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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
taddhitan. (hita-) sg. and plural his welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddhitam. (scilicet pratyaya-) an affix forming nouns from other nouns (opposed to 1. kṛt-), noun formed thus, derivative noun (tad-dhita- mfn."good for that or him", is one of the meanings peculiar to derivative, nouns see maudakika-etc.) (also ataddhita a--t/ad-dhita- negative mfn."having no taddhita- affix") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taddhitaḍhuṇḍhīf. Name of a gloss on the taddhita- chapter in grammar by ānandagaṇi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ataddhitamfn. taddhita
bāhyataddhitan. (in gram.) an external or secondary taddhita- suffix (added after another one) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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taddhita a. good for him, in which sense one of the suffixes of this class is used: m. (sc. pratyaya) secondary suffix; word formed with a secondary suffix.
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"taddhita" has 112 results.
     
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
ataddhitaan affix which is not a taddhita affix. confer, compare लशक्वतद्धिते P.1.3.8; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.3.4, V.3.1 et cetera, and others
taddhitakośaa work on the taddhita section written by Siromani Bhattacarya, who has also written तिङन्तशिरोमणि.
aṇādia term applied to all taddhita suffixes collectively as they begin with अण् confer, compare P.IV.1.83.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
arīhaṇādia group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् et cetera, and otherssee Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.
arśaādia class of words which take the taddhita affix अच्(अ) in the sense of the affix मतुप् i. e.in the sense of possession; cf अर्शति अस्य विद्यन्ते अर्शसः । उरस:। आकृतिगणश्चायम् यत्राभिन्नरूपेण शब्देन तद्वतोभिधानं तत् सर्वमिह द्रष्टव्यम् Kāś. on P. V.2.127.
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
aśmādia class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddhita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; exempli gratia, for example अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
aśvapatyādia class of words headed by अश्वपति to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule तेन दीव्यति० P.IV.4.2, which are technically called the Prāgdīvyatiya senses. e g. अश्वपतम्, गाणपतम्. गार्हपतम् et cetera, and others
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
ākarṣādia class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the taddhita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
utkarādia class of words headed by the word उत्कर, to which the taddhita affix छ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly known as चातुरर्थिक; confer, compare उत्करीयम्, शफरीयम् et cetera, and others; Kāś. on P.V.2.90.
utsaṅgādia class of words headed by the word उत्सङ्ग, to which the taddhita affix इक् ( ठ ) is added in the sense of तेन हरति (takes away by means of): confer, compare हरतिर्देशान्तरप्रापणे वर्तते । उत्सङ्गेन हरति औत्सङ्गिकः । अौडुपिकः । Kāś. on P IV.4.15.
utsādia class of words headed by the word उत्स to which the taddhita affix अञ्, instead of the usual affixes अण् and others, is added in the sense of an offspring: confer, compare औत्स:, औदपानः et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.IV.1.86.
udgātrādia class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the taddhita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; confer, compare उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ṛgayanādia class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); confer, compare ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.
ṛśyādia class of words headed by the word ऋश्य to which the taddhita affix क is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. 2.67-70; e. g. ऋश्यकः, न्यग्रोधकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
ṛṣyaṇtaddhita affix अण् in the sense of 'descendant' applied to names of ancient sages, by the rule ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च P.IV.1.114; exempli gratia, for example वासिष्ठः,वैश्वामित्रः.
airaktaddhita affix ऐर applied to the word चटका in the sense of offspring to form the word चाटकैर; cf चटकाया ऐरक् P.IV.1.128.
aiṣukāryādia class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; exempli gratia, for example एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.
kacchādia class of words headed by कच्छ to which the taddhita affix अण् is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक) senses, provided the word, to which the affix अण् is to be added, is the name of a country; exempli gratia, for example ऋषिकेषु जातः आर्षिकः similarly माहिषिकः, ऐक्ष्वाकः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.133.
karṇādi(1)a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फिञ् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कार्णायनिः वासिष्ठायनिः et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix जाह (जाहच्) is added in the sense of a 'root' exempli gratia, for example कर्णजाहम् ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.V.2.24.
kalyāṇyādia class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्याणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kāśādia class of words headed by the word काश to which the taddhita affix इल is affixed in the four senses stated in P.IV.2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example काशिलम्, कर्दमिलम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.80.
