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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āranālaḥ2.9.38NeuterSingularabhiṣutam, avantisomam, dhānyāmlam, kuñjalam, sauvīram, kāñjikam, kulmāṣam
ārohaṇamNeuterSingularsopānam
arthyaḥ3.3.168MasculineSingularsundaraḥ, somadaivatam
avalgujaḥMasculineSingularvākucī, somarājī, pūtaphalī, suvalliḥ, somavallikā, kālameśī, kṛṣṇaphalā
brāhmīFeminineSingularsomavallarī, matsyākṣī, vayasthā
himāṃśuḥ1.3.13-14MasculineSingularśaśadharaḥ, induḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, niśāpatiḥ, somaḥ, kalānidhiḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, abjaḥ, glauḥ, dvijarājaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, candraḥ, vidhuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥthe moon
kadaraḥ2.2.50MasculineSingularsomavalkaḥ
laśunamNeuterSingularariṣṭaḥ, mahākandaḥ, rasonakaḥ, mahauṣadham, gṛñjanaḥ
revā1.10.32FeminineSingularnarmadā, somodbhavā, mekalakanyakānarmada(river)
sahodaraḥ2.6.34MasculineSingularsahajaḥ, sagarbhyaḥ, samānodaryaḥ, sodaryaḥ
saṃskṛtam3.3.87MasculineSingularmūrkhaḥ, socchrayaḥ
soḍhaḥ3.1.96MasculineSingularkṣāntam
sokapātram1.10.13NeuterSingularsecanama bucket
solluṇaṭhanamMasculineSingularsotprāsamtalkin jest
somapaḥ2.7.11MasculineSingularsomapītī
somavalkaḥ3.3.9MasculineSingularsvalpaḥ
sopaplavaḥ1.4.10MasculineSingularuparaktaḥeclipsed sun or moon
vallabhaḥ3.3.145MasculineSingularsomapā, puṇyam, yamaḥ, nyāyaḥ, svabhāvaḥ, ācāraḥ
vatsādanīFeminineSingularjīvantikā, somavallī, chinnaruhā, viśalyā, guḍūcī, madhuparṇī, tantrikā, amṛtā
vāyasoFeminineSingularsvādurasā, vayasthā
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Results for so1035 results for so
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
so (usually with prepositions;See ava--, vy-ava--, adhy-ava-so-etc.) cl.4 P. () syati- (perfect tense sasau- Aorist asāt-or asāsīt-etc.) , to destroy, kill, finish : Passive voice sīyate- (Aorist asāyi-), grammar : Causal sāyayati- or sāpayati- : Desiderative siṣāsati- : Intensive seṣīyate-, sāsāti-, sāseti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. (Nominal verb sos-) Name of pārvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
so equals s/ā- (f. of 6. sa-) + u- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhan. Name of the city of the gandharva-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhāñjana wrong reading for śobh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhari(or -) m. Name of the author of the hymns (having the patronymic kāṇva-,or āṅgirasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobharīyumfn. seeking for sobhari- (or the sobhari-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhayamfn. comprehending both View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhya mfn. being in or belonging to sobha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhyam. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhyamfn. being in or belonging to sobha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhyam. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
socchrayamfn. having height, high, lofty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
socchvāsamfn. breathing hard, panting ( socchvāsatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
socchvāsamfn. relaxed, loose (as a bandage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
socchvāsamind. with a sigh of relief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
socchvāsatvan. socchvāsa
sodadhilamfn. consisting of four (udadhi-= "the ocean"and"the number 4") short syllables (la-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodakamf(ā-)n. having or containing water etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodakamf(ā-)n. equals samānodaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodakumbham. a particular ceremony in honour of deceased ancestors (also Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodapūrvamind. after sprinkling with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodaramf(ī-)n. born from the same womb, co-uterine, of whole blood etc. closely allied or connected with, next of kin to (exempli gratia, 'for example' narmaika-sodaraṃ navaṃ vayaḥ-,"youth has only one brother, viz. amusement")
sodaram. (with or scilicet bhrātṛ-) an own brother etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarasneha varia lectio for sodarya-sn- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarīf. a co-uterine sister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarīyamfn. equals sodara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarkamfn. having elevations or turrets View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarkamfn. having the same burden or refrain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarkamfn. attended with results or consequences View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodarkan. a final refrain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodaryamfn. idem or 'mfn. equals sodara- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodaryasneham. sisterly affection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodaryavatmfn. having or together with a brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayamfn. having an increase of profit, accumulated, augmented by interest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayamfn. connected with the rise (of the heavenly bodies etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayamfn. having a succession, having something coming after, followed by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayanamfn. together with udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodbāṣpamind. with tears, tearfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soddhāramfn. together with a selected portion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soddharaṇamfn. together with sweetmeats which are taken home () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soddhāravibhāginmfn. receiving an inheritance together with a selected portion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhaovercome, conquered (see a-ṣāḍha-, aṣāṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhamfn. (fr.1. sah-; see sāḍha-) borne, suffered, endured, tolerated etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhamfn. patient, enduring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍham. Name of a minister of someśvara- (king of śākambarī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhan. See avi-soḍha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodham. plural Name of a people (varia lectio godha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhagovindam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhalam. Name of various authors (varia lectio soṭhala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhāmitram. Name of a man (see sauḍhāmitri-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhavatmfn. one who has borne or endured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhavyamfn. to be borne or endured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhavyamfn. to be put up with or excused (n. impers.)
soḍhāyaNom. A1. yate-, to bear, endure gaRa sukhādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhinmfn. one who has borne or endured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhṛmfn. bearing patiently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhṛmfn. capable of resisting, a match for (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soḍhṛmfn. able, powerful (equals śakta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodvegamf(ā-)n. agitated, disturbed, anxious, fearful ( sodvegam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodvegamf(ā-)n. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodvegamind. sodvega
sodyamamfn. prepared or equipped for combat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodyogamfn. making active exertion energetic, enterprising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodyogamfn. violent, dangerous (as a disease) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sohāicam. Name of a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sohalagrāmam. Name of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soham Nominal verb sg. m. I myself (See 6. sa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sohañjim. Name of a son of kunti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sohnokam. (see solloka-) Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sokhamfn. with a caldron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sokthamfn. with the uktha- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sokthakamfn. idem or 'mfn. with the uktha- (q.v) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sokthyamfn. with the ukthya- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solamfn. cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solamfn. astringent and sour and bitter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solam. coldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solam. astringent etc. taste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solaṅkam. Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solikamfn. cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solikam. coldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solkālātāvapothikamfn. with machines for hurling down fire-brands and lighted darts (on the enemy;these machines appear to have been a kind of catapult or ballista)
sollāsamfn. rejoicing, delighted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sollāsamind. glad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sollekhamind. distinctly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sollekharekhamf(ā-)n. distinctly marked, not ambiguous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sollokam. Name of a poet (see solūka-and sohnoka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhamfn. ironical, sarcastic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭham. irony, sarcasm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhabhāṣaṇan. () an ironical expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhabhāṣitan. () an ironical expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhanamfn. ironical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhanan. irony, sarcasm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhavacanan. () an ironical expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solluṇṭhoktif. () an ironical expression. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
solūkam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. (fr.3. su-) juice, extract, (especially) the juice of the soma- plant, (also) the soma- plant itself (said to be the climbing plant Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida, the stalks[ aṃśu-]of which were pressed between stones[ adri-]by the priests, then sprinkled with water, and purified in a strainer[ pavitra-]; whence the acid juice trinkled into jars[ kalaśa-]or larger vessels[ droṇa-]; after which it was mixed with clarified butter, flour etc., made to ferment, and then offered in libations to the gods [in this respect corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta] or was drunk by the Brahmans, by both of whom its exhilarating effect was supposed to be prized; it was collected by moonlight on certain mountains [in ,the mountain mūja-vat- is mentioned]; it is sometimes described as having been brought from the sky by a falcon[ śyena-]and guarded by the gandharva-s; it is personified as one of the most important of Vedic gods, to whose praise all the 114 hymns of the 9th book of the besides 6 in other books and the whole are dedicated; in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few of the latest hymns of the [although not in the whole of the 9th book] as well as sometimes in the and in the , soma- is identified with the moon [as the receptacle of the other beverage of the gods called amṛta-, or as the lord of plants see indu-, oṣadhi-pati-]and with the god of the moon, as well as with viṣṇu-, śiva-, yama-, and kubera-; he is called rājan-,and appears among the 8 vasu-s and the 8 loka-pāla-s[ ] , and is the reputed author of ,of a law-book etc.; see below) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. the moon or moon-god (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. a day destined for extracting the soma--juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. Monday (equals soma-vāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. air, wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. a drug of supposed magical properties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. a particular mountain or mountainous range (according to to some the mountains of the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. a particular class of pitṛ-s (prob. for soma--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. Name of various authors (also with paṇḍita-, bhaṭṭa-, śarman-etc.; see above ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. equals somacandra-, or somendu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somam. Name of a monkey-chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. of a queen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soman. rice-water, rice-gruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soman. heaven, sky, ether View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamfn. relating to soma- (prob. wrong reading for sauma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamfn. (prob.) together with umā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabandhum. "friend of the moon", the white esculent water-lily (as expanding at night) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somābhamfn. like the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somābhāf. equals candrāvalī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhāgavatācāryam. Name of various persons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣam. the drinking of soma- ( somabhakṣajapa -japa- m."a prayer muttered while the soma- is drunk") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣajapam. somabhakṣa
somabhakṣaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣavivekam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhakṣayoḥprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhaṭṭam. Name of various persons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhavam. Name of various persons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhāvāf. Name of the river narma-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somābhiṣavam. the distilling or extracting of soma--juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somābhiṣiktamfn. sprinkled or consecrated with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhojanam. Name of a son of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhṛtmfn. bringing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūmfn. " soma-born", belonging to the family of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūm. "son of soma-", Name of budha- (regent of the planet Mercury) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūm. a son of soma-candra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūm. (with jaina-s) Name of the 4th of the Black vāsudeva-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūbhujm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhujagāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabhūpālam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somabṛhaspatim. dual number soma- and bṛhaspati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somacakṣas(s/oma--) mfn. looking like soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somacamasam. a cup or ladle for taking up the soma-, cup of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somacandram. Name of a man (also rarṣi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somacandragaṇim. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somacyuta(s/oma--) mfn. moved by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādmfn. eating soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadāf. Name of a gandharvī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadāf. of a Brahman woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadaivajñam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadaivatyamfn. equals -devata- (with nakṣatra- n."the lunar mansion mṛga-śiras-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadakṣam. Name of a man (also varia lectio for -rakṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadarśanam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadattam. Name of various kings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadattam. of various Brahmans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadattam. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadattam. of a writer on dharma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadattāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadatti wrong reading for saumad- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevam. the god of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevam. the god soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevam. (also va-bhaṭṭa-) Name of the author of the kathā-sarit-sāgara- (who lived in Kashmir in the 11th century A.D.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevam. of various authors and other men etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevaikanātham. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevaśrīkaralālabhairavapurapatim. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevasūrim. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevata(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevatyamfn. idem or '(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as deity ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadevīf. Name of a wife of kāma-pāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadhānamfn. holding or containing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadhārāf. the milky way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadhārāf. the sky, heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādhāram. plural Name of particular pitṛ-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadheyam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādhi varia lectio for pi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādhvaryavan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somadīkṣāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādityam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somādityam. of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagaṇakam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagarbham. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaghṛtan. a particular healing ointment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagirim. Name of a mountain
somagirim. of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāgni soma- and agni- (see saumāgna-) in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāgnīdhraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāgniṣṭomam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāgniyajamānam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagopā(s/oma--) m. a keeper of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagraham. a cup or bowl of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagraham. an eclipse of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagrahaṇamf(ī-)n. holding or containing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagrahaṇan. an eclipse of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somagṛhapati(s/oma--) mfn. having the soma- for a gṛha-pati- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāham. "moon-day", Monday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahāramfn. abstracting or robbing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāhāram. a bringer of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāharaṇan. the bringing or fetching of the soma- (haraṇ/a-ja-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahārinmfn. idem or 'mfn. abstracting or robbing soma- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahautran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahautraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahotrāgniṣṭoma(?) m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahotṛsaptakan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāhutamfn. one to whom soma- is offered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somahūtim. Name of a ṛṣi- (wrong reading for somāhuti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāhutif. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāhutim. Name of the author of the hymns (having the patronymic bhārgava-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāhvāf. the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaindramfn. belonging to soma- and indra- (incorrect for saumendra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajamfn. moon-produced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajam. Name of the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajan. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajāmfn. soma--born View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajambhā(? ) m. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajambhan() (? ) m. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajāmi(s/oma--) mfn. related to soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somajuṣṭa(s/oma--) mfn. delighting in soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. Name of a ṛṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. of a king etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. of a particular bharaṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. of a people or country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. a king or native of somaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. plural the descendants of the king somaka- ( somakatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakam. the family of drupada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakalaśam. a jar for holding soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakalpam. Name of the 21st kalpa- or world-period View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakalpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakāma(s/oma--) mfn. desirous of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakāntamfn. moon-beloved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakāntamfn. lovely as the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakāntam. the moon-gem, moon-stone (equals candra-k-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakāntam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakanyāf. a daughter of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somākaram. Name of a Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakaraṇīf. a particular verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakārikāf. sg. or plural Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakarmann. the preparation of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakarmapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakarmapradīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakatvan. somaka
