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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
ādram3.1.105MasculineSingularuttam, sāndram, klinnam, timitam, stimitam, samunnam
agham3.3.32NeuterSingularabhiṣvaṅgaḥ, spṛhā, gabhasti
balavat2.4.2MasculineSingularatīva, nirbharam, suṣṭhu, kimuta, svasti
hastyārohaḥ2.8.60MasculineSingularādhoraṇaḥ, hastipakaḥ, niṣādī
kacchaḥ3.3.35MasculineSingulardantaḥ(hastinaḥ)
kiraṇaḥ1.3.33MasculineSingulardhṛṣṇiḥ, aṃśuḥ, karaḥ, ghṛṇiḥ, mayūkhaḥ, dīdhitiḥ, bhānuḥ, gabhasti, usraḥ, marīciḥray
midhyādṛṣṭiḥFeminineSingularstikatāheterodox or kerssry
śakuntaḥ3.3.64MasculineSingularstipakaḥ, sūtaḥ
sāsnā2.9.64FeminineSingularnastitaḥ
yāñcā2.7.35FeminineSingularabhiśasti, yācanā, arthanā
hastimakhaḥMasculineSingular
śrīhastiFeminineSingularbhuruṇḍī
mastiṣkam2.6.66NeuterSingulargordam
vasti2.6.74Ubhaya-lingaSingular
vitasti2.6.84Ubhaya-lingaSingulardvādaśāṅgulaḥ
stikam2.8.36NeuterSingulargajatā
svasti3.3.249MasculineSingulardūram, samīpam
asti2.4.17MasculineSingular
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557 results for sti
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
stim. (only in accusative plural st/īn-;fr.1. as- see /upa-sti-, abh/i--and p/ari-ṣṭi-) a dependent, vassal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stibhim. a clump, bunch, tuft (see stabaka-, stamba-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stibhim. the sea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stibhim. an obstacle, obstruction (see stambha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stibhinīf. a clump, tuft etc. equals stibhi- Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stibhivatmfn. equals phala-vat- (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stigh cl.5 P. stighnoti- (according to to A1. stighnute-; Potential stighnuyāt- infinitive mood -st/igham-; grammar also perfect tense tiṣṭige-; Aorist asteghiṣṭa-; future steghitā-, ghiṣyate-; infinitive mood steghitum-), to step, stride, step up, mount (especially in ati-stigh-,"to step over, overstep", and in pra-stigh-,"to step up, rise up etc.") : Desiderative tiṣṭighiṣati- (in ati-tiṣṭ/ighiṣan-,"wishing to ascend") [ confer, compare Greek ; Slavonic or Slavonian stignati; Gothic steigan; German sti7gan,steigen; English sty.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stim or stīm- (see tim-) cl.4 P. stimyati- or stīmyati-, to be or become wet or moist ; to become fixed or immovable (See next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimbhim. equals stibhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. wet, moist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. fixed, motionless (see stambhita-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. still, calm, tranquil, soft, gentle ( stimitam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamfn. pleased View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitan. moisture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitan. stillness, motionless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitajavamfn. advancing slowly or softly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitamind. stimita
stimitanayanamfn. having the eyes intently fixed (see stabdhadṛṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitapravāham. flowing gently along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitasamādhiśucimfn. pure through intense meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitasthitamfn. standing still or motionless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitatāf. () steadiness, fixedness, stillness, absence of motion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitatvan. () steadiness, fixedness, stillness, absence of motion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitavāyum. still air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitayaNom. P. yati-, to make motionless or still
stimitāyatākṣamfn. keeping (his) large eyes intently fixed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stip (see step-) cl.1 A1. stepate-, to ooze, drip, drop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimfn. protecting dependents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stiSee above under st/i-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stireSee 1. stṛ-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stif. stagnant water. See under styai-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stif. (prob.) still or stagnant water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. curse, imprecation, damnation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. effect of imprecation, misfortune, evil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. one who curses or injures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. blame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. "accusation" (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';See mithyābhiśasti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. calumny, defamation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastif. asking, begging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśasticātanamfn. keeping off imprecation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastikṛtmfn. accusing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastimfn. defending from imprecations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśastipāvanmfn. idem or 'mfn. defending from imprecations ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhaḥsvastikan. the nadir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adharasvastikan. the nadir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adharmastikāyam. the category (astikāya-) of adharma-, (one of the five categories of the jaina- ontology) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhihastiind. on an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastim. (according to fr.2. a-ga-,a mountain, and asti-,thrower,2. as-). Name of a ṛṣi- (author of several Vedic hymns;said to have been the son of both mitra- and varuṇa- by urvaśī-;to have been born in a water-jar;to have been of short stature;to have swallowed the ocean, and compelled the vindhya- mountains to prostrate themselves before him;to have conquered and civilized the South;to have written on medicine, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastim. the star Canopus (of which agastya- is the regent, said to be the"cleanser of water" , because of turbid waters becoming clean at its rising ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastim. Agasti Grandiflora ([also agastidru -dru- f. ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastim. plural the descendants of agastya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agastidruf. agasti
ajavastim. Name of a tribe, (gaRa gṛṣṭy-ādi-and śubhrādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajavastim. plural the members of that tribe, (gaRa yaskādi-, q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākāśāstikāyam. the ontologic category of space View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānaddhavastif. suppression of urine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānaddhavastif. state of having the bladder obstructed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāstikamfn. atheistic, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāstikyan. atheism, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anistiṣṭhatmfn. not bringing to an end, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśāstif. instruction, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apahastitamfn. thrown away, repelled, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasvastikan. the western point in the horizon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśastif. not wishing well, curse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśastif. (generally personified) a curser, hater View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśāstif. a prayer, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśastihanmfn. averting curses or cursers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astiind. (3. sg. proper 1. as-; gaRa di-and svar-ādi- q.v) sometimes used as a mere particle at the beginning of fables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astiind. existent, present View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astif. (as-ti- equals s-ti- q.v), Name of a sister of prāpti- (daughter of jarāsandhas- and wife of kaṃsa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikamf(ī-)n. (fr. asti-,"there is or exists"), one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikamf(ī-)n. believing, pious, faithful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikam. equals āstīka- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikārthadam. "granting āstika-'s request", Name of the king janamejaya- (who at the request of the sage āstika- [see āstīka-]excepted the nāga- takṣaka- from the destruction to which he had doomed the serpent-race)
astikāyam. an ontological category (of which five are distinguished, viz. jīvāstikāya-, ajivāst-, dharmāst-, adharmāst-, pudgalāst-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astikṣīrāf. having milk (as a cow) commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikyan. (fr. āstika-), belief in God, piety, faithfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āstikyan. a believing nature or disposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astimatmfn. possessed of property, opulent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astistiind. partly true and partly not, doubtful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astistitvan. being and not being, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astipravādam. Name of the fourth of the fourteen pūrva-s or older writings of the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astif. existence, reality commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astitvan. idem or 'f. existence, reality commentator or commentary on ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupagrastikam. (fr. upagrasta-), the sun or moon in eclipse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupahastikamfn. (fr. upa-hasta- gaRa vetanādi- [not in ]), living by presents (? pratigraheṇa jīvati- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuhastikamf(ā-)n. rich in elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahuvaistika mfn. weighing many Vistas, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bastietc. See vasti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikan. a multitude of goats View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛśanāstikamfn. very sceptical or impious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrasvastikanandyāvartam. "having the wheel the svastika- and the nandy-āvarta- emblems", Name of buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandaḥpraśastif. equals nda-pr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandapraśastif. Name of work by harṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantahastinmfn. having tusks and a trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmāstikāyam. the category or predicament of virtue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvastif. ceasing, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvastif. cessation of all the consequences of actions (one of the 4 states to which the yogin- attains) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānastimitalocanamfn. having an eye rigid by meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīkṣāṅgasvastivācana(kṣāṅg-) n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dustithim. an inauspicious lunar day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvivaistikamf(ī-)n. equals -vista- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. "fork (?)", arm, hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. () a ray of light, sunbeam etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. Name of an āditya-, Ramapujasar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastif. Name of svāhā- (the wife of agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. (or f.) dual number the two arms or hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimfn. shining ("fork-like", double-edged or sharp-edged, pointed?) (see sy/ūma-g-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastim. (also probably "apole",in syūma-- g-, parasmE-pada 1273) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastihastam. equals -pāṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimālinm. "garlanded with rays", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatmfn. shining, brilliant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. a particular hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. (gabhas-tala- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastimatm. n. Name of one of the nine divisions of bhāratavarṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastinemim. "the felly of whose wheel is sharp-edged (?)", Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastipāṇim. "having rays for hands", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastipūta(g/abh-) mfn. purified with the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gabhastivāram. Sunday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galahastitamfn. seized by the throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastimahātarkam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. equals -gaja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. Name of an antidote (said to be very efficacious) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. of the author of a commentator or commentary on ācārāṅga- (), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhahastinm. Name (also title or epithet) of a tathāgata-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauḍorvīkulapraśastif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grastif. the act of swallowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastāhastiind. (see keśā-keśi-etc.) hand to hand, in close fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastāhastif. close fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastasvastikam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) crossing the hand, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiin compound for hastin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastibandham. a place for entrapping elephants, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastibhadram. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hasticāram. a kind of weapon (resembling a śarabha- and used for frightening elephants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hasticārinm. an elephants-driver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hasticāriṇīf. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hasticarma(Ved.) the skin of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantam. the tusk of an elephants (See hāstidanta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantam. a pin or peg projecting from a wall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantamn. a radish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantan. ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stidantamfn. (fr. hasti-d-) consisting or made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantakamn. a radish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantaphalāf. Cucumis Utilissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantavastramayamf(ī-)n. made of ivory or cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantīf. a radish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidantīf. Tiaridium Indicum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidāyam. Name of a man (See hāstidāyi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stidāyim. patronymic fr. hasti-d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastidvayasamf(ī-)n. as high or as big as an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigartāf. Name of a cavity in the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigaurīvratodyāpanavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigavāśvan. sg. elephants (and) cows (and) horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigavāśvoṣṭradamakam. a trainer of elephants and cows and horses and camels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastighaṭam. Name of the 7th book of the śata-patha-brāhmaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastighātamfn. killing elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastighnamfn. able to kill elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastighoṣā f. a kind of Cucurbitaceous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastighoṣātakīf. a kind of Cucurbitaceous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigirim. the city and district of kāñcī- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigirim. Name of a mountain (See compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigiricampūf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigirimāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastigirīśamaṅgalāśāsanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastihastam. an elephant's trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastihastaparāmṛṣṭamf(ā-)n. seized or struck by the trunk of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastijāgarikam. a keeper of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastijanaprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastijihvāf. "elephants-tongue", a particular vein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastijīvinm. an elephants-driver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastif. a kind of stringed instrument, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikan. a multitude of elephants (or m."an elephant") (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikam. a toy-elephant, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikam. a turn-spit (varia lectio for hastaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikamfn. consisting of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikam. an elephants-rider, elephants-driver etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikan. a multitude of elephants (Bombay edition hastika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikan. a multitude of female elephants Va1rtt. 11 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikaccham. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣam. a kind of venomous insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyam. a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyam. a tiger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikakṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikandaa kind of bulbous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarañja m. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarañjakam. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarkoṭakam. a kind of big Momordica Mixa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. "elephant-eared", Name of various plants (according to to "the castor-oil tree [also the red kind];Butea Frondosa;Arum Macrorrhizum") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of one of śiva-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. a particular class of semi-divine beings (forming one of the gaṇa-devatā-s q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇam. of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇadalam. a sort of Butea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇakam. a sort of Butea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇapalāśam. Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṇikan. a particular sedent posture (with yogin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikarṣū gaRa kāśy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikarṣūkamf(ā-or ī-)n. (fr. hasti-karṣū-) gaRa kāśy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikāśyapam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikolim. or f. a sort of jujube View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikośātakīf. a kind of Cucurbitaceous plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastikumbham. Name of a grotto View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastilodhrakam. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimadam. the exudation from an elephant's temples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimakaram. a sea-monster shaped like an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. Name of airāvata- (indra-'s elephants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. of śaṅkha- (the 8th of the chief nāga-s or serpents of pātāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. a heap of ashes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. a shower of dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallam. frost, cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimatmfn. provided with elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimātramfn. as great as an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimāyāf. Name of a charm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimeham. a kind of diabetes ( hastimehin hin- mfn.= "suffering from it") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimehinmfn. hastimeha
hastimṛḍitāf. saṃjñāyām- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimukham. "elephant-faced", Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimukham. of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. having hands, clever or dexterous with the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. (with mṛga-,"the animal with a hands id est with a trunk ", an elephant; see dantah-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinmfn. having (or sitting on) an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. an elephant (four kinds of elephant are enumerated;See bhadra-, mandra-, mṛga-, miśtra-;some give kiliñja-h-,"a straw elephant","effigy of an elephant made of grass") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the chief or best of its kind gaRa vyāghrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a kind of plant (equals aja-modā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of suhotra-, (a prince of the Lunar race, described as founder of hastinā-pura-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of bṛhat-kṣatra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. of a son of kuru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a kind of drug and perfume (equals haṭṭa-vilāsinī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. a woman of a particular class (one of the 4 classes into which women are divided, described as having thick lips, thick hips, thick fingers, large breasts, dark complexion, and strong sexual passion) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinm. Name of hastinā-pura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stinamfn. belonging to an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stinamfn. having the depth of an elephant (as water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stinan. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināgam. a princely elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastinakham. "elephant's nail", a sort of turret or raised mound of earth or masonry protecting the access to the gate of a city or fort (described as furnished with an inner staircase and with loopholes for discharging arrows etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināpuran. (less correctly hastina-p-or hastinī-.) Name of a city founded by king hastin- q.v (it was situated about fifty-seven miles north-east of the modern Delhi on the banks of an old channel of the Ganges, and was the capital of the kings of the Lunar line, as ayodhyā- was of the Solar dynasty;hence it forms a central scene of action in the mahābhārata-;here yudhi-ṣṭhira- was crowned after a triumphal progress through the streets of the city;See : other names for this celebrated town are gajāhvaya-, nāga-hvaya-, nāgāhva-, hāctina-)
stinapuran. equals hastinā-pura- ( hāstinapuratva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stinapuratvan. hāstinapura
hastināsāf. an elephant's trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastināyakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stināyanamfn. (fr. hastin-) gaRa pakṣādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stināyanam. a patronymic gaRa naḍādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastif. a female elephant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiniṣadanan. a particular posture in sitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipam. an elephant-driver, elephants-keeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipadan. the track of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipadam. "elephants-footed", Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipādamfn. elephants-footed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stipadam. (fr. hasti-p-) Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stipadamfn. relating or belonging to hasti-pada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipādikāf. a kind of medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipakam. idem or 'm. an elephant-driver, elephants-keeper ' etc. Name of a poet
hastipālam. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipālam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipālakam. an elephant-keeper, elephants-driver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiparṇīf. Name of two plants (equals karkaṭī-or equals moraṭā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiparṇikā f. Luffa Foetida or another species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiparṇinīf. Luffa Foetida or another species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipattram. equals -kanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipiṇḍam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipippalīf. Scindapsus Officinalis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipṛṣṭhakan. the back of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipṛṣṭhakan. Name of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastipūraṇīf. a kind of very small hogweed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirājam. a powerful elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirājam. the chief of a herd of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirathan. sg. elephants and chariots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirathadānan. Name of the 13th pariśiṣṭa- of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirodhrakam. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirohaṇakam. Galedupa Piscidia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastirucim. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiṣaḍgavan. a yoke or collection of 6 elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśālāf. an elephants-stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśālāf. Name of a place (could be also -śāla-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastisenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśikṣāf. the art of training elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśikṣakam. a breaker in or trainer of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśirasm. Name of a man (See hāstiśīrṣi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stiśīrṣim. patronymic fr. hasti-śiras- , Va1rtt. 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastisnānan. the washing of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastisomāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśuṇḍam. an elephant's trunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśuṇḍāf. idem or 'm. an elephant's trunk ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśuṇḍāf. Heliotropium Indicum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśuṇḍīf. idem or 'f. Heliotropium Indicum ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśuṇḍīf. colocynth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastisūtran. a sūtra-. treating of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiśyāmākam. a kind of millet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivadham. the killing of an elephants (especially by a lion, which incurs the guilt of murder, whilst others carry off the spoils, such as the tusks and the pearls said to be found in the head) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivāham. an elephant-driver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivāham. a hook for driving elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivaidyakan. the art of healing elephants (as Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivaidyakakāram. the composer of such a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivaktram. "elephants-faced", Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivānaramfn. (a battle) in which elephants and monkeys take or took part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivarcasan. the vigour of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivarcasan. the magnificence of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivarmanm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastivātiṅgaṇam. Solanum Melougena View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiviṣāṇīf. Musa Sapientum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiyaśasn. the magnificence of an elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiyaśasihastivarcasinmfn. (?)having an elephant's magnificence and splendour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastiyuthan. a herd of elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemahastiratham. "golden-elephant-chariot", Name of one of the 16 mahādāna-s (q.v)