kāśyādia class of words headed by the words काशि, चेदि and others to which the taddhita affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काशिकी, काशिका; वैदिकी, वैदिका et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.116. The feminine. afix ई is applied when the affix ठञ् is added to the word काशि; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
kumudādiclass of words (१) consisting of कुमुद, शर्करा, न्यग्रोध et cetera, and others to which the taddhita affix ठक् is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कुमुदिकम्,शर्करिकम् etc(2) consisting of कुमुद गोमय, रथकार etc to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied in the senses referred to in (I): exempli gratia, for example कौमुदिकम् , राथकारिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kurvādia class of words headed by the word कुरु to which the taddhita affix य ( ण्य ) is added in the sense of अपत्य or descendant; exempli gratia, for example कौरव्यः गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.51.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛśāśvādia class of words headed by the word कृशाश्वं to which the taddhita affix ईय (छण् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2. 67-70, exempli gratia, for example कार्शीश्वीयः, आरिष्टीयः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kramādia class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on IV. 2.61.
kroḍādia class of words headed by the word क्रोड to which the taddhita affix य ( ष्यङ् ) is added in the sense of a female descendant; exempli gratia, for example क्रौड्या, आपिशल्या, गौकक्ष्या et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.80.
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
guḍādia class of words headed by the word गुड to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठञ् ) is added in the sense of 'good therein'; exempli gratia, for example गौडिकः इक्षुः, कौल्माषिको मुद्गः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on p. IV. 4.103.
gṛṣṭyādia class of words headed by the word गृष्टि to which the taddhita affix एय (ढञ्) is affixed in the sense off 'an offspring' ( अपत्य): e g. गार्ष्टेयः, हालेयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.136.
gopavanādia class of eight words headed by the word गोपवन, the taddhita affix in the sense of गोत्र ( i. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix यञ् or अञू after which, is not elided in the plural number; c. g. गौपवना:, शौग्रवा: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.67.
goṣadādia class of words to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुन् ) is added in the sense of possession provided the word so formed refers to a chapter ( अध्याय ) or a section ( अनुवाक ) c. दैवासुरः, वैमुक्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.62.
cāturarthikathe affixes prescribed in the four senses mentioned in P. IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes are given in the Sutras IV.2.71 to IV.2.91. The term चातुरर्थिक is used for these afixes by commentators on Panini sutras.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭhakpādaa popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi.The pada begins with the rule प्राग्वहतेष्ठक् P.IV.4.1 prescribing the taddhita affix ठक् in the senses prescribed in rules be. ginning with the next rule ' तेन दीव्यति खनति जयति जितम् ' and ending with the rule 'निकटे वसति' P.IV.4.73.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
tadrājathe taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): confer, compare तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The peculiar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; similarly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; confer, compare P.II.4.62.
tasilādia class of taddhita affixes headed by the affix तस् ( तसिल् ) as given by Panini in his sutras from पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् P. V. 3. 7. upto संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् V.3.17; confer, compare P. VI.3.35. The words ending with the affixes from तसिल् in P.V.3.7 upto पाशप् in P.V.3.47 (excluding पाशप्) become indeclinables; confer, compare Kas on P.I.1.38.
tārakādia class of words headed by the word तारका and containing prominently the words पुष्प, कण्टक, मुकुल, कुसुम, पल्लव, बुभुक्षा, ज्वर and many others numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affix इत (इतच्) is added in the sense of 'containing'. As this class, called तारकादि, is looked upon as आकृतिगण, nouns with इत added at their end, are supposed to be included in it; confer, compare P. V. 2.36.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tikādia class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; exempli gratia, for example तैकायनि:, कैतवायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.154.
tundādia very small class of words headed by the word तुन्द to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added in the sense of possession ( मत्वर्थ ). The affix इल is optional and the other affixes इन् , इक and मत् are also added; exempli gratia, for example तुन्दिल, तुन्दी, तुन्दिकः, तुन्दवान् ; similarly उदरिलः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.117.