somakavim. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakeśvaram. a king of the somaka-s or somaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakhaḍḍakam. plural Name of particular śaiva- monks in Nepal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somākhyan. the red lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakīrtim. Name of a son of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakratavīyan. Name of a sāman- (varia lectio saumak-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakratum. an offering of soma- (See saumakratava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakrayaṇamf(ī-)n. serving as the price of the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakrayaṇan. the act of buying the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakrayaṇīf. a cow so serving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakṣayam. disappearance of the moon, new moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakṣīrāf. equals -vallī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakṣīrīf. the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somakulyāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somālamfn. (according to to some a Prakrit corruption for su-kumāra-; see komala-) soft, bland View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaladevīf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somālakam. a topaz View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. the soma- plant (See 1. s/oma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. Ruta Graveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. equals -vallī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. Name of the river godāvarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatikāf. Cocculus Cordifolius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somālikāf. a particular dish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaliptamfn. smeared with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaliptan. a soma--utensil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalokam. the world of the god of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamad(strong form -m/ād-) mfn. intoxicated with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamadam. intoxication occasioned by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamaitrāvaruṇaName of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamakham. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamānan. measuring the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamantrānukramaṇikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamayamf(ī-)n. made or consisting of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāmbupam. dual number "drinker of soma-"and"drinker of water", Name of two divine beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamiśram. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somamitram. Name of a man gaRa kāśyādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṃśakam. a part of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṃśum. a stalk or shoot of the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṃśum. a moon-beam View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṃśum. a part of the soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanm. one who presses or prepares soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanm. a soma- sacrificer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanm. the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanm. a requisite for a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somānanda() m. Name of men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somānandabhāṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somānandācāryam. Name of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somānandanātha() m. Name of men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somānandasūnum. Name of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanandinm. Name of one of śiva-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanandinm. of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanandīśvaran. Name of a liṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanātham. Name of various scholars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthan. Name of a celebrated liṅga- of śiva- and of the place where it was set up by the god soma- (in the town described below;it was one of the 12 great liṅga- temples of India held in especial veneration[ see ], and was so famed for its splendour and wealth that it attracted the celebrated Mahmud of Ghazni, A.D. 1024, who, under pretext of destroying its idols, carried off its treasures along with its renowned gates) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthabhāṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthabhaṭṭam. Name of various authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthadīkṣitam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthadīkṣitīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthamahāpātran. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthapaṇḍitam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthapaṭṭanan. (equals -pattana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthapattanan. Name of a town on the western coast of India (commonly called Somnath Pattan in Kathiawar, celebrated for the śiva- temple above described) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthapraśastif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanātharasam. a particular preparation of iron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanāthīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṇḍabilāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṇḍapillef. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanetra(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as a guide View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṅgan. a part of the soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṅgapānakārikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somanītif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapamf(ā-)n. drinking or entitled to drink soma--juice etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. a soma- sacrificer, any sacrificer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. Name of a being reckoned among the viśve- devāḥ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. of one of skanda-'s attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. plural Name of a family of ṛṣi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. of a class of pitṛ-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapam. of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāmfn. (see -p/a-above accusative plural m. -pas-; dative case sg. -pe-) drinking or entitled to drink soma--juice
somapāmfn. a soma- sacrificer or performer of any sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāmfn. a pitṛ- of a particular class (said to be especially the progenitors of the Brahmans) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāmfn. a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāpamfn. or m. (see saumāp/a-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapadam. plural Name of particular worlds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapadan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapadārthakathanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāpahṛtamfn. one whose soma- has been stolen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapālam. a guardian of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapālam. a preserver of soma-, (prob.) a provider or seller of the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapālam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapālam. plural Name of the gandharva-s (as keeping especial guard over the soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapālavilāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapānan. the drinking of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapānamfn. soma- drinking, a soma- drinker View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapañcakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapañcakaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapañcikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapaṇḍitam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaparibādhmfn. removing the soma-, a despiser of the soma- (rather to be read soma paribādho-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapariśrayaṇan. a cloth with which the soma- is pressed together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaparṇan. a soma--leaf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaparvann. (prob.) the time of a soma--festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaparyāṇahanan. equals -pariśrayaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapātamamfn. drinking much soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāthin(?) m. a drinker of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapatim. (s/oma--) "lord of soma-", Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapatim. a lord of the moon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapatnīf. the wife of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapātran. a vessel for holding soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapattran. Saccharum Cylindricum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāpauṣṇamfn. belonging to soma- and pūṣan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāvanm. a soma- drinker View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapāyinmfn. idem or 'mfn. soma- drinking, a soma- drinker ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapeyam. a sacrifice in which soma- is drunk, soma- libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapeyan. a draught of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāpim. Name of a son of sahadeva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapīḍāf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapītham. a draught of soma- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapīthamfn. drinking soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapīthinmfn. drinking soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapītif. (s/oma--) a draught of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapītif. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapītinmfn. drinking soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapitsarumfn. (said of a plough) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapīvinm. (?) a soma--drinker View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprabhamf(ā-)n. having the splendour of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprabham. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprabhāf. a N. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapraśnam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprathamamfn. having soma- as the first View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapratīka(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- at the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapratiprasthātṛprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapravākam. the proclaimer of a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprāyaścittan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogam. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogakārikāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogamantram. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogapaddhatif. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogaprāyaścittan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogaratnamālāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaprayogavṛttif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapṛṣṭha(s/oma--) mf(ā-)n. bearing soma- on the back (according to to ,"one to whom the pṛṣṭhya-stotra-s, accompanied with soma-, are dedicated") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapuran. the city of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapuran. an ancient Name of pāṭali-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapuran. or f(ī-). Name of a temple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapurogava(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as a guide View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somapuruṣam. a servant of soma-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāpūṣanm. dual number soma- and pūṣan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaputram. "son of soma- or of the Moon", the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaputramf(ā-)n. having soma- as son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaputrīf. a daughter of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarabhas(s/oma--) mfn. intoxicated with soma- (only Comparative degree -tara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarāgam. a particular rāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājam. "king soma-", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājadevam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājakam. plural Name of a family (varia lectio jaki-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājanmf(jñī-)n. (s/oma--) having soma- as king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājanm. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājasutam. "son of the Moon", the planet Mercury
somarājīf. a thin crescent of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājīf. Vernonia Anthelminthica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājīf. a particular metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājikāf. Vernonia Anthelminthica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājinm. idem or 'f. Vernonia Anthelminthica ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājyan. the dominion of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarājyam. (wrong reading for saumar-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarakṣamfn. preserving soma-, guardian of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarakṣam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarakṣimfn. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarasam. the juice of the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaraśmim. Name of a gandharva- (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarasodbhavan. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarāṣṭran. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarātam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaraudran. Name of a sacred text (see somā-r-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāraudramfn. belonging to soma- and rudra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāraudran. Name of the hymn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārcism. Name of a palace of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārdhahārinm. "bearing a half-moon (on his forehead)", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārdhāya(only p. p. yita-), to resemble the half-moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārhamfn. entitled to soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārkapratisaṃkāśamfn. resembling the sun and moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarogam. diabetes or a similar disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarṣi(ma-+ ṛṣi-) m. Name of a ṛṣi-, equals -candra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārthinmfn. desirous of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārudram. dual number soma- and rudra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārudran. a hymn addressed to soma- and rudra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somārudrasūktan. Name of a Vedic hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarūpan. a form of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarūpamfn. Soma-shaped ( somarūpatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somarūpatāf. somarūpa
somāryam. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasadm. plural Name of the pitṛ-s of the sādhya-s
somaśakalāf. a kind of cucumber (wrong reading for lomaśa-phalā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasakhi(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as a companion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasalilan. Somawater View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasāmann. Name of various sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśambha wrong reading for next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśambhum. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasaṃjñan. camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasaṃsthāf. the basis or initial form of a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāsandīf. a stool or stand for the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasaptahautraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasāram. Acacia Arabica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasāram. the white khadira- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasaraṇamf(ī-)n. leading to soma- (as a way) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśarmanm. Name of various men, pur. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśatadvayīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśatakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasatsarumfn. (said of a plough) (varia lectio p/itsaru-, sumat/itsaru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasavam. "pressure of soma-", a particular sacrificial act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasavanamfn. that from which soma- is pressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśekharākhyanibandham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasenam. Name of a son of śambara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasenam. of a king of Campaka-pura and soma-pura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasiddhāntam. a particular heretical tantra- system (followed by a sect of śaiva-s and personified in the 3rd Act of the prabodha-candrodaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasiddhāntam. Name of various astronomical works View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasiddhāntam. of a particular buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasiddhāntinm. a follower of the above system View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasindhum. "ocean of soma-", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśita(s/oma--) mfn. sharpened by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāśramam. Name of a place of pilgrimage
somaśrautan. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśravasm. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāśrayāyaṇan. Name of a place of pilgrimage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśreṣṭha(s/oma--) mfn. having soma- as the first View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśrīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāṣṭamīf. Name of a particular 8th day, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūkṣmanm. Name of a ṛṣi- (varia lectio -śuṣma- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūktan. a hymn in honour of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūktan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasundaram. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśūram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasuryaprakāśamfn. bright as the sun and moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśuṣma(s/oma--) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaśuṣmanm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutmfn. pressing soma- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutm. a soma--distiller, a priest who offers the soma--juice at a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutam. "a son of the Moon", Name of budha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutāf. "daughter of the Moon", the river narmada- (Nerbudda) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasuti(s/oma--) f. the pressing of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūtran. a channel or receptacle for receiving the water with which a liṅga- has been bathed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūtran. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūtrapañcavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasūtrapradakṣiṇāf. circumambulation around śiva-'s idol in such a way as that the somasūtra- shall not be crossed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutvanmfn. pressing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutvanm. one who offers soma- libations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutvatmfn. possessing offerers of soma--juice (said of a hermitage, a sacrifice etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasutyāf. idem or '(s/oma--) f. the pressing of soma- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasvāminm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatejas(s/oma--) mfn. having the splendour or power of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatilakasūrim. Name of a jaina- author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somātipavitamfn. excessively purged by the soma--juice (which, if drunk in excess, is supposed to pass through the nose, ears, and other apertures of the body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somātipūtamfn. idem or 'mfn. excessively purged by the soma--juice (which, if drunk in excess, is supposed to pass through the nose, ears, and other apertures of the body) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somātiriktan. plural the residue of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatīrthan. Name of a place of pilgrimage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatīrthamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somātmakamf(ikā-)n. having the nature of the moon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatvan. the condition or state of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somatvan. condition of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaudgātran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāham. plural his family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavahanan. a vehicle or stand for supporting or carrying the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavahniprakāśamfn. bright as the fire of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavalkam. Name of various plants (Acacia Arabica;a sort of the karañja- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavalkāf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallarif. the soma- plant (See 1. s/oma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallarif. a kind of vegetable (equals brahmī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallarīf. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallarīf. Ruta Graveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallīf. the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallīf. Cocculus Cordifolius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallīf. Coc. Tomentosus etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallikāf. idem or 'f. Ruta Graveolens ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallikāf. Vernonia Anthelminthica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavallīyogānandam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāminmfn. vomiting soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāminm. a priest who has drunk too much soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśam. the lunar race or dynasty (See candra-v-) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśamfn. equals -vaṃśīya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśam. Name of yudhi-ṣṭhira- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśinm. a prince of the lunar race View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśīya() ( ) mfn. belonging to the lunar race. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavaṃśya( ) mfn. belonging to the lunar race. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāram. "moon-day", Monday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavārāmāvāsyapūjāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavārāmāvāsyāvratakālanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavārāmāvāsyāvratapūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāravratan. a fast observed in the evening of a Monday in honour of śiva- and durgā- ( somavāravratakalpa ta-kalpa- m. somavāravratavidhi ta-vidhi- m. somavāravratācaraṇakrama caraṇa-krama- m. somavāravratodyāpana todyāpana- n.Name of works) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāravratācaraṇakramam. somavāravrata