indravastim. the calf (of the leg) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalahastinm. equals -dvipa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvāstikāyam. the category of"soul" (also ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñānahastim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakuhasti varia lectio for kakuh/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālahastipuran. Name of a town. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālahastiśailan. Name of a tīrtha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaucahastim. patronymic fr. kucahasta- (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaṇḍapraśastif. Name of a poem attributed to hanūmat- (an older N. for the play called after him). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiliñjahastinm. an elephant formed by mats View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośagatavastiguhyatāf. having the pudenda hidden in the abdomen (one of the 32 signs of perfection), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣipasti ī- dual number idem or ' ī- dual number the arms ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣasvastikavratakalpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣasvastikavratodyāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmaṇakhaṇḍapraśastif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanavastif. a kind of enema for reducing corpulency View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madahastif. a species of karañja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgandhahastinm. Name of a very efficacious remedy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāhastinmfn. having large hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrapustif. a book of spells View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastif. meting, measuring, weighing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastikan. equals mastaka-, the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastiṣkam. n. the brain etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastiṣkam. any medicine or substance acting upon the brain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mastiṣkatvacf. the membrane surrounding the brain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātrāvastim. a kind of oily clyster View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mattahastinm. equals -dantin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithyābhiśastimfn. a false charge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlasarvāstivāda m. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlasarvāstivādinm. plural Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muṣṭikasvastikam. a particular position of the hands in dancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stiind. (na-+ asti-) it is, not, there is not View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikamf(ī-)n. atheistical, infidel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikam. an atheist or unbeliever (opp. to āstika- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikaetc. See under 2. n/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikamatan. an atheistical opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikatāf. () disbelief, atheism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikatvan. () disbelief, atheism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikavṛttimfn. leading the life of an atheist or receiving sustenance from an atheist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stikyan. idem or 'n. () disbelief, atheism' (with karmaṇām-,denying the consequence of works) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimūrtimfn. incorporeal, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stif. non-existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nastitamfn. nozzled (see nastota-and nasyota-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stitadaor nāstida- m. the mango tree. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stitvan. non-existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stivādam. assertion of non-existence, atheism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netravastim. an injection-pipe with a receptacle attached to it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥśabdastimitamfn. equals -niścala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirastif. removal, destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirūhavastividhim. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistimiramf(ā-)n. equals -tamaska- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistitīrṣatmf(antī-)n. desirous to cross (the ocean of life), wishing for salvation or liberation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛganṛpatipāṣāṇayajñayūpapraśastif. Name of work or chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmasvastikan. a svastika- mark consisting of lotus-flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palastijamadagnim. plural the grey-haired jamad-agni-s (prob. a branch of this family of ṛṣi-s) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāstikāyam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāstikāyabālāvabodham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāstikāyasaṃgrahasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarāstitvavādinm. one who asserts the existence of God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivṛsti wrong reading for -vitti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryastif. sitting upon the heels or hams View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryastif. idem or 'f. sitting upon the heels or hams ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryastif. a bed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryastikākṛtimfn. one who has sprained both his shoulders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paulahastim. patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalguhastif. Name of a poetess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. (pr/a--) praise, fame, glorification etc. (tiṃ- dhā-,to bestow praise upon, value highly [with locative case ] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. liking, desire (as of food) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. (in dramatic language) a benediction (praying for peace etc. in the reign of a prince) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. instruction, guidance, warning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. an edict View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. (metrical) eulogistic inscription View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. excellence, eminence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. Name of a guide to letter-writing (also tikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastigāthāf. a song of praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastikāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastikṛtmfn. bestowing praise, praising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastipaṭṭam. a written edict View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastiprakāśikāf. Name of work (equals -kāśikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastiratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastiratnāvalīf. Name of a poem by viśva-nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastitaraṃgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prastighto rise, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prastiram. a bed or couch made of flowers and leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratihastiind. towards elephants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratihastinm. the keeper of a brothel (Scholiast or Commentator"a neighbour") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiśāstif. idem or '(for 1.See) n. giving orders, commissioning, sending a servant on a message ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastimfn. (perhaps fr. pulas-for puras-;but according to fr. pula-and3. as-) wearing the hair straight or smooth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulastim. Name of a man gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṃstin. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇagabhasti(pūrṇ/a--) mfn. one whose arms or hands are full (of wealth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājahastinm. a royal elephant, excellent elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājapraśastimahākāvyan. Name (also title or epithet) of a poem, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṇahastinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śābastim. patronymic fr. śābasta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmastikamfn. relating to the above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃstirf. contraction (opp. to vi-ṣṭ/ir-,"expansion", saṃst/iro viṣṭ/iraḥ-[acc. plural ],prob. "what is near and what is far") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstitvavādinm. equals sti-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstivādam. the doctrine that all things are real (Name of one of the 4 divisions of the vaibhāṣika- system of Buddhism, said to have been founded by rāhula-, son of the great buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstivādam. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāstivādinmfn. or m. an adherent of the above doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastif. praise, a hymn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastif. a praiser, singer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śasti śasman- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstif. correction, punishment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstif. direction, order, command View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstif. governing, ruling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstif. a sceptre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstim. Name of the root śās- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauvastikamf(ī-)n. of or belonging to the morrow, lasting till to-morrow, ephemeral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikamfn. (fr. sv-asti-) benedictive, salutatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikam. a family Brahman or priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikan. equals svasty-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauvastikatvan. the lasting or enduring till tomorrow, ephemeralness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhavastim. a strong injection (as of oil etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovastim. or f. (?) pouring oil or other liquids on the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śiśiragabhastim. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snehavastif. an oily injection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthapraśastif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
srastif. falling or hanging down, laxity, flaccidity etc. Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīhastif. the sunflower, Heliotroplum Indicum (so called as held in the hand of śrī- or lakṣmī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugabhasti(s/u--or sug/abh-) mfn. having skilful hands (said to tvaṣṭṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suhastinm. Name of a jaina- teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśastif. good recitation, good hymn of praise. (also as form of instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśastimfn. praiseworthy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svahastasvastikastanīf. covering (her) breasts with crossed hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svahastif. a hoe, mattock, pickaxe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svahastitamfn. held or supported by one's own hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastin. f. (Nominal verb svast/i-, t/is-; accusative svast/i-, t/im-; instrumental case svast/i-, ty/ā-; dative case svast/aye-; locative case svast/au-; instrumental case svast/ibhis-;also personified as a goddess, and sometimes as kalā- see svasti-devī-), well-being, fortune, luck, success, prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastiind. well, happily, successfully (also ="may it be well with thee! hail! health! adieu! be it!"a term of salutation [ especially in the beginning of letters] or of sanction or approbation) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastibhāvam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastida() mfn. conferring happiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svasti() mfn. conferring happiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastidevīf. Name of a goddess (represented as wife of vāyu- and said to have sprung from the essence of prakṛti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimfn. leading to fortune or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastigavyūti(svast/i--) mfn. having happy pastures or fields View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a kind of bard (who utters words of welcome or eulogy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. any lucky or auspicious object, (especially) a kind of mystical cross or mark made on persons and things to denote good luck (it is shaped like a Greek cross with the extremities of the four arms bent round in the same direction;the majority of scholars regard it as a solar symbol;that is, as representing a curtailed form of the wheel of the Solar viṣṇu-, consisting of four spokes crossing each other at right angles with short fragments of the periphery of the circle at the end of each spoke turning round in one direction to denote the course of the Sun; according to to the late Sir Cunningham it has no connexion with sun-worship, but its shape represents a monogram or interlacing of the letters of the auspicious words su ast/i-[ svasti-]in the aśoka- characters;amongst jaina-s it is one of the 24 auspicious marks and is the emblem of the seventh arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. the crossing of the arms or hands on the breast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a bandage in the form of a cross View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a dish of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a kind of cake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a triangular crest-jewel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. the meeting of four roads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a particular symbol made of ground rice and formed like a triangle (it is used in fumigating the image of durgā-, and is said to symbolize the liṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a species of garlic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a cock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. a libertine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of one of skanda-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of a dānava-
svastikam. of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikam. of another man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. a mansion or temple of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. Marsilea Quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikamn. a particular mode of sitting practised by yogin-s (in which the toes are placed in the inner hollow of the knees) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikadānan. crossing the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikādicakran. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikakarṇamfn. marked on the ear with the figure called svastika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikāṅkamfn. marked with the svastika- cross, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikaram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikāram. the bard who cries svasti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikāram. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikāram. the exclamation svasti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikarmann. causing welfare or success View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikāsanan. a mode of sitting (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikayantran. a surgical instrument of a particular form View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikīkṛtamfn. crossed (as hands) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastikṛtmfn. causing welfare or prosperity (said of śiva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. being or faring well, happy, fortunate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. conferring happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatmfn. containing the word svasti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimatīf. Name of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukhamfn. having the word svasti- in the mouth, wishing joy or fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukham. a Brahman or a bard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastimukham. a letter (beginning with svasti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastipuran. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastif. a state of welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācf. () () benediction, congratulation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācakam. () benediction, congratulation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivacanan. pronouncing the word svasti-, benediction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācana n. a religious rite preparatory to a sacrifice or any solemn observance (performed by scattering boiled rice on the ground and invoking blessings by the repetition of certain mantra-s;also applied to the fee or complimentary present of flowers, sweetmeats etc. offered to Brahmans on such occasions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācanakan. a religious rite preparatory to a sacrifice or any solemn observance (performed by scattering boiled rice on the ground and invoking blessings by the repetition of certain mantra-s;also applied to the fee or complimentary present of flowers, sweetmeats etc. offered to Brahmans on such occasions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācanakamantram. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācanakapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācanikamfn. pronouncing a blessing on anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācyamfn. to be called upon to pronounce a blessing on anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācyan. equals -vācana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivācyaind. calling upon any one to pronounce a blessing on anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivādam. equals -vāc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivah(or -vāh-) mfn. carrying auspiciously (as a carriage;others, "conferring happiness") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastivāhanamfn. leading auspiciously (as a road) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetahastinm. a white elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetahastinm. Name of airāvata- (elephant of indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syūmagabhasti(sy/ūma--) mfn. (prob.) having thongs for a pole, drawn by thongs (as a chariot) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tejastimiran. dual number light and darkness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivaistikamfn. equals -vista- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhāhastiind. gaRa dvidaṇḍy-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayāhastiind. in both hands, with both hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upahastif. a box for betel or condiments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upastiand upa-st/i- () mfn. (fr. s-ti-[1. as-]with upa- see abhi-ṣṭi-;fr. styai- commentator or commentary on ), being lower or inferior, subordinate, subject, submissive = = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāstif. adoration, worship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upastirf. anything spread over, a cover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upastirf. (dative case upa-st/ire-used as infinitive mood See last column) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upastitaramind. more inferior, more subject View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavasti gaRa vetanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavasti( reads upasti-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uṣastim. idem or 'm. Name of a ṛṣi- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaravastif. a small syringe, a urethra injection pipe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaistikaSee bahu-v- (additions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitastikamfn. (fr. vi-tasti-) a span long (an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiyākaraṇahastinm. an elephant given to a grammarian as a reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastim. or f. (for 2.See column 2) the ends or skirt of a cloth (also plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastif. (for 1.See column 1, for 3.See) abiding, dwelling, staying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimf. (also written basti-; perhaps connected with 2. vasti-See) the bladder etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimf. the lower belly, abdomen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimf. the pelvis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimf. an injection-syringe made of bladder or the injection itself [ confer, compare Latin venter,vesica; German wanast,Wanst.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastibilan. aperture of the bladder
vastikarmāḍhyam. the soap berry, Sapindus Detergens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikarmann. the application of an enema or injection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikośam. a bladder, bag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikuṇḍalan. () a particular disease of the bladder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastikuṇḍalikāf. () a particular disease of the bladder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimalan. "bladder-excretion", urine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastimūlan. "bladder-root", aperture of the bladder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastipīḍāf. spasm in the bladder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastiruj() () f. disease of the bladder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastiśirasn. the tube of an enema View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastiśirasn. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastiśīrṣan. sg. () or m. dual number () the neck of the bladder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastiśodhanam. "bladder-cleanser", Vangueria Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastivyāpad() f. disease of the bladder. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātavastif. suppression of urine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihastitamfn. confused, embarrassed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayapraśastif. Name of a kāvya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayapraśastikāvyan. Name of a kāvya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānāstitvamātravādinmfn. equals na-vādin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikasti(v/i--) f. the act of bursting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśasti View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitastif. (once in m.;prob. fr. tan-) a particular measure of length (defined either as a long span between the extended thumb and little finger, or as the distance between the wrist and the tip of the fingers, and said to = 12 aṅgula-s or about 9 inches) etc.
vitastideśyamfn. almost a vitasti- long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyastiind. with arms or legs spread asunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyastikākṛtamfn. being in the above position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrahastinm. an automatic elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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stibhiḥ स्तिभिः 1 An obstacle, obstruction. -2 The ocean. -3 A cluster, bunch, clump.
stibhinī स्तिभिनी A clump, tuft &c.
stigh स्तिघ् 5 Ā. (स्तिघ्नुते) 1 To ascend. -2 To assail, attack.
stim स्तिम् स्तीम् 4 P. (स्तिम्यति, स्तीम्यति) 1 To become wet or moist. -2 To become fixed or immoveable, be rigid.
stimita स्तिमित a. [स्तिम्-कर्तरि क्तः] 1 Wet, moist; स्तिमितोन्नत- संचारा जनसंतापहारिणः । जायन्ते विरला लोके जलदा इव सज्जनाः ॥ Pt. 1.29 (here स्तिमित has two senses :-- steady and moist). -2 (a) Still, unruffled, calm; क्षुभितमुत्कलिकातरलं मनः पय- इव स्तिमितस्य महोदधेः Māl.3.1. (b) Fixed, rigid, unmoved, motionless, steady; वाचस्पतिः सन्नपि सो$ष्टमूर्तौ त्वाशास्य- चिन्तास्तिमितो बभूव Ku.7.87;2.59; स्तिमितविकसितानाम् Māl. 1.27; R.2.22;3.17;13.48,79; U.6.25. -3 Closed, shut; इति विज्ञापितो राज्ञा ध्यानस्तिमितलोचनः R.1.73. -4 Benumbed, paralysed. -5 Soft, tender. -6 Gratified, satisfied. -तम् 1 Moisture. -2 Fixity, steadiness. -Comp. -नयन a. having the eyes intently fixed. -प्रवाह a. flowing gently along. -वायुः still air. -समाधिः steady comtemplation.
stimitatvam स्तिमितत्वम् Steadiness, stillness.
stip स्तिप् 1 Ā. (स्तेपते) To ooze, drop, drip.
