unrefined understanding. -व्रणः -1 N.of a commentator on the Purāṇas; V. P.; of a companion of Rāma Jāmadagnya; Mb. -2 not wounded.
acyuta अच्युत a. [न. त. स्वरूपसामर्थ्यात् न च्युतः च्यवते वा-काल- सामान्ये कर्तरि क्त] 1 Not fallen, firm, fixed; not giving way, solid; गरुडमूर्तिरिव अच्युतस्थितिरमणीया K.52 (अच्युत meaning 'Viṣṇu' and 'firm', 'fixed'); ˚क्षित् having solid ground. -2 Imperishable, permanent; ˚रुष् inveterate enmity. -3 [न च्योतति क्षरति; च्युत्-क. न. त.] Not melting away or perishing, not leaking or dripping. -तः 1 N. of Viṣṇu; of the Almighty Being; यस्मान्न च्युतपूर्वो$हमच्युत- स्तेन कर्मणा Bhāg. -2 गच्छाम्यच्युतदर्शनेन K.P.5. (where अ˚ also means 'one who is firm, does not yield to passions') -3 N. of a plant, Morinda Tinetoria. (Mar. बारातोंडी, शिर्दोली). -4 A sort of poetical composition containing 12 cantos. -Comp. -अग्रजः [ष. त.] N. of Balarāma or Indra. -अङ्गजः, -पुत्रः, -आत्मजः N. of Cupid, son of Kṛiṣṇa and Rukmiṇī. -आवासः, -वासः the sacred fig-tree. (Mar. पिंपळ). -जः [प. त.] a class of Jaina deities said to have been produced from Viṣṇu. -जल्लकिन् Name of a commentator of the Amarakośa. -स्थलम् N. of a place in the Punjab.
adhyāśayaḥ अध्याशयः (उत्कृष्टः आशयः कर्णिकाख्यः) the pericarp; अध्याशयो वा स्फुटपुण्डरीकं पुराधिराजं तदलञ्चकार । Bu. Ch.1.9. the commentator explains the word also as 'Jīva' अधि प्रधानभूत आशेते निवसति शरीर इत्यध्याशयो जिवः ।
anukartṛ अनुकर्तृ m. 1 An imitator. -2 Actor, performer.
andhas अन्धस् n. [अद्-असुन् नुम् धश्च; अदेर्नुम्धौ च Uṇ.4.25] 1 Food; द्विजातिशेषेण यदेतदन्धसा Ki.1.39; सशेष एवान्धसि असावतृप्यत् Dk.133,157 Viś. Guṇa.11; Mb.3.193.34. (supposed to have in the Veda the senses of Soma, the herb itself, or its juice; juice, ghee or boiled rice, but usually taken to mean 'food' only by Indian lexicographers and commentators. -2 Grassy ground उभे यत्ते महिना शुभ्रे अन्धसी अधिक्षियन्ति पूरवः Rv.7.96.2. [cf. Gr. andhos.]
apaghanaḥ अपघनः [अपहन्यते संहत्य कर्म कृत्वा वियुज्यते, हन्-अप्-घनादेशः P.III.3.77]. A limb or member of the body, as a hand or foot (cf. अङ्ग प्रतीको$वयवो$पघनो$थ कलेवरम् ।) (अपघनो$- ङ्गम् III.3.81; अङ्गं शरीरावयवः स च न सर्वं किं तु पाणिः पादश्चेत्याहुः Sk. and Kāśikā); but it is also used in the sense of 'the body'; लौहोद्घनघनस्कन्धा ललितापघनां स्त्रियम् Bk.7.62 (where the commentators take अपघन to mean the body itself). -a. Free from the obstruction of clouds; cloudless.
aparārkaḥ अपरार्कः The oldest known commentator of याज्ञवक्य- स्मृति. The name of his com. is अपरार्कचन्द्रिका.
abhinanda अभिनन्द a. That which delights, encourages, praises &c. -न्दः 1 Rejoicing, delighting, joy, delight. Bṛi. Up. 6.2.13. -2 Praising, applauding, approving, greeting, congratulating. -3 Wish, desire. -4 Encouraging, inciting to action. -5 Very little happiness (सुखलव). -6 An epithet of परमात्मन् the Supreme Being. -7 N. of a commentator on the अमरकोश. -8 N. of the author of the योगवासिष्ठसार. -न्दा Delight; wish, desire.
ambu अम्बु n. [अम्ब्-शब्दे उण्] 1 Water; गाङ्गमम्बु सितमम्बु यामुनम् K. P.1. -2 The watery element of the blood (cf. imber). -3 N. of a metre. -4 A term in astrology (लग्नावधिकं चतुर्थस्थानम्). -Comp. -कणः a drop of water. -कण्टकः (short-nosed), alligator. -कन्दः An acquatic plant Trapa bispinosa (Mar. शिंगाडा). -किरातः alligator. -कीशः, कूर्मः a tortoise (शिशुमार); particularly Gangetic. -केशरः lemon-tree (छालङ्गवृक्ष). -क्रिया libation of water; Bk.; presentation of water to the Manes of the deceased. -कुक्कुटी An acquatic hen. -ग, -चर, -चारिन् a. moving or living in water, aquatic (as fish &c.); अद्रिं दधाराम्बुचरात्मना Bhāg.8.5. 11; Ms.12.57. -घनः hail. -चत्वरम् a lake. -चामरम् an aquatic plant (शैवाल). -ज a. produced in water, aquatic (opp. स्थलज); सुगन्धीनि च माल्यानि स्थलजान्यम्बु- जानि च Rām. (-जः) 1 the moon. -2 camphor. -3 the Sārasa bird. -4 the conch; दध्मौ तारेण चाम्बुजम् Mb.7.173.9. -5 N. of a tree (हिज्जल). (-जम्) 1 a lotus; इन्दीवरेण नयनं मुखमम्बुजेन Ś. Til.3; A. Rām. 4.1.2. -2 the thunderbolt of Indra. ˚भूः, ˚आसनः 'the lotus-born god' Brahmā; A. Rām. ˚आसना the goddess Lakṣmī. -जन्मन् n. a lotus; -m. 1 the moon. -2 the conch. -3 Sārasa. -तस्करः 'waterthief', the sun (whose heat drinks up water). -तालः = ˚चामर. -द a. giving or yielding water. (-दः) 1 a cloud; नवाम्बुदानीकमुहूर्तलाञ्छने R.3.53; -देवम्, -दैवम् The astronomical mansion पूर्वाषाढा. -धर [धरतीति धरः, अम्बूनां धरः; धृ-अच्] 1 a cloud; वशिनश्चाम्बुधराश्च योनयः Ku.4.43; शरत्प्रमृष्टाम्बुधरोपरोधः R.6.44. -2 the plant मुस्तक. -3 talc. -धिः [अम्बूनि धीयन्ते अत्र; धा-कि] 1 any receptacle of waters; such as a jar; अम्बुधिर्घटः Sk. ˚-स्रवा Aloe perfoliata (Mar. कोरफड). -2 the ocean; क्षार˚ Bh.2.6. -3 the number four (in Math.). ˚प्रसवा N. of a plant (घृतकुमारी). -नाथः The ocean. -नामन् Andropogon muricatum (Mar. वाळा). -निधिः 'treasure of waters', the ocean; देवासुरैरमृतम्बुनिधिर्ममन्थे Ki.5.3. -प a. drinking water. (-पः) 1 the ocean. -2 Varuṇa, the regent of waters; रक्षो$म्बुपानिलशशीशपुराणि चाष्टौ Śid. Śir; शक्राम्बुपयमानां च चतुर्थस्त्वं भविष्यसि Rām.7.4.17. -3 N. of a plant (चक्रमर्दक; Mar.टाकळा). -पतिः Varuṇa; यथाम्बुपतिमित्रौ हि तारकं दैत्यसत्तमम् (अधावताम्) Mb.7.155.36. -पत्रा N. of a plant (उच्चटावृक्ष; Mar. फुरडी). -पद्धतिः f. -पातः current, flow or stream of water, cascade; गङ्गाम्बुपातप्रतिमा गृहेभ्यः Bk.1.8. -प्रसादः -प्रसादनम् [अम्बूनि प्रसादयति] the clearing nut tree (कतक Mar. निवळी). Strychnos Potatorum (the nuts of this tree are used for purifying water; when rubbed on the inner surface of the vessel, they precipitate the impurities which the water contains; (फलं कतकवृक्षस्य यद्यप्यम्बुप्रसादकम् । न नामग्रहणादेव तस्य वारि प्रसीदति) Ms.6.67. -भवम् a lotus. -भृत् m. 1 water-bearer, a cloud. -2 the ocean. -3 = ˚पत्रा q. v. -4 N. of a plant मुस्तक. -5 talc. -मात्रज a. produced only in water. (-जः) a conchshell. -मुच् m. a cloud; ध्वनितसूचितमम्बुमुचां चयम् Ki.5.12. -राजः 1 the ocean. -2 Varuṇa. -राशिः receptacle or store of water, the ocean; त्वयि ज्वलत्यौर्वं इवाम्बुराशौ Ś.3.3; चन्द्रोदयारम्भ इवाम्बुराशिः Ku.3.67, R.6.57;9.82. -रुह् n. 1 a lotus. -2 Sārasa. -रुहः, हम्, a lotus; विपुलिनाम्बुरुहा न सरिद्वधूः Ki.5.1. (-हा) N. of the land-lotus plant (स्थलपद्मिनी). -रोहिणी a lotus. -वाची [अम्बु तद्वर्षणं वाचयति सूचयति] an epithet applied to the earth during four days from the 1th to the 13th in the dark half of the month of Āṣāḍha when it is supposed to be unclean (रजस्वला इव) and agriculture is prohibited; Brav. P.2.77. ˚प्रदः the 1th day; ˚त्यागः 13th day. -वासिनी, -वासी N. of a plant (पाटला), the trumpet flower. -वाहः [अम्बु वहतीति] 1 a cloud; तडित्वन्त- मिवाम्बुवाहम् Ki.3.1; भर्तुर्मित्रं प्रियमविधवे विद्धि मामम्बुवाहम् Me. 11. -2 a lake. -3 water-bearer. -4 the number 17. -5 a sort of grass. -वाहिन् a. carrying or conveying water. -m. 1 a cloud. -2 = मुस्तक. (-नी) 1 a wooden vessel, a sort of bucket. -2 a woman fetching water. -3 N. of a stream. -विहारः sporting in water. -विस्रवा = घृतकुमारी. -वेग a. flowing quickly; यथानदीनां बहवो$म्बुवेगाः Bg.11.28. -वेतसः a kind of cane or reed growing in water. (Mar. लव्हाळा). -शिरीषिका N. of plant. -सरणम् flow or current of water. -सर्पिणी a leech (अम्बुनि सर्पति). -सेचनी a wooden baling vessel.
arjuna अर्जुन a. [अर्ज्-उनन् णिलुक् च Uṇ.3.58] (-ना, -नी f.). 1 White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च Rv.6.9.1; पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् Śi.1.6. -2 Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना Av.4.37.5. -नः 1 The white colour. -2 A peacock. -3 A sort of cutaneous disease. -4 A tree (Mar. अर्जुनसादडा), with useful rind; Mb.3.64.3. -5 N. of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (पृथिव्यां चतुरन्तायां वर्णो मे दुर्लभः समः । करोमि कर्म शुद्धं च तेन मामर्जनं विदुः). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṁvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛiṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛiṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharata-khaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛiṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛiṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu- on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. अर्जनः फाल्गुनो जिष्णुः किरीटी श्वेतवाहनः । बीभत्सुर्विजयः कृष्णः सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः ॥ -6 N. of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See कार्तवीर्य. -7 N. of a country Bṛi. S.14. 25. -8 The only son of his mother. -9 N. of Indra. -1 N. of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. अईन). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree. -नी 1 A procuress, bawd. -2 A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा Mb.13.73.42. -3 A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु˚ Av.2.24.7. -4 N. of Uṣhā, wife of Aniruddha. -5 N. of a river commonly called करतोया. -6 (न्यौ, -न्यः dual and pl.) N. of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावो$र्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते Rv.1.85.13. -नम् 1 Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् Av.5.28.5. -2 Gold. -3 Slight inflammation of the white of the eye. -4 Grass. -न (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् ...Nm. -Comp. -अभ्रम N. of a medicament. -ईश्वरतीर्थम् N. of a holy place. Siva P. -उपमः the teak tree; also शाकद्रुम and महापत्राख्यवृक्ष. -काण्ड a. having a white stem or appendage. बभ्रोरर्जनकाण्डस्य यवस्य ते Av.2.8.3. -च्छवि a. white, of a white colour. -ध्वजः 'white-bannered', N. of Hanūmat. -पाकी N. of a plant and its fruits. -बदरः The fibre of the Arjuna plant; अर्जुन- बदरा मेखलाः क्रियन्ताभू । ŚB. on MS.9.4.25 -मिश्रः Name of a commentator on the Mb. -सखिः (L.) Kriṣṇa. -सिंहः N. of a prince (Inscriptions).
ādhāraḥ आधारः [आ-धृ घञ्; आध्रियन्ते$स्मिन्क्रियाः इति Kāśi.) 1 Support, prop, stay; इत्याधारानुरोधात्त्रिपुरविजयिनः पातु वो दुःखनृत्तम् (Some annotators explain आधार as local conditions); Mu.1.2. -2 (Hence) Power of sustaining, aid, patronage, assistance; त्वमेव चातकाधारः Bh.2.5. -3 A receptacle, reservoir; तिष्ठन्त्याप इवाधारे Pt.1.67; चराचराणां भूतानां कुक्षिराधारतां गतः Ku.6.67; अपामिवाधारमनु- त्तरङ्गम् Ku.3.48; तोयाधारपथाश्च वल्कलशिखानिष्यन्दरेखाङ्किताः Ś.1.14; आधारः क्षमाम्भसाम् K.44; Y.3.144,165. -4 That which holds or contains, a vessel, recipient. -5 A part, character (in dramas); भेदैः सूक्ष्मैरभिव्यक्तैः प्रत्याधारं विभज्यते Mv.1.3. -6 A basin round the foot of a tree; आधारबन्धप्रमुखैः प्रयत्नैः R.5.6. -7 A dike, dam, embankment. -8 A canal. -9 The sense of the locative case, location, comprehension; आधारो$धिकरणम्; (आधार is of 3 kinds. -- औपश्लेषिक, वैषयिक, and अभिव्यापक see Sk. on P.I.4.45). -1 Relation. -11 A ray. cf. आधार आलवाले$म्बुबन्धे च किरणे$पि च Nm. -Comp. -आधेयभावः the influence, relation, or action of the support or recipient upon the thing received or supported; H.3.12. -चक्रम् N. of a mystical circle on the posterior part of the body; Rasikaramaṇa. -शक्तिः f. 1 Māyā or illusion. -2 the Supreme goddess.
ānandaḥ आनन्दः [आनन्द्-घञ्] 1 Happiness, joy, delight, pleasure; आनन्दं ब्रह्मणो विद्वान्न बिभेति कदाचन T. Up. supreme bliss of felicity; आनन्द एवास्य विज्ञानमात्मानन्दात्मनो हैवं सर्वे देवाः Śat. Br. -2 God, Supreme Spirit (ब्रह्मन्) (said to be n. also in this sense; cf. विज्ञानमानन्दं ब्रह्म Bṛi. Up.3.9.28.). -3 N. of the forty-eighth year of the cycle of Jupiter. -4 N. of Śiva. -5 N. of Viṣṇu. -6 N. of Balarāma (according to Jaina doctrines). -7 N. of a cousin and follower and favourite disciple of Buddha Śākyamuni, compiler of the Sūtras. -8 A variety of the Daṇḍaka metre. -दा, -दी N. of two plants (Mar. भाङ्ग, रानमोगरी). -दम् 1 Wine, liquor. -2 A kind of house. -Comp. -अर्णवः the delight of Brahman. -काननम्, -वनम् N. of Kāśi. -गिरिः, -ज्ञानः, -ज्ञानगिरिः N of a celebrated annotator on Śaṅkarāchārya. -ज a. caused by joy (as tears). -तीर्थः N. of Madhva, the founder of a Vaiśṇava school of philosophy. -द, -कर a. exhilarating, delighting. -करः The moon; दधार सर्वात्मकमात्मभूतं काष्ठा यथानन्दकरं मनस्तः Bhāg. 1.2.18. -दत्तः [आनन्दो दत्तो येन] the membrum virile. -पटः [आनन्दजनको पटः] a bridal garment. -पूर्ण a. delighted supremely, full of bliss. (-र्णः) the Supreme Spirit. -प्रभवः semen. -भैरव a. causing both joy and fear. (-वः) N. of Śiva. -लहरिः, -री f. 'wave of enjoyment', title of a small hymn by Śaṅkarāchārya addressed to Pārvatī.
āluḥ आलुः 1 An owl. -2 An esculent root (not applied to potato &c.). -3 Ebony; black ebony. -लुः f. A pitcher, waterjar. -लु n. A raft, float.
ālokakaḥ आलोककः A spectator.
āśayaḥ आशयः [आ-शी-अच्] 1 A bed-chamber, resting-place, asylum. -2 A place of residence, abode, seat, retreat; वायुर्गन्धानिवाशयात् Bg.15.8; अपृथक्˚ U.1.45. v. l. -3 Sleeping, lying down. -4 Receptacle, reservoir; विषमो$पि विगाह्यते नयः कृततीर्थः पयसामिवाशयः Ki.2.3; cf. also words like जलाशय, आमाशय, रक्ताशय &c.; कामात्पिबति चाशयान् Mb.12.236.24. -5 Any recipient vessel of the body; the Āśayas are 7:- वात˚, पित्त˚, श्लेष्मन्˚, रक्त˚, आम˚, पक्व˚ (and गर्भ˚ in the case of women). -6 The stomach; आशयाग्निदीप्तिः Dk.16. -7 Meaning, intention, purport, gist; अर्थेन्द्रियाशयज्ञानैर्भगवान्परिभाव्यते Bhāg.12.11.22. इत्याशयः; एवं कवेराशयः (oft. used by commentators; see अभिप्राय). -8 The seat of feelings, mind, heart; तन्मे दहति गात्राणि विषं पीतमिवाशये Rām.6.5.6. अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः Bg.1.2; Mv.2.37. -9 Disposition of mind; द्रव्यस्वभावाशयकर्मकालैरेकादशामी मनसो विकारः Bhāg.5.11.11. -1 Prosperity. -11 A barn. -12 Will or pleasure. -13 Virtue or vice (as the eventual cause of pleasure or pain). -14 Fate, fortune. -15 Property, possession. -16 A miser. -17 A kind of pit (made for catching animals); आस्ते परमसंतप्तो नूनं सिंह इवाशये Mb. -18 N. of a tree (पनस). -Comp. -आशः fire.
iti इति ind. 1 this particle is most generally used to report the very words spoken or supposed to be spoken by some one, as represented by quotation marks in English. The speech reported may be (1) a single word used merely to express what the form of the word is, when it is used as it is (शब्दस्वरूपद्योतक); कूजन्तं रामरामेति मधुरं मधुराक्षरम् Rāmarakṣā. अत एव गवित्याह Bhartṛi.; (2) or a substantive, which must be put in the nominative case when its meaning is to be indicated (प्रतिपदिकार्थद्योतक); चयस्त्विषामित्यवधारितं पुरा ... क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1.3.; अवैमि चैनामनघेति R.14.4; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुः R.1.12; sometimes with acc. कैवर्तमिति यं प्राहुः Ms.1.34.; Bg.6.2; (3) or a whole sentence when इति is merely used at the end of that sentence; (वाक्यार्थद्योतक); ज्ञास्यसि कियद् भुजो मे रक्षति भौंर्वीकिणाङ्क इति Ś.1.13; तयोर्मुनिकुमारयोरन्यतरः कथयति अक्षमालामुपयचितुमागतो- स्मीति K.151. -2 Besides this general sense इति has the following senses:-(a) Cause, as expressed by 'because', 'since', 'on the ground that', in English; वैदेशिको$स्मीति पृच्छामि U.; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् M.1.2, oft. with किम् q. v. (b) Purpose or motive, as expressed by 'that', 'in order that' शरीरस्य विनाशो मा भूदिति मयेदमु- त्क्षिप्य समानीतम् K.32; R.1.37. (c) Thus, to mark the conclusion (opp. अथ); इति प्रथमो$ङ्कः thus or here ends the first Act. (d) It is often used to include under one head a number of separate objects grouped together; पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दिगात्मा मन इति द्रव्याणि T. S. (e) So, thus, in this manner; इत्युक्तवन्तं परिरभ्य दोर्भ्याम् Ki.11.8. (f) Of this nature or description; गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति जातिः. (g) As follows, to the following effect; रामाभिधानो हरिरित्युवाच R.13.1. (h) As for, in the capacity of, as regards, showing capacity or relation; पितेति स पूज्यः, अध्यापक इति निन्द्यः, शीघ्रमिति सुकरं, निभृतमिति चिन्तनीयं भवेत् Ś.3. (i) It is often used with the name of an author to form an Avyayibhāva comp. इतिपाणिनि thus according to Pāṇini. (j) Illustration (usually with आदि); इन्दुरिन्दुरिव श्रीमानित्यादौ तदनन्वयः Chandr.; गौः शुश्चलो डित्थ इत्यादौ K. P.2. (k) A quotation or an opinion accepted; इति पाणिनिः, इत्यापिशलिः, इत्यमरः, विश्वः &c. (l) It is often used by commentators after quoting a rule in the sense of 'according to such a rule'; शकि लिङ् च (P.III.3.172) इति शक्यार्थे लिङ् Malli. Other senses mentioned are:- (m) Manifestation. (n) Order. (o) Arrangement. (p) Identity. (q) Proximity. (r) Visibility. (s) Excess or superiority. (t) Requiring. (इति स्वरूपे सान्निध्ये विवक्षानियमे मते । हेतौ प्रकार- प्रत्यक्षप्रकाशेप्यवधारणे, एकमर्थे समाप्तौ च ॥ Hem.). -Comp. -अर्थः sum and substance, meaning in short (often) used by commentators). -अर्थम् ind. for this purpose, hence. -आदि a. having such a thing or things at the beginning, so forth, et cætera (&c.). इत्यादिप्रचुराः पुरातन- कथाः सर्वेभ्य एवं श्रुताः Udb. -उक्तम् information, report. -कथ a. 1 not fit to be believed, untrustworthy. -2 wicked, lost. (-था) a meaningless or nonsensical talk. -कर्तव्य, -करणीय, -कार्य, -कृत्य a. proper or necessary to be done according to certain rules. (-कर्तव्यम्, -णीयम्) duty, obligation; श्रूयतामितिकर्तव्यं सर्वानेव ब्रवीमि वः Rām.2.68.5. एवं सर्वं विधायेदमितिकर्तव्यमात्मनः Ms.7.14 2. संसिद्धावितिकरणीयसंनिबद्धैरालापैः Ki.7.17. ˚ता, -कार्यता, -कृत्यता any proper or necessary duty, obligation; स मुहूर्तमिव घ्यात्वा विनिश्चित्येतिकृत्यताम् Mb.3.36.4. इति- कर्तव्यतामूढः wholly at a loss what to do, embarrassed, perplexed. -पाणिनि ind. Thus according to Pāṇini's very words. -मात्र a. of such extent or quality. -वृत्तम् 1 occurrence, event. -2 a tale, story.