somavāravratakalpam. somavāravrata
somavāravratavidhim. somavāravrata
somavāravratodyāpanan. somavāravrata
somavarcasmfn. (s/oma--) having the splendour of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavarcasm. Name of a being reckoned among the viśve- devāḥ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavarcasm. of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāvartam. Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāryamāvāsyāvratan. Name of chapter of a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāsaram. or n. Monday, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatmfn. containing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatmfn. attended etc. by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatmfn. presided over by the moon (with diś- f."the north") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatmfn. having the moon, lunar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatind. like the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāvatīf. containing soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatīkathāf. Name of a chapter of the mahā-bhārata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatītīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatīvratan. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatīvratakathāf. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavatyamāvāsyākathāf. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavāyavyam. plural Name of a family of ṛṣi-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaveśa(prob. for -veṣa-) m. Name of a muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaveṣṭanamfn. enveloping soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavidhamfn. being of the nature of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavihārakārikāf. sg. or plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavikrayinmfn. selling soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavikrayinm. a seller of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavīryamfn. having the power of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavīthīf. the orbit of the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavratan. a particular religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavratan. Name of various sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavṛddhamfn. invigorated by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavṛddhivardhanan. a particular fast regulated by the moon equals cāndrāyaṇa- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavṛkṣam. Name of various plants (Acacia Arabica, equals kaṭphala-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somavyāsam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayāgam. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayāgam. a great triennial sacrifice at which soma--juice is drunk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayāgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayāgakārikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayāgaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayājamānam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayājamānaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayājinmfn. offering soma-, one who offers soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayajñam. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayājyāf. the words spoken on taking out the soma- for libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somāyanan. a kind of penance (see cāndrāyaṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayaśasm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayogam. connection with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayoginmfn. being in conjunction with the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayonim. (only ) a god View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayonim. a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somayonin. yellowish white sandal (very fragrant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somejyāf. a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somendra(?) mfn. belonging to soma- and indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somendum. Name of a man (equals soma-candra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaram. Name of a divine being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaram. of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaram. of a cālukya- and of various authors and other persons etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaran. Name of a celebrated liṅga- of śiva- set up by soma- (= soma-nātha- q.v) and of a liṅga- at Benares View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvarabhaṭṭam. Name of a person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaradevam. Name of a person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
someśvaradīkṣitam. Name of a person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sof. gaRa gaurādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somikāf. Name of a bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somīkṛP. -karoti-, to make into soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilam. Name of a poet (also called saumila-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilam. of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somilakam. Name of a weaver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominmfn. having or possessing soma-, offering soma-, performer of a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominmfn. inspired by soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sominīf. (saṃjñāyām-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somīyain agnī-ṣom/īya- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somodbhavamfn. moon-produced, sprung from the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somodbhavam. "moon-producer", Name of kṛṣṇa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somodbhavāf. the river narma-- (or Nerbudda, supposed to be descended from the moon as the source of celestial nectar) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somodgītan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somopanahanan. a cloth for tying up the soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somoṣṇīṣan. a soma--band View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somotpattif. the origin of soma- (either the plant or the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somotpattif. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somotpattipariśiṣṭan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somyamfn. offering somya-, a somya--offerer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somyamfn. consisting of or containing or connected with or belonging to soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somyamfn. soma--loving, inspired by somya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somyamfn. incorrect for saumya- q.v (also somyatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somyatāf. somya
sonaham. garlic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sonim. or f. (fr.3. su-) = savana-1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sonmādamf(ā-)n. mad, insane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sonodevīf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopabarhaṇamf(ā-)n. with a cushion or pillow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopacāramf(ā-)n. with rules of conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopacāramf(ā-)n. acting with politeness or civility, deferential ( sopacāram am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopacāramf(ā-)n. embellished, ornamented, decorated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopacārakamind. politely, courteously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopacāramind. sopacāra
sopacayamfn. connected with gain or advantage, profitable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādānamfn. furnished with materials (as a carpenter who builds a house with wood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhamfn. full of fraud or deceit, fraudulent, guileful ( sopadham am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhamfn. with the penultimate or preceding letter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhamind. sopadha
sopadhānamfn. possessing a pillow, cushioned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhāna idem or 'mfn. possessing a pillow, cushioned ' (and"possessing excellent qualities") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhānamfn. furnished with a setting, set (as a jewel) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhimfn. fraudulent ( sopadhi i- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādhimfn. restricted by some condition or limitation or stipulation, qualified, by some condition (as liberality by the desire of receiving something in return) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādhimfn. having some peculiar attribute or distinguishing title View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādhiind. with limitations, conditionally. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadhiind. sopadhi
sopādhikamfn. equals prec. ( sopādhikatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādhikatvan. sopādhika
sopadhiśeṣamfn. one in whom a residue of guile is left (opp. to nir-upadh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopādhyāyagaṇamfn. with a multitude of teachers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadravamf(ā-)n. visited with great calamities or afflictions, dangerous, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadravamf(ā-)n. wealthy, opulent, rich, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopagrahamind. with conciliation, in a conciliatory or friendly manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopahāsamfn. accompanied with derisive laughter, sneering, jocular, sarcastic ( sopahāsam am- ind.), sah-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopahāsamind. sopahāsa
sopahāsotprāsam. a jocular expression View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopahavamfn. with an invitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopākam. (perhaps for śva-pāka-) a man of a degraded caste (the son of a caṇḍāla- by a pulkasī-, and only to be employed as public executioner etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopākam. a person who sells medicinal roots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakāramfn. furnished with necessary means or implements, well equipped or stocked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakāramfn. (a deposit in pawn) from which profit accrues, beneficial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakāramfn. assisted, befriended View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakārakamfn. assisted, befriended, benefitted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakaraṇamfn. together with the implements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakaraṇamfn. properly equipped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopākhyamfn. "one about whom anything can be affirmed", having qualifications (see nir-upākhya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopakramamfn. set about, undertaken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopālambhamfn. conveying a censure ( sopālambham am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopālambhamind. sopālambha
sopamamf(ā-)n. containing a simile or comparison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopamamf(ā-)n. dealing with (locative case) in the same way as with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopāṃśuyājamfn. with an oblation offered in secret or with a whisper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānan. (perhaps contracted fr. sa-+ upāyana-) stairs, steps, a staircase, ladder to (genitive case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānabhūtamfn. become or being a staircase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānahmfn. (Nominal verb nat-) furnished with shoes or sandals, having shoes, shod View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānakūpam. a well with steps View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānālīf. equals -paṅkti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānamālāf. winding stairs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānamārgam. equals -patha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānapaddhatif. idem or 'm. a way of steps, staircase ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānapañcakan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānapañcaratnan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānapaṅktif. a line or flight of steps, staircase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānaparamparāf. equals -paṅkti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānapatham. a way of steps, staircase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānaracanāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānatkamfn. idem or 'mfn. (Nominal verb nat-) furnished with shoes or sandals, having shoes, shod ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānatvan. the condition of a staircase (accusative with vraj-,"to become a staircase") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopaniṣatkamfn. along with the upaniṣad-s on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopanyāsamfn. well founded or substantiated (as speech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopapadamfn. together with a secondary word View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopapattikamfn. well founded or substantiated, correct, right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopaplavamfn. eclipsed (as the sun or moon)
sopaplavamfn. afflicted with any great calamity, overrun or attacked by enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparamfn. with the under part of the sacrificial post View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopārakapattanan. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparodhamfn. obstructed, impeded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparodhamfn. favoured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparodhamfn. respectful, considerate, obliging ( soparodham am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparodhamind. soparodha
sopāsanamfn. having the sacred domestic fire (See 2. upāsana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopasargamf(ā-)n. having or meeting with difficulties or obstacles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopasargamf(ā-)n. unbecoming, unpleasant (as speech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopasargamf(ā-)n. visited by portents or by great afflictions, portentous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopasargamf(ā-)n. possessed by an evil spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopasargamf(ā-)n. (in gram.) preceded by a preposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopāśrayamfn. having a support
sopāśrayan. a particular posture in sitting (with yogin-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopāśrayan. ( sopāśrayaniṣadana -niṣadana- n.) idem or 'n. a particular posture in sitting (with yogin-s) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopāśrayaniṣadanan. sopāśraya
sopasvedamfn. having perspiration or moisture, moistened, wetted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsamf(ā-)n. one who fasts or has fasted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsikamfn. idem or 'mf(ā-)n. one who fasts or has fasted ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopāyamfn. accompanied (as a song) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soram. a crooked movement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soraṇamfn. astringent and sweet and sour and salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soraṇam. astringent etc. taste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sorāṣṭrika wrong reading for saur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sorāvāsam. broth made of meat without salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sormimfn. having waves, heaving, surging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sormimfn. speeding along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sormikamfn. (printed sau-) idem or 'mfn. speeding along ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sorṇabhrūmfn. having a circle of hair between the eye-brows (conjectural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣamfn. mixed with salt earth (See /ūṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sośīramf(ā-)n. abounding in roots of Andropogon Muricatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmain compound for soṣman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmanmfn. having heat, hot, warm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmanmfn. (in gram.) having aspiration, aspirated (said of the sounds kh-, gh-; ch-, jh-; ṭh-, ḍh-; th-, dh-; ph-, bh-;of the sibilants, and h-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmanm. an aspirated sound, aspirate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmasnānagṛhan. a room containing hot baths, bath-room View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmatāf. heat, warmth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmatāf. the state or condition of being aspirated, aspiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣmavatmfn. aspirated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣṇīṣamfn. having a turban View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣṇīṣan. (scilicet vāstu-) a house with a verandah in front View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣṭrikamf(ā-)n. together with earthen vessels of particular shape (See uṣṭra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣyantīf. (fr.2. -) a parturient or lying-in woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣyantīhoman. an oblation on behalf of a parturient woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣyantīkarmann. any religious act or observance relating to a parturient woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṣyantīsavanan. a particular saṃskāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṭā on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soṭāyaNom. A1. yate- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkamf(ā-)n. full of desire or longing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkampamfn. trembling, tremulous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkaṇṭhamf(ā-)n. having an ardent desire, ardently longing for (prati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkaṇṭhamf(ā-)n. bewailing, regretting, grieving at (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkaṇṭhamind. longingly, regretfully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkarṣamfn. having eminence, excellent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotkṛṣṭahasitasvaramfn. accompanied by loud laughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotpalamfn. possessing lotuses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotpātan. anointing with oil (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotpīḍamfn. emitting a stream (as a mountain) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotpīḍamfn. covered with foam or froth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotprāsamfn. exaggerated, ironical, derisive, scornful ( sotprāsam am- ind.scornfully) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotprāsam. n. ironical exaggeration, sarcasm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotprāsahasitan. derisive or sarcastic laughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotprāsamind. sotprāsa
sotprekṣamind. with indifference, carelessly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotṛSee 2. sotṛ-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotṛ mfn. one who presses out or extracts soma- (locative case sot/ari-as infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotṛmfn. one who presses out or extracts soma- (locative case sot/ari-as infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotṛmfn. (fr.2. -) engendering, generating, bringing forth children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsāhamfn. making effort, vigorous, resolute, energetic, courageous (with ghanāḥ-,"threatening clouds") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsāhamfn. much delighted, overjoyed ( sotsāham am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsāhamind. energetically, carefully View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsāhamind. sotsāha
sotsāhatāf. activity, energy, courage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsaṅgamfn. deepened, depressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsavamfn. connected with a festival, festal (as a day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsavamfn. celebrating a festival, making merry, joyous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsedhamfn. high, lofty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsedhamind. with a jerk or push upward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsekamfn. haughty, arrogant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotsukamf(ā-)n. regretful, sorrowful, anxious about, yearning or longing for (locative case or accusative with prati-,or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sottaramfn. with or connected with a wager or bet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sottarapaṇamfn. idem or 'mfn. with or connected with a wager or bet ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotum. (fr.3. su-) extraction of soma-, libation (dative case s/otave-as infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotvamfn. to be pressed or extracted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotvam. a soma-, sacrificer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sotva1. and 2. s/otva-. See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sovākam. or n. (?) borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sovālamfn. blackish or smoke-coloured, smoky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sovālam. smokiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyudavaso -syati-, to set out or go towards (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācikhyāsopamāf. a kind of simile (in which it is left uncertain whether praise or censure is meant), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyavasocl.4 P. -syati-, to undertake, attempt, accomplish ; to determine, consider, ascertain.