agasti अगस्ति [विन्ध्याख्यं अगं अस्यति; अस्-क्तिच् शकन्ध्वादि˚, Uṇ.4. 179, or अगं विन्ध्याचलं स्त्यायति _x001F_+स्तभ्नाति, स्त्यै-क; or अगः कुम्भः तत्र स्त्यानः संहतः इत्यगस्त्यः] 1 'Pitcher-born,' N. of a celebrated Ṛiṣi or sage. -2 N. of the star Canopus, of which Agastya is the regent. -3 N. of a plant (बकवृक्ष) Sesbana (or Ӕschynomene) Grandiflora [Mar. रुईमंदार]. [The sage Agastya is a very reputed personage in Hindu mythology. In the Ṛigveda he and Vasiṣṭha are said to be the off-springs of Mitra and Varuṇa, whose seed fell from them at the sight of the lovely nymph Urvaśī at a sacrificial session. Part of the seed fell into a jar and part into water; from the former arose Agastya, who is, therefore, called Kumbhayoni, Kumbhajanman, Ghaṭodbhava, Kalaśayoni &c; from the latter Vasiṣṭha. From his parentage Agastya is also called Maitrāvaruṇi, Aurvaśeya, and, as he was very small when he was born, he is also called Mānya. He is represented to have humbled the Vindhya mountains by making them prostrate themselves before him when they tried to rise higher and higher till they wellnigh occupied the sun's disc and obstructed his path. See Vindhya. (This fable is supposed by some, to typify the progress of the Āryas towards the south in their conquest and civilization of India, the humbling of the mountain standing meta-phorically for the removal of physical obstacles in their way). He is also known by the names of Pītābdhi, Samudra-chuluka &c.; from another fable according to which he drank up the ocean because it had offended him and because he wished to help Indra and the gods in their wars with a class of demons called Kāleyas who had hid themselves in the waters and oppressed the three worlds in various ways. His wife was Lopāmudrā. She was also called Kauṣītakī and Varapradā. She bore him two sons, Dṛḍhāsya and Dṛḍhāsyu. In the Rāmāyaṇa Agastya plays a distinguished part. He dwelt in a hermitage on mount Kunjara to the south of the Vindhya and was chief of the hermits of the south. He kept under control the evil spirits who infested the south and a legend relates how he once ate up a Rākṣasa named Vātāpi, who had assumed the form of a ram, and destroyed by a flash of his eye the Rākṣasa's brother who attempted to avenge him. In the course of his wandering Rāma with his wife and brother came to the hermitge of Agastya who received him with the greatest kindness and became his friend, adviser and protector. He gave Rāma the bow of Viṣṇu and accompanied him to Ayodhyā when he was restored to his kingdom after his exile of 14 years. The superhuman power which the sage possessed, is also represented by another legend, according to which he turned king Nahuṣa into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his proper form. In the south he is usually regarded as the first teacher of science and literature to the primitive Dravidian tribes, and his era is placed by Dr. Caldwell in the 7th or 6th century B.C. The Purāṇas represent Agastya as the son of Pulastya (the sage from whom the Rākṣsas sprang) and Havirbhuvā the daughter of Kardama. Several 'hymn-seers' are mentioned in his family, such as his two sons, Indra-bāhu, Mayobhuva and Mahendra, also others who served to perpetuate the family. The sage is represented as a great philosopher, benevolent and kind-hearted, unsurpassed in the science of archery and to have taken a principal part in the colonization of the south; निर्जितासि मया भद्रे शत्रुहस्तादमर्षिणा । अगस्त्येन दुराधर्षा मुनिना दक्षिणेव _x001F_.दिक् ॥ Rām; अगस्त्याचरितामाशाम् R.4.44; cf. also; अगस्त्यो दक्षिणामाशामाश्रित्य नभसिः स्थितः । वरुणस्यात्मजो योगी विन्ध्यवातापिमर्दनः ॥ and R.6.61; Mv.7.14.] अगस्तितुल्या हि घृताब्धिशोषणे । Udbhaṭa.
anuśāsti अनुशास्तिः f. Advice.
apahastita अपहस्तित p. p. Thrown away, discarded, abandoned, cast off, given up; ˚सकलसखीजनं त्वयि विश्वसिति मे हृदयम् K.233,22; ˚बान्धवे त्वया Māl.9.19; अयं मम ˚लज्जो व्यवसायः V.2; मानिनीभिरपहस्तितधैर्यः Ki.9.36.
abhiśasti अभिशस्तिः f. 1 A curse. -2 Effect of an imprecation, misfortune, evil, calamity. -3 Censure, calumny, abuse, defamation, charge, insult. -4 Asking, begging. -5 What curses or injures; the cause or source of injury.
āstika आस्तिक a. (-की f.) [अस्ति परलोकः इति मतिर्यस्य, ठक्] 1 One who believes in God and another world; यन्नास्त्येव तदस्ति वस्त्विति मृषा जल्पद्भिरेवास्तिकैः Prab.2 -2 A believer in sacred tradition. -3 Pious, faithful, believing; आस्तिकः श्रद्दधानश्च Y.1.268. -कः or आस्तीकः N. of a Muni. cf. अगस्त्यो माधवश्चैव मुचकुन्दो महामुनिः । कपिलो मुनिरास्तीकः पञ्चैते सुखशायिनः ॥ आस्तिकता āstikatā त्व tva आस्तिक्यम् āstikyam आस्तिकता त्व आस्तिक्यम् 1 Belief in God and another world; आस्तिक्यशुद्धमवतः प्रियधर्म धर्मम् Ki.18.43. -2 Piety, faith, belief; ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यम् Bg.18.42; आस्तिक्यं श्रद्दधानता परमार्थेष्वागमार्थेषु Śaṅkara.
upavasti उपवस्तिः f. Support of life (as food, sleep &c.).
upasti उपस्तिः Ved. 1 A tree. -2 An attendant, a follower, servant.
upastir उपस्तिर् f. Ved. 1 Spreading. -2 A covering, what is spread; अभि शुक्रामुपस्तिरम् Rv.9.62.28.
upahasti उपहस्तिका [उपगता हस्तं अत इत्वम्] A small purse (or box) containing the ingredients necessary for betel-chewing (e. g. leaves, chunam, catechu, betel &c.) (Mar. चंची, बटवा, झोळणा); उपहस्तिकायास्ताम्बूलं कर्पूर- सहितमुद्धृत्य Dk.116.
upāsti उपास्तिः f. 1 Service, attendance upon (especially a deity). -2 Worship, adoration; सन्ध्योपास्त्यादिकर्माणि Bhāg.11.27.11. स्वर्गापवर्गयोर्मार्गमामनन्ति मनीषिणः । यदुपा- स्तिमसावत्र परमात्मा निरूप्यते ॥ Kusum.
gabhasti गभस्तिः m., f. 1 A ray of light, a sunbeam or moonbeam; यथा राजन्प्रजाः सर्वाः सूर्यः पाति गभस्तिभिः Mb. 3.33.71. -2 Ved. The shaft (of a car). -3 The forepart of the arm, the hand. -स्तिः The sun. -f. An epithet of Svāhā, the wife of Agni. -Comp. -करः, -पाणिः, -मालिन् m., -हस्तः, -मत् m. the sun. -नेमिः N. of Visnu; Mb.12.
gabhastimat गभस्तिमत् m. The sun; घनव्यपायेन गभस्तिमानिव R.3.37. -n. One of the seven divisions of Pātāla.
grasti ग्रस्तिः f. The act of swallowing or devouring.
dhvasti ध्वस्तिः f. Destruction, ruin, loss.
nastita नस्तित a. Nozzled (with a string through the nose).
sti नास्ति ind. 'It is not', non-existence, as in नास्तिक्षीरा &c. -Comp. -वादः assertion of the non-existence of God or a Supreme Ruler, atheism, infidelity; बौद्धेनेव सर्वदा नास्तिवादशूरेण K.
stika नास्तिक a. (-कः) [नास्ति परलोकस्तत्साधनमदृष्टं तत्साक्षी- श्वरो वा इति मतिरस्य ठन्] An atheist, unbeliever, one who denies the authority of the Vedas and a future life or the existence of a Supreme Ruler or Creator of the Universe; अतिमात्रोज्झितभीरनास्तिकः Śi.16.7; Ms.2.11; 8.22. नासाचूर्णे नास्ति कस्याभिलाषः नासाचूर्णे नास्तिकस्याभिलाषः Subhāṣ. -Comp. -मतम् an atheistical opinion. -वृत्ति a. leading the life of an atheist.
stikyam नास्तिक्यम् Atheism, infidelity, heresy; नास्तिक्यं तु प्रभाषसे Mb.3.31.1.
stidaḥ नास्तिदः The mango-tree.
paryasti पर्यस्तिः f., पर्यस्तिका Sitting upon the hams; see पर्यङ्क 3.
pulasti पुलस्तिः स्त्यः N. of a sage, one of the mind-born sons of Brahmā; Ms.1.35.
pratiśāsti प्रतिशास्तिः f. Sending on an errand.
praśasti प्रशस्तिः f. 1 Praise, eulogy, laudation. -2 Description; U.7. -3 A panegyric or small poem written in praise of any one (e. g. a patron). -4 Excellence, eminence. -5 Benediction. -6 Guidance, instruction, rule for guidance; as in लेखप्रशस्तिः 'a form of writing'. -7 Publicity, advertising; दशाननतिरस्कारप्रशस्तिमिव Mv.5.12.
prastiraḥ प्रस्तिरः A bed of leaves and flowers.
basti बस्तिः f. (q. v. वस्तिः) The abdomen, the lower belly; 'मूत्राशयपुटो बस्तिः' Ratnamālā; स्वर्णभ्रुवं वारणबस्तिकोशम् (राजसुतम्) Bu. Ch.1.66; अकूपारो बस्तिश्चरणमपि पातालमिति वै Viṣṇumahimna 23.
bastikaḥ बस्तिकः A kind of arrow (the point of which remains in the body, while taking it out); Mb.7. 189.11 (com. बस्तिकः शल्यदण्डसन्धौ शिथिलस्तस्योद्धरणे शल्यं बस्तिमध्ये मज्जति दण्डमात्रं निःसरति).
stikam बास्तिकम् A multitude of goats; Rām.2.77.2.
mastikam मस्तिकम् The head; see मस्तिष्क.
masti मस्तिः f. Measuring, weighing.
mastiṣkam मस्तिष्कम् 1 The brain; महाहिमस्तिष्कविभेदमुक्तरक्तच्छटा- चर्चितचण्डचञ्चुः (गरुमान्) Nāg.4; Ve.1.27. -2 Any medicine acting upon the brain. -Comp. -त्वच् f. the membrane which surrounds the brain.
vasti वस्तिः m., f. [वस्-तिः, Uṇ.4.188] 1 Residing, dwelling, staying. -2 The abdomen, the lower belly. -3 The pelvis. -4 The bladder. -5 A syringe, clyster. -Comp. -कर्मन् n. the application of an enema, injection. -कर्माढ्यः the soap-berry (Mar. रिठा). -कोशः a bladder, bag. -पीडा spasm in the bladder. -बिलम्, -मूलम् aperture of the bladder. -मलम् urine. -शिरस् n. 1 the pipe of a clyster. -2 the neck of the bladder. -शोधनम् a diuretic (which clears the bladder).
stikam वास्तिकम् A collection of goats.
vitasti वितस्तिः [वौ तसेः तिः Uṇ.4.189] A measure of length equal to 12 aṅgulas (being the distance between the extended thumb and the little finger); तेनेदमावृतं विश्वं वितस्तिमधितिष्ठति Bhāg.2.6.16.
vaitastika वैतस्तिक a. Span-long (an arrow); शरैर्वैतस्तिकै राजन् दिव्याधासन्नवेधिभिः Mb.7.122.6-61.
vyasti व्यस्तिका ind. With arms or legs spread asunder.
śasti शस्तिः f. 1 Praise, eulogy. -2 A hymn of praise (स्तोत्र). -3 A finger-guard.
śāsti शास्तिः f. [शास्-क्तिन्] 1 Governing, ruling. -2 An order, a command. -3 Correction, chastisement, punishment, especially the punishment inflicted by command of the king. -5 A sceptre, rod (of authority).
śauvastika शौवस्तिक a. (-की f.) [श्वस्-ठक् तुट् च] Belonging to or lasting till tomorrow, ephemeral; P.IV.3.15.
śrāvasti श्रावस्तिः स्ती f. N. of a city north of the Ganges (said to have been founded by king Śrāvasta).
sauvastika सौवस्तिक a. (-की f.) Benedictive. -कः A familypriest or Brāhmaṇa. -कम् = स्वस्त्ययनम् q. v.
srasti स्रस्तिः f. 1 Falling, slipping. -2 A slip. -3 Loosening, slackening.
svasti स्वस्ति f., n. Welfare; समारम्भान्वुभूषेत हतस्वस्तिरकिच्चनः Mb.12.8.6; जितं त आत्मविद्धुर्य स्वस्तये स्वस्तिरस्तु में Bhāg. 4.24.33. -ind. A particle meaning 'may it be well with (one)', 'fare-well', 'hail', 'adieu' (with dat.); स्वस्ति ते$स्त्वान्तरिक्षेभ्यः पार्थिवेभ्यश्च भारत Mb.3.37.35; स्वस्ति भवते Ś.2; स्वस्त्यस्तु ते R.5.17; it is also used in expressing one's approbation; (often used at the beginning of letters). -Comp. -अयनम् 1 a means of securing prosperity. -2 the averting of evil by the recitation of mantras or performance of expiatory rites. -3 the benediction of a Brāhmaṇa after presentation of offerings; प्रास्थानिकं स्वस्त्ययनं प्रयुज्य R.2.7. -a. Auspicious; इदं स्वस्त्ययनं श्रेष्ठम् Ms.1.16; Mb.1.75.2. -कर्मन् n. causing welfare. -कारः a bard. -दः, -भावः an epithet of Śiva. -मुखः 1 a letter. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. -3 a bard, panegyrist. -वाचकः benediction, congratulation. -वाचनम्, -वाचनकम्, -वाचनिकम् 1 a religious rite preparatory to a sacrifice or any religious or solemn observance. -2 a complimentary or congratulatory present of flowers &c. to any one attended with good wishes and blessings. -वाच्यम् congratulation, invoking blessings.
svastikaḥ स्वस्तिकः [स्वस्ति शुभाय हितं क] 1 A kind of mystical mark () on persons or things denoting good luck. -2 A lucky object. -3 The meeting of four roads. -4 The crossing of the arms, making a sign like the cross; स्तनविनिहितहस्तस्वस्तिकाभिर्वधूभिः Māl.4.1; Śi.1.43. -5 A palace of particular form. -6 A particular symbol made with ground rice and shaped like a triangle. -7 A kind of cake. -8 A voluptuary, libertine. -9 Garlic. -1 A kind of bard (who utters words of eulogy); पुरःसरैः स्वस्तिकसूतमागधैः Rām.2.16.46 (com. स्वस्तिका जयजयेति वादिनो बन्दिनः). -कः, -कम् 1 A mansion or temple of a particular form with a terrace in front. -2 A particular mode of sitting practised by Yogins (in which the toes are placed in the inner hollow of the knees). -3 A seat (पीठ) prepared for a deity; Mb.12.4.7. (com. स्वस्तिकान् सर्वतोभद्राद्यङ्कितानि देवतापीठानि). -Comp. -कर्ण a. marked on the ear with the figure स्वस्तिक. -पाणि a. 1 crossing hands like स्वस्तिकं. -2 holding auspicious things in hands; श्रुत्वा चेदं वचनं पार्थिवस्य सर्वं पुरं स्वस्तिकपाणिभूतम् Mb.4.68.27 (com. स्वस्तिकं मङ्गलारार्तिकादि दधिदूर्वादि च पाणौ यस्य तत् स्वस्तिकपाणिभूतम्).
svastimat स्वस्तिमत् a. Doing well, happy, safe; भूतानुकम्पा तव चेदियं गौरेका भवेत् स्वस्तिमती त्वदन्ते R.2.48. स्वस्रीयः svasrīyḥ स्वस्रेयः svasrēyḥ स्वस्रीयः स्वस्रेयः A sister's son; Ms.3.148. स्वस्रीया svasrīyā स्वस्रेयी svasrēyī स्वस्रीया स्वस्रेयी A sister's daughter.
hastāhasti हस्ताहस्ति ind. Hand to hand; हस्ताहस्ति जन्यमजनिं Dk.
hastikam हस्तिकम् A multitude of elephants; Mb.9.
hasti हस्तिका A kind of stringed instrument.
hastin हस्तिन् a. (-नी f.) [हस्तः शुण्डादण्डो$स्त्यस्य इनि] 1 Having hands. -2 Having a trunk. -m. An elephant; Ms.7. 96;12.43; (elephants are said to be of four kinds; भद्र, मन्द्र, मृग and मिश्र). -Comp. -अध्यक्षः a superintendent of elephants. -अशना Boswellia Serrata (Mar. साळई, कुरुंद). -आजीवः an elephant-driver. -आयुर्वेदः a work dealing with the treatment of the elephant's diseases. -आरोहः an elephant-driver or rider. -कक्ष्यः 1 a lion. -2 a tiger. -कर्णः the castor-oil plant. -गिरिः the city and district of Kāñchī. -घ्नः 1 an elephantkiller. -2 a man. -चारः a kind of weapon. -चारिन् m. an elephant-driver. -जागरिकः a keeper of elephants. -जिह्वा a particular vein. -दन्तः 1 the tusk of an elephant. -2 a peg projecting from a wall. (-न्तम्) 1 ivory. -2 a radish. -दन्तकम् a radish. -नखम् a sort of turret protecting the approach to the gate of a city or fort. -नासा an elephant's trunk. -पः, -पकः an elephant driver or rider; जज्ञे जनैर्मुकुलिताक्षमनाददाने संरब्धहस्तिपक- निष्ठुरचोदनाभिः Śi.5.49; इति घोषयतीव हिण्डिमः करिणो हस्तिपका- हतः क्कणन् H.2.86. -पर्णी the कर्कटी plant. -प्रधान a. chiefly depending on elephants; Kau. A.2.2. -बन्धकी a female elephant helping in tethering wild ones; Kau. A.2.2. -मदः the ichor issuing from the temples of an elephant in rut. -मयूरकः N. of a plant (Mar. आज- मोदा). -मल्लः 1 N. of Airāvata; सुराधिपाधिष्ठितहस्तिमल्ललीलां दधौ राजतगण्डशैलः Śi.4.13. -2 of Gaṇeśa. -3 of Śaṅkha, the eighth of the chief Nāgas. -4 a heap of ashes. -5 a shower of dust. -6 frost. -यूथः, -थम् a herd of elephants. -वक्त्रः N. of Gaṇeśa; Dk.2.3. -वर्चसम् the splendour or magnificence of an elephant. -वाहः 1 an elephant-driver. -2 a hook for driving elephants. -विषाणी Musa Sapientum (Mar. केळ). -शाला an elephant-stable. -शुण्डा, -ण्डी A kind of shrub (Mar. इंद्रवारुणी, -कवंडळ). -श्यामाकः a kind of millet. -षड्गवम् a collection of six elephants. -स्नानम् = गजस्नानम् q. v.; अवशेन्द्रियचित्तानां हस्तिस्नानमिव क्रिया H.1.17. -हस्तः an elephant's trunk. हस्तिन hastina (ना nā) पुरम् puram हस्तिन (ना) पुरम् N. of a city founded by king Hastin, said to be situated some fifty miles north-east of the modern Delhi; it forms a central scene of action in the Mahābhārata; it's other names are:-- गजाह्वय, नागसाह्वय, नागाह्व, हास्तिन.
hasti हस्तिनी 1 A female elephant. -2 A kind of drug and perfume. -3 A woman of a particular class, one of the four classes into which writers on erotical science divide women (described as having thick lips, thick hips, thick fingers, large breasts, dark complexion, and libidinous appetite); the Ratimañjarī thus describes her:-- स्थूलाधरा स्थूलनितम्बबिम्बा स्थूलाङ्गुलिः स्थूलकुचा सुशीला । कामोत्सुका गाढरतिप्रिया च नितान्तभोक्त्री (नितम्ब- खर्वा) खलु हस्तिनी स्यात् (करिणी मता सा) 8.
stikaḥ हास्तिकः An elephant-driver or rider. -कम् A herd of elephants; खेदायत श्वसितवेगनिरस्तमुग्धमूर्धन्यरत्ननिकरैरिव हास्तिकानि Śi.5.3.
hastinam हस्तिनम् N. of Hastināpura, q. v. -a. Having the depth of an elephant (as water); सरस्तलं हास्तिनम् Dk.2.7.