tṛṇādia class of words to which the taddhita affix श is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67 to 70; e. g. तृणशः, नडशः, पर्णशः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.80.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
daṇḍādia class of words headed by the word दण्ड to which the taddhita affix य, is added in the sense of 'deserving', confer, compare दण्डमर्हति दण्ड्यः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.66
dāmanyādia class of words headed by the word दामनि to which the taddhita affix छ is added without any change of sense: exempli gratia, for exampleदामनीयः, औलपीयः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V, 3.116.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dvyādia class of pronouns headed by the pronoun द्वि to which the taddhita affixes called विभक्ति, as prescribed by the rules of Panini in the rule पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् and the following ones, are not addedition confer, compare P. V. 3. 2.
nadyādia class of words headed by नदी, मही and other feminine. nouns to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added in the miscellaneous (शैषिक ) senses; exempli gratia, for example नादेयम्, माहेयम्, वाराणसेयम्, श्रावस्तेयम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.97.
pakṣādia class of words headed by the word पक्ष to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फक् ) causing vŗddhi is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67-70; e. g. पाक्षायण:, अाश्मायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.80.
pāśādia class of words headed by the word पाश to which the taddhita affix य is added in the sense of collection; exempli gratia, for example पाश्या, तृण्या, वात्या etc, confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.49.
picchādia class of words headed by the word पिच्छ to which the taddhita affix इल ( इलच् ) is added optionally with मत् ( मतुप् ), in the sense of 'possessed of'; exempli gratia, for exampleपिच्छिलः पिच्छवान्, उरसिलः उरस्वान् et cetera, and others: cf Kāś. om V. 2. 100.
pīlvādia class of words headed by the word पीलु to which the taddhita affix कुण ( कुणप्) is added in the sense of 'decoction' ( पाक ). e. g. पीलुकुण:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.2.24.
purohitādia class of words headed by the word पुरोहित to which the taddhita affix यक् is added in the sense of 'duly' or 'nature': e.g . पौरोहित्यम् , राज्यम् , बाल्यम् , मान्द्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P. V. !. 128.
puṣkarādia class of words headed by the word पुष्कर, to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the name of a district. e. g. पुष्करिणी, पद्मिनी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.135.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhargādia class of words headed by भर्ग which are generally names of countries, the taddhita affixes अण् and others added to which are not elided; e. g. भार्गीं, कैकेयी, काश्मीरी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on IV. 1.178.
bhūmādithe limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.94.
madhvādia class of words headed by the word मधु to which the taddhita affix मत् (मतुप्) is added as a Cāturarthika affix; exempli gratia, for example मधुमान् , विसमान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 2.86.
manojñādia class of words headed by the word मनोज्ञ, to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ्) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; exempli gratia, for example मनोज्ञकम्, काल्याणकम्, अाढयकम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 1.133.
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yāvādia class of words headed by the word याव to which the taddhita affix क ( कन् ) is added without any specific sense assigned to it; exempli gratia, for example यावकः: मणिक: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.29.
yuvādia class of words headed by the word युवन् which have the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of 'duty' or 'nature': exempli gratia, for example यौवनम् स्थाविरम्, हौत्रम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.130.
yaudheyādia class of nine words headed by the word यौधेय, a taddhita affix applied to which is not to be elided even though the word be used in the plural number
rajatādia class of words headed by the word रजत to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of ' a product ' or 'a part '; exempli gratia, for example राजतम् , लौहम् , औदुम्बरम् et cetera, and others ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.154.
rājanyādiaclass of words headed by the word राजन्य to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुच् ) is added in the sense of ' the place of residence '; e. g. राजन्यकः, औदुम्वरक: ! et cetera, and others This class named राजन्यादि is ] called अाकृतिगण and similar words ! can be included in this class such as मालव,विराट् , त्रिगर्त and others from which the words मालवक: वैराटक: त्रैगर्तक: et cetera, and others can be arrived at confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.53.
raivatikādia class of words headed by रैवतिक to which the taddhita affix ईय ( छ ) is added in the sense of 'belonging to'; e. g. रैवतिकीय:, औदवाहीयः, बैजवापीय: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kaś. on P. IV. 3.131.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
vaṃśādia class of words headed by the word वंश, the word भार placed after which gets the taddhita affixes added to it, as prescribed in the senses 'takes it', 'carries it' or 'produces it'; exempli gratia, for example वांशभारिकः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.50. The taddhita affix. affixes as prescribed in the senses mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are added to the words वंश et cetera, and others and not to भार according to some commentators; exempli gratia, for exampleवांशिकः, कौटजिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.50.