amṛtasodaram. equals -sahodara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṃsoccayam. dual number the shoulder-blades, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anusomamind. according to the (practice with the) soma-, as with the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvyavasoto perceive. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvavaso -syati-, to adhere to cling to etc. ; to long for, desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apisomopīthamfn. partaking of soma- drink, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhasomam. half the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arisomam. a kind of soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arkasodaram. indra-'s elephant airāvata-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asoḍhamfn. not to be endured or mastered (see /a-ṣāḍha-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asoḍham. an elephant with thick and short tusks, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomam. not soma-juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomam. not a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomamfn. without soma- juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomapamfn. one who does not drink or is not admitted to drink the soma- juice etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomapīthamfn. idem or 'mfn. one who does not drink or is not admitted to drink the soma- juice etc. ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomapīthinmfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. one who does not drink or is not admitted to drink the soma- juice etc. ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asomayājin(/a-soma--) mfn. one who has not offered a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āttasomapīthīya(/ātta--), mfn. deprived of the soma- drink, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyagnisomārkamfn. brighter than fire or the moon or the sun. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantisomam. sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of, rice-water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaso -syati- (Imper. 2. dual number -syatam-; Aorist subjunctive -sāt-) to loosen, deliver from ; (Imper. 2. sg. -sya-; Aorist /avāsāt- etc. Aorist 3. plural /avāsur- ; ind.p. -s/āya- ; Vedic or Veda infinitive mood -sai- ) Vedic or Veda to unharness (horses), put up at any one's house, settle, rest etc. ; to take, one's abode or standing-place in or upon (locative case) ; to finish, terminate (one's work) etc. ; to be finished, be at an end, be exhausted ; to choose or appoint (as a place for dwelling or for a sacrifice) ; (Potential 2. sg. -seyās-; see ) to decide , to obtain : Causal -sāyayati- (ind.p. -s/āyya-) to cause to take up one's abode in or upon (locative case) ; (ind.p. -sāyya-) to complete ; (infinitive mood [in Passive voice sense] -sāyyayitum-) to ascertain, clearly distinguish Passive voice -sīyate- (see ) to be obtained ; to be insisted upon (edition Bombay edition in active sense "to insist upon") ; to be ascertained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avisodhan. d. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avisoḍhaSee /avi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayasobhinmfn. bright with good fortune ayānaya- See s. v. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayāsomīyan. Name of some verses of the (so called from their beginning with the words ay/ā s/oma-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasof. Name of a river in uttara-kuru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasof. of the Ganges View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagavaddhyānasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagavannāmāmṛtarasodayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsokam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭṭasomeśvara m. Name of various scholars and authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛṅgasodaram. Eclipta Prostrata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bisorṇāf. equals bisa-mṛṇāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmahaṃsopaniṣadf. Name of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmasomam. Name of a sage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhatsoma wrong reading for -sāma- commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
camasodbhedam. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
camasodbhedanan. Name of a place of pilgrimage (spot of bursting forth of the river sarasvatī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrasomam. Name of a hero of kālikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
desopasargam. distress of a country, calamity in a country
devasomam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasomakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhānāsomam. plural grains with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatamasorkam. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghatamasovratan. Name of sāman- (see -tapas-and dairghatamasa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divodāsopākhyānan. "the episode of dhanvantari-"in
durvāsasodarpabhangam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvāsasodviśatīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvāsasomahimanm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvāsasomatatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvāsasovākyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrvāsomam. a species of soma- plant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvāsopaniṣadf. Name of a section of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhasoman. the white esculent water-lily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govindamānasollāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
habasoraName of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsodakan. a kind of cordial liquor (described as a sort of infusion of cardamoms) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsopaniṣadf. Name of an upaniṣad- belonging to the atharva-- veda- (see haṃsanādop-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harisomam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastisof. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrāsomam. dual number indra- and soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrāsomīyamfn. consecrated to indra- and soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itihāsopaniṣadf. Name (also title or epithet) of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālindīsodaram. "brother of yamunā-", Name of yama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṃsodbhavāf. a fragrant earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharasollam. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. an iron vessel ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharasondam. idem or 'm. an iron vessel ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharasonim. an iron vessel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīrtisomam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lasopharañjam. or n. (?) Name of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lesoktamfn. briefly said, only hinted or insinuated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavasomayājinm. Name of a man (= mādhavācārya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāprabhāsotpattivarṇanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsomam. a species of soma- plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahasoṇa(?) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitrāvaruṇasomaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mallāsomayājinm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsodanam. equals māṃsaudana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsonnatif. swelling of the flesh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsopajīvinm. "living by flesh", a dealer in meat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasoka(?) m. Name of an author or work on vedānta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasollāsam. Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasollāsaprabandham. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasollāsavṛttāntam. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasollāsavṛttāntavilāsam. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasollāsavyākhyāf. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasopacārapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasotkam. eager to go to lake mānasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasottaran. Name of a mountain (see uttaramānasa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇisopānan. steps or stairs formed of jewel or crystal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇisopānan. a chain of golden beads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsa m. fasting for a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsakam. fasting for a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsinmfn. one who fasts for a month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopavāsinīf. a lascivious woman, procuress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matsodarī varia lectio for matsyādarī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktisopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāganāsof. a round-thighed woman (see karabhoru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmarasodayam. or n. Name of stotra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
narmaikasodaramfn. having pleasure or mirth as one's only brother, thinking only of sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nasotthan. snot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayasāhasonnatimatmfn. requiring a high degree of prudence and resolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥsomakamfn. moonless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niravasoCaus. -sāyayati-, to establish, settle, furnish with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityānandarasodadhim. "ocean of the essence etc.", God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛsomam. "man-moon", a great or illustrious man
nyāsoddyotam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padyāmṛtasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍusopāka m. Name of a particular mixed caste (the offspring of a caṇḍāla- by a vaidehī- mother) (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopaniṣaddhṛdayan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopāsanaprakāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantrahaṃsopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryavasoP. -syati-, to result or end in, amount to (locative case or accusative with prati-) ; to finish, complete, conclude, include ; to endeavour ; to perish, be lost, decline View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paścāsomapamfn. drinking the soma- later or afterwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paścāsomapītham. the act of drinking etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśusomam. plural the animal and soma- sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavamānasomayajñam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pītasomapūrvamfn. (a Brahman) who has drunk before the soma--juice (at a sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabodhamānasollāsam. Name of work
prāksomamfn. () () preceding the soma- sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśaṃsopamāf. (in rhetoric) laudatory comparison, comparing to anything superior
prathamasomam. the first oblation of soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathamasomatāf. commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisof. a kind of plant (equals mahiṣa-vallī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisomodakadvijamind. against the moon or water or a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyavasoP. -syati-, to come back, return to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāvaso(pra-ava-so-) P. -syati-, to settle among (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāsopasthānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāsopasthānahaviryajñaprāyaścittan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāsopasthānaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāsopasthānavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṃsokam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puraścaraṇarasollāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājamānasollāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rākṣasotpattif. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmārcanasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasaparyāsopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasodadhim. "ocean of rasa-s", Name of various works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasodbhavan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasodbhavan. cinnabar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasodbhavan. blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasollāsam. the springing up of desire for (compound) ( rasollāsin sin- mfn.feeling the awakening of desire ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasollāsāf. (scilicet siddhi-) "spontaneous evolution of the fluids (or juices of the body, without nutriment from without)", Name of one of the 8 siddhi-s or states of perfection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasollāsabhāṇam. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sollāsatantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasollāsinmfn. rasollāsa
rasonaSee rasona-, p.871. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasona m. idem or 'm. Allium Ascalonicum (see laśuna-).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasonakam. idem or ' m. idem or 'm. Allium Ascalonicum (see laśuna-).' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasopalam. or n. (?)"water. stone" , a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasoparasam. or n. (?) Name of a medical work (also rasoparasaśodhana -śodhana- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasoparasaśodhanan. rasoparasa
rasotpattif. production of taste or flavour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasotpattif. development of passion or sentiment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasotpattif. generation of the vital fluids View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasottamam. quicksilver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasottamam. Phaseolus Mungo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasottamam. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasomam. Name of a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasof. Name of the wife of a soma-deva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasodgatam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasoma(sah/a--) mfn. with soma- draughts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāhasopanyāsinmfn. suggesting violent deeds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraśirasodaramfn. having a thousand heads and abdomens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāsoktamfn. concisely expressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāsoktamfn. contained in a compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāsoktif. concise speech (a figure of speech by which the proceedings of any object spoken of are indicated by describing the similar action or attributes of another object) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavasoP. -syati-, to decide, be in agreement with another (upon the same place or time) ; to reach, attain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnyāsopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samṛtasomam. plural concurrent soma--sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsodhyamfn. to be completely cleansed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsodhyamfn. to be purged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsodhyamfn. to be paid or acquitted (as a debt) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsodhyamfn. to be corrected or rectified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsutasomam. equals saṃ-sava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntisomam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasomapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasomasaṃsthāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvarasottamam. "best of all flavours", the saline flavour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasomamfn. with soma- ( sasomatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasomapīthamfn. partaking of a draught of soma- equally with another (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasomatvan. sasoma
siddhasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhisopānan. "ladder of success", Name of a tantra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgārarasodayam. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasomam. Name of a son of bhīma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasof. Name of a wife of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugatisopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surāsomam. soma- in the form of surā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surāsomam. dual number surā- and soma- ( surāsomavikrayin -vikrayin- mfn.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surāsomavikrayinmfn. surāsoma
sūryātharvāṅgirasopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomamfn. (sut/a--) one who has extracted the soma-, offerer of a soma- libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomamfn. (a sacrifice) at which the soma- is prepared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomam. Name of a son of bhīma-sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomam. of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasof. Name of a wife of kṛṣṇa- (varia lectio śruta-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomajātakan. Name of a Buddhist legend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomāvadānan. equals ma-jātaka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutasomavatmfn. (sut/a-s-) (plural) joined with those who have prepared the soma--juice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suyavasodakamfn. abounding in good pasturage and water
śvāsocchvāsam. dual number inspiration and expiration, respiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapasomūrtim. (equals po-m-) Name of a ṛṣi- of the 12th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīvrasomam. a variety of the ukthya- libation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīvrasomam. equals -sava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇasomāṅgirasm. Name of one of yama-'s 7 sacrificial priests View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udavasoP. -/ava-syati-, to leave off, go away ; to finish, end ; to go away to (another place, with locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasomam. one who has approached the soma-, a soma- sacrificer, ([ ]) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasomamind. near the soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāvasoP. -syati-, to settle near at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soin compound for 1. vāsas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhṛtmfn. wearing clothes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sobhṛtmfn. (gender unknown) the hip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodamfn. giving clothes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somfn. idem or 'mfn. giving clothes ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soda vāso-bhṛt- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasordhārā See column 1 under 1. v/asu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasordhārāf. vasu
vasordhārāprayogam. vasu
vasoṣpatiSee column 1 under 1. v/asu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasoṣpatim. vasu
sovāyamfn. weaving cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soyugan. a pair of garments, suit of clothes (the dress of the Hindus usually consisting of two pieces of cloth, viz. a lower garment fastened round the waist, and an upper one thrown loosely over the shoulders) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsoddharaṇa(prob.) n. Name of a place gaRa takṣaśilādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsoddharaṇamfn. born in vatsoddharaṇa- gaRa takṣaśilādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyasof. a medicinal root (equals kākolī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyasolikā f. a medicinal root (equals kākolī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparyāsopamāf. an inverted comparison (in which the relation between the upamāna- and upameya- is inverted) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasomam. Name of the author of the hasti-vaidyaka- (others call him vīra-sena-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visoḍhamfn. () endured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visoḍha vi-soḍhum- See under vi-ṣah-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visomamf(ā-)n. being without soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visomamf(ā-)n. moonless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visomaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāsojjhitadhīmfn. "one whose mind has abandoned confidence", distrustful, suspicious
viśvāsopagamam. access of confidence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavasoP. -syati- (Epic also -syate-[with act. and pass. meaning];1. sg. proper -sāmi-; Potential -seyam-, -set-; future -siṣyati-), to settle down or dwell separately ; to differ (in opinion), contest, quarrel ; to separate, divide (opp. to sam-as-) ; to determine, resolve, decide, be willing to (accusative dative case, artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',or infinitive mood) etc. ; to settle, ascertain, be convinced or persuaded of take for (accusative) etc. ; to ponder, reflect, consider ; to make strenuous effort, labour or seek after, make an attempt upon (accusative) : Passive voice -sīyate-, to be settled or ascertained or fixed on or determined or decided (often impersonal or used impersonally) etc.: Causal -sāyayati-, to cause to resolve, encourage to undertake, embolden ; to incite or instigate to (infinitive mood)
yajñasomam. Name of various Brahmans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathābhūyasovādam. a general rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavasodakan. dual number grass and water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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so सो 4 P. (स्यति, ससौ, असात्-असासीत्, सास्यति, सातुम्, सित; caus. साययति-ते; desid. सिषासति; pass. सीयते; the स् of सो is changed to ष् after prepositions ending in इ or उ) 1 To kill, destroy. -2 To finish, complete, bring to an end; भ्रान्तिमसाद्दमस्वसुः N.9.14.
socchvāsa सोच्छ्वास a. Glad; Māl.3.4.
sodara सोदर सोदरीय a. [समानमुदरं यस्य समानस्य सः] Born from the same womb, uterine. -रः, -रीयः A uterine brother; मयोच्यमानं पुरुषर्षभ त्वमनन्यचित्तः सह सोदरीयैः. -रा A uterine sister.
sodaryaḥ सोदर्यः A co-uterine brother, brother of whole blood; (fig. also); भ्रातुः सोदर्यमात्मानमिन्द्रजिद्वधशोभिनः R. 15.26; अवज्ञासोदर्यं दारिद्र्यम् Dk. -a. See सोदर. -Comp. -स्नेहः sisterly affection; Ś.
sodaya सोदय a. 1 Having an increase of profit. -2 Augmented by interest. -3 Connected with the rise (of the heavenly bodies &c.).
soḍha सोढ p. p. [सह्-क्त इडभावः] 1 Borne, suffered, endured, put up with &c.; see सह्.
soḍhṛ सोढृ a. (-ढ्री f.) [सह्-तृच्] 1 Enduring, bearing, patient. -2 Powerful, able.
sodvega सोद्वेग a. 1 Anxious, apprehensive. -2 Sorrowful. -गम् ind. Anxiously, eagerly.