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aniviśamāna á-niviśamāna, pr. pt. A. unresting, vii. 49, 1 [ni + viś go to rest].
apraketa a-praketá, a. (Bv.) indistinguishable, x. 129, 3 [praketá perception].
apratīta á-pratīta, pp. (K.) irresistible, iv. 50, 9 [prati + pp. of i go].
abhimātin abhimāt-ín, m. adversary, i. 85, 3 [abhímāti, f. hostility].
arāti á-rāti, f. hostility, ii. 35, 6; iv. 50, 11; viii. 48, 3; x. 34, 14 [non-giving, niggardliness, enmity].
avasāna ava-sá̄na, n. resting place, x. 14, 9 [unbinding, giving rest: áva + sā = si tie].
as as be, II. P.: pr. 2. ási, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 15; 33, 3; 3. ásti, ii. 12, 5; 33, 7. 10; vii. 71, 4; 86, 6; x. 34, 14; pl. 1. smási, vi. 54, 9; viii. 48, 9; 3. sánti, i. 85, 12; x. 90, 16; ipv. ástu, v. 11, 5; vii. 86, 82; x. 15, 2; sántu, vii. 63, 5; op. syá̄ma, iii. 59, 3; iv. 50, 6; 51, 10. 11; viii. 48, 12. 13; ipf. 3. á̄s, x. 129, 3; āsīt, x. 34, 2; 90, 6. 12. 14; 129, 14. 22. 32. 4. 52; á̄san, x. 90, 15. 16; 129, 52; pf. āsa, vii. 86, 4; x. 129, 2; á̄sur, iv. 51, 7. ápi- be or remain in (lc.); syāma pári be around, celebrate, 2. pl. stha, vii. 103, 7. prá- be pre-eminent, ipv. astu, iii. 59, 2.
asaścat a-saścát, a. (Bv.) inexhaustible, i. 160, 2 [having no second, saścát: sac follow].
īr stir īr stir, set in motion, II. Ā. í̄rte. ánu sáṃ prá- speed on together after, x. 168, 2.
Ṛ go, V. P. ṛṇóti, int. álarti arise, viii. 48, 8 [Gk. ὀρ-νῡ-μι ‘stir up’]. abhí- penetrate to (acc.), i. 35, 9. prá- send forth, III. íyarti, vii. 61, 2.
cit cit perceive, I. cétati, -te; pf. cikéta, i. 35, 7; sb. cíketat, i. 35, 6; cs. citáya stimulate, iv. 51, 3; cetáya cause to think, vii. 86, 7. á̄- observe: pf. ciketa, vii. 61, 1.
jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
jñā jñā know, IX. jāná̄ti, x. 34, 4 [cp. Gk. ἔγνω-ν, Lat. co-gno-sco, Eng. know]. ví-, ps. jñāyáte be distinguished, iv. 51, 6.
tripañcāśa tri-pañcāśá, a. consisting of three fifties, x. 34, 8.
tripād tri-pá̄d, a. (Bv.) consisting of three-fourths, x. 90, 4; m. three-fourths, x. 90, 3.
dāsa dá̄s-a, a. non-Aryan, ii. 12, 4 [dās be hostile].
deva dev-á, m. god, i. 1, 1. 2. 4. 5; 35, 1. 2. 32. 8. 10. 11; 160, 1. 4; ii. 12, 12; 33. 15; 35, 5. 15; iii. 59, 6. 8. 9; iv. 50, 9; v. 11, 2; vii. 61, 1. 7; 63, 1. 3; 86, 72; viii. 29, 2. 3. 7; 48, 3. 9. 14; x. 14, 32. 7. 14; 15, 10. 12; 34, 8; 90, 6. 7. 15. 162; 129, 6; 135, 1; 168, 2. 42 [celestial from dív heaven].
drugdha drug-dhá, n. misdeed, vii. 86, 5 [pp. of druh be hostile].
dvādaśa dvādaśá, a. consisting of twelve, m. twelve-month, vii. 103, 9.
paridhi pari-dhí, m. pl. sticks enclosing the altar, x. 90, 15 [pári round + dhi reduced form of dhā put].
purohita puró-hita, pp. placed in front, m. domestic priest, i. 1, 1; v. 11, 2 [purás + hitá, pp. of dhā put].
pratijanya prátijan-ya, a. belonging to adversaries, iv. 50, 9; n. hostile force, iv. 50, 7 [prati-janá, m.adversary].
prasavītr pra-savītṛ́, m. rouser, vii. 63, 2 [sū stimulate].
madhuścut madhu-ścút, a. (Tp.) dripping with honey, distilling sweetness, vii. 49, 3 [ścut drip].
yat yat array oneself, I. yáta: pf. i. 85, 8; cs. yātáya marshal, stir, iii. 59, 1; clear off, x. 127, 7.
yātayajjana yātayáj-jana, a. (gov. cd.) stirring men, iii. 59, 5 [yātáyant, pr. pt. cs. of yat array oneself + jánaman].
vyȧkta vy-ȧkta, pp. distinguished by (inst.), x. 14, 9; palpable, x. 127, 7 [ví + añj adorn].
śās śās order, II. śá̄sti, śá̄ste. ánu- instruct, vi. 54, 1. abhí- guide to (acc.) abhí- guide to (acc.), vi. 54, 2.
samana sám-ana, n. festival, x. 168, 2 [coming together].
sarvavīra sárva-vīra, a. consisting entirely of sons, iv. 50, 10; x. 15, 11.
savitr Sav-i-tṛ́, m. a solar god, i. 35, 1-6. 8-10; vii. 63, 3; x. 34, 8. 13 [Stimulator from sù stimulate].
sas sas sleep, II. P. sásti, iv. 51, 3.
sahasrabhṛṣṭi sahásra-bhṛṣṭi, a. (Bv.) thousand-edged, i. 85, 9 [bhṛṣ-ṭí from bhṛṣ = hṛṣ stick up].
syūmagabhasti syú̄ma-gabhasti, a. (Bv.) drawn with thongs, vii. 71, 3 [syú̄-man band; Gk. ὑ-μήν ‘sinew’].
svasti sv-astí, f. n. well-being, i. 1, 9; 35, 1; ii. 33, 3; vii. 71, 6; 86, 8; x. 14, 11; inst. s. svastí for welfare,viii. 48, 8; pl. blessings, vii. 61, 7; 63, 6 [sú well + asti being].
svādhī sv-ādhí̄, a. (Bv.) stirring good thoughts, viii. 48, 1.
hiṃs hiṃs, injure, VII. hinásti injure; is ao. inj., x. 15, 6 [probably a ds. of han strike].
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sti m. [(a)s-ti, being: √ 1. as] depen dent, vassal (only ac. pl. stîn, RV.2).
stibhi m. tuft, bunch (S., rare).
stim only pp. stimita, sluggish; un ruffled, calm; steady, motionless, fixed (often of the eye or gaze); wet, moist (rare): -m, ad.; n. stillness, motionlessness: -tâ, f., -tva, n. id.
sti a. protecting the vassals (V.).
sti f. [√ styâ] stagnant water (V., rare).
adhihasti ad. on an elephant.
anabhiśasti a. blameless.
anāstika a. unbelieving, god less; -kya, n. unbelief, godlessness.
āśāsti f. prayer.
āstikya n. belief in God, piety.
āstika a. believing, pious.
upahasti f. betel-case.
upastire d. inf. to spread out, to cover.
upasti m. dependent, ser vant.
gabhasti m. arm, hand; ray: -mat, a. radiant; m. sun; -mâlin, m. sun.
nastika a. unbelieving; m. un believer, atheist (one who says &open;there is not&close; a God): -tâ, f. atheism.
stimūrti f. bodiless; -vâda, m. atheism, unbelief.
stikya n. unbelief; -karma- nâm, disbelief in the effect of works.
pulasti a. wearing the hair of the head smooth.
pusti f. manuscript, book.
basti m. bladder: -sîrsha, n. sg. or m. du. neck of the bladder.
mastiṣka m. n. brain.
vasti m. bladder; f. abdomen (below the navel); m. f. syringe: -mûla, n. (bottom =) aperture of the bladder; -sîrsha, n. sg. or m. du. neck of the bladder.
vitasti f. [√ tan] span (as measure of length=12 a&ndot;gulas or about nine inches); -tâna, a. (rare) [√ tan] empty (in a-, not empty); dejected; m. n. expansion, exten sion, extent; quantity, mass; high degree; variety; performance; development; sacri fice; canopy, awning; m. (separation of) the sacred fires: -ka, n. awning, canopy (esp. --°ree;); quantity, -vat, a. provided with a canopy; -tânâ-ya,den. represent a canopy; -tânî-bhû, id.; -tâmasa, a. light, bright; -timira, a. id.; -tîrna, pp. √ trî; -tusha, a. unhusked; -tushta, pp. dissatisfied, dis pleased; -tritîyá, a. intermittent on the third day (fever; AV.1); n.third (Br. S.); -tripta-ka, a. sated (in a-, not yet sated with; g.); -trishna, a. free from thirst; having no desire: -tâ, f. freedom from de sire, satisfaction, contentment; -trishnâ, f. id.; -tolâ, f. N. of a river.
śasti f. [√ sams] praise (RV.2); praiser (RV.1); (sás)-tri, m. dissecter (V.).
śauvastika a. occurring on or lasting till to-morrow (svas).
svasti f. well-being, fortune, success (V.; rarely in P., E.): V. in. í, ad. well, hap pily, successfully (V., C.): w. d.=farewell; hail (at beg. of a letter); (fr. this ad. arose an apparently indecl. n. n.,=nm. or ac., meaning) welfare, prosperity, luck (V., C.): -ka, m. kind of bard (rare); auspicious mark, cross with ends bent round; crossing of the hands on the breast; kind of cross-shaped cake; n. sitting with crossed legs; -kâra, m. bard who cries &open;hail;&close; exclamation svasti; -tâ, f. condition of well-being (Br.); -d&asharp;, a. bestowing welfare (RV.); -mát, a. faring well, safe, happy (V., C.); auspicious (RV.); containing the word svasti (Br.); -vâk, f. benediction, congratulation; -vâkana, n. in vitation addressed to Brâhmans to pronounce a blessing on an undertaking; fee presented on such an occasion; -vâkanika, a. pro nouncing a blessingon anything; -vâkya, fp. to be asked to pronounce a blessing on an undertaking; n.=-vâkana.
hastipa m. keeper or driver of an elephant: -ka, m. id.; -pâla: -ka, m. id.; -bandha, m. stockade for capturing elephants; -malla, m. Indra's elephant; -yasasa, n. magnificence of an elephant; -yûtha,n. herd of elephants; -râga, m. lordly elephant; leader of a herd of elephants; -vaktra, m. (elephant-faced), ep. of Ganesa; -vadha, m. slaughter of an elephant; -sâlâ, f. elephant's stable; N. of a locality; -sikshâ, f.training of ele phants; -snâna, n. washing of an elephant.
hastināpura n. N. of a city the ruins of which are situated on the banks of an old bed of the Ganges, 57 miles N. E. of Delhi.
hastin V. a. having hands, deft handed; w. mriga, m. animal with the hand (=trunk), oldest term for elephant (RV., AV.); m. (V., C.) elephant; N. (C.): (ín)-î, f. female elephant (V., C.); a certain class of women in erotics (C.).
hastikarṇa m. (elephant's ear) N. of various plants; N. of a locality; -kâr in, m. (rider on an elephant), elephant driver; -gâgarika, m. keeper of an elephant; -danta, m. elephant's tusk.
hastāhasti ad. hand to hand.
stina a. belonging to the ele phant (AV.); having the depth of an ele phant (water; C.): -pura, n. = Hastinâ pura.
stika a. consisting of elephants (hastin); n. herd of elephants.
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sti See Upasti
sti See Upasti
agasti This form of Agastya’s name occurs once in the Atharvaveda, where he appears as a favourite of Mitra and Varuna.
upasti Denotes both in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda a ‘dependent,’ just as later in the Epic the subordination of the Vaiśya to the two superior castes is expressed by the verb upa-sthā, ‘stand under,’ support.’ The word also appears, with the same sense, in the form of Sti, but only in the Rigveda. The exact nature of the dependence connoted by the term is quite uncertain. Zimmer conjectures that the *dependents ’ were the members of defeated Aryan tribes who became clients of the king, as among the Greeks, Romans, and Germans, the term possibly including persons who had lost their freedom through dicing. The evidence of the Athar¬vaveda shows that among the Upastis were included the chariot-makers (ratha-kāra), the smiths (taksan), and the charioteers (sūta), and troop-leaders (grāma-nī), while the Rigveda passages negative the possibility of the subjects ’ (s&‘) being the whole people. It is therefore fair to assume that they were the clients proper of the king, not servile, but attached in a special relation to him as opposed to the ordinary population. They may well have included among them not only the classes suggested by Zimmer, but also higher elements, such as refugees from other clans, as well as ambitious men who sought advancement in the royal service. Indeed, the Sūta and the Grāmanī were, as such, officers of the king’s house¬holdkingmakers, not themselves kings, as they are described in the Atharvaveda. The use of the word in the Taittirīya Samhitā, the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and the Kāthaka, is purely metaphorical, as well as in the one passage of the Rigveda in which it occurs. In the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda,Vaiśya, Sūdra, and Arya are referred to as Upastis, perhaps in the general sense of ‘subject.’
gabhasti Denotes, according to Roth, the pole of a chariot in the epithet syūma-gabhasti, * having reins as a pole,’ used of the car of the gods in the Rigveda, and independently in the plural in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. The meaning is, however, doubtful. Roth himself suggests that syūma-gabhasti may refer to a sort of double reins.
dṛḍhacyut ágasti (‘Descendant of Agastya ’) is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana as having been Udgātr priest at the Sattra (‘ sacrificial session ’) of the Vibhindukīyas.
nyasti Seems in the Atharvaveda to denote a plant of some kind, identified by the scholiast with the Sañkhapuspikā (Aηdropogoη aciculatus).
palasti See Palita.
puruṣa hastin (‘The man with a hand’) is found in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajur­veda. It must be the ape.’
pulasti in the Yajurveda Stmhitās denotes wearing the hair plain,’ as opposed to kaparclin, ‘ wearing the hair in braids.’
mṛga hastin The ‘animal with a hand,’ is mentioned in the elephant is meant, but concludes that the compound name is a proof of the newness of the elephant to the Vedic Indians. Later the adjective Hastin alone became the regular name of the animal (like Mahiça of the ‘buffalo’)• The elephant is also denoted in the Rigveda by the descriptive term Mrga Vārana, the wild or dangerous animal,’ the adjective vārana similarly becoming one of the names for ‘elephant’ in the later language. Pischel’s view that the catching of elephants by the use of tame female elephants is already alluded to in the Rigveda seems very doubtful. In the Aitareya Brāhmana elephants are described as black, white-toothed, adorned with gold.’
syūmagrabhasti See Gabhasti.
hastin ‘Having a hand,’ with Mrga, ‘beast,’ denotes in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda the ‘elephant.’ Later the adj'ective alone comes to mean ‘elephant.’ The animal was famed for its strength as well as its virility. It is mentioned with man and monkey as one of the beasts that take hold by the hand (hastādāna), as opposed to those that take hold by the mouth (mukhādāna). It was tamed, as the expression Hastipa,* elephant-keeper,’ shows, and tame elephants were used to catch others (see Vāraṇa). But there is no trace of its use in war, though Ktesias and Megasthenes both record such use for their times. The Atharvaveda alludes to its being pestered by mosquitoes.
hastipa ‘Elephant-keeper,’ is mentioned as one of the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda.