varaṇādia class of words headed by वरण which have the taddhita affix elided, if it is added to them in the four senses mentioned in P.IV.2.67-70 confer, compare वरणानामदूरभवं नगरं वरणाः | कटुकबदर्या अदूरभवो ग्रामः कटुकबदरी ! confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.82.
varāhādia class of words headed by वराह which have the taddhita affix क ( कक् ) added to them in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example वाराहकम्, पालाशकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80.
vākinādia class of words headed by the word वाकिन to which the taddhita affix आयनि( फिञ् ) is added in the sense of an 'offspring' when along with the taddhita affix. affix अायनि,the augment क् ( कुक् ) is added to the base ( वाकिन or the like ); e. g. वाकिनकायनिः ; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.158.
vinayādia class of words headed by विनय to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied without any change of sense:confer, compareविनय एव वैनयिक: शमयिकः । औपयिकः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.4.34.
vimuktādia class of words headed by the word विमुक्त to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'possessed of', provided the word so formed, denotes a chapter or a lesson of a sacred work; confer, compareविमुक्तशब्दोस्मिन्नस्ति वैमुक्तकोध्यायः अनुवाको वा | दैवासुरः । Kāś. on P. V. 2.61.
vṛttisamuddeśaname given to the last of the fourteen sections of the third chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya ( viz. the संकीर्णकाण्ड ) in which the taddhita affixes and their interpretations are discussedition
vetanādia class of words headed by वेतन which have the taddhita affix इक (ठक्) added to them in the sense of "earning a livelihood' exempli gratia, for example वेतनिक: | धानुष्क:; दाण्डिक:; confer, compare वेतनेन जीवति वैतनिकः कर्मकर: Kas on P. IV. 4.12.
vyuṣṭādia class of words headed by the word व्युष्ट to which the taddhita affix अ (अण् ) is added in the sense of the place where something is given or prepared ; confer, compare व्युष्टे दीयते कार्ये वा वैयुष्टम् । नैत्यम्: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.97.
vrīhyādia class of words headed by व्रीहि to which the taddhita affixes इन् and ठन् are applied in the sense of possession along with the usual affix मत् ( मतुप् ) ; e. g. व्रीही, व्रीह्रिक व्रीहिमान् । मायी, मायिकः मायावान् : confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2. 116.
ś(1)a sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and कण्ठविवृतत्व; (2) the initial indicatory ( इत् ) letter श् of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped; (3) substitute for च्छ् when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्न:, confer, compare P.VI.4.19;(4) substitute for स् when followed by श् or any palatal letter;exempli gratia, for example वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. VIII. 4.40.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śuṇḍikādia class of words headed by शुण्डिका to which the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) is added in the sense of 'who has come from'; exempli gratia, for example शौण्डिक:, कार्कणः: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.76.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śaunakādia class of words headed by the word शौनक to which the taddhita affix इन् ( णिनि ) is added in the sense of 'instructed by', provided the word so formed is a portion of what is looked upon as a part of the sacred Vedic Literature; confer, compare शौनकेन प्रोक्तमधीयते शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिन: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 3.106.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
snañtaddhita affix.affix स्न,added in many taddhita senses, अपत्य, जात,समूहृ, अागत and others mentioned upto P. V. Ist pada end; e. g. स्त्रैणः पौस्नः, confer, compareस्त्रीपुंसाभ्यां नत्र्स्नर्ञौ भवनात् P.IV.1.87.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
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taddhita noun (masculine) an affix forming nouns from other nouns (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
derivative noun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9607/72933
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taddhita

taddhita   

vyākaraṇasya saḥ pratyayaḥ yaḥ saṃjñāyāḥ ante upayujya bhāvavācakasaṃjñāṃ viśeṣaṇaṃ vā kartuṃ śakyate।

mitratā ityasmin śabde mitra iti prātipadikaṃ tā iti taddhitaḥ pratyayaḥ asti।









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