sodyoga सोद्योग a. 1 Making vigorous exertions, diligent, active, persevering, industrious. -2 Violent, strong.
solaḥ सोलः सोलिकः Coldness. सोल्लुण्ठः sōlluṇṭhḥ सोल्लुण्ठनम् sōlluṇṭhanam सोल्लुण्ठः सोल्लुण्ठनम् Irony, ridicule, sarcasm. -ण्ठम्, -नम् ind. Ironically; U.5.
sollekham सोल्लेखम् ind. Distinctly.
somaḥ सोमः [सू-मन् Uṇ.1.139] 1 N. of a plant, the most important ingredient in ancient sacrificial offerings. -2 The juice of the plant; as in सोमपा, सोमपीथिन्; Ms. 3.257. -3 Nectar, beverage of the gods; अलब्धभागाः सोमस्य केवलं क्लेशभागिनः Bhāg.8.1.23. -4 The moon. [In mythology, the moon is represented as having sprung from the eye of the sage Atri; (cf. R.2.75) or as produced from the sea at the time of churning. The twenty-seven asterisms--mythologically represented as so many daughters of Dakṣa q. v. -are said to be his wives. The phenomenon of the periodical waning of the moon is explained by a myth which states that his nectareous digits are drunk up by different gods in regular rotation, or by the invention of another legend which says that the moon, on account of his particular fondness and partiality for Rohiṇī, one of the 27 daughters of Dakṣa, was cursed by his father-in-law to be consumptive, but that at the intercession of his wives the sentence of eternal consumption was commuted to one of periodical consumption. Soma is also represented as having carried off Tārā, the wife of Bṛihaspati, by whom he had a son named Budha, who afterwards became the founder of the lunar race of kings; see Tārā (b) also.]; पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः Bg.15.13. -5 A ray of light. -6 Camphor. -7 Water. -8 Air, wind. -9 N. of Kubera. -1 Of Śiva. -11 Of Yama. -12 N. of Sugrīva. -13 (As the last member of comp.) Chief, principal, best; as in नृसोम q. v. -14 An ape. -15 One of the Manes. -16 the vessel (नाडी) 'Iḍā'; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः सहाग्निना । व्यवायं कुरुते नित्यं धीरो भूतानि धारयन् ॥ Mb.14.2.1 (com.). -17 Monday. -मा The soma plant. -मम् 1 Rice gruel. -2 Sky, heaven. -Comp. -अभिषवः the extraction of Soma juice. -अयनम् a kind of penance; cf. चान्द्रायण. -अहः Monday. -आख्यम् the red lotus. -आश्रयः N. of Śiva or Rudra; ˚अयनम् (सोमाश्रयायणम्) N. of a place of pilgrimages; ते त्वगच्छन्नहोरात्रा तीर्थं सोमाश्रयायणम् Mb.1.17.3. -ईश्वरः a celebrated representation of Śiva. -उद्भवा N. of the river Narmadā तथेत्युपस्पृश्य पयः पवित्रं सोमोद्भवायाः सरितो नृसोमः R.5.59 (where Malli. quotes Ak. 'रेवा तु नर्मदा सोमोद्भवा मेकलकन्यका'). -कान्त a. lovely as the moon. (-न्तः) the moon-stone. -क्षयः disappearance or waning of the moon, new moon; श्राद्धस्य ब्राह्मणः कालः प्राप्तं दधि घृतं तथा । सोमक्षयश्च मांसं च यदारण्यं युधिष्ठिर ॥ Mb.13.23.34. -गर्भः N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रहः a vessel for holding Soma. -ज a. moon-born. (-जः) an epithet of the planet Mercury. (-जम्) milk. -दैवतम् the lunar mansion मृगशिरस्; दोग्ध्रीं दत्वा सवत्सां तु नक्षत्रे सोमदैवते Mb.13.64.7. -धारा 1 the sky, heaven. -2 the milky way. -नाथः 1 N. of a celebrated Liṅga or the place where it was set up; (which by its splendour and enormous wealth attracted the attention of Mahomad of Ghazani who in 124 A.D. destroyed the image and carried of the treasure); तेषां मार्गे परिचयवशादर्जितं गुर्जराणां यः संतापं शिथिलमकरोत् सोमनाथं विलोक्य । Vikr.18.87. -प, -पा m. 1 one who drinks the Soma; त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते Bg.9.2; Mb.12.284.8. -2 a Soma-sacrificer. -3 a particular class of Pitṛis; सोमपा नाम विप्राणां (पितरः) Ms.3.197. -पतिः N. of Indra. -पानम् drinking Soma juice. -पायिन्, -पीथः, -पीथिन्, -पीतिन् m. a drinker of Soma juice; तत्र केचित्... ... सोमपीथिन उदुम्बरनामानो ब्रह्मवादिनः प्रतिवसन्ति स्म Māl.1; Bhāg.5.26.29. -पीतिः f. 1 drinking Soma. -2 a Some sacrifice. -पुत्रः, -भूः, -सुतः epithets of Budha or Mercury. -प्रवाकः a person commissioned to engage sacrificial priests (श्रोत्रिय) for a Soma sacrifice. -बन्धुः 1 the sun. -2 the white water-lilly. -यज्ञः, -यागः the Soma sacrifice. -याजिन् m. one who performs a Soma sacrifice. -योगिन् a. being in conjunction with the moon. -योनिः a sort of yellow and fragrant sandal. -राजी a thin crescent of the moon. -रोगः a particular disease of women. -लता, -वल्लरी 1 the Soma plant. -2 N. of the river Godāvarī. -वंशः the lunar race of kings founded by Budha. -वल्कः 1 a kind of white Khadira. -2 N. of the plants, करञ्ज and कट्फल. -वल्लरिः(री), -वल्लिका, -वल्ली f. the moon-plant. -वारः, -वासरः Monday. -विक्रयिन् m. a vendor of Soma juice. -वीथी the orbit of the moon. -वृक्षः, -सारः the white Khadira. -शकला a kind of cucumber. -संस्था a form of the Soma-sacrifice; (these are seven:- अग्निष्टोम, अत्यग्निष्टोम, उक्थ, षोढशी, अतिरात्र, आप्तोर्याम and वाजपेय). -संज्ञम् camphor. -सद् m. a particular class of Manes or Pitṛis; विराट्सुताः सोमसदः साध्यानां पितरः स्मृताः Ms.3.195. -सिद्धान्तः the doctrine of Kāpālikas; या सोमसिद्धान्तमयाननेव N.1.87. -सिन्धुः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -सुत् m a Soma distiller. -सुत्वत् a. pressing Soma-plant for juice; अध्वरेष्वग्निचित्वत्सु सोमसुत्वत आश्रमान् Bk.5.11. -सुता the river Narmadā; cf. सोमोद्भवा above. -सूत्रम् a channel for conveying water from a Śiva-liṅga. ˚प्रदक्षिणा circumambulation around a Siva-liṅga so as not to cross the Soma-sūtra.
somala सोमल a. Soft, bland, placid (M. W. gives सोमाल in this sense).
somālakaḥ सोमालकः Topaz.
soman सोमन् m. 1 The moon. -2 Ved. A Soma sacrificer.
somin सोमिन् a. (-नी f.) Performing the Soma sacrifice. -m. A performer of a Soma sacrifice.
somya सोम्य a. 1 Worthy of Soma. -2 Offering Soma. -3 Resembling or shaped like Soma. -4 Soft, good, amiable.
sonahaḥ सोनहः Garlic.
sonmāda सोन्माद a. Mad, insane, frantic.
sopacāra सोपचार a. Acting politely, civil, courteous.
sopacaya सोपचय a. Profitable.
sopādāna सोपादान a. Furnished with materials.
sopadha सोपध a. 1 Full of fraud or deceit, deceitful. -2 What is given away with an end in view; Dānasāgara, Bibl. Ind.274, Fas.1 p.45. -3 With penultimate letter.
sopadhāna सोपधान a. 1 Cushioned. -2 Possessing (excellent) qualities; सोपधानं धियं धीराः स्थेयसीं खट्वयन्ति ये Śi.2.77. -3 Furnished, set.
sopadhi सोपधि a. Fraudulent. -ind. Deceitfully, fraudulently; अरिषु हि विजयार्थिनः क्षितीशा विदधति सोपधि संधि- दूषणानि Ki.1.45. सोपन्यास sōpanyāsa सोपपत्तिक sōpapattika सोपन्यास सोपपत्तिक a. Well-founded or substantiated.
sopādhi सोपाधि a., -सोपाधिक a. (-की f.) 1 Restricted by some conditions or limitations, qualified by particular characteristics, limited, qualified (in phil.). -2 Having some peculiar attribute. -3 Special.
sopadrava सोपद्रव a. Visited with calamities or afflictions.
sopagraham सोपग्रहम् ind. In a conciliatory or friendly manner.
sopahāsa सोपहास a. Accompanied with derisive laughtersneering, sarcastic. -सम् ind. Sneeringly, with a sneer.
sopākaḥ सोपाकः A man of a degraded caste; चण्डालेन तु सोपाको मूलव्यसनवृत्तिमान् । पुक्कस्यां जायते पापः सदा सज्जनगर्हितः ॥ Ms.1.38.
sopakāra सोपकार a. 1 = सोपकरण. -2 Assisted, befriended. -3 Beneficial (as a deposit in pawn); न त्वेवाधौ सोपकारे कौसीदीं वृद्धिमाप्नुयात् Ms.8.143.
sopakaraṇa सोपकरण a. Provided with all requisite materials or implements, properly equipped; सहोढं सोपकरणं घात- येदविचारयन् Ms.9.27.
sopakrama सोपक्रम a. Undertaken.
sopānam सोपानम् Steps, stairs, a staricase, ladder; आरोहणार्थं नवयौवनेन कामस्य सोपानमिव प्रयुक्तम् Ku.1.39. -Comp. -पङ्क्तिः f., -पथः, -पद्धतिः f., -परंपरा, -मार्गः a flight of steps, a stair-case; वापी चास्मिन् मरकतशिलाबद्धसोपानमार्गा Me.78; समारुरुक्षुर्दिवमायुषः क्षये ततान सोपानपरंपरामिव R.3.69; 6.3;16.56. -माला winding stairs. सोपानत्क sōpānatka सोपानह् sōpānah सोपानत्क सोपानह् a. Having a shoe on; सोपानत्के पादे द्वितीयामुपानहमशक्यत्वान्नोपादत्ते ŚB on MS.1.2.33.
sopaplava सोपप्लव a. 1 Afflicted with any great calamity. -2 Invaded or overrun by enemies. -3 Eclipsed (as the sun or moon); ब्रह्मघोषैर्विरहितः पर्वतो$यं न शोभते । रजसा तमसा चैव सोमः सोपप्लवो यथा ॥ Mb.12.328.13.
soparodha सोपरोध a. 1 Obstructed, impeded. -2 Favoured. -धम् ind. Obligingly, respectfully.
sopasarga सोपसर्ग a. 1 Afflicted or visited by any great calamity or misfortune. -2 Portentous. -3 Possessed by an evil spirit. -4 Preceded by a prepositional prefix (in gram.).
sopasnehatā सोपस्नेहता Moisture; (see उपस्नेहः); Chārudatta 3.
soraḥ सोरः A crooked movement.
soraṇa सोरण a. Astringent; sour (taste); also सोल.
sorṇabhrū सोर्णभ्रू a. Having a circle of hair between the eyebrows; सोर्णभ्रुवं वारणबस्तिकोशं सविस्मयं राजसुतं ददर्श Bu. Ch.1.66.
soṣman सोष्मन् a. 1 Warm, hot. -2 (In gram.) Aspirated. -m. An aspirate.
soṣṇīṣam सोष्णीषम् A house with a verandah in front.
sotka सोत्क सोत्कण्ठ a. 1 Ardently longing, impatiently eager, anxious; as in सोत्कण्ठमालिङ्गनम्. -2 Regretful. -3 Bewailing, sorrowing. -ण्ठम् ind. 1 With ardent or eager longing, anxiously; प्रोड्डीयेव बलाकया सरभसं सोत्कण्ठ मालिङ्गितः Mk.5.23. -2 Regretfully, sorrowfully.
sotprāsa सोत्प्रास a. 1 Excessive. -2 Exaggerated. -3 Ironical, sarcastic. -सः Violent laughter. -सः, -सम् Ironical exaggeration, sarcasm, irony; -सम् ind. Mockingly; cf. व्याजस्तुति. -Comp. -हासिन् one who laughs mockingly; तमालोक्य प्रियाकेलिं नले सोत्प्रासहासिनि N.2.1.
sotprekṣam सोत्प्रेक्षम् ind. Carelessly, with indifference.
sotsāha सोत्साह a. Vigorous, active, energetic, perservering. -हम् ind. Actively, energetically, carefully.
sotsaṅga सोत्सङ्ग a. Depressed.
sotsava सोत्सव a. Festive, making merry, joyous.
sotsedha सोत्सेध a. Raised, elevated, high, lofty; सोत्सेधैः स्कन्धदेशैः Mu.4.7.
sotseka सोत्सेक a. Haughty, arrogant.