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a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
aka(1)affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 et cetera, and others); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l et cetera, and others
akaṅsubstitute ( अादेश ) for the last letter of the word मुधातृ prescribed along with the taddhita affix. affix इञ् by P. IV.1.97. exempli gratia, for example सौघातकिः
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akitnot marked by the mute letter k ( क् ) and hence not disallowing guṇa or vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, confer, compare सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति P.VI.1.58; दीर्घोऽकित: P. VII. 4.83.
aṅkitanot possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) orṅ ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
aātidhṛtione of the varieties of Aticchandas consisting of 76 syllables. e. g. स हि शर्धो न मारुते तुविष्वाणिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I.127.6.
atinicṛta variety of the Gāyatri metre consisting of 20 syllables, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.22.
atiprayatnaintense effort; characteristic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित.
ativyaktaquite distinct; used with respect to pronunciation नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII.8.
atiśakvarīa variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. e. g. सुषुमा यातमद्रिभिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I. 137.1. cf, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) KVI.82.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
atyaṣṭia variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 68 syllables. e. g. अथा रुचा हरिण्या पुनानः Ṛk. Sam. 8.111.1.
athusconjugational affix of perfeminine. 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada. substituted for the personal ending थस्, confer, compare P. III. 4.82.
adṛṣṭanot seen properly; doubtful; indistinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: exempli gratia, for example तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्न: confer, compare अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 15.
adṅsubstitute for case affixes सु and अम् added to words ending with the affixes डतर and डतम and to the words अन्य, अन्यतर and इतर. confer, compare P,VII.1.25.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adviyoniliterally not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् et cetera, and others as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , et cetera, and others which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि confer, compare अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhyātmādiname of a class of words headed by the word अध्यात्मन् to which the taddhita affix. affix ठञ् is added in the sense of 'तत्र भवः' id est, that is found therein, or existing therein. e. g. आध्यात्मिकम्, आधिदैविकम्, et cetera, and otherscf M.Bh. on IV.3.60.
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
ansubstitute for the affix यु ( युच्, ण्युट् ल्युट्, ल्यु, ट्यु, ट्युल् and others of which only यु remains), confer, compare युवोरनाकौ P.VII.1.1 e. g. कारणा, हारणा, करणम्, हरणम्, नन्दनः, सायंतनम् et cetera, and others
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anādiṣṭanot replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, III.2.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, and VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).10.
anādeśa(1)original, not such as is substituted: exempli gratia, for example युष्मदस्मदोरनादेशे P.VII. 2.86; (2) absence of statement, अनिर्देश exempli gratia, for example कर्तरि कृद्वचनमनादेशे स्वार्थविज्ञानात् P. III.4.67, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: cf the Pari. अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anumānainference,suggestion, confer, compare अशक्या क्रिया पिण्डीभूता निदर्शयितुम् । सासामनुमानगम्या Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.1.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
antāmaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plur. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada, substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
antuaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plural Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. exempli gratia, for example भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु
anteaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.
anvarthakagiven in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, confer, compare महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.23.
anvarthasaṃjñāA technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद et cetera, and others All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pāṇini: confer, compare तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23; also confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 et cetera, and others
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
apūrva(1)not existing before; confer, compare आगमश्च नाम अपूर्वः शब्दोपजनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-20, I.1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf अपूर्वलक्षण अादिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.21: (3) a rule prescribing something not prescribed before; confer, compare तत्र अपूर्वो विधिरस्तु नियमोस्तु इति अपूर्व एव विधिर्भविष्यति न नियमः M.Bh. on I.4.3., III.1.46, III.2. 127, III.3.19.
apṛktaliterally unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consisting of one phonetic element, id est, that is of a single letter. confer, compare अपृक्त एकाल्प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.
apoddhāradisintegration of the constituent elements of a word; analysis; अपोद्धार पृथक्करणम् commentary on Vāk. Pad. II. 449: confer, compare अपोद्धारपदार्था ये ये चार्थाः स्थितलक्षणः Vāk. Pad.I.24.
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhidhānadesignation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, confer, compare नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhyamsubstitute for dative case and ablative case. plural affix भ्यस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् ; cf भसोsभ्यम् P. VII.1.30.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
amaracalled अमरसिंह an ancient grammarian mentioned in the कविकल्पद्रुम by बोपदेव. He is believed to have written some works on grammar such as षट्कारकलक्षण his famous existing work, however, being the Amarakoṣa or Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.
ay(1)substitute for the causal sign णि before अाम्, अन्त, अालु et cetera, and others by P, VI.4.55 (2) substitute for ए before a vowel by P.VI.1.78.
ayaṅthe substitute अय् for the final ई of the root शी by P. VII.4.22.
ayactaddhita affix. affix अय substituted optionally for तय after द्वि and त्रि by P. V.2.43. exempli gratia, for example द्वयम् द्वितयम्; त्रयम् त्रितयम्.
ayāc,ayāṭsubstitutes for inst. sing affix टा in Vedic literature e. g. स्वप्नया, नावया.
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avaṅsubstitute अव् for the final ओ of the word गो; confer, compare अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य, P. VI.1.123,124.
avyakta(1)indistinct; inarticulate; confer, compare अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ P. VI.1.98 also P.V.4.57; अव्यक्तं अपरिस्फुटवर्णम् Kāś. on P. VI.1.98; (2) a fault of pronunciation confer, compare नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् ।
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
aṣṭiname of a metre of four feet consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllables in the odd feet and 20 in the even feet; e. g. त्रिकद्रुकेषु महिषः et cetera, and others Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. II.22.1.
asaṃnikarṣa(1)separatedness as in the case of two distinct words;(2) absence of co-alescence preventing the sandhi; cf R.T. 68,70.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asuḍsubstitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनामस्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,exempli gratia, for example पुमान् पुमांसौ et cetera, and others; confer, compare पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
ākamthe substitute आकम् for साम् of the genitive case plural after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् confer, compare P.VII.1.33.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
aāṅgaan operation prescribed in the section, called aṅgādhikāra, in the the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, made up of five Pādas consisting of the fourth quarter of the 6th adhyāya and all the four quarters of the seventh adhyāya. आङ्गात् पूर्वं विकरणा एषितव्याः M. Bh on I.3.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; confer, compare also वार्णादाङ्गं बलीयो भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 55: also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.3.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ātāmĀtmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78
āttvathe substitution of long अा prescribed by the term अात् as in आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following confer, compare P. VI.1.45 et cetera, and others
aātvathe substitution of अा; exempli gratia, for example तादृक्, भवादृक्, अन्यादृक् confer, compare आ सर्वनाम्नः P.VI.3. 90.
ādivṛddhithe Vṛddhi substitute prescribed for the first vowel of a word to which a tad-affix, marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added; exempli gratia, for example औपगव, दाक्षि et cetera, and others; confer, compare तद्धितेष्वचामादेः P.VII.2.117, 118.
ādiṣṭa(1)prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : confer, compare सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.I58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; confer, compare also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādeśinthat for which a substitute is prescribed; the original, sthānin: confer, compare आदेशिानामादेशाः confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). On P.I.1.56.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
ānupūrvyasaṃhitāthe saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;exempli gratia, for example शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
āythe substitute अाय् for ऐ before a vowel; exempli gratia, for example चायकः for चै+अकः confer, compare एचेायवायावः P.VI.1.78.
aārasubstitute अार for ऋ in the words पितृ and मातृ; exempli gratia, for example पितरामातरा; confer, compare P. VI.3.33.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
iglakṣaṇavṛddhithe substitution of the vowel called वृद्वि id est, that is the vowel आ, ए or औ prescribed specifically for the vowels called इक् id est, that is इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, exempli gratia, for example तस्मादिग्लक्षणा वृद्विः P.1.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11; confer, comparealso इग्लक्षणवृद्धिप्रतिषेधस्तावत् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 2.
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itvathe substitution of short इ by स्याघ्वोरिच्च P.I.2.17, शास इदङ्हलोः P. VI.4.3, et cetera, and others
itnukṛt affix mentioned by Pāṇini in VI.4.55 as causing the substitution of अय् for णि before it; e. g गदयित्नुः, स्तनयित्नुः M.Bh. on VI.4.55.
in(1)substitute for the inst. case ending in अा (टा) after bases ending in अ ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P.VII.1. 12; (2) taddhita affix.aff इन affixed to पूर्व e. g. पथिभिः पूर्विणैः confer, compare P. IV. 4. 133.
inaṅsubstitute इन् for the last vowel of the words कल्याणी, सुभगा, दुर्भगा and others before the affix ढ i. e. एय prescribed after these words in the sense of offspring e. g. काल्यााणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः, कौलटिनेयः et cetera, and others confer, compareकल्याण्यादीनामिनङ् P. IV.I.126, 127.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
iyaṅsubstitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in इ and the word स्त्री; exempli gratia, for example चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; confer, compare अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.
ire( इरेच् )substitute for the perfect 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada affix झ; exempli gratia, for example चक्रिरे, ऊचिरे et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.81.
substitute for इदम् before an affix called 'vibhakti': e. g. इह; cf: P.V.3.3.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
is(1)substitute इस् for the vowel of the roots, मी, मा, दा, धा, रभ्, पत् et cetera, and others before the desiderative affix सन्; exempli gratia, for example मित्सति, दित्सति, अारिप्सते et cetera, and others confer, compareP. VII.4.54; (2) uṅādi affix इस् exempli gratia, for example सर्पिस्.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
ītlong vowel ई as different from इ or ई३ prescribed as a substitute; confer, compare P.VI.3.27, VI.3.97.
īyasubstitute for the taddhita affix.afix छ; e.g: शालीयः, मालीयः etc; cf P. VII. 1.2 and IV. 2. 114.
īśsubstitute ई for इदम् before the tad-affixes दृक्, दृश् and वतु; exempli gratia, for example ईदृक् ईदृशः also ईदृक्षः; confer, compare P.VI.3.90.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
ujjvaladattathe famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti et cetera, and others He is also known by the name Jājali.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
ut(1)Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; exempli gratia, for example परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
uttama(1)the best,the highest,the last: (2) the last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; confer, compare also अनुत्तम meaning non-nasal; (3) the उत्तमपुरुष or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् and मस् and their substitutes, confer, compare P.I.4.107.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upaliṅgina substituted word element; confer, compare शेवः इति सुखनाम । शिष्यतेः वकारः नामकरणः अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः | शिवम् Nirukta of Yāska.X. I7.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upaskāraintroduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
uv(उवङ्)substitute for the vowel उ belonging to the Vikaraṇa श्रु, to roots and to the noun भ्रू under certain conditions: cf अचि श्नुधातुर्भ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI.4.77.
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūṭh(1)saṁprasāraṇa vowel ऊ substituted for the व् of वाह् under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example, ऊढः, confer, compare वाह ऊठ् P.VI.4.132; (2) substitute ऊ for व् before certain affixes; e. g. द्यूतः, द्यूत्वा, जूर्तिः, तूर्तिः et cetera, and others confer, compare च्छ्वोः शूडनुनासिके च P.VI.4.19, 20.
ūt(1)long vowel ऊ which cannot be combined by rules of saṁdhi with the following vowel when it comes at the end of the forms of the dual number e. g. साधू अत्र et cetera, and others; confer, compare ईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् P.I.1.11, as , also ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे I.1.19; (2) long vowel ऊ substituted for the short उ of the root गोह् before an affix beginning with a vowel e. g. निगूहति; confer, compare ऊदुपधाया गोहः P. VI.4.89.
ūtvasubstitution of the long vowel ऊ; see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.12, VI.1.85.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
lṛdit(roots)marked with the mute indicatory letter लृ, which take the substitute अ (अङ्) for च्लि, the Vikaraṇa of the aorist; e. g. अपतत्, अशकत् confer, compare पुषादिद्ताद्य्-लृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P.III.1.55.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
eka(1)Singular number, ekavacana: confer, compare नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in plural in this sense), confer, compare इह चेत्येके मन्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 4.21 .
ekadeśin( a thing or a substance )composed of parts; cf the term एकदेशिसमास or एकदेशितत्पुरुष, used in connection with compounds of words such as पूर्व, पर and others with words showing the constituted whole ( एकदेशिन्) prescribed by the rule पूर्वपराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनेकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1 ; (2) a partisan; confer, compare the word सिद्धान्त्येकदेशिन् used often by commentators.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekākṣaraconsisting of one single syllable ; exempli gratia, for example स्व, भू, वाच् et cetera, and others confer, compare एकाक्षरात्कृते जातेः सप्तम्यां च न तौ स्मृतौ M.Bh. on P.V.2.115, as also on VI.1.168, VI.4.161.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekādeśasvaraan accent prescribed for the single substitute,as, for instance, by rules like उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितोनुदात्तस्य and the following rules P. VI.2.4, 5 and 6.
ekārathe letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
eṇīkṛtaA fault in pronunciation when the voice is indistinct, and the word pronounced is not distinctly heard; confer, compare एणीकृतः अविशिष्टः । किमयमोकारः अथौकार इति यत्र संदेहः Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh.I.1.1,explained as अवशिष्ट: संश्लिष्टः संदिग्ध इति यावत् by Nāgeśa in his Uddyota.
etvathe substitution of ए; confer, compare बहुवचने झल्येत् (P. VII.3.103) इति एत्वं प्राप्नोति M.Bh. on P.V.3.10.
edhāctaddhita affix.affix एधा substituted for the taddhita affix. affix धा optionally,when applied to the words द्वि and त्रि. exempli gratia, for exampleद्विधा, द्वेधा, दैधम्, त्रिधा, त्रेधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare Kāś. on एधाच्च P.V.3.46.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
aicshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; confer, compare न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; confer, compare ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed confer, compare P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; confer, compare P. III.2.106. They are called द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र.
aittvasubstitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitution of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
aissubstitute for the case affix भिस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare अतो भिस एस्. P.VII.I.9 to 11.
au(1)the vowel औ; diphthong vowel made up of आ and ओ; ( 2 ) the substitute औ for the final letter उ of the word मनु before the fem, affix ई; confer, compare मनोः स्त्री मनायी, मनावी,मनुः Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case ending of the nominative case. and acc. dual called औङ् also.
oṅa term used by ancient grammarians for the affix औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual number The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neuter genders; confer, compare औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.
aut(1)the letter औ included in the वृद्धि vowels अा, ऐ and औ, and hence called वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar, (2) substitute for the caseending इ ( ङि ) in Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare P. VII.3.118, 119.
autvathe substitution of the vowel अौ; confer, compare P. VII.3.117-119.
auśsubstitute औ for the nominative case. and acc. case endings applied to the numeral अष्टन्; confer, compare अष्टाभ्य औश् P.VII. 1.21.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
k(1)the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;confer, compareV.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on account of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
kalyāṇyādia class of words headed by the word कल्याणी to which the taddhita affix एय (ढक्) is added, in the sense of 'offspring' and, side by side, the ending इन् (इनड्) is substituted for the last letter of those words; e. g. काल्याणिनेयः, सौभागिनेयः confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV. 1.126.
kavargathe class of guttural consonants consisting of the five consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ् ङ्
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
ku(1)guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् confer, compare P.VII.2. 104.
kuṭādia group of roots headed by the root कुट् of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ञित् nor णित् becomes ङित्,and as a result prevents the substitution of गुण or वृद्धि for the preceding vowel e. g. कुटिता, कुटितुम् । confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिभ्योञ्णिन्डित् I.2.1.
kutvasubstitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants
kumudādiclass of words (१) consisting of कुमुद, शर्करा, न्यग्रोध et cetera, and others to which the taddhita affix ठक् is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कुमुदिकम्,शर्करिकम् etc(2) consisting of कुमुद गोमय, रथकार etc to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied in the senses referred to in (I): exempli gratia, for example कौमुदिकम् , राथकारिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kaimarthakyaiit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent utility: confer, compare कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
ksa(1)aorist vikaraṇa affix substituted for च्लि; confer, compare P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: et cetera, and others confer, compare दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; confer, compare कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
khañtaddhita affix. affix ईन, applied to महाकुल in the sense of a descendant; e. g. माहाकुलीनः confer, compare P. IV. 1.141, to ग्राम (P. IV. 2.94), to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the Śaiṣika senses (P.IV.3.1), to प्रतिजन, इदंयुग et cetera, and others (P. IV. 4.99), to माणव and चरक (P. V.1.11), to ऋत्विज् (P.IV.3.71), to मास (P. IV. 3.81), to words meaning corn in the sense of 'a field producing corn' (P.V.2.1), to सर्वचर्मन् (P.V.2.5), and to the words गोष्ठ, अश्व, शाला et cetera, and others in some specified senses (P. V. 3.18-23). A vṛddhi vowel ( अा, ऐ or औ ) is substituted for the first vowel of the word to which this affix खञ् is applied, as ञ् is the mute letter applied in the affix खञ्.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
guṇabhāvina vowel, liable to take the guna substitute e. g. इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and the penultimate अ; confer, compare यत्र क्ङित्यनन्तरो गुणभाव्यस्ति तत्रैव स्यात् । चितम् । स्तुतम् । इह तु न स्याद्भिन्नः भिन्नवानिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5.
goṇikāputraa grammarian whose wiew in connection with the correctness of the expressions नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नं and नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नस्य is given by the Mahabhasyakara in the words 'both expressions are justified' ( उभयथा गेणिकापुत्रः ). Nagesa has observed that गेोणिकापुत्र is nobody else but the Mahabhasyakara himself; confer, compare गोणिकापुत्रः भाष्यकार इत्याहुः । NageSa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahabhasyapradipa on P. I. 4.5I.
grāsaa fault in the utterance of a letter which makes it indistinct by being held up at the throat.Seeग्रस्त.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
ghañkrt affix अ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, exempli gratia, for example पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
ghua tech. term applied to the roots दा and धा, as also to those like दे or दो which become दा by the substitution of अा for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root दाप् (to cut) and दैप् (to purify): दाधा ध्वदाप् P.I. 1.20.