īkṣakaḥ ईक्षकः [इक्ष्-ण्वुक्ष्] A spectator, beholder.
utsādanam उत्सादनम् 1 Destroying, overturning; उत्सादनार्थं लोकानाम् Mb.; Bg.17.19. -2 Suspending, interrupting. -3 Cleaning the person with perfumes, chafing the limbs; उत्सादनं च गात्राणां स्नापनोच्छिष्टभोजने । न कुर्याद् गुरुपुत्रस्य पादयोश्चावनेजनम् । Ms.2.29,211. अथ गन्धोत्सादने (v. l. त्सदने) वाससी । मानवगृह्यसूत्र of मेत्रायणीय शाखा and the commentator says : गन्धश्चन्दनादि । उत्सादनं उद्वर्तनं पक्वतैलादिना । उद्वर्तनोत्सादने द्वे समे । Ak. cf. also अभ्यङ्गोत्सादनं मूर्ध्नि तैलं जेन्ताकमातपं भजेत् &c. चरकसंहिता, सूत्रस्थान, chap. 6, verse 14. वात्स्यायन mentions it as one of the 64 Arts in his कामसूत्र. यशोधर says पादाभ्यां यन्मर्दनं तदुत्सादनमुच्यते । -4 Healing a sore. -5 Going up, ascending, rising. -6 Elevating. raising. -7 Ploughing a field twice (or thoroughly).
uvaṭaḥ उवटः N. of a commentator on ऋग्वेद प्रातिशाख्य.
airāvataḥ ऐरावतः [इरा आपः तद्वान् इरावान् समुद्रः तस्मादुत्पन्नः अण्] 1 N. of the elephant of Indra. ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणाम् Bg. 1.27. -2 An excellent elephant; a species of elephant; ऐरावतानैन्द्रशिरान्नागान्वै प्रियदर्शनान् Rām.2.7.23. -3 One of the chiefs of the Nāgas or serpent-race (inhabiting Pātāla); अहमैरावत ज्येष्ठभ्रातृभ्यो$करवं नमः Mb.1.3.139. -4 The elephant presiding over the east. -5 A kind of rainbow. -6 A kind of lightning; (said to be n. also in these two senses). -7 The orange tree. -तम् 1 A vast and waterless region. -2 (pl.) N. of a Varṣa. -3 N. of the northern path of the moon. -4 A kind of cloud; 'मेघस्योपरि मेघो यः स ऐरावत उच्यते' इति दक्षिणावर्तः (Commentator of मेघदूत). -ती 1 The female of Indra's elephant. -2 Lightning. -3 N. of a plant (वटपत्री) -4 N. of river Rāvi in the Panjab (= इरावती). -5 N. of a particular portion of the moon's path.
katham कथम् ind. [किम्-प्रकारार्थे थमु कादेशश्च] 1 How, in what way, in what manner, whence; कथं मारात्मके त्वयि विश्वासः H.1; अथ स वैद्यः कथम् Mu.2 'well, how did the physician fare'; सानुबन्धाः कथं न स्युः संपदो मे निरापदः R.1.64,3.44; कथमात्मानं निवेदयामि कथं वा$$त्मापहारं करोमि Ś.1 (where the speaker is doubtful as to the propriety of what he says). -2 Oh what indeed ! (expressing surprise); कथं मामेवोद्दिशति Ś.6. -3 It is often connected with the particles इव, नाम, नु, वा, or स्वित् in the sense of, 'how indeed', 'how possibly', 'I should like to know', (where the question is generalized); कथं वा गम्यते U.3; कथं नामैतत् U.6. -4 When connected with the particles चित्, चन or अपि it means 'in every way', 'on any account', 'somehow', 'with great difficulty', 'with great efforts'; तस्य स्थित्वा कथमपि पुरः Me.3; कथमप्युन्नमितं न चुम्बितं तु Ś.3.24; न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथंचन Ms. 4.11,5.143; कथंचिदीशा मनसां बभूवुः Ku.3.34; कथं कथमपि उत्थितः Pt.1; विसृज्य कथमप्युमाम् Ku.6.3; Me.22; Amaru.12,39,5,73; Pt.1. -5 Scarcely, hardly; कथमपि भुवने$स्मिंस्तादृशाः संभवन्ति Māl.2.9. -Comp. -कथिकः an inquisitive person. -कारम् ind. in what manner, how; कथंकारमनालम्बा कीर्तिर्द्यामधिरोहति Śi.2.52; कथंकारं भुङ्क्ते Sk; N.17.126. सो$हंकारं कथंकारं न करिष्यति मय्यरौ Śiva. B.15.17. -प्रमाण a. of what measure. -भावः what state. -भूत a. 1 how being. -2 of what nature or kind (oft. used by commentators). -रूप a. of what shape. -वीर्य a. of what power; Rām.3.
kullūkaḥ कुल्लूकः N. of learned commentator on Manusmṛiti.
kliśita क्लिशित क्लिष्ट p. p. 1 Distressed, suffering pain or misery. -2 Afflicted, tormented. -3 Faded. -4 Inconsistent, contradictory; e. g. माता मे वन्ध्या. -5 Elaborate, artificial (as a composition.). -6 Put to shame. -7 Wearied; hurt, injured. -8 Being in a bad condition, worn; पीतेनैकेन संवीतां क्लिष्टतोत्तमवाससा Rām.5.15.21. -9 Marred, impaired; Ś.5.19; Pt.1.11; Ś.6.1; disordered, Ś 7.14. -1 Dimmed, made faint; हिमक्लिष्ट- प्रकाशानि ज्योतींषीव मुखानि वः Ku.2.19. -11 Injured, hurt; Ś.6.19. -12 Bothersome, tedious; यथा शरीरो बालस्य गुप्ता सन्क्लिष्टकर्मणः Rām.7.75.4. (the commentator Rāma Tilaka gives क्लिष्टकर्मणः = शुभाचारस्य, which seems doubtful). -ष्टम् a contradictory statement. -Comp. -वर्त्मन् n. a disease of the eyelids.
kṣīraḥ क्षीरः रम् 1 Milk; हंसो हि क्षीरमादत्ते तन्मिश्रा वर्जयत्यपः Ś.6.28. -2 The milky juice or sap of trees, exudation; resin; ये तत्क्षीरस्रुतिसुरभयो दक्षिणेन प्रवृत्ताः Me.19; Ku.1.9. -3 Water; तिर्यग्वाहाश्च क्षीरिणः Rām.2.15.6. -रः See क्षीरस्वामिन्; क्षीराभिधाच्छब्दविद्योपाध्यायात्संभृतश्रुतः Rāj. T.4. 489. -रा -री N. of several plants containing a milky sap. -री A dish prepared with milk (Mar. खीर). -Comp. -अदः an infant, a sucking child. -अब्धिः 1 the sea of milk. -2 the अमृत; भो वैनतेय क्षीराब्धिः प्रारब्धो मथितुं सुरै Ks.22.186. ˚जः 1 the moon. -2 the Amṛita or nectar produced at the churning of the sea. -3 an epithet of Śeṣa. -4 a pearl. ˚जम् sea-salt. ˚जा, ˚तनया an epithet of Lakṣmī. -आह्वः the pine tree. -उदः cf. [P.VI.3.57 Vārt.] 1 the sea of milk; क्षीरोदवेलव सफेन- पुञ्जा Ku.7.26. ˚तनयः, ˚नन्दनः, ˚तनया, ˚सुता an epithet of Lakṣmī. -उत्तरा inspissated milk. -उत्थम् fresh butter. -उदधि = क्षीरोद q. v. above. -ऊर्मिः a wave of the sea of milk; R.4.27. -ओदनः rice boiled with milk; क्षीरौ- दनं पाचयित्वा Bṛi. Up.3.4.14. -कण्ठः -कण्ठकः a young child (having milk in the throat); त्वया तत्क्षीरण्कठेन प्राप्त- मारण्यकं व्रतम् Mv.4.52,5.11. क्षीरकण्ठाविमौ वत्सौ वत त्वन्मय- जीवितौ Śiva. B.2.24 and 5. -कुण्डम् a milk-pot; कश्चि- द्दुदोह कश्चिच्च क्षीरकुण्डमधारयत् Ks.63.188. -जम् coagulated milk. -दात्री yielding milk (as a cow). -द्रुमः the Aśvattha tree. -धात्री a wet-nurse. -धिः, -निधिः the sea of milk; इन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12. -धेनुः f. a milch cow. -नीरम् 1 water and milk. -2 milk-like water. -3 a fast embrace. -पः a child. -पाक a. cooked in milk; शतं महिषान् क्षीरपाकमोदनम् Rv.8.77.1. -पाणः an inhabitant of Uśīnara. (-णम्, -नम्) drinking milk. (-णी) any vessel out of which milk is drunk. -भृत a. supported by milk (as a Gopāla); receiving wages in the form of milk; गोपः क्षीरभृतो यस्तु Ms.8.231. -वारिः, -वारिधिः the sea of milk; गत्वा च क्षीरवारिधिम् Ks.22.188. -विकृतिः f. inspissated milk; any product made from milk (as cheese &c.). -वृक्षः 1 N. of the four trees न्यग्रोध, उदुम्बर, अश्वत्थ and मधूक. -2 the glomerous fig-tree. -व्रतम् living upon milk in consequence of a vow. -शरः cream, the skim of milk. -समुद्रः, -सागरः the sea of milk. यथा भगवता ब्रह्मन्मथितः क्षीरसागरः Bhāg.8.5.11. -सर्पिस् n. ghee (घृत). -सारः butter; क्षीरसारमपनीय शङ्कया स्वीकृतं यदि पलायनं त्वया Udb. -स्निग्ध a. unctuous with milky juice or sap; Ś.3.6. (v.l.) -स्फटिकः a precious stone. -स्वामिन् m. a commentator on the Amarakośa and a grammarian. -हिण्डीरः the foam of milk.
khaṇḍa खण्ड a. [खण्ड्-घञ्] 1 Broken, divided, torn asunder; ˚देवकुलम् Pt.2 a temple in ruins. -2 Having chasms, gaps or breaks. -3 Defective, deficient. -ण़्डः, -ण्डम् 1 A break, chasm, gap, fissure, fracture. -2 A piece, part, fragment, portion; दिवः कान्तिमत्खण्डमेकम् Me.3; काष्ठ˚, मांस˚ &c. -3 A section of a work, chapter. -4 A multitude, an assemblage, group; छित्त्वा कर्पूरखण्डान्वृतिमिह कुरुते कोद्रवाणां समन्तात् Bh.2.1; तरुखण्डस्य K.23; Māl.5.23, 8.1. -5 A term in an equation. -6 A continent. -ण्डः 1 Candied sugar. -2 A flaw in a jewel. -ण्डम् 1 A kind of salt. -2 A sort of sugar-cane. (In comp. -खण्ड means 'partial', 'incomplete'). -Comp. -अभ्रम् 1 scattered clouds. -2 the impression of the teeth in amorous sports; खण्डाभ्रमभ्रवेशे स्यात् तथा दन्तक्षतान्तरे Medinī. -आलिः 1 a measure of oil. -2 a pond or lake. -3 a woman whose husband has been guilty of infidelity. -इन्दुः the crescent moon. ˚मण्डनः the god Śiva; खण्डे- न्दुमण्डनाचार्यां मण्डनत्वमखण्डितम् Rāj. T. 1.28. -कथा a short tale. -कर्णः 1 a kind of bulbous plant. -2 sweet potato. -काव्यम् a small poem, such as the मेघदूत; it is thus defined : खण्डकाव्यं भवेत् काव्यस्यैकदेशानुसारि च S. D. 564. -जः a kind of sugar. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -धारा scissors. -परशुः 1 an epithet of Śiva. महश्वर्यं लीलाजनितजगतः खण्डपरशोः G. L.1; येनानेन जगत्सु खण्डपरशुर्देवो हरः ख्याप्यते Mv.2.33. -2 an epithet of Parasurāma, son of Jamadagni. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः 1 N. of Śiva. -2 of Parasurāma. -3 of Rāhu. -4 an elephant with a broken tusk. -पालः a confectioner. -प्रलयः 1 a partial destruction of the universe in which all the spheres beneath Svarga are dissolved in one common ruin. -2 a quarrel. -फलम् canned fruit; Gaṇeśa. P.1.147-57. -मण्डल a. gibbous, not full or round. (-लम्) the segment of a circle. -मोदकः a kind of sugar. -लवणम् a kind of salt. -विकारः sugar. -शर्करा candied sugar; दधिमण्डोदका दिव्याः खण्डशर्करवालुकाः Mb. 12.284.44. -शीला a loose woman, an unchaste wife.
khaṇḍaka खण्डक a. [खण़्ड्-ण्वुल्] Destroying, tearing, breaking to pieces, removing, &c. -कः, -कम् A fragment, part or piece; वृत्तः पार्श्वचरैरात्तकाष्ठखण्डकलाञ्छनैः Ks.24.121. -2 A term in an equation. -कः 1 Candied sugar. -2 One who has no nails. -Comp. -आलु n. sweet potato.
gata गत p. p. [गम्-क्त] 1 Gone, departed, gone for ever; Mu.1.25; किं गते सलिले सेतुबन्धेन, किं गते विवाहे नक्षत्रपरीक्षया Vb.4. 'what is the use of locking the stable-door when the steed is stolen ?' -2 Passed away, elapsed, past; गदायां रात्रौ. -3 Dead, deceased, departed to the next world; गत एव न ते निवर्तते Ku.4.3. -4 Gone to, arrived at, reaching to. -5 Being in, situated in, resting on, contained in; usually in comp.; प्रासादप्रान्तगतः Pt.1 seated on &c.; सदोगतः R.3.66 seated in the assembly; भर्तारं गता Ś.4.13 united to a husband; so आद्य˚; सर्वगत existing everywhere. -6 Fallen into, reduced to; e. g. आपद्गतः -7 Referring or relating to, with regard to, about, concerning, connected with (usually in comp.); राजा शकुन्तलागतमेव चिन्तयति Ś.5; भर्तृगतया चिन्तया Ś4; वयमपि भवत्यौ सखीगतं किमपि पृच्छामः Ś1; so पुत्रगतः स्नेहः &c. -8 Frequented, resorted to; सुहृद्˚ Ku.4.24. -9 Known, celebrated. -1 Directed towards, belonging to. -11 Known, understood. -तम् 1 Motion, going; गतमुपरि घनानां वारिगर्भोदराणाम् Ś.7.7; Śi.1.2, 7.4. -2 Gait, manner of going; Ku.1.34; हंस प्रयच्छ मे कान्ता गतिरस्यास्त्वया हृता V.4.16. -3 An event. -4 The place where one has gone. -5 Celebration, being known, diffusion; यावन्नाम्नो गतम् Ch. Up.7.1.5. -6 Manner. (As first member of comp. translated by 'free from', 'bereft of', 'deprived of', 'without'.) -Comp. -अक्ष a. sightless, blind. -अध्वन् a. 1 one who has accomplished or finished a journey; बलैरध्युषि- तास्तस्य विजिगीषोर्गताध्वनः R.4.46,11.33. -2 conversant, familiar (with anything); त्रिविधे मोक्षधर्मे$स्मिन्गताध्वा छिन्नसंशयः Mb.12.32.25. (-f.) the time immediately preceding new moon when a small streak of the moon is still visible; (चतुर्दशीयुक्ता$मावास्या). -अनुगतम् following custom or precedent. -अनुगतिक a. doing as others do, a blind follower; गतानुगतिको लोको न लोकः पार- मार्थिकः Pt.1.342 'people are blind followers or servile imitators'; Mu.6.5. -अन्त a. one whose end has arrived. -अर्थ a. 1 poor. -2 meaningless (the meaning being already expressed). -असु, -जीवित, -प्राण a. expired, dead; गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण़्डिताः Bg.2.11. -आगतम् 1 going and coming, frequent visits; आदित्यस्य गतागतैरहरहः संक्षीयते जीवितम् Bh.3.7; Bg.9.21; Mu.2.3; 4.1. -2 interchange of place; कष्टं स्मरामि तव तानि गता- गतानि Māl.9.47. -3 the flight of a bird backward and forward. -4 irregular course of the stars (in astronomy). -5 Narration of past and future; स सर्वमखिलं राज्ञो वंशस्याह गतागतम् Rām.7.51.23. -आधि a. free from anxiety, happy. -आयुस् a. decrepit, infirm, very old. -आर्तवा 1 a woman past her child-bearing. -2 a barren woman. -उत्साह a. disspirited, dejected. -ओजस् a. bereft of strength or energy. -कल्मष a. freed from crime or sin, purified. -क्लम a. refreshed; संविशेत्तु यथाकालमुत्तिष्ठेच्च गतक्लमः Ms.7.225. -चेतन a. deprived of sense or consciousness, insensible, senseless. -त्रप a. bold, without fear or shame; Bhāg.8.8.29. -दिनम्, -दिवसः the past day, yesterday. -दिनम् ind.. yesterday. -प्रत्यागत a. returned after having gone away; Ms.7.186. -प्रभ a. bereft of splendour, dim, obscured, faded. -प्राण a. lifeless, dead. -प्राय a. almost gone, nearly passed away; गतप्राया रजनी. -भर्तृका 1 a widow. -2 (rarely) a woman whose husband has gone abroad (= प्रोषितभर्तृका); किमु मुहुर्मुहुर्गतमर्तृकाः Śi. -मनस्क a. thinking of (loc.); सपदि गतमनस्कः (प्रियायाः केशपाशे) R. 9.67. -लक्ष्मीक a. 1 bereft of lustre or splendour, faded. -2 deprived of wealth, impoverished, suffering losses. -वयस्, -वयस्क a. advanced in years, aged, old; गतवयसामपि पुंसां येषामर्था भवन्ति ते तरुणाः Pt.1.1. -वर्षः, -र्षम् the past year. -वैर a. at peace (with), reconciled. -व्यथ a. free from pain; प्रत्तां दुहितरं सम्राट् सदृक्षाय गत- व्यथः Bhāg.3.22.24. -शैशव a. past child-hood. -श्रम a. unmindful of troubles; आदित्यपथमाश्रित्य जगाम स गतश्रमः Rām.6.74.5. -सङ्ग a. 1 free from attachment; गतसङ्गस्य युक्तस्य Bg.4.23. -2 adverse or indifferent to. -सत्त्व a. 1 dead, annihilated, lifeless. -2 base. -सन्नकः an elephant out of rut. -स्पृह a. indifferent to worldly attachments; गतस्पृहो धैर्यधरः कृपालुः Vaidyajīvanam.
gahvarita गह्वरित a. 1 Being in a hiding-place, concealed. -2 Absorbed (in one's thought); याज्ञसेन्या वचः श्रुत्वा कृष्णो गह्वरितोभवत् Mb.2.68.45 (here commentator Nīlakaṇṭha says गह्वरितः करुणातिशयाद्गद्गदकण्ठः).
gauḍaḥ गौडः 1 N. of a country; the स्कन्दपुराण thus describes its position :-- वङ्गदेशं समारभ्य भुवनेशान्तगः शिवे । गौडदेशः समाख्यातः सर्वविद्याविशारदः ॥ -2 A particular subdivision of Brāhmaṇas. -3 see गोण्डः above. L. D. B. -डाः (pl.) The inhabitants of Gauḍa. -डी 1 Spirit distilled from molasses; गौडी पैष्ठी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा Ms. 11.95. -2 One of the Rāgiṇis. -3 (In rhet.) One of the Ritis or Vrittis or styles of poetic composition; S. D. mentions four Ritis, while K. P. only three, गौडी being another name for पुरुषा वृत्ति; ओजःप्रकाशकैस्तैः (वर्णैः) तु परुषा (i. e. गौडी) M. P.7; ओजःप्रकाशकैर्वर्णैर्बन्ध आडम्बरः पुनः समासबहुला गौडी S. D.627. Here is an illustration : उन्मीलन्मधुगन्धलुब्धमधुपव्याधूतचूताङ्कुरः क्रीडत्कोकिलकाकंलीकलकलैरु- द्गीर्णकर्णज्वराः । नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथं कथमपि ध्यानावधानक्षणप्राप्त- प्राणसमासमागमरसोल्लासैरमी वासराः ॥ अलंकारशेखर 6. -डम् Sweet- meats; भोजनानि सुपूर्णानि गौडानि च सहस्रशः Rām.1.53.4. -a. Relating to or prepared from molasses; विविधानि च गौडानि खाण्डवानि तथैव च Rām.7.92.12. -Comp. -पादः N. of a commentator. -मालवः N. of a Rāga.
cakram चक्रम् [क्रियते अनेन, कृ घञर्थे< क नि˚ द्वित्वम् Tv.] 1 The wheel of a carriage; चक्रवत्परिवर्तन्ते दुःखानि च सुखानि च H.1.173. -2 A potter's wheel. -3 A sharp circular missile, weapon, a disc (especially applied to the weapon of Viṣṇu). -4 An oil-mill; दशसूनासमं चक्रं दशचक्रसमो ध्वजः Mb.13.125.9. -5 A circle, ring; कलाप- चक्रेषु निवेशिताननम् Ṛs.2.14. -6 A troop, multitude, collection, Śi.2.17. -7 A realm, sovereignty; स्वस्थं स्वचक्रं परचक्रमुक्तम् Bu. Ch.2.15; cf. चक्रं सैन्यथाङ्गयोः । राष्ट्रे दम्भान्तरे ... । Medinī. -8 A province, district, a group of villages. -9 A form of military array in a circle. -1 A circle or depression of the body. -11 A cycle, cycle of years. -12 The horizon; यावदावर्तते चक्रं तावती मे वसुन्धरा Rām.2.1.36. -13 An army, a host. -14 Section of a book. -15 A whirlpool. -16 The winding of a river. -17 An astronomical circle; राशि˚ the zodiac. -18 Circular flight (of birds &c.). -19 A particular constellation in the form of a hexagon. -2 Range, department in general. -21 The convolutions or spiral marks of the शालिग्राम. -22 A crooked or fraudulent contrivance. -क्रः 1 The ruddy goose (also called चक्रवाक); पद्मोल्लासविधायिनि सत्पथदीप्तिकृति चक्रभव्यकरे Viś. Guṇā.274. -2 A multitude, troop, group. -Comp. -अङ्गः 1 a gander having a curved neck. -2 a carriage. _x001F_+-3 the ruddy goose (चक्रवाक); चक्राङ्गान् स च नित्यं वै सर्वतो वनगोच- रान् Mb.12.268.36. (-ङ्गी) a goose. (-ङ्गम्) a parasol. -अटः 1 a juggler, snake-catcher. -2 a rogue, knave, cheat. -3 a particular coin, a dināra. -अधिवासिन् m. the orange tree. -अरः, (-रम्) the spoke of a wheel; चक्रारपङ्क्तिरिव गच्छति भाग्यपङ्क्तिः । Svapna.1.4. -अश्मन् n. a machine to hurl stones at a distance; अयःकणपचक्राश्म- भुशुण्ड्युद्यतबाहवः Mb.1.227.25. -आकार, -आकृति a. circular, round. -आयुधः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -आवर्तः whirling or rotatory motion. -आह्वः, -आह्वयः the ruddy goose; -ईश्वरः 1 'lord of the discus', N. of Viṣṇu. -2 the officer in charge of a district. -ईश्वरी N. of the Jaina goddess of learning. -उपजीविन् m. an oil-man. -कारकम् 1 a nail. -2 a kind of perfume. -गजः the plant Cassia Tora. -गण्डुः a round pillow. -गतिः f. rotation, revolution. -गुच्छः the Aśoka tree. -ग्रहणम्, -णी f. a rampart, an entrenchment. -चक्रम् A flock of चक्रवाक birds; अस्ताद्रिपद्मा- करचक्रचक्रे तत्कालविज्ञातपतङ्गपाते । सद्यो दिदीपे विरहानलः ...... । Rām. Ch.6.19. -चर a. moving in a circle; (-रः) a juggler. -चारिन् m. a chariot. -चूडामणिः a round jewel in a coronet or diadem. -जीवकः, -जीविन् m. a potter. -तीर्थम् N. of a holy place. -तुण्डः a kind of fish; रोहितांश्चक्रतुण्डांश्च नलमीनांश्च राघव Rām.3.73.14. -दंष्ट्रः a hog. -घनः a thunder cloud. -धर a. 1 bearing or having a wheel. -2 carrying a discus. -3 driving in a carriage. (-रः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu; चक्रघरप्रभावः R. 16.55. -2 a sovereign, governor or ruler of a province; वृद्धानां भारतप्तानां स्त्रीणां चक्रधरस्य च Mb.13.162.38. -3 a village tumbler or juggler. -4 a snake; भवेच्चक्रधरो विष्णौ भुजङ्गे ग्रामजालिनि Viśvalochana. -धारा the periphery of a wheel. -नदी the Gaṇḍakī river. -नाभिः the nave of a wheel. -नामन् m. 1 the ruddy goose (चक्रवाक). -2 a pyritic ore of iron. -नायकः 1 the leader of a troop. -2 a kind of perfume. -नेमिः f. the periphery or circumference of a wheel; नीचैर्गच्छत्युपरि च दशा चक्रनेमिक्रमेण Me.19. -पाणिः an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bg.11.49. -पादः, -पादकः 1 a carriage. -2 an elephant. -पालः 1 the governor of a province. -2 an officer in charge of a division of an army. -3 horizon. -4 a circle. -5 one who carries a discus. -फलम् a kind of discus. -बन्धुः, -बान्धवः the sun. -बालः, -डः, -वालः, -लम्, -डम् 1 a ring, circle. -2 a collection, group, multitude, mass; कैरव- चक्रवालम् Bh.2.74; प्रकटयसि कुमुच्चैरर्चिषां चक्रवालं Rati.4.16; Mv.6.4; Mu.3.21.; K.126,178. -3 horizon. (-लः) 1 a mythical range of mountains supposed to encircle the orb of the earth like a wall and to be the limit of light and darkness. -2 the ruddy goose. -बालधिः a dog. -भृत् m. 1 one who holds a discus. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -भेदिनी night. -भ्रमः, -भ्रमिः f. a lathe or grindstone; आरोप्य चक्रभ्रमिमुष्णतेजास्त्वष्ट्रेव यत्नोल्लिखितो विभाति R.6. 32; चक्रभ्रमीवद्धृतशरीरः Sāṅ. K.67. -भ्रान्तिः f. revolution of wheels; V.1.5. -मण्डलिन् m. a species of cobra. -मुखः a hog. -मुषलः a battle carried on with the discus and club. -यानम् a wheel-carriage. -रदः a hog. -वर्तिन् m. 1 an emperor, universal monarch, sovereign of the world, a ruler whose dominions extend as far as the ocean (आसमुद्रक्षितीश Ak.); पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12; तव तन्वि कुचावेतौ नियतं चक्रवर्तिनौ । आसमुद्रक्षितीशो$पि भवान् यत्र करप्रदः ॥ Udb. (where there is a pun on the word चक्रवर्तिन्, the other meaning being 'resembling in shape the ruddy goose', 'round'); -2 (hence) head, foremost; आपद्गतः किल महाशयचक्रवर्ती विस्तारयत्यकृतपूर्वमुदार- भावम् Bv.1.7; कवयस्तर्कयाञ्चक्रुरित्थं ते चक्रवर्तिनः Parṇal.5.38. -3 a kind of horse having one or three curls on the shoulder; स्कन्धपार्श्वे यदावर्त एको वा यदि वा त्रयः । चक्रवर्ती स विज्ञेयो वाजी भूपालमन्दिरे ॥ Śālihotra of Bhoj. -वर्मन् m. N. of a king of Kashmir; चक्रवर्माभिधं राज्ये क्षीणपुण्यो व्यपद्यत Rāj. T.5.287. -वाकः 1 (-की f.) the ruddy goose; दूरी- भूते मयि सहचरे चक्रवाकीमिवैकाम् Me.83. ˚बन्धुः the sun. -2 a kind of horse, having white feet and white eyes; श्वेताभः श्वेतपादश्च तथा स्यात् श्वेतलोचनः । चक्रवाकः स विज्ञेयो राजार्हो वाजि सत्तमः ॥ Śālihotra of Bhoj. -वाटः 1 a limit, boundary. -2 a lamp-stand. -3 engaging in an action. -वातः a whirlwind, hurricane; चक्रवातस्वरूपेण जहारासीनमर्भकम् Bhāg.1. 7.2. -वृद्धिः f. 1. interest upon interest, compound interest; Ms.8.153,156. -2 wages for transporting goods in a carriage. -व्यूहः a circular array of troops. -संज्ञम् tin. (-ज्ञः) the ruddy goose. -साह्वयः the ruddy goose. -हस्तः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
cūrṇiḥ चूर्णिः र्णी f. 1 Pounding, powder. -2 A sum of hundred cowries. -3 N. of Patañjali's Mahābhāṣya on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -4 A selection of an unanswerable argument. -Comp. -कृत् m. 1 an epithet of Patañjali. -2 an annotator, commentator.
juhotiḥ जुहोतिः A technical name for those sacrificial ceremonies to which the verb जुहोति is applied as distinguished from those to which यजति is applied; क्षरन्ति सर्वा वैदिक्यो जुहोतियजतिक्रियाः Ms.2.84. (See Medhātithi and other commentators; सर्वज्ञनारायण shortly renders जुहोति by उपविष्टहोम and यजति by तिष्ठद्धोम. See Āśvalāyana 1. 2.5 also); cf. also जुहोतिरासेचनाधिकः स्यात् MS.4.2.28. यजतिरेवासेचनाधिको जुहोतिः । ŚB. on MS.4.2.28.
toṭaka तोटक a. Quarrelsome. -कः N. of a commentator.
diś दिश् f. [दिशति ददात्यवकाशं दिश्-क्विप्] (Nom. sing. दिक्- ग्) 1 A direction, cardinal point, point of the compass, quarter of the sky; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो वबुः सुखाः R.3.14; दिशि दिशि किरति सजलकणजालम् Gīt.4. -2 (a) The mere direction of a thing, hint, indication (of the general lines); इति दिक् (often used by commentators &c.); इत्थं लौकिक- शब्दानां दिङ्मात्रमिह दर्शितम् Sk. (b) (Hence) Mode, manner, method; मुनेः पाठोक्तदिशा S. D.; दिगियं सूत्रकृता प्रदर्शिता; दासीसभं नृपसभं रक्षःसभमिमा दिशः Ak. -3 Region, space, place in general. -4 A foreign or distant region. -5 A point of view, manner of considering a subject. -6 A precept, order. -7 The number 'ten'. -8 A side or party. -9 The mark of a bite. 'दिग्दष्टे वर्तुलाकारे करिका नखरेखिका' इति वैजयन्ती; परिणतदिक्करिकास्तटीर्बिभर्ति Śi.4.29. [N. B. In comp. दिश् becomes दिग् before words beginning with vowels and soft consonants, and दिक् before words beginning with hard consonants; e. g. दिगम्बर, दिग्गज, दिक्पथ, दिक्करिन्, &c.] -Comp. -अन्तः end of the direction or horizon, remote distance, remote place; दिगन्ते श्रूयन्ते मदमलिनगण्डाः करटिनः Bv.1.2; Māl.2.9; R.3.4;5.67; 16.87. नानादिगन्तागता राजानः &c. -अन्तरम् 1 another direction. -2 the intermediate space, atmosphere, space. -3 a distant quarter, another or foreign country; संचारपूतानि दिगन्तराणि कृत्वा दिनान्ते निलयाय गन्तुम् R.2.15. -अम्बर, -वासस् a. having only the directions for his clothing, stark naked, unclothed; दिगम्बरत्वेन निवेदितं वसु Ku.5.72; एकाकी गृहसंत्यक्तः पाणिपात्रो दिगम्बरः Pt.5.15; Ms.11.21. (-रः) 1 a naked mendicant (of the Jaina or Buddha sect.) -2 a mendicant, an ascetic. -3 an epithet of (1) Śiva; (2) Skanda. -4 darkness. (-री) an epithet of Durgā. -अम्बरकः a naked mendicant (of the Jaina sect). -अवस्थानम् the air -आगत a. Come from a distance; Y.2.254. -इभः See दिक्करिन् &c. दिगिभाः पूर्णकलशैः Bhāg.8.8.14;5.14.4. -ईशः -ईश्वरः regent of a quarter; चतुर्दिगीशानवमत्य मानिनी Ku.5.53; see अष्टदिक्पाल. -कन्या, -कान्ता, -कामिनी, -वधू a region of the sky (considered as a virgin). -करः 1 a youth, youthful man. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -करिका, -करी a young girl or woman. -करिन्, -गज, -दन्तिन्, -वारणः m. one of the eight elephants said to guard and preside over the eight cardinal points; (see अष्टदिग्गज); दिग्दन्तिशेषाः ककुभश्चकार Vikr.7.1. -ग्रहणम्, -बन्धः observation of the quarters of the compass; Bṛi. S.24.9. संपूज्य शारिकांदेवीं दिग्बन्धादिपुरःसरम् Ks.73.116. -चक्रम् 1 the horizon; Ratn.3.5. -2 the whole world. -जयः, -विजयः 'conquest of the directions, the conquest of various countries in all directions, conquest of the world; सुनिश्चितपुरं चक्रे दिग्जये कृतनिश्चयः Rāj. T. 4.183; स दिग्विजयमव्याजवीरः स्मरः इवाकरोत् Vikr.4.1. -तटम् the horizon. -दर्शनम् 1 showing merely the direction, pointing out only the general mode or manner. -2 a general outline or survey. -3 a compass. -दर्शिन् a. looking on all sides, having a general view. -दाहः preternatural redness of the horizon; दैग्दाहः 'a conflagration of the regions of the sky' (regarded as an evil omen) N.12.92; cf. Ms.4.115. -देशः 1 a distant region or country; दृश्यन्ते कुलनिम्नगा अपि परं दिग्देशकालाविमौ Rāj. T.4.38,417. -2 region, country; H.1. -नागः 1 an elephant of the quarter of the compass; see दिग्गज. -2 N. of a poet said to be a contemporary of Kālidāsa. (This interpretation is based on Mallinātha's gloss on दिङ्नागानां पथि परिहरन् स्थूल- हस्तावलेपान् Me.14; which is, however, very doubtful.) -पतिः, -पालः the regent or guardian of a quarter; Rāj. T.4.225 (for the names of the several regents, see अष्टदिक्पालः cf. Ms.5.96;7.33 also); सूर्यः शुक्रः क्षमापुत्रः सैंहिकेयः शनिः शशी । सौम्यस्त्रिदशमन्त्री च प्राच्यादिदिगधीश्वराः ॥ -Jyotistattvam. -पथः the surrounding region; सैन्यैर्नाना- पथायातैर्नदद्भिर्व्याप्तदिक्पथः Rāj. T.5.342. -भागः a point of the compass, direction. -भ्रमः perplexity about points of the compass, mistaking the way or direction; Vikr.5.66. -मण्डलम् = दिक्चक्रम् q.v. -मात्रम् the mere direction or indication. -मुखम् any quarter or part of the sky; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् V.3.6; Amaru.5. -मोहः mistaking the way or direction. -यात्रा a procession in different directions. -वसन, -वस्त्र a. stark naked, unclothed. (-स्त्रः) 1 a Jaina or Buddhist mendicant of the दिगम्बर class. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -विभा- वित a. renowned or celebrated in all quarters. -शूलम् a bad yoga in Astronomy; cf. शुक्रादित्यदिने न वारुणदिशं न ज्ञे कुजे चोत्तरां मन्देन्दोश्च दिने न शक्रककुभं याम्यां गुरौ न व्रजेत् । शूलानीति विलङ्घ्य यान्ति मनुजा ये वित्तलाभाशया भ्रष्टाशाः पुनरापतन्ति यदि ते शुक्रेण तुल्या अपि ॥ Jyotissārasaṅgraha. -साधनम् a means to make the journey in various quarters successful.
dhūmaḥ धूमः [धू-कम्पे मक्] 1 Smoke, vapour; शिरांस्यपातयत्त्रीणि वेगवद्भिस्त्रिभिः शरैः । सधूमशोणितोद्गारी रामबाणाभिपीडितः ॥ Rām. 3.27.18. धूमज्योतिःसलिलमरुतां सन्निपातः क्व मेघः Me.5. -2 Mist, haze. -3 (a) A meteor. (b) The fall of a meteor. -4 A cloud. -5 Smoke inhaled (as a sternutatory). -6 Belch, eructation. -7 A place prepared for the building of a house. -Comp. -आभ a. of a smoky appearance, smoke-coloured. (-भः) purple. -आवलिः f. a wreath or cloud of smoke. -उत्थम् ammoniac. -उद्गारः 1 issuing of smoke or vapour; धूमोद्गारानुकृतिनिपुणा जर्जरा निष्पतन्ति Me.71. -2 eructation, belch. -उपहत a suffocated by smoke. -ऊर्णा N. of the wife of Yama. ˚पतिः an epithet of Yama. -केतनः, -केतुः 1 fire; कोपस्य नन्दकुलकाननधूमकेतोः Mu.1.1; R.11.81. -2 a meteor, comet, falling star; धूमकेतुमिव किमपि करालम् Gīt.1; धूम- केतुरिवोत्थितः Ku.2.32. -3 Ketu. -4 a kind of horse; पृष्ठवंशे यदावर्त एकः संपरिलक्ष्यते । धूमकेतुरिति ख्यातः स त्याज्यो दूरतो नृपैः ॥ Aśvachikitsā. -5 N. of the sun; Mb. -ग्रहः Rāhu; दुर्दर्शनेन घटतामियमप्यनेन धूमग्रहेण विमला शशिनः कलेव Māl.2.8. -जः a cloud. ˚अङ्गजम् ammoniac. -ध्वजः fire. -निर्गमनम् a chimney. -प a. inhaling only smoke as a sort of penance; इन्द्रेण सहिताः सर्वे आगता यज्ञभागिनः । ऊष्मपाः सोमपाश्चैव धूमपा आज्यपास्तथा Mb.12.284.8. -पथः 1 a sacrifice. -2 seeking salvation by religious works; (कर्ममार्ग); जगर्ह सामर्षविपन्नया गिरा शिवद्विषं धूमपथश्रमस्मयम् Bhāg.4.4.1. -3 an air-hole, a window. -पानम् inhaling smoke or vapour. -प्राश a. feeding only on smoke (as a hermit). -महिषी fog, mist. योनिः a cloud; cf. Me.5. -लता a mass of curling smoke; कोपानलबहुल- लोलधूमलताम् (शिखाम्) Mu.1.9.
nastaḥ नस्तः The nose. -स्तम् A sternutatory, snuff. -स्ता A hole bored in the septum of the nose. -Comp. -ऊतः an ox led by a string through the nose.
nasya नस्य a. [नासिकायै हितं तत्र भवं वा यत् नसादेशः] Nasal. -स्यम् 1 The hairs in the nose. -2 A sternutatory; कुरुते मूढ एवं हि यः श्रेयो नाधिगच्छति । धूपैरञ्जनयोगैश्च नस्यकर्मभि- रेव च ॥ Mb.12.14.34. -स्या 1 The nose. -2 The string through the nose of an animal; नस्यागृहीतो$पि धुवन्विषाण- योर्युगम् Śi.12.1.
nāvanam नावनम् A sternutatory.
nibanddha निबन्द्ध m. 1 A writer, author; निबन्द्धा यस्त्वेषां स खलु निखिले$स्मिन् कविवृषा B. R.1.11. -2 A commentator. -3 A binder.
niṣkarṣaḥ निष्कर्षः 1 Drawing out, extraction. -2 The essence, the chief or main point, pith; इति निष्कर्षः (often used by commentators); एतद्विदन्तो विद्वांसस्त्रयीनिष्कर्षमन्वहम् Ms. 4.125; Bhāṣā P.138. -3 Measuring. -4 Certainty, ascertainment. -षम् Oppressing subjects by taxes; विशेषात् सर्वमेवैतत् संजज्ञे राजकर्मणा । अनुकर्षं च निष्कर्षं व्याधिपावक- मूर्छनम् ॥ Mb.2.13.13. (com. निष्कर्षं करार्थं प्रजापीडनम्.)
netram नेत्रम् [नयति नीयते वा अनेन नी-ष्ट्रन्] 1 Leading, conducting, directing; कर्मणा दैवनेत्रेण जन्तुदेहोपपत्तये Bhāg.3.31.1. -2 The eye; प्रायेण गृहिणीनेत्राः कन्यार्थेषु कृटुम्बिनः Ku.6.85; 2.29,3;7.13. -3 The string of a churning-stick; मन्थानं मन्दरं कृत्वा तथा नेत्रं च वासुकिम् Mb.1.18.13; Bhāg. 8.6.22. -4 Woven silk, a fine silken garment; नेत्र- क्रमेणोपरुरोध सूर्यम् R.7.39. (where some commentators take नेत्रम् in its ordinary sense of the 'eye'). -5 The root of a tree. -6 An enema pipe. -7 A carriage, conveyance in general. -8 The number 'two'. -9 A leader; सूर्योदये सञ्जय के नु पूर्वं युयुत्सवो हृष्यमाणा इवासन् । मामका वा भीष्मनेत्राः समीपे पाण्डवा वा भीमनेत्रास्तदानीम् ॥ Mb.6.2.1. -1 A constellation, star. (said to be m. only in these two senses). -11 A river; Nm. -12 A kind of vein; Nm. -13 A bug; Nm. -14 A bark of a tree; Nm. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् a collyrium for the eyes; Ś. Til.7. -अतिथि a. One who has become visible. -अन्तः the outer corner of the eye. -अम्बु, -अम्भस् n. tears. -अभिष्यन्दः running of the eyes, a kind of eye-disease -अरिः Euphorbia Antiquorum (Mar. निवडुंग, शेर). -आमयः ophthalmia. -उत्सवः any pleasing or beautiful object. -उपमम् the almond fruit. -औषधम् 1 collyrium -2 green sulphate of iron (Mar. हिराकस). -कार्मणम् a spell for the eyes; Vikr. -कनीनिका the pupil of the eye. -कूटः, -टम् a front apartment, a side-hall, a corner tower; प्रधानावासनेत्रस्थनेत्रकूटद्वयं न्यसेत् Kāmikāgama 35.75. -कोषः 1 the eye-ball. -2 the bud of a flower. -गोचर a. within the range of sight, perceptible, visible. -चपल a. restless with the eyes, winking; न नेत्रचपलो$नृजुः Ms.4.177. -छदः the eyelid. -जम्, -जलम्, -वारि n. tears. -र्निसिन् a. kissing or touching the eye (sleep). -पत्रम् the eye-brows. -पर्यन्त a. as far as the eye, up to the eye. (-तः) the outer corner of the eye. -पाकः inflammation of the eye; Suśr. -पिण़्डः 1 the eye-ball. -2 a cat. -बन्धः hood-winking, playing at hide-and-seek; Bhāg. -भवः, -मलम् the mucus of the eyes. -मुष् a. stealing or captivating the eye. -योनिः 1 an epithet of Indra (who had on his body a thousand marks resembling the female organ inflicted by the curse of Gautama). -2 the moon. -रञ्जनम् a collyrium. -रोमन् n. the eyelash. -वस्तिः m., f. a clyster-pipe with a bag. -वस्त्रम् a veil over the eye, the eyelid. -विष् f. excretion of the eyes. -विष a. having poison in the eyes (the Brāhmaṇa); Mb.2. -स्तम्भः rigidity of the eyes.
pañcan पञ्चन् num. a. (Always pl., nom. and acc. पञ्च) Five. (As the first member of comp. पञ्चन् drops its final न्). [cf. Gr. pente.] -Comp. -अंशः the fifth part, a fifth. -अग्निः 1 an aggregate of five sacred fires; i. e. (अन्वाहार्यपचन or दक्षिण, गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय, सभ्य, and आव- सथ्य). -2 a householder who maintains the five sacred fires; पञ्चाग्नयो धृतव्रताः Māl.1; Ms.3.185. -3 five mystic fires supposed to exist in the body; तेजो ह्यग्निस्तथा क्रोधश्चक्षुरूष्मा तथैव च । अग्निर्जरयते यच्च पञ्चाग्नेयाः शरीरिणः ॥ Mb.12.184.21. -4 one who is acquainted with the doctrine of these fires. ˚साधनम् four fires on four sides and the sun above the head. This is a form of penance. -अङ्ग a. five-membered, having five parts or divisions as in पञ्चाङ्गः प्रणामः (i. e. बाहुभ्यां चैव जानुभ्यां शिरसा वक्षसा दृशा); कृतपञ्चाङ्गविनिर्णयो नयः Ki.2.12. (see Malli. and Kāmandaka quoted by him); पञ्चाङ्गमभिनयमुपदिश्य M.1; चित्ताक्षिभ्रूहस्तपादैरङ्गैश्चेष्टादिसाम्यतः । पात्राद्यवस्थाकरणं पञ्चाङ्गे$भिनयो मतः ॥ (-ङ्गः) 1 a tortoise or turtle. -2 a kind of horse with five spots in different parts of his body. (-ङ्गी) a bit for horses. -(ङ्गम्) 1 collection or aggregate of five parts. -2 five modes of devotion (silent prayer, oblations, libations, bathing idols and feeding Brāhmaṇas) -3 the five parts of a tree; त्वक्पत्रकुसुमं मूलफलमेकस्य शाखिनः । एकत्र मिलितं चैतत् पञ्चाङ्ग- मिति संज्ञितम् ॥ -4 a calendar or almanac, so called because it treats of five things:-- (तिथिर्वारश्च नक्षत्रं योगः करणमेव च); चतुरङ्गबलो राजा जगतीं वशमानयेत् । अहं पञ्चा- ङ्गबलवानाकाशं वशमानये ॥ Shbhāṣ. ˚गुप्तः a turtle. ˚पत्रम् a calendar. ˚विनिर्णयः the five rules are as follows; सहायाः साधनोपाया विभागो देशकालयोः । विनिपातप्रतीकारः सिद्धिः पञ्चाङ्ग- मिष्यते ॥ Kāmandak; cf. Ki.2.12. ˚शुद्धिः f. the propitiousness or favourable state of five important points; i. e. तिथि, वार, नक्षत्र, योग and करण (in astrology). -अङ्गिक a. five-membered. -अङ्गुल a. (-ला or -ली f.) measuring five fingers. (-लः) the castor-oil plant. -अ(आ)जम् the five products of the goat; cf. पञ्चगव्य. -अतिग a. liberated (मुक्त); सो$पि पञ्चातिगो$भवत् Mb. 12.59.9. -अप्सरस् n. N. of a lake, said to have been created by the sage Mandakarni; cf. R.13.38. -अमरा The five plants i. e. (Mar. भांग, दूर्वा, बेल, निर्गुडी and तुळस. -अमृत a. consisting of 5 ingredients. -(तम्) 1 the aggregate of five drugs; dry ginger, a species of Moonseed (Cocculus cordifolius, Mar. गुळवेल), Asparagus recemosus (Mar. शतावरी), Hypoxis brevifolia (Mar. मुसळी), गोक्षुरक (Mar. गोखरूं). -2 the collection of five sweet things used in worshipping deities; (दुग्धं च शर्करा चैव घृतं दधि तथा मधु). -3 the five elements; Māl.5.2. -अम्लम् the aggregate of five acid plants (the jujube, pomegranate, sorrel, spondias and citron). -अर्चिस् m. the planet Mercury. -अवयव a. five-membered (as a syllogism, the five members being, प्रतिज्ञा, हेतु, उदाहरण, उपनय and निगमन q. v.). -अवस्थः a corpse (so called because it is resolved into the five elements) cf. पञ्चत्व below. -अविकम् the five products of the sheep; cf. पञ्चगव्य. -अशीतिः f. eighty-five. -अहः a period of five days. -आतप a. doing penance with five fires. (i. e. with four fires and the sun); cf. R.13.41. -आत्मक a. consisting of five elements (as body). -आननः, -आस्यः, -मुखः, -वक्त्रः 1 epithets of Śiva. -2 a lion (so called because its mouth is generally wide open; पञ्चम् आननं यस्य), (often used at the end of names of learned men to express great learning or respect; न्याय˚, तर्क˚ &c. e. g. जगन्नाथतर्कपञ्चानन); see पञ्च a. -3 the sign Leo of the zodiac. (-नी) an epithet of Durgā. -आम्नायाः m. (pl.) five Śāstras supposed to have proceeded from the five mouths of Śiva. -आयतनी, -नम् a group of five deities like गणपति, विष्णु, शंकर, देवी and सूर्य. -इन्द्रियम् an aggregate of the five organs (of sense or actions; see इन्द्रियम्). -इषुः, -बाणः, -शरः epithets of the god of love; (so called because he has five arrows; their names are:-- अरविन्दमशोकं च चूतं च नवमल्लिका । नीलोत्पलं च पञ्चैते पञ्चबाणस्य सायकाः ॥ the five arrows are also thus named:-- संमोहनोन्मादनौ च शोषणस्तापनस्तथा । स्तम्भनश्चेति कामस्य पञ्चबाणाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥). -उपचारः the five articles of worship i. e. (गन्ध, पुष्प, धूप, दीप and नैवेद्य). -उष्मन् m. (pl.) the five digestive fires supposed to be in the body. -कपाल a. prepared or offered in five cups. -कर्ण a. branded in the ear with the number 'five' (as cattle &c.); cf. P.VI.3.115. -कर्मन् n. (in medicine) the five kinds of treatment; i. e. 1 वमन 'giving emetics'; 2 रेचन 'purging'; 3 नस्य 'giving strenutatories'; 4 अनुवासन 'administering an enema which is oily', and 5 निरूह 'administering an enema which is not oily. वमनं रेचनं नस्यं निरूहश्चानुवासनम् । पञ्चकर्मेदमन्यश्च ज्ञेयमुत्क्षेपणादिकम् ॥ -कल्याणकः a horse with white feet and a white mouth. -कषाय a decoction from the fruits of five plants (जम्बु, शाल्मलि, वाट्याल, बकुल and बदर). -कृत्यम् the five actions by which the Supreme Power manifests itself (सृष्टि, स्थिति, संहार, तिरोभाव and अनुग्रह- करण). -कृत्वस् ind. five times. -कृष्णः A kind of game. (-ष्णाः) The five deities of Mahānubhāva sect namely चक्रवर्ती कृष्ण, Datta of Mātāpura, Gundam Raul of ऋद्धिपुर, चांगदेव राऊळ of द्वारावती and चांगदेव राऊळ of प्रतिष्ठान. -कोणः a pentagon. -कोलम् the five spices taken collectively; पिप्पली पिप्पलीमूलं चव्यचित्रकनागरम् । पञ्चकोलं ......... (Mar. पिंपळी, पिंपळमूळ, चवक, चित्रक व सुंठ). -कोषाः m. (pl.) the five vestures or wrappers supposed to invest the soul; they are:-- अन्नमयकोष or the earthly body (स्थूलशरीर); प्राणमयकोष the vesture of the vital airs; मनो- मयकोष the sensorial vesture; विज्ञानमयकोष the cognitional vesture (these three form the लिङ्गशरीर); and आनन्द- मयकोष the last vesture, that of beatitude. कोषैरन्नमयाद्यैः पञ्चभिरात्मा न संवृतो भाति । निजशक्तिसमुप्तन्नैः शैवालप़टलैरिवाम्बु वापीस्थम् ॥ Vivekachūdāmaṇi. -क्रोशी 1 a distance of five Kroṣas. -2 N. of the city, Banares. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी a collection of five beds. -गत a. (in alg.) raised to the fifth power. -गवम् a collection of five cows. -गव्यम् the five products of the cow taken collectively; i. e. milk, curds, clarified butter or ghee, urine, and cowdung (क्षीरं दधि तथा चाज्यं मूत्रं गोमयमेव च). -गु a. bought with five cows. -गुण a. five-fold. (-णाः) the five objects of sense (रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द). (-णी) the earth. -गुप्तः 1 a tortoise (as drawing in its 4 feet and head). -2 the materialistic system of philosophy, the doctrines of the Chārvākas. -घातः (in music) a kind of measure. -चत्वारिंश a. forty-fifth. -चत्वारिंशत् f. forty-five. -चामरम् N. of 2 kinds of metre; प्रमाणिकापदद्वयं वदन्ति पञ्चचामरम् Vṛittaratnākara. -जनः 1 a man, mankind. -2 N. of a demon who had assumed the form of a conch-shell, and was slain by Kṛiṣṇa; तस्मै प्रादाद्वरं पुत्रं मृतं पञ्चजनोदरात् Bhāg.3.3.2. -3 the soul. -4 the five classes of beings; i. e. gods, men, Gandharvas, serpents and pitṛis; यस्मिन् पञ्च पञ्चजना आकाशश्च प्रतिष्ठितः Bṛi. Up.4.4.17. -5 the four primary castes of the Hindus (ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र) with the Niṣādas or barbarians as the fifth (pl. in these two senses); (for a full exposition see Sārirabhāṣya on Br. Sūtras 1.4.11-13). (-नी) an assemblage of five persons. -जनीन a. devoted to the five races. (-नः) an actor, a mimic, buffoon, one who is devoted to the pentad viz. singer, musician, dancer, harlot and a jester; गायकवादक- नर्तकदासीभण्डरतः खलु पञ्चजनीनः Bhāsāvritti on P.V.1.9. -ज्ञानः 1 an epithet of Buddha as possessing the five kinds of knowledge. -2 a man familiar with the doctrines of the Pāśupatas. -तक्षम्, -क्षी a collection of five carpenters. -तत्त्वम् 1 the five elements taken collectively; i. e. पृत्थी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश. -2 (in the Tantras) the five essentials of the Tāntrikas, also called पञ्चमकार because they all begin with म; i. e. मद्य, मांस, मत्स्य, मुद्रा and मैथुन. -तन्त्रम् N. of a well-known collection in five books containing moral stories and fables by Visnugupta; पञ्चतन्त्रात्तथान्यस्माद् ग्रन्थादाकृष्य लिख्यते H. Pr.9. -तन्मात्रम् the five subtle and primary elements (such as शब्द, रस, स्पर्श and रूप and गन्ध). -तपस् m. an ascetic who in summer practises penance sitting in the middle of four fires with the sun burning right over his head; cf. हविर्भुजामेधवतां चतुर्णां मध्ये ललाटंतपसप्तसप्तिः R.13.41; Ku.5.23; Ms.6.23 and Śi.2.51. also; ग्रीष्मे पञ्चतपा वीरो वर्षास्वासारषाण्मुनिः Bhāg. 4.23.6; Rām.3.6.5. -तय a. five-fold; वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः Mbh. (-यः) a pentad. -तिक्तम् the five bitter things:-- निवामृतावृषपटोलनिदिग्धिकाश्च. -त्रिंश a. thirtyfifth. -त्रिंशत्, -त्रिंशतिः f. thirty-five. -दश a. 1 fifteenth. -2 increased by fifteen; as in पञ्चदशं शतम् 'one hundred and fifteen'. -दशन् a. (pl.) fifteen. ˚अहः a period of fifteen days. -दशिन् a. made or consisting of fifteen. -दशी 1 the fifteenth day of a lunar fortnight (the full or new moon day); Y.1.146. -2 N. of a philosophical work (प्रकरणग्रन्थ) by माधवाचार्य (विद्यारण्य). -दीर्घम् the five long parts of the body; the arms, eyes, belly, nose and breast; बाहू नेत्रद्वयं कुक्षिर्द्वे तु नासे तथैव च । स्तनयोरन्तरं चैव पञ्चदीर्घं प्रचक्षते ॥ -देवताः the five deities:-- आदित्यं गणनाथं च देवीं रुद्रं च केशवम् । पञ्चदैवतमित्युक्तं सर्वकर्मसु पूजयेत् ॥ -धारणक a. upheld by the five elements. -नखः 1 any animal with five claws; such as the hare, alligator, tortoise, porcupine, rhinoceros शशकः शल्लकी गोधा खड्गी कूर्मश्च पञ्चमः । पञ्च पञ्चनखा भक्ष्या ये प्रोक्ताः कृतजैर्द्विजैः Bk.6.131; Ms.5.17,18; Y.1.177. -2 an elephant. -3 a turtle. -4 a lion or tiger. -नखी, -नखराज an iguana (Mar. घोरपड); Gīrvāṇa. -नदः 'the country of five rivers, the modern Panjab (the five rivers being शतद्रु, विपाशा, इरावती, चन्द्रभागा and वितस्ता, or the modern names Sutlej, Beas, Ravee, Chenab and Jhelum). -दा (pl.) the people of this country. -नवतिः f. ninety-five. -निम्बम् the five products of निम्ब viz. (the flowers, fruit, leaves, bark and root). -नीराजनम् waving five things before an idol and then falling prostrate before it; (the five things being:-- a lamp, lotus, cloth, mango and betel-leaf). -पञ्चाश a. fiftyfifth. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-five. -पदी 1 five steps; पुंसो यमान्तं व्रजतो$पिनिष्ठुरै- रेतैर्धनैः पञ्चपदी न दीयते Pt.2.115. -2 the five strong cases, i. e. the first five inflections -पर्वन् n. (pl.) the five parvans q. v.; they are चतुर्दश्यष्टमी चैव अमावास्या च पूर्णिमा । पर्वाण्येतानि राजेन्द्र रविसंक्रान्तिरेव च ॥ a. five-knotted (an arrow). -पल्लवम् The leaves of the mango, fig, banyan, ficus religiosa (Mar. पिंपळ) and Genus Ficus (Mar. पायरी). There are other variations such as पनस, आम्र, पिप्पल, वट and बकुल. The first group is for the Vedic ritual only. -पात्रम् 1 five vessels taken collectively. -2 a Srāddha in which offerings are made in five vessels. -पाद् a. consisting of five feet, steps, or parts; पञ्चपादं पितरम् Praśna Up.1.11. (-m.) a year (संवत्सर). -पादिका N. of a commentary on शारीरकभाष्य. -पितृ m. (pl.) the five fathers:-- जनकश्चोपनेता च यश्च कन्यां प्रयच्छति । अन्नदाता भयत्राता पञ्चैते पितरः स्मृताः ॥ -पित्तम् the bile of five animals viz. (the boar, goat, buffalo, fish and peacock). -प्रस्थ a. having five elevations (a forest). -प्राणाः m. (pl.) the five life-winds or vital airs: प्राण, अपान, व्यान, उदान, and समान. -प्रासादः a temple of a particular size with four pinnacles and a steeple. -बन्ध a fine equal to the fifth part of anything lost or stolen. -बलाः five medicinal herbs, namely बला, नागबला, महाबला, अति- बला and राजबला. -बाणः, -वाणः, -शरः epithets of the god of love; see पञ्चेषु. -बाहुः N. of Śiva. -बिन्दुप्रसृतम् N. of a particular movement in dancing; Dk.2. -बीजानि the five seeds:--कर्कटी, त्रपुस, दाडिम, पद्मबीज, and वानरीबीज. -भद्र a. 1 having five good qualities. -2 consisting of five good ingredients (as a sauce &c.). -3 having five auspicious marks (as a horse) in the chest, back, face and flanks. -4 vicious. -द्रः a kind of pavilion. -भागिन् m. the five deities of पञ्चमहा- यज्ञ; धर्मकामविहीनस्य चुक्रुधुः पञ्चभागिनः Bhāg.11.23.9. -भुज a. pentagonal. (-जः) 1 a pentagon; cf. पञ्चकोण. -2 N. of Gaṇeśa. -भूतम् the five elements; पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश. -भृङ्गाः the five trees, viz. देवदाली (Mar. देवडंगरी), शमी, भङ्गा (Mar. भांग), निर्गुण्डी and तमालपत्र. -मकारम् the five essentials of the left-hand Tantra ritual of which the first letter is म; see पञ्चतत्त्व (2). -महापातकम् the five great sins; see महापातक Ms.11. 54. -महायज्ञाः m. (pl.) the five daily sacrifices enjoined to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृ- यज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो बलिर्भौतो नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7. अहुतं च हुतं चैव तथा प्रहुतमेव च । ब्राह्मं हुतं प्राशितं च पञ्च यज्ञान् प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.73; see महायज्ञ. -मारः son of Baladeva; L. D. B. -माश(षि)क a. consisting of five Māṣas (as a fine &c.). -माष(षि)क a. amounting to five māṣas; गर्दभाजाविकानां तु दण्डः स्यात्पञ्चमाषिकः Ms.8.298. -मास्य a. happening every five months. -मुखः an arrow with five points; (for other senses see पञ्चानन.) -मुद्रा five gestures to be made in presenting offerings to an idol; viz आवाहनी, स्थापनी, संनिधापनी, संबोधनी and संमुखीकरणी; see मुद्रा. -मूत्रम् the urine of five female animals; the cow, goat, she-buffalo, sheep, and she-ass.). -मूलम् there are nine varieties of the pentad combinations of roots; लघुपञ्चमूल, बृहत्पञ्चमूल, शतावर्यादि, तृणपञ्चमूल, जीवकादिपञ्चमूल, पुनर्नवादिपञ्चमूल, गोक्षुरादि˚, वल्ली˚. -रत्नम् a collection of five gems; (they are variously enumerated: (1) नीलकं वज्रकं चेति पद्मरागश्च मौक्तिकम् । प्रवालं चेति विज्ञेयं पंचरत्नं मनीषिभिः ॥ (2) सुवर्णं रजतं मुक्ता राजावर्तं प्रवालकम् । रत्नपञ्चकमाख्यातम् ...॥ (3) कनकं हीरकं नीलं पद्मरागश्च मौक्तिकम् । पञ्चरत्नमिदं प्रोक्त- मृषिभिः पूर्वदर्शिभिः ॥ -2 the five most admired episodes of the Mahābhārata; गीता, विष्णुसहस्रनाम, भीष्मस्तवराज, अनुस्मृति and गजेन्द्रमोक्ष). -रसा the आमलकी tree (Mar. आंवळी). -रात्रम् 1 a period of five nights; इत्यर्थं वयमानीताः पञ्चरात्रो$पि विद्यते Pañch.3.24. -2 N. of one of Bhāsa's dramas. -3 N. of a philosophical treatise attributed to Nārada. -4 N. of an अहीन (sacrifice) lasting for 5 days; स एतं पञ्चरात्रं पुरुषमेधं यज्ञक्रतुमपश्यत् Śat. Br.; cf. Mb.12.218. 11. -राशिकम् the rule of five (in math.). -लक्षणम् a Purāṇa; so called because it deals with five important topics:-- सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥ see पुराण also. -लवणम् five kinds of salt; i. e. काचक, सैन्धव, सामुद्र, बिड and सौवर्चल. -लाङ्गलकम् a gift (महादान) of as much land as can be cultivated with five ploughs. -लोकपालः the five guardian deities viz. Vināyaka, Durgā, Vāyu, Ākāśa and Aśvinīkumāra. -लोहम् a metallic alloy containing five metals (i. e. copper, brass, tin, lead and iron). -लोहकम् the five metals i. e. gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. -वटः the sacred or sacrificial thread worn across the breast (यज्ञोपवीत). -वटी 1 the five fig-trees: i. e. अश्वत्थ, बिल्व, वट, धात्री and अशोक. -2 N. of a part of the Daṇḍakā forest where the Godāvarī rises and where Rāma dwelt for a considerable time with his beloved; it is two miles from Nasik; परिहरन्तमपि मामितः पञ्चवटीस्नेहो बलादाकर्षतीव U.2.27/28; R.13.34. -वर्गः 1 an aggregate of five. -2 the five essential elements of the body. -3 the five organs of sense; संतुष्टपञ्चवर्गो$हं लोकयात्रां प्रवाहये Rām.2.19.27. -4 the five daily sacrifices enjoined to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa; cf. महायज्ञ. -5 the five classes of spies (कापटिक, उदास्थित, गृहपतिव्यञ्जन, वैदेहिकव्यञ्जन and तापसव्यञ्जन); cf. Kull. on Ms.7.154. -वर्षदेशीय a. about five years old. -वर्षीय a. five years old. -वल्कलम् a collection of the barks of five kinds of trees; namely न्यग्रोध, उदुम्बर, अश्वत्थ, प्लक्ष and वेतस. -वल्लभा N. of Draupadī. -वार्षिक a. recurring every five years. -वाहिन् a. drawn by five (as a carriage). -विंश a. twenty-fifth. -शः 1 a Stoma consisting of 25 parts. -2 N. of Viṣṇu (regarded as the 25th तत्त्व); स तु जन- परितापं तत्कृतं जानता ते नरहर उपनीतः पञ्चतां पञ्चविंश Bhāg. 7.8.53. -विंशतिः f. twenty-five. -विंशतिका a collection of twenty-five; as in वेतालपञ्चविंशतिका. -विध a. fivefold, of five kinds. ˚प्रकृतिः f. the five departments of a government; अमात्यराष्ट्रदुर्गार्थदण्डाख्याः पञ्च चापराः Ms.7.157. -वीरगोष्ठम् an assembly room, concert-hall; रागमञ्जरी नाम पञ्चवीरगोष्ठे संगीतकमनुष्ठास्यति Dk.2. -वृत्, -वृतम् ind. five-fold. -वृत्तिता depending on senses; Rām.2.1.65. -शत a. amounting to five hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and five. -2 five hundred. -शाखः 1 the hand; स्वशिरः पश्चशाखाभ्यामभिहत्यायतेक्षणा Mb.11.17.3; कदापि नो मुञ्चति पञ्चशाखः (नारायणस्य) Rām. Ch.1.9; स्फूर्जद्रत्नाङ्गुलीयद्युतिशबलनखद्योतिभिः पञ्चशाखैः Śiva B.3.49. -2 an elephant. -शारदीयः N. of a Yāga. -शिखः a lion. -शीलम् the five rules of conduct; Buddh. -शुक्लम् The holy combination of five days, viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the month (day of the manes) and day time, हरिवासर and सिद्धक्षेत्र (cf. त्रिशुक्लम्). -ष a. (pl.) five or six; सन्त्यन्ये$पि बृहस्पतिप्रभृतयः संभाविताः पञ्चषाः Bh.2.34. -षष्ट a. sixty-fifth. -षष्टिः f. sixty-five. -सटः one with five tufts of hair on the head (सटाः जटाः केशसन्निवेशे मध्ये मध्ये पञ्चसु स्थानेषु क्षौरवद्वापनम्); दासो$यं मुच्यतां राज्ञस्त्वया पञ्चसटः कृतः Mb.3.272.18; (Mar. पांच पाट काढणें). -सप्तत a. seventy-fifth. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-five. -सस्यम् the five grains viz. धान्य, मुद्ग, तिल, यव and माष. -सिद्धान्ती f. the five astronomical doctrines from astronomical book like सूर्यसिद्धान्त etc. -सिद्धौषधयः the five medicinal plants:-- तैलकन्द, सुधाकन्द, क्रोडकन्द, रुदन्तिक, सर्पाक्षी. -सुगन्धकम् the five kinds of aromatic vegetable sub- stances; they are:-- कर्पूरकक्कोललवङ्गपुष्पगुवाकजातीफलपञ्चकेन । समांशभागेन च योजितेन मनोहरं पञ्चसुगन्धकं स्यात् ॥. -सूनाः f. the five things in a house by which animal life may be accidentally destroyed; they are:-- पञ्चसूना गृहस्थस्य चुल्ली पेषण्युपस्करः कण्डनी चोदकुम्भश्च Ms.3.68. -सूरणाः the five medicinal esculent roots; sweet and bitter सूरण, अत्यम्ल- पर्णी, काण्डीर, मालाकन्द. &c. -स्रोतम् n. the mind; पञ्चस्रोतसि निष्णातः Mb.12.218.11. (com. पञ्चस्त्रोतांसि विषयकेदारप्रणालिका यस्य तस्मिन् मनसि). -हायन a. five years old.