sotsuka सोत्सुक a. 1 Regretful, repining, anxious, sorrowful. -2 Yearning, longing for.
sottara सोत्तर a. With a wager or bet.
sovāla सोवाल a. Blackish, smoky.
adhyavaso अध्यवसो 4 P. 1 To determine, resolve; कथमिदानीं दुर्जनवचनादेवं अध्यवसितं देवेन U. 1; अदुर्लभं मरणमध्यवसितम् K. 171; किमध्यवस्यन्ति गुरवः Ve.1; अभिधातुमध्यवससौ न गिरा Śi.9.76; resolve or mean to do. -2 To attempt, exert, undertake; मा साहसं अध्यवस्यः Dk.123; व्रतं दुष्करमध्यवसितम् H.1. -3 To grapple with. -4 To conceive, apprehend, think; अकार्यं कार्यवदध्यवस्य Dk.86.
ayāsomīyam अयासोमीयम् N. of some verses of the Sāmaveda.
paryavaso पर्यवसो 4 P. 1 To complete, finish. -2 To determine, resolve. -3 To result in, be reduced to, end in; एष एव समुच्चयः सद्योगे$सद्योगे सदसद्योगे च पर्यवस्यतीति न पृथग् लक्ष्यते K. P.1. -4 To perish, be lost, decline.
vyavaso व्यवसो 4 P. 1 To strive, endeavour, try, seek, attempt, set about; यथा मे गौतमः प्राह ततो न व्यवसाम्यहम् Mb.3.185.9; ध्रुवं स नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया शमीलतां छेत्तुमृषि- व्यवस्यति Ś.1.18; V.4. -2 To think of, wish, desire; पातुं न प्रथमं व्यवस्यति जलं युष्मास्वपीतेषु या Ś.4.9. -3 To exert strenuously, be industrious or diligent. -4 To resolve, determine, settle, decide; य आत्मनो दृश्यगुणेषु सन्निति व्यवस्यते स्वव्यतिरेकतो$वुधः Bhāg.1.3.18; प्रथमपरि- गृहीतं स्यान्न वेत्यव्यवस्यन् Ś.5.19. -5 To accept, undertake; कच्चित् सौम्य व्यवसितमिदं बन्धुकृत्यं त्वया मे Me.116. -6 To be convinced or persuaded. -7 To reflect.
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soma só-ma, m. juice of the Soma plant, i. 85, 10; ii. 12, 14; iv. 50, 10; vii. 49, 4; viii. 48, 3. 42. 7-15; x. 14, 13; 34, 1; Soma sacrifice, vii. 103, 7 [su press: Av. haoma].
somapā soma-pá̄, m. Soma drinker, ii. 12, 13.
somapītha soma-pīthá, m. Soma draught, x. 15, 8 [pīthá from pā drink].
somin som-ín, a. soma-pressing, vii. 103, 8.
somya som-yá, a. Soma-loving, x. 14, 6; 15, 1. 5. 8.
sutasoma sutá-soma, (Bv.) m. Soma-presser, ii. 12, 6.
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so v.  2. SÂ.
socchvāsa a. panting: -m, ad. with a sigh of relief.
sodaka a. containing or filled with water; -½udaya, a. together with interest; -½udayana, a. together with Udayana; -½udara, a. (î) born from the same womb, uterine; ± bhrâtri, m.uterine brother; fig. =closely allied with, next of kin to (e. g. narma½eka-sodaram hi navam vayah, youth has but one brother,=goes hand in hand with, fun): î, f. uterine sister; -½udar-ya, a., m. id.: -sneha, m. sisterly affection; -½uddhâra, a. together with a selected por tion: -vibhâgin, a. receiving one's share together with a selected portion; -½udbâsh pam, a. tearfully; -½udyama, a. prepared for the fray; -½udyoga, a. assiduous, strenu ous, enterprising; aiming at (the destruction of life,=dangerous, --°ree;); -½udvega, a. agi tated, apprehensive: -m, ad. excitedly, anxiously; -½unmâda, a. frantic, mad.
soḍha pp. (√ sah) borne etc.
soḍhavya fp. [√ sah] to be endured; to be put up with or excused; -dhum, inf. of √ sah; -dhri, a. capable of resisting (g.); enduring patiently.
soma m. [√ 1. su] extracted juice, Soma; Soma plant (with the ep. in V. of râgan, king of plants); C.: Soma sacrifice (rare); V., C.: (drop in the sky, cp. indu), moon, moon god (also with the ep.râgan in C.); C.: ac counted son of Atri, one of the eight Vasus, identified with Vishnu and Siva, reputed author of a law-book; Monday; N.
somaka m. N. of a king (V., C.); C.: N. of a country; king or native of Somaka: ikâ, f. N. of a bird; -ka½îsvara, m. king of Somaka; -kráyana, a. (î) serving as the price of the Soma plant: î, f. cow --;-grahá, m. bowl of Soma (V.); eclipse of the moon (C.); -tîrtha, n. N. of a place of pilgrim age; -tva, n. condition of Soma; -datta, m. N. of various kings and Brâhmans; -dâ, f. N. of a Brâhman woman; -deva, m. god Soma; god of the moon; N. of various men: -bhatta, m. N. of the author of the Kathâ- saritsâgara; -devatya, a. having Soma as its deity; -devî, f. N. of a wife of Kâmapâla; -nâtha, m. N. of various scholars; n. N. of a celebrated Li&ndot;ga and its temple in Gujerat (destroyed in 1024 a. d.); -pá, a. drinking or entitled to drink Soma juice (V., C.); m. pl. N. of a class of Manes; -p&asharp;, a. id.; -pâna, n. drinking of Soma; (-p&asharp;na), a. Soma drinking, m. Soma drinker (V.); -pây in, a., m. id.; -pâla, m. guardian of Soma (Br.); N. of various men; -p&asharp;van, m. Soma drinker (RV.); -pîdâ, f. N. of a princess; (sóma)-pîti, f. (V.)draught of Soma (always d.); -pîthá, m. id. (V.); -pîthín, a. partici pating in the Soma draught; -putra, m. son of Soma; son of the moon, planet Mercury; -purusha, m. servant of Soma; (sóma) prishtha, a. bearing Soma on its back (V.); -péya, n. draught of Soma (RV.); -prabha, a. having the splendour of the moon; m. N.: â, f. N.; -pravâka, m. herald of the Soma sacrifice (V.); -mád, a. (strg. st. -m&asharp;d) in toxicated with Soma (RV.1); -rasmi, m. N. of a Gandharva; (sóma)-râgan, a. (ñî) having Soma as a king; -râta, m. N.; -la devî, f. N. of a princess; -vamsa, m. lunar race of kings; -vams-ya, a. belonging to the lunar race; (sóma)-vat, a.containing Soma, attended etc. by Soma (V.); -vallî, f. Soma plant; -vâra, m. Monday; -vâsara, m. or n. id.; -vikrayín, a. selling Soma; m. seller of Soma; -vriddha, pp. invigorated by Soma (RV.); -sarman, m. N. of various men; (sóma)-sita, pp. sharpened by Soma; -sush man, m. N. (Br.); -sûra, m. N.; -samsthâ, f. fundamental form of the Soma sacrifice; -sad, m. pl. N. of the Manes of the Sâdhyas; -salila, n. Soma water; -sú-t, a.pressing Soma; -suta, m. son or descendant of the Moon; (sóma)-suti, f. pressing of Soma; -sútvan, a. pressing Soma; m. Soma-pres ser; -svâmin, m. N.; -½ânanda, m. N.; â raudrá, a. belonging to Soma and Rudra; n. (sc. sûkta) the hymn RV. VI, 74 (C.).
someśvara m. N. of a god; N.; N. of a Kâlukya.
somikā f. N. of a bird; -ín, a. (RV.) offering Soma; inspired by Soma; -ila, m. N. of an Asura: -ka, m. N. of a weaver.
somīkṛta pp. made into Soma.
somodbhavā f. ep. of the river Narmadâ (sprung from the moon).
somya a. (V.) concerned with, be longing to, consisting of, inspired by, Soma, Soma-loving; m. (V.) Soma sacrificer.
sopādhi ad. conditionally: -ka, a. qualified, limited.
sopāka m. a degraded caste (off- spring of a Kândâla and of a Pulkasî).
sopakāraka a. benefited; -graham, ad. flatteringly; -kaya, a. advan tageous, profitable; -kâra, a. courteous (speech): -m, ad. with attentions or cour tesy; -drava, a. attended with afflictions, calamities, or dangers; -dha, a. deceitful, fraudulent; together with the preceding letter (gr.); -dhi, ad. deceitfully; -pada, a. together with a secondary word (gr.); -ma, a. containing a simile; treating (lc.) in the same way as (in.); -rodham, ad. consider ately, obligingly; -sarga, a. provided with a preposition; -sveda, a. moistened, wetted; -hâsa, a. derisive, sneering: -m, ad. -ly.
sopāna n. steps, staircase, ladder, to (g., --°ree;): -ka, n. id.: -paramparâ, f. flight of steps, stair; -kûpa, m. well with steps; -tva, n. function of a staircase: -m vrag, become a staircase; -pa&ndot;kti,f., -patha, m., -paddhati, f., -paramparâ, f., -mârga, m. flight of steps, staircase.
sopānatka a. shod; -½upânah, a. (nm. t) id.; -½upâlambha, a. conveying a censure: -m, ad. with a censure.
sormi a. having waves, billowy, surging; speeding along (horses); -½ullâsa, a. delighted, rejoicing: -m, ad. joyfully; -½ulluntha, a. ironical, sarcastic: -m, ad. ironically; -½ûsha, a. mixed with salt earth; -½ûshma-tâ, f. heat; aspiration (gr.); -½ûsh man, a. warm, hot; aspirated; m. aspirate; -½ûshma-snâna-griha, n. room with hot baths, bath-room.
sotka a. full of longing, °ree;--, ad.; -½ukantha, a. eager or yearning for (prati); regretting, grieving at (--°ree;): -m, ad. long ingly; regretfully; -½utkampa, a. trembling, tremulous; -½utkarsha, a.excellent; -½ut prâsa, a. ironical, mocking: -m, ad. -ly; -½utpreksham, ad. with indifference; -½ut sava, a. festal (day); festive, overjoyed; -½utsâha, a. resolute, energetic, courageous; threatening (clouds); overjoyed: -m, ad. energetically, emphatically; with great joy: -tâ, f. alacrity, vigour; -½utsuka, a. longing, yearning, anxious, for (lc., prati, --°ree;); -½utse ka, a. arrogant, haughty; -½utsedha, a. high, lofty: -m, ad. with a jerk.
sotu m. Soma-pressing, libation; (só) tri (or -trí), m. [√ 1. su] Soma-presser (RV.).
asoma a. lacking Soma juice.
asoḍha pp. (√ sah) unconquerable.
mānasotka a. longing for lake Mânasa; -½okas, a. dwelling at lake Mânasa; m. swan.
sopavāsa m. fasting for a month; -½upavâsinî, f. (woman who fasts for a month, ironically=) procuress.
soda a. giving a garment; -d&asharp;, a. id. (RV.1); -bhrit, a. wearing a -garment (--°ree;); -yuga, n. pair of garments; -vâyá, a. weaving a garment (RV.1).
visoma a. lacking Soma (Br.); moonless (night; C.).
samāsokta pp. concisely ex pressed; contained in a compound; -½ukti, f. concise mode of expression (a figure of speech in which the procedure of something else is attributed to the object in question owing to parallelism in action, gender, or attributes, e. g. &open;how can a wise man think of women till he has accomplished his ambi tion? the sun does not court the evening-glow till he has traversed the whole world&close;).
sutasoma a. having the Soma prepared, offering a libation (RV.).