ṅasending of the genitive case singular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
caturmātraconsisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; confer, compare आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 3.4.
candraa famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; confer, compare स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
cartvasubstitution of a hard consonant or श्, ष्, स्, for soft consonants and aspirates. See the word चर्.
cārthathe meaning of the indeclinable च to convey which, as existing in different individuals, the dvandva compound is prescribeditionOut of the four senses possessed by the inde clinable च, the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz.इतरेतरयोग and समाहार out of the four समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार: confer, compare कः पुनश्चेन कृतोर्थः समुच्चयोन्वाचय इतरेतरयोगः समाहार इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.29; confer, compare also Candra Vyakarana II.2.48
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
citaffixes or substitutes or bases marked with the mute letter च् signifying the acute accent for the last vowel; e. g. अथुच्, धुरच्, कुण्डिनच् et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1. 163, 164.
cidasthimālāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesabhatta.
cintyaquestionable; contestable: which cannot be easily admittedition The word is used in connection with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside; confer, compare एतेन यत्कैयटे केचिदित्यादिना अस्यैव वाग्रहृणस्य तदनित्यत्वज्ञापकतोक्ता सापि चिन्त्या, Par. Sekh. Pari. 93. 5.
cchthe consonant छ् with च् prefixed, for which श् is substituted by च्छ्घोः शूडनुनासिके च P. VI. 4. 19.
cphañtaddhita affix. affix अायन causing a vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, The affix ( च्फञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a descendant except the direct son or daughter’ to words कुञ्ज and others; confer, compare P. IV. I. 98.
cilathe sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; confer, compare P. III. 1. 43-66.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chaṇtaddhita affix. affix ईय causing the vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition छण् is added (1) to the words पितृत्वसृ and मातृप्वसृ in the sense of अपत्य; confer, compare P IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words कृशाश्व,अरिष्ट and others as a चातुरर्थिक affix: confer, compare P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the words तित्तिरि, वरतन्तु, खण्डिक and उख in the sense of 'instructed by', confer, compare P.IV.3.102; and (4) to the word शलातुर in the sense of 'being a national of' or 'having as a domicile.' e. g. शालातुरीयःconfer, compare P. IV. 3.94.
jaśtvasubstitution of a जश् consonant prescribed by Panini for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel or a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a pada; confer, compare P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4. 53.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
jusbhāvathe transformation of झि into जुस् ; the substitution of जुस् for झि. The term is often used in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.57, I.1.63, III.1.43 et cetera, and others See जुस्.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jhaa verbal ending of the 3rd person. Atm. for ल ( id est, that is लकार ); cf P.III.4. 78;for the letter झ् , अन्त् is substituted; confer, compare झोन्तः P. VIII.1.3, but ईरे in the perfect tense; confer, compare P. III. 4.81 and रन् in the potential and benedictive moods; confer, compare P. III. 4.85.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ñit(1)an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a taddhita affix. affix: confer, compare P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; exempli gratia, for example करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ṭithe final syllable beginning with a vowel; part of a word consisting of the final vowel in a word and the consonants following the final vowel; cf अचेन्त्यादि टि P. I. 1.64.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭha(l)taddhita affix. affix ठ; see ठ् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. for the substitution of इक and क for ठ. ठ stands as a common term for ठक् , ठन् , ठञ्, and ठच् as also for ष्ठल्,ष्ठन् , and प्ठच्;(2) the consonant ठ, the vowel अ being added for facitity of pronunciation, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇatvacerebralization; lingualization ; the substitution of ण् for न् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.4. 1-39. See ण.
ṇatvapādaa popular name given by grammarians to the fourth pada confer, compare Panini's Astadhyayi, as the pada begins with the rule रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे and mainly gives rules about णत्व i. e. the substitution of the consonant ण् for न्.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadguṇasaṃvijñānaliterally connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Bahuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; e g. the compound word सर्वादि in the rule सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि includes the word सर्व among the words विश्व, उभय and others, which alone form the अन्यपदार्थ or the external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned in Panini's rule अनेकमन्यमपदार्थे (P.II. 2. 24): confer, compare भवति बहुर्वीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि । तद्यथा । चित्रवाससमानय। लोहितोष्णीषा ऋत्विजः प्रचरन्ति । तद्गुण आनीयते तद्गुणाश्च प्रचरन्ति M.Bh. on I.1.27. For details confer, compare Mahabhasya on P.1.1.27 as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77.
tadbhāvitaproduced or brought into being by some grammatical operation such as the vowel आ in दाक्षि, कारक्र, अकार्षीत् et cetera, and others by the substitution of वृद्धि, as contrasted with the original अा in ग्राम, विघान शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकरैकारौकारा भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणमाहोस्विदादैज्मात्रस्य M.Bh. on I. 1.1.
tap(1)taddhita affix. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; confer, compare P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal ending in Vedic Literature substitutcd for त of the imperative second. person. plural e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
tampersonal ending तम् substituted for थम् in the imperative imperfeminine. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III. 4.85, 101
tayataddhita affix. affix तयप् applied to a numeral ( संख्या ) in the sense of अवयविन् or 'possessed of parts'; e. g. पञ्च अवयवा अस्य पञ्चतयम् , दशतयम् , चतुष्टयी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.42. अय is substituted for तय optionally after the numerals द्वि and त्रि and necessarily after उभ; confer, compare P. V. 2.43-44.
tas(1)personal ending of the third person. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically for ल् (लकार); cf P. III.4.78; (2) taddhita affix. affix तस् ( तसि or तसिल् ). See तसि and तसिल्.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tāt(1)the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative second. and third singular. Parasmaipada; confer, compare P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd plural in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् confer, compare Kas on P.VII.1.44.
tāmpersonal ending substituted for तस् of the 3rd person. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; confer, compare P. III.4.85, 101.
tārānāthacalled तर्कवाचस्पति; a Bengali modern Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary called Sarala on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many kosas.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tikādia class of words headed by the words तिक, केितव, संज्ञा and others to which the taddhita affix अायनि (फिञ्) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of 'a descendant'; exempli gratia, for example तैकायनि:, कैतवायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.1.154.
tipthe personal ending of the 3rd person. singular. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For substitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84.
tu(1)short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् confer, compare P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-ending substituted for ति in the 2nd person. imper. singular. Parasmaipada confer, compare P. III, 4.86; (3) taddhita affix. affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: confer, compare P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशिभ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added exempli gratia, for example सेतुः सक्तुः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 2.9
tuṭaugment त् (1) added to the affix अन substituted for the यु of ट्यु and ट्युल्; e. g. चिरंतनः, सायंतनः, confer, compare P. IV.3.23; (2) added to the taddhita affix. affix इक (ठक्) applied to the word श्वस् in the Saisika senses; e.g, शौवस्तिकः confer, compare P. IV. 3.15.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛjantaa word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvanamasthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; confer, compare तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 1.96.
taudādikaa root belonging to the तुदादि class of roots ( sixth conjugation ) which take the vikarana अ ( श ) causing no guna or vrddhi substitute for the vowel of the root.
tyadādividhia specific operation prescribed for the pronouns headed by त्यद् e. g. the substitution of अ for the final letter; confer, compare त्यदादिविधौ च प्रयोजनम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 6.
trimātraconsisting of three moras or matras. The protracted or प्लुत vowels are said to consist of three matras as contrasted with the short and long vowels which respectively consist of one and two matras; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.2.27.
th()second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; confer, compare Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
thanapersonal-ending थन substituted for त of the 2nd person. plural of the imperative Parasmaipada in Vedic ' Literature, e. g. यदिष्ठन for यदिच्छथ: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
thalpersonal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person.singular. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; confer, compare P. III. 4.82, 88,84.
thaspersonal ending of the 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada, which is substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes; confer, compare P. III 4.78.
thā(1)taddhita affix. affix था in the sense of question or reason ( हेतु ) added to the pronoun किम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कथा देवा आसन् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.3.26; (2) taddhita affix. affix था (थाल् according to Panini) which gets caesura or avagraha after प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व, इम and ऋतु; exempli gratia, for example प्रत्नथेतिं प्रत्नSथा, पूर्वथेति पूर्वऽथा et cetera, and others: confer, compare Vij. Pr.V.12: (3) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of इव added to the words प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व and इम in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example तं प्रत्नथा पूर्वथा विश्वथेमथा; cf Kas, on P. V.3.111: (4) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of mannar ( प्रक्रार) added to किन् , pronouns excepting those headed by द्वि, and the word बहु; exempli gratia, for example सर्वथा, confer, compare P V.3.23.
thāspersonal ending of the 2nd person. singular. Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the lakara affixes.
dthird consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणता;(2) consonant द् substituted for the final letter of nouns ending with the affix वस् as also for the final letter of स्रंस्, ध्वंस् and अनडुह् provided the final letter is at the end of a pada; exempli gratia, for example विद्वद्भयाम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant द् substituted for the final स् of roots excepting the root.अस्, before the personal ending तिप् of the third person. singular.; e. g. अचकाद् भवान् ; confer, compare P. VIII. 3.93.
dagghaa fault of pronunciation where the letters are uttered indistinct ( अस्पष्ट ).
dāruṇyaexplained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as दृढत्व (firmness) or कठिनता (hardness,) and given as a characteristic of the acute or उदात्त tone; confer, compare अायामो दारुण्यमणुता खस्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शब्दस्य, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.9, quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.I. 2.29, where दारुण्य is explained as स्वरस्य दारुणता रूक्षता ।
dyutādia class of roots headed by the root द्युत् , the aorist sign च्लि after which gets ( अ ) अङ् substituted for it: exempli gratia, for example अद्युतत् , अश्वितत्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.55. and I.3.91. द्युस् taddhita affix. affix द्युस् applied to the word उभय in the sense of a day; exempli gratia, for example उभयद्युः confer, compare P. V. 3.22 Vart. 7.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dyotanaconveyance of sense indirectly or by suggestion, and not directly. See द्योतक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
dyotya(sense)conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravacaniyas, the krt affixes and the tad, affixes: confer, compare अनुशब्दो लक्षणे द्योत्ये कर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.84.
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dvicata syllable consisting of two consonants; confer, compare Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 245.
dvaipadgroup of two words; an expression consisting of two words; cf प्र वोचं नः सुमना द्वैपदाश्च Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 2. 10; X. 3; XI. 37 et cetera, and others
gh(1)fourth letter of the dental class(तवर्ग) possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व and महाप्रण ; (2) substitute ध् , for the ह् of नह् before a ' jhal ' consonant or at the end of a word e. g. नद्धम्, उपानत्, confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 34; (3) substitute ध् for the letters त् and थ् placed after a fourth letter, e. g लब्धुम्, दोग्धा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 40.
dhamuñtaddhita affix. affix optionally substituted in the place of the taddhita affix. affix धा after the words द्वि and त्रि; e. g. द्विधा, द्वौधम्, त्रिधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare P. V. 3.45.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhyamtaddhita affix. affix ध्यमुञ् substituted for धा optionally after the word एक e. g. ऐकध्यम् , एकधा; confer, compare P. V. 3.44.
dhyaikrt afix ध्यै seen in Vedic Literature, substituted for त्या optionally; e. g. साढयै, साढ्वा; cf P. VI. 3.113.
dhvampersonal-ending of the second. person. plural Atmanepada, substituted for ल् of the 10 lakaras.
dhvātpersonal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for ध्वम् of the second. person. plural Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for exampleवारयध्वात् for वारयध्वम् confer, compare P. VII. 1.42.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
naddhaa fault of pronunciation when a letter, although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth, does not become audible, being held up ( बद्ध ) by the lips or the like. The fault is similar to अम्बूकृत: confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यामम्बूकृतमाह नद्धम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
(1)taddhita affix. affix ना as also नाञ् prescribed respectively after वि and नञ् (negative particle न ) in the sense of separation; e. g. विना, नाना ; (2) case ending ना substituted for the inst. instrumental case. singular. affix टा (called also अाङ् in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after words called घि i. e. words ending in इ or उ excepting such as are called नदी.
ni(1)personal ending substituted for मि (मिप्) of the 1st person. singular. in the imperative; (2) a technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term निपात of Panini.
niṅsubstitute नि for the last letter of the word जाया at the end of a bahuvrihi compound; confer, compare युवजानिः, वृद्धजानिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4.134.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nimitta(1)the formal cause of a grammatical operation; confer, compare निमित्ताभावे नैमित्तिकस्याप्यभाव; given as a Paribhasa by many grammarians like Vyadi, Siradeva and others; confer, compare also प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयो निमित्तं प्रत्ययेा निमित्ती M.Bh. on III.1.1 Vart. 2; (2) distinguishing sign यः प्रेक्षापूर्वकारी भवति स: अध्रुवेण निमित्तेन ध्रुवं निमित्तमुपादत्ते वेदिकां पुण्डरीकं वा, M.Bh. on I.1.26 Vart.5.
nimittinan affix or an augment or a substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas; confer, compare निर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्तमनिर्ज्ञातार्थो निमित्ती, इह च प्रत्ययोऽनिर्ज्ञातः प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयो निर्ज्ञाताः M. BSh. on III. l . l Vart. 2.
nirdiśyamānaparibhāṣāa short form for the maxim निर्दिश्यमानस्यादेशा भवन्ति which means 'substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually stated or enunciated in the rule (of grammar)' Par. Sek. Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 12.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
niṣkṛṣṭaseparated; taken out from a thing; existing only in conception or idea; confer, compare इह केचिद्गुणाः शब्देन द्रव्यान्निष्कृष्टा एव प्रत्याय्यन्ते न तु द्रव्यस्योपरञ्जकत्वेन । यथा चन्दनस्य गन्धः इति । Kaiy. on P. II. 2. 8.
nīcaiḥkaraconstituting the grave accent, features of the grave accent; confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता खस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य M.Bh.on I. 2.30.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyāyasiddhaestablished by a maxim; with full justification; confer, compare न्यायसिद्धमेवैतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on V.1.19.The word is used as opposed to ज्ञापकसिद्ध by Nāgesa; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 1.
nyāyyaproper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् confer, compare P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; confer, compareउत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
parasavarṇacognate of the latter vowel or consonant. The word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a substitute or आदेश which is specified to be cognate ( सवर्ण ) of the succeeding vowel or consonant: confer, compare अनुस्वरस्य यथि परसवर्ण: P.VIII. 4. 58.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāraskarādigaṇaor पारस्करप्रभृति, words headed by the word पारस्कर which have got some irregularity, especially the insertion of स् between the constituent words. For details see पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् P. VI. 1.153 and the commentary thereon.