padam पदम् [पद्-अच्] 1 A foot (said to be m. also in this sense); पदेन on foot; शिखरिषु पदं न्यस्य Me.13; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74 'set foot on (follow) a wrong road'; 3.5;12.52; पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते 3.62 'good qualities set foot everywhere' i. e. command notice or make themselves felt; जनपदे न गदः पदमादधौ 9.4. 'no disease stepped into the country'; यदवधि न पदं दधाति चित्ते Bv.2.14; पदं कृ (a) to set foot in, on or over (lit.); शान्ते करिष्यसि पदं पुनराश्रमे$स्मिन् Ś.4.2. (b) to enter upon or into, take possession of, occupy (fig.); कृतं वपुषि नवयौवनेन पदम् K.137; कृतं हि मे कुतूहलेन प्रश्नाशया हृदि पदम् 133; so Ku.5.21; Pt.1.24; कृत्वा पदं नो गले Mu.3.26 'in defiance of us'; (lit. planting his foot on our neck); मूर्ध्नि पदं कृ 'to mount on the head of', 'to humble'; पदं मूर्ध्नि समाधत्ते केसरी मत्तदन्तिनः Pt.1.327; आकृतिविशेषेष्वादरः पदं करोति M.1 'good forms attract attention (command respect); जने सखी पदं कारिता Ś.4; 'made to have dealings with (to confide in)'; धर्मेण शर्वे पार्वतीं प्रति पदं कारिते Ku.6.14. -2 A step, pace, stride; तन्वी स्थिता कतिचिदेव पदानि गत्वा Ś.2.13; पदे पदे 'at every step'; अक्षमालामदत्त्वा पदात् पदमपि न गन्तव्यम् or चलितव्यम् 'do not move even a step' &c.; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती V.1.19 'the middle pace or stride of Viṣṇu.'; i. e. the sky (for mythologically speaking, the earth, sky, and lower world are considered as the three paces of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation वामनावतार); so अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -3 A foot-step, footprint, foot-mark; पदपङ्क्तिः Ś.3.7; or पदावली foot-prints; पदमनुविधेयं च महताम् Bh.2.28 'the foot-steps of the great must be followed'; पदैगृर्ह्यते चौरः Y.2.286. -4 A trace, mark, impression, vestige; रतिवलयपदाङ्के चापमासज्य कण्ठे Ku.2.64; Me.37,98; M.3. -5 A place, position, station; अधो$धः पदम् Bh.2.1; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः Ś.1, 'brought to the point of or exposed to trouble'; तदलब्धपदं हृदि शोकघने R.8.91, 'found no place in (left no impression on) the heart'; अपदे शङ्कितो$स्मि M.1, 'my doubts were out of place', i. e. groundless; कृशकुटुम्बेषु लोभः पदमधत्त Dk.162; Ku.6.72;3.4; R.2.5;9.82; कृतपदं स्तनयुगलम् U.6.35, 'brought into relief or bursting forth'. -6 Dignity, rank, office, station or position; भगवत्या प्रश्निकपदमध्यासितव्यम् M.1; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयः Ś.4.18, 'attain to the rank or position, &c.; स्थिता गृहिणीपदे 4.19; so सचिव˚, राज˚ &c. -7 Cause, subject, occasion, thing, matter, business, affair; व्यवहारपदं हि तत् Y.2.5; 'occasion or matter of dispute, title of law, judicial proceeding'; Ms.8.7; सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु Ś.1.22; वाञ्छितफलप्राप्तेः पदम् Ratn.1.6. -8 Abode, object, receptacle; पदं दृशः स्याः कथमीश मादृशाम् Śi.1.37; 15.22; अगरीयान्न पदं नृपश्रियः Ki.2.14; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् 2.3; के वा न स्युः परिभवपदं निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56; संपदः पदमापदाम् H.4.65. -9 A quarter or line of a stanza, verse; विरचितपदम् (गेयम्) Me.88,15; M.5.2; Ś.3.14. -1 A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9. -11 A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular. -12 Detachment of the Vedic words from one another, separation of a Vedic text into its several constituent words; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः Bhāg.12.13.1. -13 A pretext; अनिभृतपदपातमापपात प्रियमिति कोपपदेन कापि सख्या Śi.7.14. -14 A sqare root. -15 A part, portion or division (as of a sentence); as त्रिपदा गायत्री. -16 A measure of length. -17 Protection, preservation; ते विंशतिपदे यत्ताः संप्रहारं प्रचक्रिरे Mb.7.36.13. -18 A square or house on a chessboard; अष्टापदपदालेख्यैः Rām. -19 A quadrant. -2 The last of a series. -21 A plot of ground. -22 (In Arith.) Any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required. -23 A coin; माता पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भार्या मित्रजनस्तथा । अष्टापदपदस्थाने दक्षमुद्रेव लक्ष्यते ॥ Mb.12.298.4. (com. अष्टापदपदं सुवर्णकार्षापणः). -24 A way, road; षट्पदं नवसंख्यानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः Mb.14.64.1. -25 Retribution (फल); ईहोपरमयोर्नॄणां पदान्यध्यात्मचक्षुषा Bhāg.7.13.2. -दः A ray of light. -Comp. -अङ्कः, चिह्नम् a foot-print. -अङ्गुष्ठः the great toe, thumb (of the foot). -अध्ययनम् study of the Vedas according to the पदपाठ q. v. -अनुग a. 1 following closely, being at the heels of (gen.). -2 suitable, agreeable to. (-गः) a follower, companion; एतान्निहत्य समरे ये चृ तस्य पदानुगाः । तांश्च सर्वान् विनिर्जित्य सहितान् सनराधिपान् ॥ Mb.3.12.6. -अनुरागः 1 a servant. -2 an army. -अनुशासनम् the science of words, grammar. -अनुषङ्गः anything added to a pada. -अन्तः 1 the end of a line of a stanza. -2 the end of a word. -अन्तरम् another step, the interval of one step; पदान्तरे स्थित्वा Ś.1; अ˚ closely, without a pause. -अन्त्य a. final. -अब्जम्, -अम्भोजम्, -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पङ्कजम्, -पद्मम् a lotus-like foot. -अभिलाषिन् a. wishing for an office. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of a word. -2 a thing or object. -3 a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads). -4 anything which can be named (अभिधेय), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins. -5 the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. ˚अनुसमयः preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see अनुसमय). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time. -आघातः 'a stroke with the foot', a kick. -आजिः a foot-soldier. -आदिः 1 the beginning of the line of a stanza. -2 the beginning or first letter of a word. ˚विद् m. a bad student (knowing only the beginnings of stanzas). -आयता a shoe. -आवली a series of words, a continued arrangement of words or lines; (काव्यस्य) शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्नापदावली Kāv. 1.1; मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीं शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम् Gīt.1. -आसनम् a foot-stool. -आहत a. kicked. -कमलम् lotus-like foot. -कारः, -कृत् m. the author of the Padapāṭha. -क्रमः 1 walking, a pace; न चित्रमुच्चैः श्रवसः पदक्रमम् (प्रशशंस) Śi.1.52. -2 a particular method of reciting the Veda; cf. क्रम. -गः a foot-soldier. -गतिः f. gait, manner of going. -गोत्रम् a family supposed to preside over a particular class of words. -छेदः, -विच्छेदः, -विग्रहः separation of words, resolution of a sentence into its constituent parts. -च्युत a. dismissed from office, deposed. -जातम् class or group of words. -दार्ढ्यम् fixedness or security of text. -न्यासः 1 stepping, tread, step. -2 a foot-mark. -3 position of the feet in a particular attitude. -4 the plant गोक्षुर. -5 writing down verses or quarters of verses; अप्रगल्भाः पदन्यासे जननीरागहेतवः । सन्त्येके बहुलालापाः कवयो बालका इव ॥ Trivikramabhaṭṭa. -पङ्क्तिः f. 1 a line of foot-steps; द्वारे$स्य पाण्डुसिकते पदपङ्क्तिर्दृश्यते$भिनवा Ś.3.7; V.4.6. -2 a line or arrangement of words, a series of words; कृतपदपङ्क्तिरथर्वणेव वेदः Ki.1.1. -3 an iṣtakā or sacred brick. -4 a kind of metre. -पाठः an arrangement of the Vedic text in which each word is written and pronounced in its original form and independently of phonetic changes (opp. संहितापाठ). -पातः, विक्षेपः a step, pace (of a horse also). -बन्धः a foot-step, step. -भञ्जनम् analysis of words, etymology. -भञ्जिका 1 a commentary which separates the words and analyses the compounds of a passage. -2 a register, journal. -3 a calendar. -भ्रंशः dismissal from office. -माला a magical formula. -योपनम् a fetter for the feet (Ved.). -रचना 1 arrangement of words. -2 literary composition. -वायः Ved. a leader. -विष्टम्भः a step, footstep. -वृत्तिः f. the hiatus between two words. -वेदिन् a linguist, philologist. -व्याख्यानम् interpretation of words. -शास्त्रम् the science of separately written words. -संघातः (टः) 1 connecting the words which are separated in the संहिता. -2 a writer, an annotator. -संधिः m. the euphonic combination of words. -स्थ a. 1 going on foot. -2 being in a position of authority or high rank. -स्थानम् a foot-print.
paridraṣṭṛ परिद्रष्टृ m. A spectator, looker on.
pāriṣadyaḥ पारिषद्यः One present at an assembly, a spectator; cf. P.IV.4.44,11.
pārṣadaḥ पार्षदः [पार्षदमर्हति अण्] 1 A companion, an associate, attendant. -2 A train, retinue (of a god); शर्वस्य सह पार्षदैः Mb.3.13.14. -3 One present at an assembly, a spectator, an assessor. -4 A text-book received by any particular grammatical school.
pratimarśaḥ प्रतिमर्शः A powder used as a sternutatory.
pradhamanam प्रधमनम् 1 Blowing in or into. -2 A sternutatory.
prāsādaḥ प्रासादः [प्रसीदत्यस्मिन् प्र + सद् आधारे घञ् दीर्घः] 1 A palace, mansion, any large palatial building; भिक्षुः कुटीयति प्रासादे Sk.; Me.66. -2 A royal mansion. -3 A temple, shrine. -4 A raised platform for spectators. -5 Terrace; ततो दुर्योधनगृहं प्रासादैरुपशोभितम् Mb.12.44.6. -Comp. -अङ्गनम् the court-yard of a palace or temple. -आरोहणम् entering or going up into a palace. -कुक्कुटः a tame pigeon. -गर्भः an inner apartment in a palace. -तलम् the surface or flat roof of a palace. -पृष्ठः a balcony on the top of a palace; अथ प्रासादपृष्ठे सुखोपविष्टानां राजपुत्राणां ...... H. -प्रतिष्ठा the consecration of a temple. -प्रस्तरः the flat roof of a house. -मण्डना a kind of orpiment. -शायिन् a. sleeping in a palace. -शिखरः, -शृङ्गम् the spire or pinnacle of a palace or temple, a turret; प्रासादशिखरस्थो$पि काकः किं गरुडायते Pt.
prekṣ प्रेक्ष् 1 Ā. 1 To see, behold, look at, perceive; तमा- यान्तं प्रेक्ष्य Pt.1; R.12.44; Ku.6.47; Ms.8.147. -2 To look on, be a spectator; युष्माकं प्रेक्षमाणानाम् Ve.3. -3 To allow, suffer.
prekṣakaḥ प्रेक्षकः A spectator, looker on, beholder, sight-seer; प्रकृतिं पश्यति पुरुषः प्रेक्षकवदवस्थितः सुस्थः Sāṅ. K.65.
prekṣā प्रेक्षा 1 Viewing, seeing, beholding. -2 A look, view, sight, appearance. -3 Being a looker-on. -4 Any public spectacle or show, sight. -5 Particularly, a theatrical show, dramatic performance, play. -6 Intellect, understanding. -7 Reflection, consideration, deliberation; सा तस्मै सर्वमाचष्ट ...... प्रत्युक्तं च यवक्रीतं प्रेक्षापूर्वं तथात्मना Mb.3.136.7. -8 The branch of a tree. -9 Splendour; प्रेक्षां क्षिपन्तं हरितोपलाद्रेः Bhāg. 3.8.24. -Comp. -अ(आ)गारः, -रम्, -गृहम्, -स्थानम् 1 a theatre, or play-house. -2 a council-chamber. -कारिन् a. wise, prudent, circumspect; प्रेक्षाकारी याति पदं मुक्तमपायैः Ki.18. 28. -पूर्वम् ind. with deliberation. -प्रपञ्चः, -विधिः a stage-play. -समाजः an audience, a crowd of spectators, assembly.
phaṇirjakaḥ फणिर्जकः A kind of aromatic herb; Mātaṅga L.8.8 (according to the commentator it is तुलसी-भेद, prob. Mar. श्वेतमरवा).
bhāvaḥ भावः [भू-भावे घञ्] 1 Being, existing, existence; नासतो विद्यते भावः Bg.2.16. -2 Becoming, occurring, taking place. -3 State, condition, state of being; लताभावेन परिणतमस्या रूपम् V.4; U.6.23; so कातरभावः, विवर्णभावः &c. -4 Manner, mode. -6 Rank, station, position, capacity; देवीभावं गमिता K. P.1; so प्रेष्यभावम्, किंकरभावम् &c. -6 (a) True condition or state, truth, reality; परं भावमजानन्तः Bg.7.24; इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसम- न्विताः 1.8. (b) Sincerity, devotion; त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः R.8.52;2.26. -7 Innate property, disposition, nature, temperament; स तस्य स्वो भावः प्रकृतिनियतत्वादकृतकः U.6.14. -8 Inclination or disposition of mind, idea, thought, opinion, supposition; हृदयनिहितभावा गूढमन्त्रप्रचाराः किमपि विगणयन्तो बुद्धिमन्तः सहन्ते Pt.3.43; Ms.8.25;4.65; निकृष्टोत्कृष्टयोर्भावं यास्तु गृह्णन्ति ताः स्त्रियः Bu. Ch.4.23. -9 Feeling, emotion, sentiment; एको भावः Pt.3.66; Ku.6. 95; निर्विकारात्मके चित्ते भावः प्रथमविक्रिया S. D. (In the dramatic science or in poetic compositions generally, Bhāvas are either स्थायिन् primary, or व्यभिचारिन् subordinate. The former are eight or nine, according as the Rasas are taken to be 8 or 9, each rasa having its own स्थायिभाव. The latter are thirty-three of thirty four in number, and serve to develop and strengthen the prevailing sentiment; for definition and enumeration of the several kinds, see R. G. first ānana, or K. P.4). -1 Love, affection; attachment; द्वन्द्वानि भावं क्रियया विवव्रुः Ku.3.35; कुमुद्वती भानुमतीव भावं (बबन्ध) R.6.36. -11 Purport, drift, gist, substance; इति भावः (often used by commentators); जनको$प्युत्स्मयन् राजा भावमस्या विशेषयन् । प्रतिजग्राह भावेन भावमस्या नृपोत्तम Mb.12,32.18. -12 Meaning, intention, sense, import; अन्योन्यभावचतुरेण सखीजनेन मुक्तास्तदा स्मितसुधामधुराः कटाक्षाः Māl.1.25. -13 Resolution, determination. -14 The heart, soul, mind; तयोर्विवृतभावत्वात् Māl.1.12; भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत् तपो मानसमुच्यते Bg.17.16; स्व एव भावे विनिगृह्य मन्मथम् Bu. Ch.4.11. -15 Any existing thing, an object, a thing, substance; पश्यन्ती विविधान् भावान् Rām.2.94.18; जगति जयिनस्ते ते भावा नवेन्दुकलादयः Māl.1.17,36; R.3.41; U.3.32. -16 A being, living creature. -17 Abstract meditation, contemplation (= भावना q. v.). -18 Conduct, movement. -19 (a) Gesture, behaviour; अहिंसा समता... भवन्ति भावा भूतानाम् Bg.1.5. (b) Amorous gesture or expression of sentiment; gesture of love; कामं प्रिया न सुलभा मनस्तु तद्भावदर्शनाश्वासि Ś.2.1. -2 Birth; तवाहं पूर्वके भावे पुत्रः परपुरंजय Rām.7.14.2. -21 The world, universe. -22 The womb. -23 Will; घोरैर्विव्यधतुर्बाणैः कृतभावावुभौ जये Rām.6.9.38. -24 Superhuman power; मिथो घ्नतं न पश्यन्ति भावैर्भावं पृथग्दृशः Bhāg.1.4.27. -25 Advice, instruction. -26 (In dramas) A learned or venerable man, worthy man, (a term of address); भाव अयमस्मि V.1; तां खलु भावेन तथैव सर्वे वर्ग्याः पाठिताः) Māl.1. -27 (In gram.) The sense of an abstract noun, abstract idea conveyed by a word; भावे क्तः. -28 A term for an impersonal passive or neuter verb. -29 (In astr.) An astronomical house. -3 A lunar mansion. -31 An organ of sense. -32 Welfare (कल्याण); भावमिच्छति सर्वस्य नाभावे कुरुते मनः Mb.5.36.16. -33 Protection; द्रोणस्याभावभावे तु प्रसक्तानां यथा$भवत् Mb.7.25.64. -34 Fate, destiny (प्रारब्ध); नातिप्रहीणरश्मिः स्यात्तथा भावविपर्यये Mb.5.77.14. -35 Consciousness of past perceptions (वासना); येभ्यः सृजति भूतानि काले भावप्रचोदितः । महाभूतानि पञ्चेति तान्याहुर्भूतचिन्तिकाः ॥ Mb.12.275.4. -36 Lordship (प्रभुत्व); ते$पि भावाय कल्पन्ते राजदण्डनिपीडिताः Rām.2.67. 32. -37 The six states (अवस्थाषट्क); A, Rām.1.7.31. -Comp. -अनुग a. not forced, natural. (-गा) a shadow. -अन्तरम् a different state. -अद्वैतम् 1 a natural cause. -2 material cause (as thread of a cloth). -3 identity of conception, oneness of view. -अर्थः 1 the obvious meaning or import (of a word, phrase &c.). -2 the subject matter; सर्वेषामपि वस्तूनां भावार्थो भवति स्थितः Bhāg.1.14.57. -आकूतम् (secret) thoughts of the mind; हृदयनिहितं भावाकूतं वमद्भिरिवेक्षणैः Amaru.4. -आख्यः One of the two types of creation according to the Sāṅkhya philosophy; लिङ्गाख्यो भावाख्यस्तस्माद् द्विविधः प्रवर्तते सर्गः Sāṅ. K.52. -आत्मक a. real, actual. -आभासः simulation of a feeling, a feigned or false emotion. -आलीना a shadow. -एकरस a. influenced solely by the sentiment of (sincere) love; ममात्र भावैकरसं मनः स्थितम् Ku.5.82. -कर्तृकः an impersonal verb; Kāśi. on P. II.3.54. -गतिः f. power to convey human feelings; भावगतिराकृतीनाम् Pratimā 3. -गम्भीरम् ind. 1 heartily, from the bottom of the heart. -2 deeply, gravely. -गम्य a. conceived by the mind; ममत्सादृश्यं विरहतनु वा भावगम्यं लिखन्ती Me.87. -ग्राहिन् a. 1 understanding the sense. -2 appreciating the sentiment. -ग्राह्य a. to be conceived with the heart; भावग्राह्यमनीडाख्यं भावाभावकरं शिवम् Śvet. Up.5.14. -चेष्टितम् amorous gesture. -जः 1 love. -2 the god of love. -ज्ञ, -विद् a. knowing the heart. -दर्शिन् a. see भालदर्शिन्. -निर्वृत्तिः the material creation (Sāṅ. phil.); न विना लिङ्गेन भावनिर्वृत्तिः Sāṅ. K.52. -नेरिः a kind of dance. -बन्धन a. enchanting or fettering the heart, linking together the hearts; रथाङ्गनाम्नोरिव भावबन्धनं बभूव यत्प्रेम परस्पराश्रयम् R.3.24. -बोधक a. indicating or revealing any feeling. -मिश्रः a worthy person, a gentleman (used in dramas); प्रसीदन्तु भावमिश्राः Ś.6. -रूप a. real, actual. -वचनम् denoting an abstract idea, conveying the abstract notion of a verb. -वाचकम् an abstract noun. -विकारः a property of a being; षड् भावविकारा भवन्तीति वार्ष्यायणिः । जायते$स्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते$पक्षीयते नश्यति । -वृत्तः an epithet of Brahman. -शबलत्वम् a mixture of various emotions (भावानां बाध्यबाधकभावमापन्नानामुदासीनानां वा व्यामिश्रणम् R. G., vide examples given ad loc.). -शुद्धिः f. purity of mind, honesty, sincerity. -शून्य a. devoid of real love; उपचारविधिर्मनस्विनीनां न तु पूर्वाभ्यधिको$पि भावशून्यः M.3.3. -संधिः the union or co-existence of two emotions (भावसंधिरन्योन्यानभिभूतयोरन्योन्याभिभावनयोग्ययोः सामानाधिकरण्यम् R. G., see the examples there given). -समाहित a. abstracted in mind, devout. -सर्गः the mental or intellectual creation; i. e. the creation of the faculties of the human mind and their affections (opp. भौतिकसर्ग or material creation). -स्थ a. attached; devoted (to one); न वेत्सि भावस्थमिमं कथं जनम् Ku.5.58. -स्थिर a. firmly rooted in the heart; Ś.5.2. -स्निग्ध a. affectionately disposed, sincerely attached; भावस्निग्धैरुपकृतमपि द्वेष्यतां याति किंचित् Pt.1.285. -भावंगम a. charming, lovely.
bhāṣyam भाष्यम् [भाष्-ण्यत्] 1 Speaking, talking. -2 Any work in the common or vernacular language. -3 Exposition, gloss, commentary; as in वेदभाष्य. -4 Especially, a commentary which explains Sūtras or aphorisms word by word with comments of its own; (सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुसारिभिः । स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ॥); संक्षिप्तस्याप्यतो$स्यैव वाक्यस्यार्थगरीयसः । सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे Śi.2.24; फणिभाषितभाष्यफक्किका N.2.95. -5 N. of the great commentary of Patañjali on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -6 A sort of house. -Comp. -करः, -कारः, -कृत् m. 1 commentator, scholiast. -2 N. of Patañjali. -भूत a. serving as a commentary; सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे Śi.2.24.
bhrāntiḥ भ्रान्तिः [भ्रम्-क्तिन्] f. 1 Moving or wandering about. -2 Turning round, rolling. -3 A revolution, circular or rotatory movement; चक्रभ्रान्तिररान्तरेषु वितनोत्यन्यामिवारा- बलीम् V.1.5. -4 An error, a mistake, delusion, wrong notion, false idea impression; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.47; षाण्मासिके तु संप्राप्ते भ्रान्तिः संजायते नृणाम् । धात्राक्षराणि सृष्टानि पत्रारूढान्यतः पुरा ॥ Jyotistattvam. -5 Confusion, perplexity. -6 Doubt, uncertainty, suspense. -7 Unsteadiness. -Comp. -कर a. confounding, causing delusion. -नाशनः an epithet of Śiva. -हर a. removing doubt or error. (-रः) a counsellor, minister.