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sobhari Is the name of a Ṛṣi frequently mentioned in the Rigveda. The family is also referred to, and a father, Sobhari.
soma Was the famous plant which was used for the prepara­tion of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇdalas, are devoted to its praise. Nevertheless, little is actually known of the plant. Its twigs or shoots are described as brown (babhru), ruddy (aruna), or tawny (hari).s Possibly its twigs hang down if the epithet Naicāśākha refers to the plant as Hillebrandt thinks. The shoot is called amśu, while the plant as a whole is called andhas, which also denotes the juice. Parvan is the stem. Kξip, ‘finger,’ is used as a designation of the shoots, which may therefore have resembled fingers in shape; vaksanā and vāna also seem to have the sense of the shoot. There is some slight evidence to suggest that the stem was not round, but angular. The plant grew on the mountains, that of Mūjavant being specially renowned. These notices are inadequate to identify the plant. It has been held to be the Sarcostemma viminalc or the Asclepias acida (Sarcostemma brevistigma). Roth held that the Sarcostemma acidiim more nearly met the requirements of the case. Watt suggested the Afghan grape as the real Soma, and Rice thought a sugar-cane might be meant, while Max Mūller and Rājendralāla Mitra suggested that the juice was used as an ingredient in a kind of beer—i.e., that the Soma plant was a species of hop. Hillebrandt considers that neither hops nor the grape can explain the references to Soma. It is very probable that the plant cannot now be identified. In the Yajurveda the plant is purchased ere it is pressed. Hillebrandt considers that the sale must be assumed for the Rigveda. It grew on a mountain, and could not be obtained by ordinary people: perhaps some special tribe or prince owned it, like the Kīkatas. As it stands, the ritual performance is clearly an acquisition of the Soma from the Gandharvas (represented by a śūdra), a ritual imitation of the action which may have been one of the sources of the drama. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the real plant from a great distance, several substitutes were allowed in the Brāhmaṇa period. The plant was prepared for use by being pounded with stones or in a mortar. The former was the normal method of pro¬cedure, appearing in the Rigveda as the usual one. The stones are called grāvan or αdn, and were, of course, held in the hands. The plant was laid on boards one beside the other (Adhiṣavana), and, according at least to the later ritual, a hole was dug below, so that the pounding of the plant by means of the stones resulted in a loud noise, doubtless a prophylactic against demoniac influences. The plant was placed on a skin and on the Vedi—-which was no longer done in the later ritual—Dhiṣaṇā in some passages denoting the Vedi. Sometimes the mortar and pestle were used in place of the stones. This use, though Iranian, was apparently not common in Vedic times. Camū denotes the vessel used for the offering to the god, Kalaśa and Camasa those used for the priests to drink from. Sometimes the Camū denotes the mortar and pestle. Perhaps the vessel was so called because of its mortar-like shape. The skin on which the shoots were placed was called Tvac, or twice go (‘cow-hide). Kośa, Sadhastha, Dru, Vana, Droṇa, are all terms used for Soma vessels, while Sruva denotes the ladle.’ Apparently the plant was sometimes steeped in water to increase its yield of juice. It is not possible to describe exactly the details of the process of pressing the Soma as practised in the Rigveda. It was certainly purified by being pressed through a sieve (Pavitra). The Soma was then used unmixed (βukra, śuci) for Indra and Vāyu, but the Kanvas seem to have dropped this usage. The juice is described as brown (babhru)," tawny (hart), or ruddy (aruna), and as having a fragrant smell, at least as a rule. Soma was mixed with milk (Gavāśir), curd or sour milk (Dadhyāśir), or grain (Yavāśir). The admixtures are alluded to with various figurative expressions, as Atka, ‘ armour ’j Vastra or Vāsas, 'garment'; Abhiśrī, 'admixturerūpa, ‘beautyJ; śrl, ‘splendour’; rasa, ‘flavour’; prayas, ‘ dainty ’; and perhaps nabhas, ‘ fragrance.’ The adjective tīvra denotes the ‘ pungent ’ flavour of Soma when so mixed. The Soma shoots, after the juice has been pressed out, are denoted by rjīsa, ‘residue.’ It seems probable that in some cases honey was mixed with Soma: perhaps the kośa madhti-ścut, ' the pail distilling sweetness,’ was used for the mixing. It seems doubtful if Surā was ever so mixed. There were three pressings a day of Soma, as opposed to the two of the Avesta. The evening pressing was specially connected with the Rbhus, the midday with Indra, the morning with Agni, but the ritual shows that many other gods also had their share. The drinker of Soma and the nondrinker are sharply discriminated in the texts. Localities where Soma was consumed were Árjīka, Pastyāvant, śaryaṇāvant, Suṣomā, the territory of the Pañcajanāh or ‘five peoples,’ and so on. The effects of Soma in exhilarating and exciting the drinkers are often alluded to. It is difficult to decide if Soma was ever a popular, as opposed to a hieratic drink. The evidence for its actual popularity is very slight, and not decisive.
soma prātiveśya (‘Descendant of Prativeśya’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Prativeśya, in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
somadakṣa kauśreya (‘Descendant of Kuśri’) is the name of a teacher in the Kāthaka and the Maitrāyaṇī Samhitās.
somaka sāhadevya (‘Descendant of Sahadeva ’) is the name of a king of the Spry ayas in the Rigveda. He is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as having Parvata and Nārada as his priests.
somapitsaru See Tsaru.
somaśuṣma sātyayajñi (‘Descendant of Satyayajña’) is the name in the śatapatha Brāhmana of a travelling Brahmin who met Janaka of Videha. He may be identical with the man of the same name with the additional patronymic Prācīnayogya (‘descendant of Prācīnayoga’), who is mentioned as a pupil of Satyayajña in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
somaśuṣman vājaratnāyana (‘Descendant of Vājaratna’) is the name in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa of the priest who consecrated śatānīka.
priyavrata somāpi Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, in which he is said to be the son of Somapa. The name Priya- vrata is also found in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where a Rauhināyana of that name is mentioned as a teacher.
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"so" has 1608 results.
     
nyāsoddyotaa learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Mallinātha, the standard commentator of prominent Sanskrit classics.
soḍhataddhita affix. affix सेाढ prescribed in the sense of ' milk ', optionally along with the affixes दूस and मरीस after the word अवि; e. g. अविसोढम् confer, compare अवेर्दुग्धे सोढदूसमरीसत्र: P. IV. 2. 36. Vart. 5.
sopasargatogether with a preposition ( उपसर्ग ) prefixed; the term is used in connection with a root to which a preposition such as प्र, परा et cetera, and others has been prefixed; confer, compare अकर्मका अपि वै सोपसर्गाः सकर्मका भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1,44.
soma,somacāryaname of the writer of a gloss named त्रिभाष्यरत्न on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.
somadevaa Jain Grammarian, the writer of a gloss on the commentary Jainendra Vyakarana named शब्दार्णवचन्द्रिका by the author, who was a resident of thc Deccan and lived in a village named Arjurika ( called आजर्रे to-day ) near Kolhapur in the twelfth century.
somayājina modern grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote a short grammatical work as a hand-book for scholars who aspired to be poets. The work was called वैयाकरणशब्दमाला.
soṣmanaccompanied by a rush of breath. The word is taken to apply to the second and fourth consonants which are produced by the rush of unintonated breath through the open mouth like steam through a pipe the second and fourth class consonants; confer, compare युग्माः सोष्माण: Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 16.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aṃśugaṇaalso अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. confer, compare P. VI.2.193.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akāma(अकामसंधि)(अकामसंधि) an invariable (नित्य) euphonic change (संधि) such as the dropping of th' consonant r ( र् ) when followed by r. confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.9. रेफोदयो लुप्यते द्राघितोपधा ह्रस्वस्या-कामनियता उभाविमी । e. g. युवो रजांसि, सुयमासो अश्वा रथ: R. V. I. 180.1.
akṛtnot established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.4.62.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
akṣarāṅgaforming a part of a syllable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowelpart) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. confer, compare अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.32.
agamakatvanon-communicativeness, inability to communicate adequately the intended meaning. confer, compare सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: confer, compare also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।
agṛhītauncomprehended, unincluded confer, compareनागृहीतविशेषणा शक्तिर्विशेष्यमुपसंक्रामति । confer, compare also नाज्झलौ इत्यत्र अगृहीतसवर्णानामचां ग्रहणम् Padamañjari on Kāś VIII. 3.57.
aglopaelision of the vowel a, i,u , r or l ( अ, इ, उ, ऋ or लृ ) which prevents Sanvadbhāva confer, compare सन्वल्लघुनि चङ्परेSनग्लोपे P. VII.4.93, as also नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् VII.4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
aṅgulyādigaṇaclass of words headed by अङ्गुलि to which the taddhita affix. afix ठक् ( इक् ) is added in the sense of comparison ( इवार्थे ); e. g. अङ्गुलीव अाड्गुलिक: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.3.108.
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atāmpersonal affix of the third person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Imperative (लोट्). confer, compare P. III.4.90.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
atiśāyanaexcellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 2 confer, compare अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on , P. V.3.55.
atihāratransfer of a consonant in a Stobha. See पुष्पसूत्र.
atuspersonal ending of perfeminine. 1st person. dual number confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्थलथुसणल्वमाः P. III.4.82.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
atyantāpahnavacomplete or absolute denial or concealment offacts; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् । अत्यन्तापह्नवे च । 3.2.115, Vārt, 1.
atyalpaspṛṣṭahaving a very slight contact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utterance of a vowel.
atvaalso अत्व change of a vowel into short अ.
atharvaprātiśākhyathe Prātiśākhya work of the Atharva veda believed to have been written by Śaunaka. It consists of four Adhyāyās and is also called शौनकीया चतुरध्यायिका.
athusconjugational affix of perfeminine. 2nd person. dual Parasmaipada. substituted for the personal ending थस्, confer, compare P. III. 4.82.
adantaending with the short vowel अ; confer, compare P. VIII.4.7: a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. et cetera, and others Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त confer, compare पिबिरदन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56., Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.43.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adādiname given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: confer, comparealso अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari.61.
adviyoniliterally not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् et cetera, and others as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , et cetera, and others which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि confer, compare अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhisparśamincompletely pronounced, referring to a letter so pronouncedition
adhyāhārasupplying the necessary element. confer, compare गम्यमानार्थस्य वाक्यस्य स्वरूपेणोपादानं वाक्यस्याध्याहारः Kāś on P.VI.1. 139., cf also Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.13 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 1 Vārt 14.
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anaña word without the negative particle ( नञ् ) before it, e. g. धेनुरनञि कमुत्पादयति, a sūtra in Āpiśali's grammar quoted in Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.45 see also P. II. 1. 60, VII. 1. 37.
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anantara(1)immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: confer, compare अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; confer, compare अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; confer, compare Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
ananyanot different, the same: confer, compare एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् that which has got a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 37.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anabhinirvṛttathat which is not applied; literally(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; confer, compare प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cfeminine. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anādinon-initial. exempli gratia, for example अनादेश्च मुङ्वचनम् P. III.4.102, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.3.
anārṣa(1)non-vedic: not proceeding from any Ṛṣi, or Vedic Seer, confer, compare संबुद्धौ शाकल्यस्येतौ अनार्षे P. I.1.16, also Kāś. on the same: confer, compare किमिदमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्ष इतिकरणः M.Bh.on VI.1.129: (2) pertaining to the Padapāṭha which is looked upon as अनार्ष i, e. not proceeding from any Vedic Seer; confer, compare अनार्षे इतिकरणः । स च द्व्यक्षर आद्युदात्तश्च, Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.23; confer, compare also Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 1.3.
anicsamāsānta affix after the word धर्म and some other words prescribed by P. V. 4.124-6, e. g. कल्याणधर्मा, सुजम्भा, दक्षिणेर्मा.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
aniṅgyanot separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; confer, compare संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) V.41; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anipātyanot necessary to be specifically or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way: e. g. द्वन्द्वम् । लिङ्गमशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य । तत्र नपुंसकत्वमनिपात्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.1.15. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.27 and VI. 1.207.
animittaot serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 85. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.39.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
aniyatapuṃskawhose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.131.
anirdiṣṭārthawhose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.
aniṣṭaan undesired consequence or result; confer, compare अनिष्टं च प्राप्नोति इष्टे च न सिध्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.1 , also confer, compare नानिष्टार्था शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.1.2.
anīyarkṛt affix, termed कृत्य also forming the pot. passive voice. participle. of a root; confer, compare तव्यत्तव्यानीयरः P.III.1.96. exempli gratia, for example see the forms करणीयं, हरणीयं, the mute र् showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel,
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anukarṣaṇadragging (from the preceding rule) to the following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; confer, compare अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 78.
anuktanot actually stated or expressed in a rule; confer, compare चकारोऽनुक्तसमुच्चयार्थ: Kāś. on II.4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48; also confer, compare Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.II.2.9
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anuttamaother than उत्तम or the first person; confer, compare विभाषितं सोपसर्गमनुत्तमम् P. VII.1.53 and Kāśika thereon.
anutpatinon-production of an element of a word such as an affix or an augment or the like; confer, compare वावचने चानुत्पत्त्यर्थम् P.III.1.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7, तत्रोत्पत्तिर्वा प्रसङ्गो यथा तद्धिते P. III.1.94 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, also कृष्यादिषु चानुत्पत्तिः (णिचः) P.III.1.26, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anudāttopadeśa(a root)pronounced originally i. c. pronounced in the Dhātupāṭha with a grave accent; see the word अनुदात्त a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: confer, compare अनुदात्तोपदेशवनतितनोत्यादीनामनुनासिकलोपो झलि ङ्किति P. VI.4.37. See also the word अनिट् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anupasarjananot subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; confer, compare अनुपसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anubhūtisvarūpācāryaa writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.
anulomain the natural order (opp. to प्रतिलोम ), confer, compare तेऽन्वक्षरसंधयोनुलोमाः in R.Pr.II.8. अनुलोमसंधि is a term applied to Saṁdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
anusaṃhitaṃaccording to the Saṁhitā text of the Vedas: confer, compareएतानि नोहं गच्छन्ति अध्रिगो अनुसंहितम् Bhartṛihari's Mahābhāṣyadīpikā p. 9; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31, also XV.33, where the word is explained as संहिताक्रमेण by Uvaṭa.