piṭava taddhita affix. affix applied to the word नि in the sense of the depression of the nose, the word चि being substituted for नि; exempli gratia, for example चिपिटः; confer, compare इनच् पिटच् चिक चि च P. V: 2.33
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
pipīlikamadhyā,pipīlikamadhyamāname given to a stanza of त्रिष्टुप् or जगती or बृहती type consisting of three feet, the middle foot consisting of six or seven or eight syllables only; e. g. Ŗgveda X. 105, 2 and 7; IX. 110.l, VIII. 46.14; confer, compare उष्णिक् पिपीलिकामध्या हरीयस्येति दृश्यते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 25, 28, 36.
putraṭ(1)the word पुत्र as given in the ancient list of masculine words marked with the mute letter ट् to signify the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ): confer, compare P. IV.1.15: (2) the substitute पुत्रट् ( i. e. पुत्री ) for the word दुहितृ optionally prescribed after the words सूत, उग्र, राज, भोज, कुल and मेरु in the simple sense of 'girl' and not ' daughter ' e. g. राजपुत्री, सूतपुत्री; confer, compare P.VI.3.70 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
pum.or पुंस् masculine. It appears that both पुभ्, and पुंस् were current terms meaning 'masculine ' in ancient days. confer, compare पुमः खय्यम्परे P.VIII. 3.12. and पुंसोसुङ् P. VII. 1.89. Although पुभ् is changed to पुंस् before a word beginning with a hard consonant, still पुंस् is given as an independent word derived from the root पा confer, compare पातेर्डुम्सुन् Unādi S IV. 177; confer, compare also the expressions पुंवचन, पुंलिङ्ग and पुंयोग.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
puṣādia class of roots headed by the root पुष् of the fourth conjugation whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign अ ( अङ्) for च्लि ; exempli gratia, for example अपुषत्, अशुषत्, अनुषत् et cetera, and others ofeminine. पुषादिद्युताद्यलृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P. III. 1.55.
pūrvarūpasubstitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz. the former and the latter, as a result of the coalescence of the two cf अमि पूर्वः and the following rules P. VI. 1.107-110.
pūrvasavarṇadīrdhasubstitution of the long form of the previous vowel in the place of two vowels as a result of their coalescence, prescribed by Paanini in VI. l.102 .
pūrvāntaend of the previous. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vowels (एकादेश.). Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or the initial vowel of the succeeding word; it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time; confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च P. VI. 1. 85 and उभयत अाश्रयेण नान्तादिवत् Sira. Pari. 60; confer, compare also किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्तः अहोस्वित् परादिः अाहोस्विदभक्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 47 Vart. 3.
pṛthakseparately as far as hearing is concerned; distinctly separate from another; confer, compare सप्त स्वरा ये यमास्ते पृथग्वा Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 17.
pṛṣodarādia group of words, with irregularity in the coalescence of the two constituent members, collected together by Panini and mentioned together with the word पृषोदर at the head; confer, compare पृषोदरादीनि यथोपदिष्टम् P.VI. 3. 109; confer, compare also येषु लोपागमवर्णविकारः शास्त्रेण न विहिताः, दृश्यन्ते च तानि, यथोपदिष्टानि साधूनि भवन्ति । पृषोदरम् , बलाहकः, जीमूतः, पिशाचः, वृसी, मयूरः,पयोपवसनानाम्, दूढ्यः et cetera, and others Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 3.109.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
prakṛta(1)in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; confer, compare प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.21.
prakṛtipratyāpattirestoration to the original word from the substituted word; exempli gratia, for example the restoration of the root हन् in कंसवधमाचचष्टे कंसं घातयति; confer, compare आख्याताकृदन्ताण्णिज्वक्तव्यस्तदाचष्टे इत्येतस्मिन्नर्थे । कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकं भवतीति वक्तव्यम्, M.Bh. on III. 1 26 Vart. 6.
pracaya(1)a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, id est, that is the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; confer, compare स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI.10, 11 also confer, compare P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; exempli gratia, for example राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; confer, compare प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1 Vart, 6.
pratyāpattirestitution, restoration to the previous wording; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकस्य च प्रत्यापत्तिर्वक्तव्या Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.3.34 Vart.2; restoration to the previous nature; confer, compare अकारस्य प्रत्यापत्तौ दीर्घप्रतिषेधः । खट्वा,माला । M.Bh. on P. VIII.4.68.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
pravigrahaseparate or distinct uterance of several words of a sentence which are joined together by Sandhi rules in a compound ( समास ) or otherwise, with a very short pause ( अवग्रह ) after each word. e. g. उद् उ एति instead of उद्वेति; confer, compare प्रविग्रहेण मृदूवग्रहेण चर्चयेयुः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.10, where Uvvata remarks प्रविग्रहेषु प्रश्लिष्टं विश्लिष्टं कुर्यात् । कालाधिक्येन कुर्यात्। तथा च उद् उ एति इति पठेन्न तु उद्वेति.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prasāraṇaa term used by ancient grammarians for संप्रसारण, i.e, the substitution of a corresponding vowel for a semivowel; exempli gratia, for example इ for य्, उ for व्, ऋ for र् and लृ for ल्: confer, compare रकि ज्यः प्रसारणम् P.I.1.4. Vart. 6.
prasāraṇinthat which gets, or is liable to get the Prasarana or Samprasarana substitute; confer, compare कविधौ सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III.2.3 Vart. 1.
prāṇapaṇāa gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
pha(l)the letter or sound फ्,the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation ;(2) the affix फ for which अायन is always substituted as given by Panini in P.VII.1.2.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
phañtaddhita affix. affix फ marked with ञ् causing the Vrddhi substitute for the initial vowel of the word, applied in the sense of grandchildren and their issues to words अश्व and others, as also to the word भर्ग; exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायन, अाश्मायनः, भार्गायणः confer, compare अश्वादिभ्यः फञ् and भर्गात् त्रैगर्ते; confer, compare P.IV.1.110 and 111.
barsvya(written as बर्त्स्व्य or बर्त्स्य possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition)connected with the socket of the teeth. As the utterance of र् proceeds from the socket of the teeth, र् is called बर्स्व्य. confer, compare उपसंहृततरे च जिह्वाग्रमृकारर्कारल्कारेषु बर्स्वेषूपसंहरति T.Pr.II.18.बर्स्व is explained here by the commentator as दन्तपङ्क्तेरुपरिष्टादुच्चप्रदेशेषु ऋकारस्य ॠकारस्य ऌकारस्य च बर्स्वाः स्थानम् । The word उपरिष्टात् in the explanation given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is questionable;the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on वर्त्स्यमेकं इच्छन्ति रेफम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20.viz. वर्त्सशब्देन दन्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश उच्यते appears better although apparently वर्त्स is written in the text for बर्स्व or वर्त्स्व.
bahuprakruti(l)consisting of a large number of verbal parts in derivation; बह्वयः प्रकृतयो यत्र; (2) a compound in which the constituent words are all in the plural number, confer, compare सर्वे द्वन्द्वो विभाषैकवद्भवति । बहुप्रकृतिरिति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.4.12 Vart.l ; (3) a compound word ( पद ) made up of many constituent words; confer, compare बहूनि पदानि यत्र तद् बहुप्रकृति पदम् Vaj. Prat. V. 7.
bahumadhyagataa word which has entered between two constituent words of a compound by splitting in a way the compound e. g. the word च in ईयते नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rg. Veda IX. 86.42; confer, compare एतानि परिगृह्णीयात् बहूमध्यगतानि च । R.Pr.X.7. explained by Uvvata as बहूनां पदानां मध्यगतानि च यानि पदानि तानि अतिक्रम्य परिगृह्णीयात् !
bahulaliterally variously applicable; the word is used in the rules of Panini in connection with a grammatical rule or affix or the like that is seen necessarily applied in some cases, optionally applied in a few other cases and not at all applied in the other cases still. The word बहुलम् is used by Panini in all such cases. See P. II. 1.32, 57; II. 3.62; II.4.39, 73, 76, 84, III. 1.34 et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual explanation of बहुलम् given by grammarians in the lines क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः क्वचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्यदेव । विधेर्विधानं बहुधा समीक्ष्य चतुर्विधं बाहुलकं वदन्ति Com. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.18.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bāhya(प्रयत्न)external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; confer, compare बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
belavalakara[ SHRIPAD KRISHNA BELVALKAR ]a well-known Sanskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mahabharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona. He has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar, which is named "Systems of Sanskrit Grammar".
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhaṣbhāvathe substitution of the third consonants respectively for the fourth consonants भ्, घ्, ढ् and ध्; confer, compare P. VI.1.13 Vart. 13.
bhāṇḍārakara[ Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar 1837-1925 A. D. ]a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who has written learned articles on many grammatical topics. He was a distinguished Professor of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhāvyamānalit, which is to be produced; which is prescribed by a rule, like an affix; hence, an affix or an augment or a substitute prescribed by a rule as contrasted with the conditions or the original wording for which something is substituted, or after which an affix is placed, or to which an addition is made, or which is deleted; confer, compare भाव्यमानेन सवर्णानांग्रहृणं न Par. Sek. Pari, 19; also confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 1.50, I.1. 69,VI.1.85, VI.4.160.
bhūtapūrvagatiliterally denotation of something which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; confer, compareभूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.20 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII.3.103; confer, comparealso सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhedyathat which is distinguished; the word which is qualified; confer, compare भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II. 1.57.
m(1)fifth letter of the labial class of consonants which is possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्ठसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य ; (2) substitute म् ( मश् ) for अम् of the 1st. person. singular. in Vedic literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्| confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII, 1.40;
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
maśpersonal ending म् substituted for अम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example वधीं वृत्रम्; confer, compare अमो मश् P. VII. 1.40; See म्.
mahāprāṇaliterally hard breathing, aspirate characteristic (बाह्यप्रयत्न) of consonants possessed by the second and fourth consonants of the five classes, and the sibilants श्, ष् and स् which letters are also called महाप्राण on that account.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
māṇikyadevaa Jain writer who has written a gloss on the Unadisutras consisting of ten chapters popularly called उणादिसूत्रदशपादी.
mādhurīrvṛtia gloss not composed by, but simply explained by an inhabitant of Mathuraa or Madhuraa Such a gloss is referred to in the Mahaabhaasya on P.IV.3.101 Vaart.3, which possibly might be referring to an existing gloss on the SUtras of Paanini, which was being explained at Mathura, at the time of Patanjali. The term मधुरा was used for मथुरा in ancient times and the word माथुरी वृत्ति is also used for माधुरी वृति.
mukhasukhārthaa mute letter added to an affix or a substitute cr the like, which does not really form a part of the affix et cetera, and others, but which simply facilitates the utterance of it: confer, compare अथ मुखसुखार्थस्तकार: दकारोपि ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, VI.1.87; confer, compare also अादति तकारो मुखसुखार्थः, न त्वयं तपरः Kaas. on P. III.2.171.
mutvathe substitution of मु for the syllable beginning with द् in certain cases; confer, compare अदसोसेर्दादु दो मः P. VIII.2.80.
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
y(1)a consonant of the palatal class, called semivowel or अन्तःस्थ( spelt as अन्तस्थ also ), possessed of the properties संवृतत्व, नाद, घोष and अनुनासिकत्व in addition; (2) a substitute for म् when that म् is followed by ह् which is followed by य्. e. g.किंय्ह्य: confer, compare यवलपरे यवला वा. P. VIII.3. 26 Vart.l ; (3) य् looked upon as possessed of a very little effort in production i. e. which appears as almost dropped but not completely dropped when its elision is prescribed at the end of a word. e. gभोय् अच्युत; confer, compare व्योर्लधुप्रयत्नतर: शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yajādiroots headed by the root यज् which take the samhprasaarana substitute for their semivowel before terminations marked with the mute letter क्: c.g. इज्यते, इष्टिः confer, compare वचिस्वपियज्ञादीनां क्रिति P.VI.1.15. These roots are nine in number, यज् , वप् , वंद् , वस् and others which are of the first conjugation given by Paaini in his Dhaatupatha at the end of the roots of the first conjugation.
yavamadhyaliterally having the centre bulging out like the Yava grain; name given to a variety of the Gayatri which has 7 letters in the first and third (last) feet and 10 letters in the second id est, that is the middle foot; the name is also given to a Mahabrhati having the first and the last feet consisting of 8 letters and the middle one consisting of 12 syllables: cf R.Pr.XVI.18 and 48.
substitute for a case affix in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example उरुया, धृष्णुया for उरुणा, धृष्णुना, confer, compare सुपां सुलुक्o P.VII. 1.39.
yācsubstitute for a case affix found and the in Vedic Literature; e. g. साधुया for साधु: confer, compare सुपां सुलुक् .. ... याजाल: P. VII. 1. 39.
yukta(1)proper, appropriate, justified; the word is very frequently used in the Mahabhasya and other grammar works; (2) the sense of the original base which is connected with the sense of the affix; confer, compare अथवा युक्तः प्रकृत्यर्थः प्रत्ययार्थेन संबद्धः, Ks. on P. I. 2.51 ; (3) connected with; confer, compare उकारश्चेतिकरणेन युक्त: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् P. I. 4.50.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
ranpersonal ending रन् substituted for the personal ending झ of the प्रथमपुरुष (third person) Atmanepada of 'lin' (potential and benedictive); confer, compare झस्य रन् P.III. 4.105.
raparawith the letter र inserted after it; the term is used in connection with the guna and vrddhi substitutes for ऋ. These substitutes are respectively अ and अा, which, by the addition of र्, always become अर् and अार्: cf उरण् रपरः P.I. 1. 51, confer, compare ऋकारस्य गुणवृद्वीं रेफाशिखा अरारावेवेति confer, compare also वृद्धिर्भवति गुणो भवतीति रेफशिरा गुणवृद्धिसंज्ञकोभिनिर्वर्तते; M.Bh. on P.VI. 4.121, VIII.2.42.
ramaugment र inserted after the vowel अ of the root भ्रस्ज्, when the letterर् which is already present in भ्ररुज् (before अ) and the penultimate स् are dropped; the result is that the word भर्ज्, in short, becomes substituted in the place of भ्रस्ज्: confer, compare भ्रस्जो रोपधयो रमन्यतरस्याम्P.VI. 4.47, and भ्रस्जो रोपधयोर्लोप अागमो रम् विधीयते as Bharadvajiya Varttika thereon
raspersonal ending of the third person. ( प्रथमपुरुष ) substituted for the affix झि in the first future ( लुट् ): confer, compare लुट: प्रथमस्य डारौरस: II.4.85.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
riṅsubstitute रि for a verbal base ending in ऋ before श (the sign of the 6th conjugation) यक् (sign of the passive voice. voice) and a लिङ् affix beginning with य which is not a Sārvadhātuka affix; e. g. अाद्रियते, क्रियते, क्रियात्; confer, compare रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु P.VII.4.28.
rīṅsubstitute री for the vowel ऋ at the end of a base ( अङ्ग ) before the affix च्चि as also before य which does not belong to a krt or Sarvadhatuka affix; exempli gratia, for example मात्रीभूतः, मात्रीयते; confer, compare रीङ् ऋतः P.VII.4.27.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
re(रेश्)personal ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for त of the प्रथमपुरुष ( 3rd person. ) plural in the Perfect tense; confer, compare लिटस्तझयो रेश् इरेच् P. III. 4.81.
raupersonal ending substituted for the प्रथमपुरुषद्विवचन ( 3rd pers, dual affix तस्) in the periphrastic or first future;e. g. कर्तारौ; confer, compare लुट; प्रथमस्य डारौरसः P. II. 4.85.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇa(1)a rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; confer, compare लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्; confer, compare also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते M.Bh on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10; (2) characteristic or sign; confer, compare लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये P. II. 1. 14; confer, compare also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12; (3) indirect way of expression; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 105.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
laṭgeneral personal ending applied to roots (1 ) to show the present time for which the personal endings ति त:...महि are substituted for the formation of verbs and अत् ( शतृ ) and आन or मान ( शानच् ) for the formation of the present participle; (2) to show past time when the indeclinable स्म is used in the sentence along with the verbal form or when the indeclinables ननु, न, नु, पुरा, यावत्, कदा, कर्हि et cetera, and others are used along with the verbal form under specific conditions; e. g. कटं करोति देवदत्त:, यजति स्म युधिष्ठिर:, अहं नु करोमि, वसन्तीह पुरा छात्रा:, यावद् भुङ्क्ते et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III. 2.118-123, III. 3.4-9.