madhu मधु a. (-धु or -ध्वी f.) [मन्यत इति मधु, मन्-उ नस्य धः Uṇ.1.18) Sweet, pleasant, agreeable, delightful; आपापयति गोविन्दपादपद्मासवं मधु Bhāg.1.18.12; त्वया सह निवत्स्यामि वनेषु मधुगन्धिषु U.2.18. -f. N. of a plant (जीवा, जीवन्ती). -n. -(धु) 1 Honey; एतास्ता मधुनो धाराश्च्योतन्ति सविषास्त्वयि U.3.34; मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम्. -2 The juice or nectar of flowers; मधु द्विरेफः कुसुमैकपात्रे पपौ प्रियां स्वामनुवर्तमानः Ku.3.36; देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् Gīt.1. -3 A sweet intoxicating drink, wine, spirituous liquor; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजयश्रमम् R.4.65; Ṛs. 1.3. -4 Water. -5 Sugar. -6 Sweetness. -7 Anything sweet. -8 Ved. Soma juice. -9 Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.). -1 A bee-hive; केचित्- पीत्वापविध्यन्ति मधूनि मधुपिङ्गलाः Rām.5.62.1. -11 Bee-wax; Ms.1.88. -m. (धुः) 1 The spring or vernal season; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी Śi.6.2; क्व नु ते हृदयंगमः सखा कुसुमायोजितकार्मुको मधुः Ku.4.24,25;3.1,3. -2 The month of Chaitra; भास्करस्य मधुमाधवाविव R.11.7; मासे मधौ मधुरकोकिलभृङ्गनादै रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् Ṛs.6. 25. -3 N. of a demon killed by Viṣṇu. -4 N. of another demon, father of Rāvaṇa and killed by Śatrughna. -5 The Aśoka tree. -6 N. of king Kārtavīrya. -Comp. -अष्ठीला a lump of honey, clotted honey. -आधारः wax. -आपात a. having honey at the first taste; शक्तः परजने दाता स्वजने दुःखजीविनि । मध्वापातो विषास्वादः स धर्मप्रतिरूपकः ॥ Ms.11.9. -आम्रः a kind of mango tree. -आलु n., -आलुकम् sweet potato. -आवासः the mango tree. -आसवः sweet spirituous liquor (made from honey). -आसवनिकः distiller, vintner. -आस्वाद a. having the taste of honey. -आहुतिः f. a sacrificial offering of sweet things. -उच्छिष्टम्, -उत्थभ्, -उत्थितभ् 1 bees'-wax; शस्त्रासवमधूच्छिष्टं मधु लाक्षा च बर्हिषः Y.3.37; मधूच्छिष्टेन केचिच्च जध्नुरन्योन्यमुत्कटाः Rām.5.62.11. -2 the casting of an image in wax; Mānasāra; the name of 68th chapter. -उत्सवः the spring or vernal festival celebrated on the full-moon day of Chaitra. -उदकम् 'honey-water', water mixed with honey, hydromel. -उद्यानम् a spring-garden. -उपघ्नम् 'the abode of Madhu', an epithet of Mathurā; स च प्राप मधूपघ्नं कुम्भीन- स्याश्च कुक्षिजः R.15.15. -उषितम् wax. -कण्ठः the cuckoo. -करः 1 a large black bee; कुटजे खलु तेनेहा तेने हा मधुकरेण कथम् Bv.1.1; R.9.3; Me.37,49; सर्वतः सारमादत्ते यथा मधुकरो बुधः Bhāg. -2 a lover, libertine. -3 sweet lime. (-री) a female bee; न च मधुकरीवदन्नरस- भोजिन्यो देवता इति प्रमाणमस्ति ŚB. on MS.9.1.9. ˚गणः, ˚श्रेणिः f. a swarm of bees. -कर्कटी 1 sweet lime, a kind of citron. -2 A kind of date. -काननम्, -वनम् the forest of the demon Madhu. -कारः, -कारिन् m. a bee. -कुक्कुटिका, -कुक्कुटी a sort of citron tree. -कुल्या a stream of honey. -कृत् m. a bee; Bhāg. 11.7.33. -केशटः a bee. -कोशः, -षः 1 a bee-hive. -2 a honey comb. -क्रमः 1 a bee-hive. -2 a honey comb. (pl.) drinking-bout, carousals. -क्षीरः, -क्षीरकः a Kharjūra tree. -गन्धः the Bakula tree. -गन्धि, -गन्धिक a. scented with honey, sweet-smelling; वनेषु मधुगन्धिषु U.2.18. -गायनः the cuckoo. -गुञ्जनः the drum-stick plant (Mar. शेवगा). -ग्रहः a libation of honey. -घोषः the cuckoo. -च्युत्, -त, -श्च्युत् a. 1 dropping or distilling honey; ददतु तरवः पुष्पैरर्घ्यं फलैश्च मधुश्च्युतः U.3.24. -2 mellifluous, overflowing with sweets. -जम् bees'-wax. -जा 1 sugar-candy. -2 the earth. -जम्बीरः a kind of citron. -जित्, -द्विष्, -निषूदन, -निहन्तृ m., -मथः, -मथनः, -रिपुः, -शत्रुः, -सूदनः epithets or Viṣṇu; इति मधुरिपुणा सखी नियुक्ता Gīt.5; R.9.48; Śi.15.1. -जीवनः N. of plant (Mar. बेहडा). -तृणः, -णम् sugar cane. -त्रयम् the three sweet things; i. e. sugar, honey, and clarified butter. -दीपः the god of love. -दूतः the mango tree. -दोहः the extracting of sweetness or honey. -द्रः 1 a bee. -2 a libertine. -द्रवः N. of a tree having red blossoms (Mar. तांबडा शेवगा). -द्रुमः the mango tree. -धातुः a kind of yellow pyrites (सुवर्णमाक्षिक). -धारा a stream of honey. -धूलिः f. molasses. -धेनुः honey offered to Brāhmaṇas in the form of a cow. -नाडी a cell in a honey-comb. -नारिकेलः, -नारिकेरकः a kind of cocoanut (Mar. मोहाचा नारळ). -नेतृ m. bee. -पः a bee or a drunkard; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैः सह Bv.1.126;1.63 (where both meanings are intended). -पटलम् a bee-hive. -पतिः an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -पर्कः 1 'a mixture of honey', a respectful offering made to a guest or to the bridegroom on his arrival at the door of the father of the bride; (its usual ingredients are five:- दधि सर्पिर्जलं क्षौद्रं सिता चैतैश्च पञ्चभिः । प्रोच्यते मधुपर्कः); समांसो मधुपर्कः U.4; असिस्वदद्यन्मधु- पर्कमर्पितं स तद् व्यधात्तर्कमुदर्कदर्शिनाम् । यदैष पास्यन्मधु भीमजाधरं मिषेण पुण्याहविधिं तदा कृतम् N.16.13; Ms.3.119 et seq. -2 the ceremony of receiving a guest. -पर्किकः one who praises at the time of मधुपर्क; पठन्ति पाणिस्वनिका मागधा मधुपर्किकाः Mb.7.82.2. (com. मधुपर्किकाः माङ्गल्योपस्थापकाः). -पर्क्य a. worthy of madhuparka q. v. -पर्णिका, -पर्णी the Indigo plant. -पाका sweet melon. -पात्रम् a wine-jug. -पानम् drinking wine; धनलवमधुपानभ्रान्त- सर्वेन्द्रियाणाम् Bh. -पायिन् m. a bee. -पालः a honeykeeper. -पुरम्, -री an epithet of Mathurā; संप्रत्युज्झित- वासनं मधुपुरीमध्ये हरिः सेव्यते Bv.4.44. -पुष्पः 1 the Aśoka tree. -2 the Bakula tree. -3 the Dantī tree. -4 the Śirīṣa tree. -प्रणयः addiction to wine. -प्रमेहः diabetes, sacharine urine. -प्राशनम् one of the sixteen purificatory Samskāras (which consists in putting a little honey into the mouth of a new-born male child). -प्रियः an epithet of Balarāma. -फलः a kind of cocoanut. -फलिका a kind of date. -बहुला the Mādhavī creeper. -बा(वी)जः a pomegranate tree. -बी(वी)- जपूरः a kind of citron. -भूमिकः an epithet of Yogin in the second order. -मक्षः, -क्षा, -मक्षिका a bee. -मज्जनः the tree called आखोट. -मत्त a. 1 drunk with wine. -2 excited by the spring. -मदः the intoxication of liquor. -मन्थः a kind of drink mixed with honey. -मल्लिः, -ल्ली f. the Mālatī creeper. -मस्तकम् a kind of sweetmeat made of honey, flour, oil, and ghee; मधुतैलघृतैर्मध्ये वेष्टिताः समिताश्च याः । मधुमस्तकमुद्दिष्टम् ..... Śabda-chandrikā. -माक्षिकम् = मधुधातु q. v. -माधवम्, -वौ the two spring months (चैत्र and वैशाख). -माधवी 1 a kind of intoxicating drink; क्रीडन्त्यो$भिरताः सर्वाः पिबन्त्यो मधुमाधवीम् Mb.1.81.3. -2 any springflower. -माध्वीकम् a kind of intoxicating liquor. -मारकः a bee. -मांसम् honey and meat; Ms.11.158. -मूलम् N. of an edible root (like Mar. रताळें, सुरण). -मेहः मधुप्रमेह q. v. -यष्टिः, -ष्टी f. 1 sugar-cane. -2 liquorice. -यष्टिका, -वल्ली liquorice. -रस a. sweet-flavoured, sweet. -(सः) 1 the wine-palm. -2 sugarcane. -3 sweetness. -(सा) 1 a bunch of grapes. -2 vine. -लग्नः N. of a tree. -लिह्, -लेह्, -लेहिन् m. -लोलुपः a bee; so मधुनोलेहः; मधुलिहां मधुदानविशारदा R.9.29; मधुलेहिगीतौ Bk.; मधुलिह इव मधुबिन्दून् विरलानपि भजत गुणलेशान् Ve.1.5. -वनम् 1 N. of the forest inhabited by the demon Madhu where Śatrughna founded Mathurā. -2 N. of the forest of Sugrīva. (-नः) the cuckoo. -वल्ली 1 liquorice. -2 a kind of grape -3 Sweet citron. -वाच् the Indian cuckoo. -वाराः (m. pl.) drinking often and often, tippling, carousing; जज्ञिरे बहुमताः प्रमदानामोष्ठयावक- नुदा मधुवाराः Ki.9.59; क्षालितं नु शमितं नु वधूनां द्रावितं नु हृदयं मधुवारैः Śi.1.14; sometimes in the sing, also; see: अङ्गनास्यचषकैर्मधुवारः Ki.9.57. -विद्या N. of a mystical doctrine. -व्रतः a bee; मार्मिकः को मरन्दानामन्तरेण मधुव्रतम् Bv.1.117; तस्मिन्नद्य मधुव्रते विधिवशान्माध्वीकमाकाङ्क्षति 46; मालां मधुव्रतवरूथगिरोपघुष्टाम् Bhāg. -शर्करा honey-sugar. -शाखः a kind of tree. -शिला = मधुधातु q. v. -शिष्टम्, -शेषम् wax. -श्री beauty of spring. -सखः, -सहायः, -सारथिः, -सुहृद् m. the god of love. -संधानम् brandy. -सिक्थकः a kind of poison. -सूदनः 1 a bee; गायन् कलं क्रीडति पद्मिनीषु मधूनि पीत्वा मधुसूदनो$सौ Chanḍ. M. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu; भक्तानां कर्मणां चैव सूदनान्मधुसूदनः -3 N. of a writer of works like अद्वैतसिद्धि. -स्थानम् a bee-hive. -स्रवः a. dropping honey or sweetness. -(वा) 1 liquorice. -2 N. of the third day in the bright half of Śrāvaṇa. -स्वरः the cuckoo. -हन् m. 1 a destroyer or collector of honey; सर्वथा संहतैरेव दुर्बलैर्बलवानपि । अमित्रः शक्यते हन्तुं मधुहा भ्रमरैरिव ॥ Mb.3.33.7; Bhāg.11.7.34. -2 a kind of bird of prey. -3 a sooth-sayer. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu.
marśaḥ मर्शः [मृश्-घञ्] 1 Deliberation. -2 Advice, counsel. -3 A sternutatory.
malliḥ मल्लिः ल्ली f. [मल्ल्-इन् वा ङीप्] A kind of jasmine; किं मल्लीमुकुलैः स्मितं विकसितं किं मालतीकुड्मलैः Rājendrakarṇapūra. -m. A Jain saint. -Comp. -गन्धि n. a kind of agallochum. -नाथः N. of a celebrated commentator who probably lived in the fourteenth or fifteenth century; (he has written commentaries on रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, मेघदूत, किरातार्जुनीय, नैषधचरित, and शिशुपालवध). -पत्रम् a mushroom.
medhā मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धी- र्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.). -Comp. -अतिथिः N. of a learned commentator on Manusmṛiti. -जननम् N. of a rite for producing mental and bodily strength. -जित् m. an epithet of Kātyāyana. -रुद्रः an epithet of Kālidāsa.
yad यद् pron. a. (Nom. sing. m. यः, f. या, n. यत्-द्) The relative pronoun corresponding 'who', 'which' or 'what' in English. (a) Its proper correlative is तद्; यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य; but sometimes इदम्, अदस्, एतद्, takethe place of तद्; sometimes the relative is used alone, its antecedent being supplied from the context. Not unfrequently two relatives are used in the same sentence; या यस्य युज्यते भूमिका तां खलु भावेन तथैव सर्वे वर्ग्याःपाठिताः Māl.1; यदेव रोचते यस्मै भवेत् तत् तस्य सुन्दरम्. (b) When repeated, the relative pronoun has the sense of 'totality, and may be translated by 'whoever', 'whatever', in which case the correlative pronoun is generally repeated; यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुबलः पाण्डवीनां चमूनां ... क्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमिह जगतामन्तकस्यान्तको$हम् Ve.3.3; क्रियते यद् यदेषा कथयति U.1; यं यं पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वचः Bh.2.51. When joined with the interrogative pronoun or its derivatives with or without the particles चिद्, चन, वा, or अपि, it expresses the sense of 'whatever', 'any whatsoever,', 'any'; सूतो वा सूतपुत्रो वा यो वा को वा भवाम्यहम् Ve.3.33; येन केन प्रकारेण anyhow, somehow or other; यत्र कुत्रापि, यो वा को वा, यः कश्चन &c.; यत् किंचिदेतद् 'this is a mere trifle'; यानि कानि च मित्राणि &c. -ind. As an indeclinable यद् is frequently used 1 to introduce a direct or subordinate assertion with or without इति at the end; सत्यो$यं जनप्रवादो यत् संपत् संपदमनुबध्नातीति K.73; तस्य कदाचिच्चिन्ता समुत्पन्ना यदर्थोत्पत्त्युपायाश्चिन्तनीयाः कर्तव्याश्च Pt.1. or -2 in the sense of 'because', 'since'; प्रियमा- चरितं लते त्वया मे ... यदियं पुनरप्यपाङ्गनेत्रा परिवृत्तार्धमुखी मयाद्य दृष्टा V.1.17; or किं शेषस्य भरव्यथा न वपुषि क्ष्मां न क्षिपत्येष यत् Mu.2.18; R.1.27,87; in this sense यद् is often followed by तद् or ततः as its correlative; see यत् प्रीति- मद्भिर्वदनैः स्वसाम्यात् ...... ततस्तदीयाधरयावयोगात् ... N.22.46. -Comp. -अपि ind. although, though; वक्रः पन्था यदपि भवतः Me.27. -अर्थम्, -अर्थे ind. 1 for which, wherefore, why, on which account; श्रूयतां यदर्थमस्मि हरिणा भवत्सकाशं प्रेषितः Ś.6; Ku.5.52. -2 since, because; नूनं दैवं न शक्यं हि पुरुषेणातिवर्तितुम् । यदर्थं यत्नवानेव न लभे विप्रतां विभो ॥ Mb. -अवधि ind. since which time. -आत्मक a. having which essence or existence. -कारणम्, -कारणात् ind. 1 wherefore, on which account. -2 since, because. -कृते ind. wherefore, why, for which person or thing. -भविष्यः a fatalist (one who says 'what will be will be'); यद्भविष्यो विनष्यति Pt.1.318. -वद a. talking anything. -वा ind. or else, whether; नैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः Bg.2.6; (often used by commentators in suggesting an alternative meaning). -वृत्तम् an adventure. -सत्यम् ind. to be sure, to speak the truth, truly, forsooth; अमङ्गलाशंसया वो वचनस्य यत् सत्यं कम्पितमिव मे हृदयम् Ve.1; Mu.1; Mk.4.
rikthin रिक्थिन् a. 1 Inheriting property. -2 Wealthy, rich. -m. 1 An heir. -2 A testator; Y.
laṭabha लटभ a. (Connected with the Prākṛita लडह which appears to be derived from it) Charming, handsome, beautiful, attractive, lovely; अतिक्रान्तः कालो लटभललना- भोगसुलभः Bh.3.32 (where commentators render लटभ by सलावण्य); तस्याः पादनखश्रेणिः शोभते लटभभ्रुवः Vikr.8.6. Bilhaṇa has used this word in three more places of the same book, where it appears to mean' a young pretty woman', 'a handsome woman'; e. g. किं वा वर्णनया समस्तलटभालंकारतामेष्यति 8.86; अनर्घ्यलावण्यनिधानभूमिर्न कस्य लोभं लटभा तनोति 9.68; केशबन्ध- विभवैर्लटभानां पिण्डतामिव जगाम तमिस्रम् 11.18.
lāsaka लासक a. (-सिका f.) [लस्-ण्वुल्] 1 Playing, frolicking, sporting. -2 Moving hither and thither. -3 Causing to dance; लासकः पादपानां ... नभस्वान् Ṛs.2.26 (the commentator Amarakīrti, however, says, "लासकः संसर्गवान्"). -कः 1 A dancer. -2 A peacock. -3 Embracing. -4 N. of Śiva. -कम् A room on the top of a building, turret.
vyākhyātṛ व्याख्यातृ m. An expounder, a commentator.
śaphaḥ शफः फम् [शप्-अच् पृषो˚ पस्य फः] 1 A hoof; सुरभे- र्महिषा गावो ये चान्ये द्विशफा नृप Bhāg.6.6.27. -2 A claw; यज्ञायज्ञियं पुच्छं धिष्ण्यां शफाम् Vāj.12.4. -3 The root of a tree. -Comp. -ऊरुः f. a woman having thighs resembling the two divisions of a cow's hoof; see P. IV.1.7. The early commentators of Pāṇini of other schools of grammar evidently think that the word is two well-known to require any explanation. Viṭṭhala, Bhaṭṭojī and others think that the word means 'a woman whose thighs press together like hoofs'. But there is not the slightest doubt that the sense of similitude is present here and the word comes within the purview of the previous rule ऊरूत्तरपदादौपम्ये. Or it may mean a woman whose thighs are marked with the sign of hoofs. Sṛiṣṭidhara the commentator of the Bhāṣāvṛitti gives the correct meaning : शफं खुरः । तच्चह्नुयुक्त ऊरूर्यस्याः । शफरः (-री) f.) [शफं राति रा-क Tv.] A kind of small glittering fish; मोघीकर्तुं चटुलशफरोद्वर्तनप्रेक्षितानि Me. 42; मनो$स्य जह्नुः शफरीविवृत्तयः Ki.4.3; Śi.8.24; Ku. 4.39. -Comp. -अधिपः the fish called llīśa.
śaba शब (व) रः 1 A mountaineer, barbarian, savage; राजन् गुञ्जाफलानां स्रज इति शबरा नैव हारं हरान्ति K. P.1. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 The hand. -4 Water. -5 N. of a celebrated commentator and writer on Mīmāṁsā. -री 1 A Śabara female. -2 A female Kirāta who was an ardent devotee of Rāma. -Comp. -आलयः the abode of wild mountaineers or barbarians. -कन्दः a sweet potatato. -बलम् an army of mountaineers; वनमार्गेण दुर्गेण गच्छ- न्नधिकबलेन शबरबलेन रभसादभिहन्यमानः Dk.1.1. -लोध्रः the wild Lodhra tree.
śeṣa शेष a. [शिष्-अच्] Remaining, rest, all the other; न्यषेधि शेषो$प्यनुयायिवर्गः R.2.4;4.64;1.29; Me.3,89; रम्भे निर्वर्त्यतां शेषो विधिः V.5; शेषान् मासान् गमय चतुरो लोचने मीलयित्वा Me.11 (v. l.); Ms.3.47; Ku.2.44; oft. at the end of comp. in this sense; भक्षितशेष, आलेख्यशेष &c. -षः, -षम् 1 (a) Remainder, rest, residue; ऋणशेषो$ग्निशेषश्च व्याधिशेषस्तथैव च । पुनश्च वर्धते यस्मात्तस्माच्छेषं न कारयेत् ॥ Chāṇ 4; अध्वशेष Me.4; प्रतिकारविधानमायुषः सति शेषे हि फलाय कल्पते R.8.4; so शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः Bv.4.3; त्रिभागशेष Ku.5.57; वाक्यशेषः V.3. &c. (b) 1 Surplus, balance. -2 Anything left out or omitted to be said; (इति शेषः is often used by commentators in supplying an ellipsis or words necessary to complete the construction). -3 Escape, salvation, respite. -षः 1 Result, effect. -2 End, termination, conclusion. -3 Death, destruction. -4 N. of a celebrated serpent, said to have one thousand heads, and represented as forming the couch of Viṣṇu or as supporting the entire world on his head; किं शेषस्य भरव्यथा न वपुषि क्ष्मां न क्षिपत्येष यत् Mu.2.18; Ku.3.13; R.1.13. -5 N. of Balarāma (supposed to be an incarnation of Śeṣa). -6 An elephant. -7 Subsidiary अङ्ग; something which is declared as being subservient to something else; शेषः परार्थत्वात् MS.3.1.2 (यस्तु अत्यन्तं परार्थस्तं वयं शेष इति ब्रूमः ŚB.); शेषो हि सादनम् ŚB. on MS.1.5.76. -8 Favour (प्रसाद); 'शेषः संकर्षणे वधे अनन्ते ना प्रसादे च' इति मेदिनी नैवंशीलाः शेषमिहाप्नुवन्ति Mb.1.197.24. -षा The remains of flowers or other offerings made to an idol and distributed among the worshippers as a holy relique; तस्यै स्त्रियस्ताः प्रददुः शेषां युयुजुराशिषः Bhāg.1.53.5; तथेति शेषामिव भर्तुराज्ञामादाय मूर्ध्ना मदनः प्रतस्थे Ku.3.22; Ś.3. -षम् The remnants of food, remains of an offering. (शेषे is used adverbially in the sense of 1 at last, finally. -2 in other cases; as in शेषे षष्ठी). -Comp. -अन्नम् leavings of food. -अवस्था old age. -कालः the time of death. -जातिः f. assimilation of residues; (in alg.) reduction of fractions of residues. -पतिः a manager. -भागः the remainder. -भोजनम् the eating of leavings; गृहस्थस्य......त्यागः शेषभोजनम् Kau. A.1.3. -रात्रिः the last watch of the night. -रूपिन् a. appearing to be secondary. -शयनः, -शायिन् m. epithets of Viṣṇu.
śyāmā श्यामा 1 Night, particularly a dark night; श्यामां श्यामलिमानमानयत भोः सान्द्रैर्मषीकूर्चकैः Vb.3.1. -2 Shade, shadow. -3 A dark woman. -4 A kind of woman (यौवन- मध्यस्था according to Malli. on N. 3.8; Śi.8.36; Me. 84; or शीते सुखोष्णसर्वाङ्गी ग्रीष्मे या सुखशीतला । तप्तकाञ्चनवर्णाभा सा स्त्री श्यामेति कथ्यते according to one commentator on Bk.5.18 and 8.1). -5 A woman who has borne no children. -6 A cow. -7 Turmeric. -8 The female cuckoo. -9 The Priyaṅgu creeper; कृत्वा श्यामाविटपसदृशं स्नस्तमुक्तं द्वितीयम् M.2.7; Me.16. -1 The indigo plant. -11ल The holy basil. -12 The seed of the lotus. -13 N. of the Yamunā. -14 N. of several plants. -15 A name or form of Durgā (worshipped by the Tāntrikas). -Comp. -चरः a demon, Rākṣasa.
samājikaḥ समाजिकः 1 A member of an assembly; see सामाजिक. -2 A spectator in general.
sāmājika सामाजिक a. (-की f.) [समाजः सभावेशनं प्रयोजनमस्य ठञ्] Belonging to an assembly; P.IV.4.43. -कः A member of an audience or assembly, a spectator at an assembly or meeting; तेन हि तत्प्रयोगादेवात्रभवतः सामाजिका नुपास्महे Māl.1. सामानग्रामिक sāmānagrāmika सामानदेशिक sāmānadēśika सामानग्रामिक सामानदेशिक Belonging to the same village, coming from the same village. सामानाधिकरण्यम् sāmānādhikaraṇyam सामानाधिकरण्यम् 1 Being in the same predicament or situation. -2 Common office, function or government, common relationship (as of case). -3 The state of relating to the same object.
sāyaṇaḥ सायणः N. of a very learned Brāhmaṇa and a Vedic commentator, supposed to have flourished about 137 A. D.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
78 results
     