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
lādeśasubstitutes तिप्, तस् झि (अन्ति) सिप् .....महिङ् for ल्, signifying the ten ल् affixes or lakaras लट्, लिट्, लुट् et cetera, and others, applied to roots in the senses of the different tenses and moods; confer, compare P.III.4.78.
lāvasthāthe original condition of ल् or the personal endings before the affixes तिप्, तस् and others are substituted for them in accordance with the time or mood, as also the person and the number in view;confer, compare लावस्थायामेव स्यादयः, सार्वधातुके श्यनादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1. 33.
lia common term used (1) for the aorist vikaraņa affix च्लि for which सिच्, क्स, अङ् et cetera, and others are substituted as prescribed; (2) for लिट् and लिङ् affixes; exempli gratia, for example मन्त्रे घसह्वरणशवृदहाद्वृच्कृगमिजनिभ्यो ले: P.II.4.80.
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
liṭan affix of the perfect tense; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् P.III.2.115 for which the specific affixes णल्, अतुस् उस् et cetera, and others are substituted after roots which take Parasmaipada affixes. Before the lit affixes, a monosyllabic root is reduplicated while dissyllabic roots and denominative and other secondary roots, formed by adding an affix to an original root,take the affix अाम् after which all 'liț' personal endings are dropped and the forms of the roots कृ,भू and अस् with the necessary personal-endings, are placed immediately after the word ending in अाम् , but often with the intervention of a word or more in the Vedic language and rarely in the classical language; confer, compare तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् ; confer, compare कास्प्रत्ययादाममन्त्रे लिटि P.III.I. 35 to 42.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
lupdisappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; confer, compare कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon.
luptathat which has been elided or dropped during the process of the formation of words. As elision or लोप is looked upon as a kind of substitutē, in short a zerosubstitutē, the convention of the substitute being looked upon as the original one, viz.the sthānivadbhāva, applies to it.
lṛṭa general term for the general affix ल् of the second future which is applied in the sense of future time in general, without any specific conditions, the affixes ति, त:, अन्ति being substituted for the ल् and the sign (vikaraņa) स्य being added to the root; confer, compare P.III.3.13 and III. 3. 133. The terminations अत् and अान are substituted for the affix लृट् to form future participles; exempli gratia, for example भविष्यत्, एधिष्यमाण, confer, compare लृट; सद्वा P.III.3.14.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
leśasuch a slow or indistinct utterance or pronunciation of the letter य् or व् preceded by अ, as shows that it is almost droppedition This indistinct or slurred utterance of य् or व, which is described as advocated by the Prātiśākhyakāra Vātsapra, corresponds to the utterance of य् or व् with a very low tone as mentioned by Pāņini in the rule व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य; exempli gratia, for example अाप उन्दन्तु; या जाता ओषधयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare लेशो वात्सप्रस्य एतयोः T.Pr. 10.23; confer, compare also लेशेन प्रयत्नशैथिल्येन ब्यञ्जनानां वचनमुच्चारणं क्रियते Uvvața on R.Pr. XIV.5.
lyapkrt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; confer, compare समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
v(1)the semivowel व्: see व्; (2) personal-ending substituted for वस् in the perfect ( लिट् ) first person (उत्तमपुरुष), and in the present tense in the case of the root विद्; confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्० and विदो लटो वा. P. III. 4.82,83; (3) krt affix क्विप् , क्विन् or वि of which only व् remains; confer, compare अनिगन्तोञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये P. VI. 2.52; confer, compare also विष्वग्देवयोश्र्च टेरद्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये VI.3.92.the affix is mentioned as वप्रत्यय by Panini, but, in fact, it is व् , अ being added for ease in pronunciation; (4) taddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added along with the other affixes इन् , इक, and वत् to the word केश and to some other words such as मणि, हिरण्य, राजी, अर्णस् et cetera, and others as also to गाण्डी and अजग; confer, compare P. V. 2. 109, 110.
vatsubstitute for मत् of मतुप्. See मतुप्.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vas(1)pres participle affix वसु substituted for शतृ applied to the root विद्: exempli gratia, for example विद्वस्, confer, compare विदेः शतृर्वसुः P.VII. l.36; (2) perf part, affix क्वसु substituted for the general affix लिट् mostly in Vedic Literature, but in specific cases in spoken language; e. g.see सेदिवस्, शुश्रुवस् उपेयिवस् confer, compare P III.2. 107-9. See क्वसु.
vahiatmanepada personal-ending of the first person ( उत्तमपुरुष) dual, substituted for the general ल् affix; confer, compare तिप्तसझि... महि़्ङ् P.III.4.78.
vākyaa sentence giving an idea in a single unit of expression consisting of the verb with its karakas or instruments and adverbs; confer, compareअाख्यातं साब्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् | साव्ययम् | उच्चैः पठति | सकारकम् | ओदनं पचति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 10. Regarding the different theoretical ways of the interpretation of a sentence see the word शाब्दबोध. For details, see वाक्यपदीय II. 2 where the different definitions of वाक्य are given and the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट is established as the sense of a sentence.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vācakaexpressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
vidhācharacteristic feature of an activity; confer, compare संख्याया विधार्थे धा Í। विधा प्रकारः सर्वक्रियाविषय एव गृह्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.42.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
vilambitā vṛttiretarding or slow manner of speech in which the letters are uttered quite distinctly; this kind of speech is followed by the preceptor while teaching Veda to his pupils; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्ति प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्तिं विलम्बिताम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 19. confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 24. See विलम्बित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
viśrambharelaxation, a characteristic of the grave accent as contrasted with अायाम which characterizes the acute accent; confer, compare उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । आयामविश्रम्भाक्षेपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः । विश्रम्भः अधोगमनं गात्राणाम् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on R.Pr.III.1.विश्रम्भ is the same as अन्ववसर्ग which is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as अन्ववसर्गो गात्राणां शिथिलता. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.29,30.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vyaktadistinctly perceived i e. perceived with reference to the individual referred to, which enables the speaker to apply the specific affixes in the sense of gender and number; cf, प्रातिपदिकं चाप्युपदिष्टुं सामान्यभूतेर्थे वर्तते | सामान्ये वर्तमानस्य व्यक्तिरुपजायते | व्यक्तस्य सतो लिङ्गसंख्याभ्यामन्वितस्य बाह्यनार्थेन यॊगॊ भवति । M.Bh. on P.I.1.57.
vyakti(1)literallydistinct manifestation, as for instance that of the generic features in the individual object; confer, compareसामान्ये वर्तमानस्य व्याक्तिरुपजायत, M.Bh. on P.I.1,57; (2) gender, which in fact, is the symbol of the manifestation of the generic property in the individual object; confer, compareहरीतक्यादिषु व्यक्ति: P.I.2.52 Vart. 3, as also लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P. I.2.5I: (3) individual object; confer, compare व्यक्तिः पदार्थ:.
vyañjanasaṃdhia junction or coalescence of two consonants as distinguished from स्वरसंधि. In Panini's system of grammar the name हृल्संधि is given to व्यञ्जनसंधि and the Siddhantakaumudi has given a separate section for it.
vyatiriktadistinct from, separate from, confer, compare कर्मादिभ्येान्य: प्रातिपदिकार्थव्यतिरिक्तः स्वस्वामिसंबन्धादिःशेष: | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 3. 50.
vyapavarga(1)division of a single thing into its constituent elements; confer, compare स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यपवर्ग: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2.36, VII.3.44 Vart. 3; (2) distinct comprehension as possessed of a specific quality: cf न हि गौरित्युक्ते व्यपवर्गौ गम्यते शुक्ला नीला कपिला कपॊतेति। M.Bh, on P. I.2.64 Vart 37 ; (3) separation into parts, confer, compare कश्चिदेकेनैव प्रहारेण व्यपवर्गे करोति, M.Bh.on V.I.119 Vart 5; (4) distinct notion as a separate unit after the things have been combined confer, compare एकादेशे कृते व्यपवर्गाभावः संबुद्धिलोपो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.69 Vart 3; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.80.
vyapavṛktadistinctly separated as two or more consonants joined together in a conjunct consonant, as contrasted with the two vowels in a diphthong which cannot be called व्यपवृक्त; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्यावयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3.4 Vart. 9. confer, compare also वर्णैकदेशा: के वर्णग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते | ये व्यपवृक्ता अपि वर्णा भवन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3,4 Vart. ll .
vyastaseparated into its constituent elements; separated by a new insertion; a recital of the Vedic text by separating a coalesced vowel, which is looked upon as a fault of recital.
vyāghrapādname of an ancient grammarian who is quoted in the Pratisakhya works and the Mahabhasya His grammar work was called dasaka' possibly on account of its consisting of 10 chapters; confer, compare माध्यन्दिनिर्वष्टि गुणं त्विगन्ते नपुसंके व्याघ्रपदां वरिष्ठ: KaS. on P.VII.194; confer, compare also दशक्रा वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kas, , on P.IV.2.65.
vyāśrayaresting on, or applying to, different words or elements of words or parts of words; the word is used in connection with a grammatical operation which affects one part of the word, as distinguished from another operation which affects another part ;confer, compare आभीयं कार्यं समानाश्रयमासिद्धम्। व्याश्रयं सिद्धं भवति । M.Bh. on P.III.1. 44, VI. 4.22 Vart.12, VI.4.42 et cetera, and others
vhiṭne[ WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT, 1827-1894]a sound scholar of Vedic grammar who has, besides some books on Linguistic studies, written a work on Vedic Grammar and edited the Atharvaveda Pratisakhya.
ś(1)a sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and कण्ठविवृतत्व; (2) the initial indicatory ( इत् ) letter श् of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped; (3) substitute for च्छ् when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्न:, confer, compare P.VI.4.19;(4) substitute for स् when followed by श् or any palatal letter;exempli gratia, for example वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. VIII. 4.40.
śabādeśathe Vikarana affixes श्यन् , श> श्रम्, उ and श्रा according to those who hold the view that these affixes do not form the exceptions of शप्, but they are substituted for शप् . confer, compare शबादेशाः शयन्नादय: करिष्यन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.27, II.2.3, III.1.33 and III.1.67.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śarvyavāyaintervention by any one of the spirants श् , ष् and स्, which prevents the substitution of ण् for न् but allows the substitution of ष् for म्; confer, compare चुटुतुलशर्व्यवाये न M.Bh. on P. VIII.4.2 as also नुम्विसर्जनीयशर्व्यवायेपि P. VIII.3.58 Vart. 1.
śānac(1)krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, confer, compare P. III. 1. 83.
śānānkrt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root;exempli gratia, for example पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; confer, compare P. III. 2.128.
śāyacVikarana affix ( आय) substituted for the Vikarana श्ना in Vedic Literature; e. g, गृभाय जिह्वया मधु; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III I. 84.
śāstrahāniharm or injustice to a science; id est, that is non-application of a rule although it could apply,there being no prohibition for it; confer, compare शास्त्रहानिश्च । समुदायैकाचः शास्त्रं हीयते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.I Vart. 12.
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śicase-affix इ substituted for the case-affixes जस् and शस् of the nominative case. plural and the acc. plural in the neuter gender; confer, compare जश्शसोः शिः P. VII. 1.20. This affix शि is called सर्वनामस्थान just like the first five caseaffixes in the masculine and feminine. gender. This case affix is seen dropped in Vedic passages; confer, compare शेच्छन्दसि बहुलं ( लोप: ) P. VI. 1.70.
śitpossessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes (confer, compare P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55.
śiṣyahitā(वृत्ति)a work on grammar written by उग्रभूति of which a mention is made by Al Beruni in his work. शी (1) case affix (ई) substituted for the nominative case. plural affix जस् (अस् ) in the declension of the pronouns, when the affix जस् is preceded by the vowel अ; exempli gratia, for example सर्वे, विश्वे; confer, compare kas. on P VII.1.17; (2) case affix (ई ) substituted for औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual after feminine. bases ending in आ, as also after bases in the neuter gender; exempli gratia, for example खट्वे रमे; कुण्डे, वने; confer, compare Kas on P. VII.1.18, 19.
śecase-ending seen in Vedic Literature substituted for any one of the 2l case-endings as found in Vedic Language; words ending in this शे ( ए ) are not coalesced with a vowel that follows; e.g अस्मे इन्द्रबृहस्पती; confer, compare P.VII.1.39 and I.1.13.
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
ścutvathe substitution of the palatal consonants श्,च्,छ्,ज्, झ् and ञ् respectively for the similar consonants स्, त् , थ् , द् , ध् and न् of the dental class; confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: P.VIII.4.10.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
ślua term used in the sense of elision or lopa in the case of the affix शप् when it is elided after the roots headed by हु, i. e. roots of the third conjugation as also after any root wherever it is so seen in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. III. 4. 76. This श्लु is looked upon as a substitute zero, or nil for the general vikarana शप् in the case of these roots; confer, compare जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः P. II. 4. 75. The specific feature of this elision of the vikarana शप् by means of the term श्लु, is that it causes reduplication of the roots to which it is added; confer, compare लुकि प्रकृते श्लुविधानं द्विर्वचनार्थम् Kas, on. P. II. 4. 75 and P. III. 1. 10.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣatvachange of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it.
ṣaṣṭhīnirdiṣṭaa word put in the genitive case; a substitute given as connected with a genitive case which replaces the whole word which is put in the genitive case unless the substitute consists of a single letter or is characterized by the mute letter ङ्, confer, compare षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा । अलोन्त्यस्य | अनेकाल्शित्सर्वेस्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. I. 1.49 to 55.
ṣoḍaśakārikāan anonymous work consisting of only 16 stanzas discussing the denotation of words and that of the case-relations with a commentary by the author himselfeminine.
s(l)a sibilant letter of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; ( 2 ) substitute for visarjaniya if followed by a hard consonant excepting a sibilant confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 46, 47, 48-54,
sa(1)short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; confer, compare ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compareUnadiSutras 342-349; (3) taddhita affix. affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. exempli gratia, for example तृणसः; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (4) taddhita affix. affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also confer, compare P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.
saṃkrama(1)joining with a subsequent word after omitting a word or two occurring between; cf, गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम:; e. g. शूद्रे अर्ये for शूर्द्रे यदर्ये where यत् is passed over in the krama and other recitals; cf Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 77, 165, 194; (2) a term used in ancient grammars for such affixes and others which do not allow the substitution of guna or vrddhi for the preceding vowel; the term is also used for the letters क्, ग् and ङ् when they are mute, serving only the purpose of preventing guna or vrddhi; confer, compare मृजेरजादौ संक्रमे विभाषा वृद्धिमारभन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3. Vart. 10.
saṃkhyā(1)a numeral such as एक,द्वि et cetera, and others In Panini Astadhyayi, although the term is defined as applicable to the word बहु, गण and words ending with the taddhita affix. affixes वतु and डति, such as तावत् , कति and the like, still the term is applied to all numerals to which it is seen applied by the people: cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.23 also Pari. Sek. Pari. 9: (2) numerical order; confer, compare स्पर्शेष्वेव संख्या Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 49.
saṃdaṣṭaa fault of pronunciation when the constituent letters of a word are uttered with the teeth kept close together. Kaiyata has ex-plained the word as वर्धित.
saṃpṛktacompletely mixed in such a way that one of the two or more letters mixed together can neither be distinguished as different, nor can be separated; confer, compare तद्यथा । क्षीरोदके संपृक्ते आमिश्रीभूतत्वान्न ज्ञायते कियत् क्षीरं कियदुदकम् । एवमिहापि न ज्ञायते कियदुदात्तं कियदनुदात्तम् l M.Bh. on P.I. 2.32.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
saṃhitāpāṭhathe running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally composedition This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
sanvadbhāvabehaviour like that of the affix सन् in point of its specific features, viz. causing reduplication in the case of the previous root.by the rule सन्यङोः VI.1.9, as also the substitution of इ for अ in the reduplicated syllable ( अभ्यास ), by P. VII. 4.79. This सन्वद्भाव is prescribed in the case of a root ending in इ ( णिच् ) before the aorist sign ( विकरण ) चङ्. confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेनग्लोपे VII. 4.93.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samarthanīyathat which can be justified; justifiable; एकेन वा द्रव्यवत्त्वमिति समर्थनीयम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2. 118.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samāsāntaśābdādeśaa substitute for a word or its part at the end of a compound prescribed for certain specified words under specified conditions; e. gज्ञु for जानु , ऊधन् for ऊधस् , धन्वन् for धनुस्, जानि for जाया, गन्धि for गन्ध, पाद् and पद्, for पाद, दत् for दन्त, ककुद् for ककुद: cf P. V. 4.129-150.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sarvapadādeśaa substitute for the entire word and not for a part of it. This doctrine of सर्वपदादेशं everywhere is advocated by grammarians in consonance with their doctrine of शब्दनित्यत्व; confer, compare सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः | एकदेशविकारे हि नित्यत्वं नोपपद्यते ॥ M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 20, VII.;.27.
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvavarmanspelt as शर्वबर्मन् also, the reputed author of the Katantra Vyakarana. He is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadbya at the Satavahana court, and to have revised and redacted the Katantra Sutras already e