tato yavaḥ prājāyat AVP.9.11.11c.
tato yavo vy arohat AVP.9.8.4c--7c.
tato yugmanto anusaṃvahanti JB.2.438b.
tato agram ajāyata RV.10.135.6b.
tato jātam ṛṣim āhur vasiṣṭham RV.7.33.13d.
tato jātāya te 'jani AVP.12.5.3c.
tato jīvan na mokṣase AVP.3.16.4d,5d.
tato jyāyāṃś ca pūruṣaḥ (AVP. puru-) AVś.19.6.3b; AVP.9.5.3b; ArS.4.6b; ChU.3.12.6b. See ato etc.
tato dadāti (TB. -tu) dāśuṣe vasūni RV.7.27.3c; AVś.19.5.1c; ArS.1.2c; MS.4.14.14c: 238.4; TB.2.8.5.8c.
tato darbho ajāyata AVś.19.30.5d; AVP.12.22.14d.
tato devānāṃ sam avartatāsur ekaḥ RV.10.121.7c; VS.27.25c. See next.
tato devānāṃ nir avārtatāsuḥ (TS.KS. -tāsur ekaḥ) TS.4.1.8.6c; MS.2.13.23c: 169.3; KS.40.1c. See prec.
tato devī vardhayate payāṃsi TB.3.7.6.4b; Apś.4.5.5b.
tato dharmāṇi dhārayan TB.2.4.6.1c. See under ato etc.
tato dhṛtavrato rājā AVś.7.83.1c; KS.3.8c. See sa no dhṛta-.
tato na ugro vi bhajā vasūni AVś.3.4.2d,4d; TS.3.3.9.2d; MS.2.5.10d: 62.1; TB.2.4.7.7d. See ato vasūni.
tato na ūrjam ā kṛdhi Apś.5.26.5e.
tato na vicikitsati (VSK.īśāU. vijugupsate) VS.40.6d; VSK.40.6d; īśāU.6d. See na tato, and na tadā.
tato nāpa cikitsati AVś.13.2.15b.
tato nirbhakto (śś. nirbhaktaḥ sa) yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ ca vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ VS.2.25 (ter); śB.1.9.3.10 (ter),12 (ter); śś.4.12.2. See nirbhaktaḥ sa.
tato no agne juṣamāṇa ehi TB.1.2.1.22d; Apś.5.13.4d. See tatas-tato.
tato no abhayaṃ kṛdhi (VS.śś.13.2.2b, kuru) RV.8.61.13b; AVś.19.15.1b; AVP.3.35.1b; SV.1.274b; 2.671b; VS.36.22b; AB.5.27.2b; 7.3.2b; JB.3.264b; PB.15.4.3b; TB.3.7.8.1b; 8.2c; 11.4b; TA.10.1.9b; KA.1.218Ad; 3.239b; Aś.3.11.1b; śś.3.20.2b; 13.2.2b; Apś.3.12.1b; 9.5.1b; 17.6b; Mś.3.2.1b; --3.5.12b; MahānU.20.4b.
tato no dehi (KA. dhehi) jīvase RV.10.186.3c; JB.3.266c; TB.2.4.1.8c; TA.4.42.2c; KA.1.218Ac. See tasya etc.
tato no dehi sībale TB.2.5.6.4c.
tato no dhehi jīvase see prec. but one.
tato no dhehi bheṣajam TB.2.4.1.8d; TA.4.42.2d.
tato no maha āvaha TB.2.4.1.8e; 3.10.4.2c; TA.4.42.2e.
tato no mitrāvaruṇāv avīṣṭam TB.2.8.6.7c. See tena etc.
tato no rudrā uta vā nuv (Poona ed. 'nv) asya TB.2.7.12.4c. See ato etc.
tato no vardhayā rayim MS.1.5.1d: 66.5; 1.6.1d: 85.8; KS.2.4d; 6.9d; 16.11d; 18.18d. See under athā no etc.
tato no vārayiṣyate AVś.10.3.8d.
tato no vṛṣṭim eraya (VS.śB. āvaha) VS.2.16; TS.1.1.13.1; KS.1.12c; 31.11; śB.1.8.3.15; TB.3.3.9.4.
tato no vṛṣṭyāvata (VS. -āva) VS.18.55; TS.2.4.8.1; 4.7.13.2; MS.1.1.13: 9.2; 2.4.7 (ter): 44.11,13,15; 2.12.3: 146.19; 4.1.14: 19.19; Apś.5.26.5; Mś.1.3.4.21. See tato mā etc.
tato 'parūpaṃ jāyate AVś.12.4.9c.
tato bhūya iva te tamaḥ VS.40.9c,12c; śB.14.7.2.13c; BṛhU.4.4.13c; īśāU.9c,12c.
tato madhyamam āyanti TA.1.8.5a.
tato mahnā pra ririce mahitvā RV.1.164.25d; AVś.9.10.3d.
tato mā chitthāḥ Apś.6.22.1.
tato mām āviśatu brahmavarcasam TB.1.2.1.6c; Apś.5.2.4c.
tato mā yajñasyāśīr āgachatu MS.1.4.4 (quinq.): 51.13,14 (bis),15,16; KS.5.6 (bis); Apś.9.10.16 (bis). See tasya māśīr.
tato mā yadi kiṃcid ānaśe TB.3.7.12.5c. See tato yadi.
tato mā vṛṣṭyāva (KS.11.9, -āvata) KS.11.9 (ter); 18.15. See tato no etc.
tato me pathye revati AVP.1.43.4c.
tato memātaraṃ riṣat AVP.15.21.2d.
tato me śriyam āvaha TA.7.4.2e; TU.1.4.2e.
tato yakṣmaṃ vi bādhadhve (AVś. bādhase) RV.10.97.12c; AVś.4.9.4c; VS.12.86c. See tasmād yakṣmaṃ.
tato yajñas tāyate viśvadānīm KS.31.14d; Mś.1.2.4.5d. See tato yajño.
tato yajñe lokajit somajambhāḥ GB.1.5.24c.
tato yajño jāyate viśvadāniḥ TB.3.3.9.10d; Apś.2.1.3d. See tato yajñas.
tato yad antarā vanam (AVP.4.22.3c, viṣam) AVP.4.21.4c; 4.22.3c.
tato yadi tvā grāhir ānaśe AVś.6.113.1c,3c. See tato mā yadi.
tato yaḥ somo 'tyaricyata MS.2.4.3a: 40.4.
tato rātry (TA. -trir) ajāyata RV.10.190.1c; TA.10.1.13c; MahānU.5.5c.
tato rāṣṭraṃ balam ojaś ca jātam AVś.19.41.1c; AVP.1.53.3c. See tataḥ kṣatraṃ.
tato vapūṃṣi kṛṇuṣe purūṇi AVś.5.1.2b. See ato vapūṃṣi.
tato vayaḥ pra patān pūruṣādaḥ RV.10.27.22b; N.2.6b.
tato varān vṛṇīmahe KS.7.14e.
tato varuṇa no muñca (AVś. varuṇa muñca naḥ) AVś.7.83.2e; VS.6.22b,22e; 20.18c; TS.1.3.11.1e; MS.1.2.18e: 28.7; KS.3.8e; 38.5c; śB.3.8.5.10b,10e; 12.9.2.4c; TB.2.6.6.2c; Aś.3.6.24c,24e; śś.8.12.11b,11e; Lś.5.4,6b,6e. See ito etc.
tato vākā āśiṣo no juṣantām VS.17.57c; MS.2.10.5d: 137.7; 3.3.8: 41.20; KS.18.3d; śB.9.2.3.11. See tataḥ pāvakā.
tato vā gha parastaram AVP.12.2.5b.
tato vi tiṣṭhe bhuvanānu (AVś. -ni) viśvā RV.10.125.7c; AVś.4.30.7c.
tato virāḍ (VSK. -rāl) ajāyata ArS.4.7a; VS.31.5a; VSK.35.5a. See tasmād virāḍ, and virāḍ agre.
tato viśvakarman pra mumugdhy enam AVP.1.88.1d. Cf. taṃ viśvakarman.
tato viṣaṃ pra vāvṛte (AVP. viṣaṃ parāsicam) RV.1.191.15c; AVP.4.17.5c.
tato viṣvaṅ vyakrāmat RV.10.90.4c; VS.31.4c; TA.3.12.2c. See tathā viṣvaṅ, and tathā vy akrāmad.
tato vai sad ajāyata TA.8.7.1b; TU.2.7.1b.
tato vo jīvan mā moci AVP.7.18.5d. See sa vo jīvan.
tato vyāghraḥ paramaḥ AVP.2.8.2c.
tato 'si VSK.2.6.9; śś.2.12.10; Kś.3.8.25.
tato ha jajñiṣe tvam AVP.2.20.4c.
tato ha jajñe (Mś. mss. tato 'haṃ yajñe) bhuvanasya gopāḥ (Mś. goptā) TB.3.12.9.7c; Apś.23.14.16c; Mś.9.5.4.43c. See te ha jajñe.
tato ha brahmāṇo vaśām AVś.12.4.31c.
tato ha māna ud iyāya madhyāt RV.7.33.13c.
tato harāmi somapīthasyāvaruddhyai TB.1.2.1.6d; Apś.5.2.4d.
tato hiraṇyayo binduḥ AVś.19.30.5c; AVP.12.22.14c.
tato hotājāyata AVś.10.10.19d.
tatas-tato juṣamāṇo na ehi # AVś.19.3.1d; AVP.1.73.1d. See tato no agne.
brahmāntato madhyato brahma sarvataḥ # AVś.14.1.64b.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"tato" has 74 results.
     
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aśvatthanārāyaṇaa commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. in the Tamil language.
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
āpiśalian ancient grammarian mentioned by Pāṇini and his commentators like Patañjali, Helarāja and others; confer, compare वा सुप्यापिशलेः P. IV.3.98; तथा चापिशलेर्विधिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.45.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
ujjvaladattathe famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti et cetera, and others He is also known by the name Jājali.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
udayathat which follows; a term frequently used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of 'following' or पर; confer, compare उदयस्वरादिसस्थानो हकार एकेषाम् explained by the commentator as आत्मन उपरिस्वरादिसस्थानः T.Pr.II.47: confer, compare also ऋकार उदये कण्ठ्यौ explained by the commentator as ऋकारे उदये परभूते सति R.Pr.II.11;confer, compare also नेादात्तस्वरितेादयं P.V.III.4.67.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upabandhaa technical term used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of words which proceed from a rule to the following rules upto a particular stated limit; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम् T. Pr I.59 explained by the commentator as उपबध्यते इति उपबन्धः । एतस्मिन्नित्यधिकरणरूपः संख्यानविषयः प्रदेशश्च उपबन्ध उच्यते । उपबन्धे यदुक्तं तदन्यत्र न भवतीति तुशब्दार्थः ।
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
urasyaproduced at the breast; confer, compareकेचिदेता उरस्या R.Pr.I.18, explained by the commentator as केचिदाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उरःस्थाने इच्छन्ति ।
ekadeśin( a thing or a substance )composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; confer, compare the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekapadāmade up of a single word; confer, compare भवति चैतदकस्मिन्नपि एकवर्ण पदम् एकपदा ऋक् एकर्चं सूक्तमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) made up of one foot ( चरण or पाद ); confer, compare एक एकपदैतेषां (R.Pr.XVII.24) explained by the commentator as तेषां चतुर्णां पादानामष्टाक्षरादीनां एकः पादः यस्याः सा एकपदा ऋक् इत्युच्यते ।
aikārthyapossession of a single composite sense (by all words together in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; confer, compare also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explained as ऐकपद्य
aupamanyavaname of an ancient etymologist referred to by Yaska in his Nirukta possibly as a commentator on निघण्टु; confer, compare निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. line 4.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kalāparatnaa commentary on the kāraka portion of the Kalāpa grammar ascribed to the famous commentator Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātantradhātuvṛttiascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti., the famous commentator of the Kātantra Sūtras who lived in the ninth or the tenth century.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
cāturarthikathe affixes prescribed in the four senses mentioned in P. IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes are given in the Sutras IV.2.71 to IV.2.91. The term चातुरर्थिक is used for these afixes by commentators on Panini sutras.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tadvat(1)as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.,similarly;the words शेषं तद्वत् (the rest as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) are frequently seen used by commentators; (2) the taddhita affix. affix वत् in the sense of possession and not in the sense of measure et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्वति तद्धिते न्यायसंहितं चेत् V.Pr.V.8.
dāruṇyaexplained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as दृढत्व (firmness) or कठिनता (hardness,) and given as a characteristic of the acute or उदात्त tone; confer, compare अायामो दारुण्यमणुता खस्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शब्दस्य, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.9, quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.I. 2.29, where दारुण्य is explained as स्वरस्य दारुणता रूक्षता ।
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pūjārthalit for the sake of paying respect. The word is used by commentators in connection with references to ancient grammarians by Panini in his sutras, where the commentators usually say that the sutras citing the views of ancient grammarians imply merely an option, the name being quoted merely to show respect to the grammarian; confer, compare अापिशलिग्रहणं पूजार्थम् S.K. on P.VI.1.92.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
barsvya(written as बर्त्स्व्य or बर्त्स्य possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition)connected with the socket of the teeth. As the utterance of र् proceeds from the socket of the teeth, र् is called बर्स्व्य. confer, compare उपसंहृततरे च जिह्वाग्रमृकारर्कारल्कारेषु बर्स्वेषूपसंहरति T.Pr.II.18.बर्स्व is explained here by the commentator as दन्तपङ्क्तेरुपरिष्टादुच्चप्रदेशेषु ऋकारस्य ॠकारस्य ऌकारस्य च बर्स्वाः स्थानम् । The word उपरिष्टात् in the explanation given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is questionable;the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on वर्त्स्यमेकं इच्छन्ति रेफम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20.viz. वर्त्सशब्देन दन्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश उच्यते appears better although apparently वर्त्स is written in the text for बर्स्व or वर्त्स्व.
bhūtapūrvagatiliterally denotation of something which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; confer, compareभूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.20 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII.3.103; confer, comparealso सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76.
madhyama(1)the middle person ( मध्यमपुरुष ), confer, compare युष्मद्युपपदे...मध्यम: P. I. 4.105; confer, compare also Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 7; (2) middling tone or effort confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्ययोग: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4, where the commentator explains the word as उच्चनीचसमाहारविलक्षण: वाक्प्रयोगः | the word मध्यमा is used in this sense as qualifying a mode of utterance. वृत्ति; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् ! Ṟ. Pr. XIII. 19; cf also चतुष्कला मध्यमायार्म् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 32; (3) one of the seven modes of speech or tones. cf सप्त वाचः स्थानानि भवन्ति | उपांशुध्वाननिमदेापव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.4 and 5 and also कण्ठे मध्यमम् XVIII.11 where the commentatator explains मध्यम as यत्र कण्ठे स्थाने प्रयोग उपलभ्यते तन्मध्यमं नाम षष्ठं वाचस्स्थानम् | (4) one of the seven musical notes originating or proceeding from the Svarita accent confer, compare, स्वारतप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः Pāṇ Śikṣā.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
yamanvāan obscure term found used in the Phit-sUtras राजाविशेषस्य यमन्वा चेत् ( आद्युदात्ते भेवति ) Phi-sUtra II. 42, where the word यमन्वा is explained as वृद्ध by the commentator for the meaning of वृद्ध, see वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् P. 1.1.73.
yenanāprāptanyāyaa term used by grammarians and commentators very frequently for the maxim "येन नाप्राप्ते यो वेधिरारभ्येत स तस्य बाधको भवति " Par. Sek. on Pari. 57. The term अपवादन्याय is used in the Mahabhasya which is the same as येननाप्राप्तन्याय of later grammarians.
raktaliterally coloured id est, that iscoloured by nasalization: a term used by ancient grammarians for a nasaIized letter ( अनुनासिक ); cf रक्तसंज्ञो नुनासेकः R.Pr.r.17on which Uvvata comments :-अनुनासिको वणो . रक्त इत्युच्यते; also confer, compare अरक्तसंध्येत्यपवाद्यते पदं R. Pr, XI. 18, where unnasalized अा is stated as अरक्तसंधि and illustrated by the commentator by quoting the passage मन्द्रमावरेण्यम् as contrasted with अभ्र औ अषः ।
lakṣaṇa(1)a rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; confer, compare लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्; confer, compare also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते M.Bh on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10; (2) characteristic or sign; confer, compare लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये P. II. 1. 14; confer, compare also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12; (3) indirect way of expression; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 105.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
vartaa term used by ancient grammarians and later on by commentators for compound words confer, compare वर्तनं वर्तः समास: Nyasa on Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. II.4.15.
vartinfrom वर्त which means a compound;see वर्त, (l) The term वर्तिन् or वर्तिपद is used in the sense of a member of a compound;confer, compareवर्तोस्यास्तीति वर्ति समासावयवभूतम् Nyasa on P. II. 4.1 5. (2) The term वर्तिन् is also used for a syllable ( अक्षरम् ); confer, compare वर्ति R.T.47, explained by the commentator as अकारादिषु वर्तते व्य़ञ्जनं वर्ति चाप्यक्षरं भवति | confer, compare also गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVIII.32.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
śakandhukaname of a class of words in whose case the last vowel of the first word does not coalesce with the first vowel of the next word; e. g. शक अन्धुक ईश । अक्षपा असि | वपा इव त्मना | सुपथा अकृण्वन् [ confer, compare शकन्धुकादीनाम् R.T.87 which is explained by the commentator as शकन्धुकादीनां च न संनिकृष्यत.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sārvavibhaktikapertaining to all cases, i. e. prescribed to convey the sense of all case affixes; the term is commonly used by commentators with reference to the taddhita affix. affix तस् prescribed by the rule प्रतियोगे पञ्चम्यास्तसि: and the Varttika तसिप्रकरणे आद्यादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् thereon: confer, compare P, V. 4.44 and Vart. 1 .
sṛṣṭidharaname of the famous commentator on Purusottamadeva's Bhasavrtti,who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
spaṣṭārthaan expression used often by commentators with reference to a line or a passage of the text the meaning of which is clear and no explanation is necessary.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
haria short form used for भर्तृहरि, the stalwart grammarian Bhartrhari,by later grammarians and commentators in their references to him. See the word भर्तृहरि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
halādibeginning with a consonant; confer, compare हलादयो विभक्तय:, M.Bh. on P. II. 4.32 Vart. 2; धातुर्य एकाज् हलादि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. l . 22. Vart. 2. et cetera, and others हलादिशेष a term frequently used by commentators for the omission of all consonants except the initial one in the reduplicative syllable as prescribed by the rule of Panini इलादिः शेष: VII. 4. 60. The word 'इलादिःशेषः' as one word, is also found used in the same sense
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

ambu

1. water; 2. kind of grass; ambuprasāda Plant kataka tree, Strychnos potatorum, useful in cleaning the water.

avapīdana

1. act of pressing down; 2. sternutatory; nasal medicine; insufflations of drugs in thin paste form through the nasal passages.

brahmadeva

commentator of Carakasamhita and Suśrutasamhita (10-11th Century ).

kataka

Plant clearing nut, Strychnos potatorum.

kṣīravidari

Plant giant potato, dried root of Ipomoea digitata.

nāvana

medication applied through nose, sternutatory.

     Wordnet Search "tato" has 2 results.
     

tato

antataḥ, antatogatvā   

antime samaye।

saḥ svakārye antataḥ saphalībhūtaḥ।

tato

sandarbhāmṛtatoṣiṇī   

mugdhabodhasya ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

sandarbhāmṛtatoṣiṇyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti









Parse Time: 1.419s Search Word: tato Input Encoding: IAST: tato