anekārtha(1)possessed of a plural sense referring to many things. confer, compare अनेकार्थे युष्मदस्मदी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 2.98 also अनेकार्थाश्रयश्च पुनरेकशेषः P. I. 2.64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15; (2) possessed of many senses, confer, compare अनेकार्था अपि धातवो भवन्ति M. Bh, on P.III.2.48; also confer, compare यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनुक्रमिष्यामः Nirukta of Yāska.IV.1.
anaikāntikaundetermined, indefinite एतद्प्यनैकान्तिकं यदल्पप्राणस्य सर्वोच्चैस्तन्महाप्राणस्य सर्वनीचै: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.2.30, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.37; not invariable, confer, compare अनैकान्तिकं ज्ञापकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.102, VIII.3.34
anaimittikanot possessed of any definite cause; अनैमित्तिको ह्यनुबन्धलेाप: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 and I. 2.64.
antaḥpādaminside a word; explained as पदस्य मध्ये by उव्वटः confer, compare नुश्रान्तः पदेऽरेफे V.Pr.IV.2 confer, compare also अन्तःपदं विवृत्तयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)II.13.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
antarainterval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic elements, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.confer, compare अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः Nir X.17.
antargaṇaa group of words mentioned inside another group of words (गण); confer, compare पुषादिदेवाद्यन्तर्गणो गृह्यते, न भ्वादिक्रयाद्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on III.1.55; also काण्वादिगर्गाद्यन्तर्गणः Kāś on IV.2.111.
antarhitaseparated by a dissimilar element; confer, compare यूनि चान्तर्हित अप्राप्तिः P.IV. 1.93 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5. व्यञ्जनान्तर्हितोपि उदात्तपरः अनुदात्तः स्वरितमापद्यते T. Pr.XIV.30; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.9.
antasthāfeminine. also अन्तस्थः semi-vowel; see under अन्त:स्थ.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
antya(1)final letter; अन्ते भवमन्त्यम् (2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal अन्त्योनुनासिकः R.T. 17.
anyatarasyāmoptionally; literally in another way. The term is very common in the rules of Pāṇini, where the terms वा and विभाषा are also used in the same sense.
anyapadārthaanother sense, sense different from what has been expressed by the wording given; confer, compare अनेकमन्यपदार्थे P.II.2.24; also अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
anvarthasaṃjñāA technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद et cetera, and others All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pāṇini: confer, compare तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23; also confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 et cetera, and others
anvavasargarelaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. confer, compare अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apatyaa descendent, male or female, from the son or daughter onwards upto any generation; cf तस्यापत्यम् P, IV.1.92.
apaśabdacorrupt form of a correct word, called म्लेच्छ also; confer, compare म्लेच्छो ह वा एष यदपशब्दः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. अस्तु वापि तरस्तस्माद् नापशब्दो भविष्यति । वाचकश्चेत्प्रयोक्तव्यो वाचक्श्र्चेत्प्रयुज्यताम् ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
apialso in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; confer, compare अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; confer, compare अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.3.64.
apūrva(1)not existing before; confer, compare आगमश्च नाम अपूर्वः शब्दोपजनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-20, I.1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf अपूर्वलक्षण अादिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.21: (3) a rule prescribing something not prescribed before; confer, compare तत्र अपूर्वो विधिरस्तु नियमोस्तु इति अपूर्व एव विधिर्भविष्यति न नियमः M.Bh. on I.4.3., III.1.46, III.2. 127, III.3.19.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
aprayuktanot found in popular or current use, exempli gratia, for example the words ऊष, तेर, चक्र et cetera, and others यद्यप्यप्रयुक्ता अवश्यं दीर्घसत्त्रवल्लक्षणेनानुविधेयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, also यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.24
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhiniṣṭānaResonance (of a visarga utterance).
abhinihitaused in connection with a सन्धि or euphonic combination in which the vowel अ, as a first or a second member, is absorbed into the other member. e. g. रथेभ्यः + अग्रे = रथेभ्योऽग्रे also दाशुषेऽग्रे, where अ of अग्रे is absorbed or merged in ओ of रथेभ्यः or ए of दाशुषे; confer, compare अथाभिनिहितः संधिरेतैः प्राकृतवैकृतैः । एकीभवति पादादिरकारस्तेत्र संधिजाः; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 13 to 25; confer, compareएङः पदान्तादति P.VI.1.109.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
abhivyādānaabsorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together exempli gratia, for example ता आपः = तापः, अवसा आ = अवसा, the resultant vowel being pronounced specially long consisting of some more mātrā, which is evidently, a fault of pronunciation. confer, compare आदानं आरम्भः; विपुलं विशालं वा आदानं व्यादानम् । अभिव्याप्तं अभिभूतं व्यादानं अभिव्यादानम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 27.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
amaracalled अमरसिंह an ancient grammarian mentioned in the कविकल्पद्रुम by बोपदेव. He is believed to have written some works on grammar such as षट्कारकलक्षण his famous existing work, however, being the Amarakoṣa or Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.
amṛtasmṛticalled also अमृतस्तुति, a commentary on the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी of रामचन्द्रशेष.
amoghāalso अमोघावृत्ति, a gloss on the grammar of Sākaṭāyana. See अमोघवर्ष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ambākartrīcommentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāsenduśekhara named so, as it commences with the words अम्बा कर्त्री et cetera, and others
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
arkathe strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time of the utterance of the surd consonants; cf Vāj. Śikṣā. 280.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardhakaa fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् explained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utterance of the short vowel; confer, compare तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. confer, compare also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.
ardhajaratīyaa queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; confer, compare also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय ।
ardhamātrikataking for its utterance the time measured by the utterance of half a mātrā or mora; a consonant, as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a mātrā (mātrā being the time required for the utterance of short अ); confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16, T. Pr.I.37, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.59.
ala प्रत्याहार or a short term signifying any letter in the alphabet of Pāṇini which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants.
alaukikavigrahathe dissolution of a compound not in the usual popular manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avacanasomething which need not be specifically prescribed or stated, being already available or valid; cf तृतीयासमासे अर्थग्रहणमनर्थकं अर्थगतिर्हि अवचनात् P. II.1.30 V.1.
avarṇathe letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasalization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.50 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18 and I.1.51 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2: confer, compare also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 17. 6
avaśaṃgamaname of a Samdhi when a class consonant, followed by any consonant is not changed, but retained as it is; confer, compare स्पर्शाः पूर्वे व्यञ्जनान्युत्तराणि अास्थापितानां अवशंगमं तत् R.Pr.IV. l; eg. अारैक् पन्थाम् Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. I.113.16, वषट् ते (Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.VII.99.7) अजानन् पुत्रः (R. V. X.85.14).
avighātārthameant for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.
avicālinimmutable. The term is used frequently in the Mahābhāṣya, in connection with letters of the alphabet which are considered 'nitya' by Grammarians; confer, compare नित्येषु च शब्देषु कूटस्थैरविचालिभिर्वर्णैर्भवितव्यमनपायोपजानविकारिभिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhn 2: cf also नित्यपर्यायवाची सिद्धशब्दः । यत्कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
avibhāgapakṣaa view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible to derivation. The terms अखण्डपक्ष and अव्युत्पन्नपक्ष are also used in the same sense.
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avilambitaname of a fault in pronouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.
avivakṣānon-intention: connivance; confer, compare सतोऽप्यविवक्षा भवति । अलोभिका एडका । अनुदरा कन्या । also confer, compare प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिका क्रिया.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
aviśeṣitanot specified, mentioned without any specific attribute; confer, compare एवमपि प्रयत्नः अविशेषितः भवति M.Bh. on I.1.9; confer, compare also Kātan. VI.1.63.
avṛddhaliterallynot beginning with the vowel अा, ऐ or औ; a word which has got no अा or ऐ, or औ as its first vowel, as for example ग्लुचुक, अहिचुम्बक et cetera, and others इरावती, नर्मदा यमुना etc; confer, compare प्राचामवृद्धात् फिन् बहुलम् P.IV.1.160. also अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P.IV. 1.113.
avyakta(1)indistinct; inarticulate; confer, compare अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ P. VI.1.98 also P.V.4.57; अव्यक्तं अपरिस्फुटवर्णम् Kāś. on P. VI.1.98; (2) a fault of pronunciation confer, compare नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् ।
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
avyayārthanirūpaṇaa work on the meanings of indeclinable words written in the sixteenth century A. D. by Viṭṭhala Śeṣa, grandson of Ramacandra Śeṣa the author of the Prakriyā Kaumudi.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
avyavadhānaabsence of intervention between two things by something dissimilar; close sequence confer, compare अतज्जातीयकं हि लोके व्यवधायकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.7. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8; cf also येन नाव्यवधानं तन ब्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.3.44, VII.3.54, VII.4.l, VII.4.93. The term अव्यवाय is used in the same sense.
avyāpyaan intransitive root; a technical term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; confer, compare अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.19.
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
aśiṣyaunnecessary to be prcscribed or laid down.; confer, compareतदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात् P. I.2.53; also लिङ्गं अशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य M.Bh. on II.1.36.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asaṃyogaabsence of the conjunction of consonants; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् P.I.2.5.
asattva(1)absence of सत्त्व or entity; (2) other than a substance i. e. property, attribute, et cetera, and others confer, compare प्रादयः असत्त्ववचना निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 4.59; confer, compare also सोऽसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44. confer, compare also चादयोऽ सत्त्वे P.I.4.57.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
asmadfirst person; the term is used in the sense of the first person in the grammars of Hemacandra and Śākaṭāyana. confer, compare त्रीणि त्रीण्यन्ययुष्मदस्मदि (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.17);
asvapadavigrahaa term used for those compounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the members of the compound: e. g. सुमुखी; confer, compare भवति वै कश्चिदस्वपदविग्रहोपि बहुव्रीहिः । तद्यथा । शोभनं मुखमस्याः सुमुखीति । M.Bh. on V.4.5.
asvanot homogeneous: asavarṇa. confer, compare इवर्णादेः अस्वे स्वरे यवरलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.2.21, also अस्वे Śāk.I.1.73.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
aākṛtigaṇaa class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operation; confer, compare श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृतिगणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.I.59 ; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, exempli gratia, for example अर्शआदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others.
ākṣipta(1)taken as understood, being required to complete the sense; confer, compare क्विबपि अाक्षिप्तो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 178;(2) a term used for the circumflex accent or स्वरित as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air producing sound; confer, compare आक्षेपो नाम तिर्यग्गमनं गात्राणां वायुनिमित्तं तेन य उच्यते स स्वरितः Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.
ākhyādesignation, conventional name; confer, compare देवदत्तो मुण्ड्यपि जट्यपि त्यामाख्यां न जहाति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1; confer, compare also स्वमज्ञातिघनाख्यायाम् P.I.1.35; confer, compare also वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या Tai. Prāt. I. 16.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
aāṅgaan operation prescribed in the section, called aṅgādhikāra, in the the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, made up of five Pādas consisting of the fourth quarter of the 6th adhyāya and all the four quarters of the seventh adhyāya. आङ्गात् पूर्वं विकरणा एषितव्याः M. Bh on I.3.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; confer, compare also वार्णादाङ्गं बलीयो भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 55: also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.3.
ācāra(1)customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; confer, compare आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः, P.I,1.1, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. (2) behaviour;confer, compare उपमानादाचारे P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च M.Bh. on VI.3.109.
ācāryapreceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
ātāmĀtmanepada third person dual ending, technically substituted for लकार by P.III.4.78
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
ādiṣṭa(1)prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : confer, compare सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.I58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; confer, compare also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādeśinthat for which a substitute is prescribed; the original, sthānin: confer, compare आदेशिानामादेशाः confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). On P.I.1.56.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādhārareceptacle or abode of an action;confer, compareअाध्रियन्ते अस्मिन् क्रियाः इत्याधारः Kāś. on P.I.4.45 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.121; the Prakriyā Kaumudī mentions four kinds of ādhāras: confer, compare औपश्लेषिकः सामीपिको विषयो व्याप्त इत्याघारश्चतुर्धा Prak. Kau. on II.3.36.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ādhṛṣīyaa sub-division of roots belonging to the चुरादिगण or tenth conjugation beginning with युज् and ending with धृष् which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् optionally id est, that is which are also conjugated like roots of the first conjugation; exempli gratia, for example यीजयति,योजयते, योजति;साहयति-ते, सहति.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
ānarthakyaabsence of any utility; superfluity; absence of any object or purpose; confer, compare स्थानिवद्वचनानर्थक्यं शास्त्रासिद्धत्वात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.1.86 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 confer, compare also P.VI.1.158 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; VI.1.161 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.166 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, VI.1.167 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ānupūrvīserial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; confer, compare अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; confer, compare also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57.
ānupūrvyasuccessive order, as prescribed by tradition or by the writer; confer, compare ऋतुनक्षत्राणामानुपूर्व्येण समानाक्षराणां पूर्वनिपातः । शिशिरवसन्तौ उदगयनस्थौ । कृत्तिकारोहिण्यः । M.Bh. II.2.34 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3;also वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविट्शूद्राः M.Bh. on II.2.34 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6: confer, compare पदानुपूर्व्येण प्रश्लिष्टान् संधीन् कुर्यात् । इन्द्र अा इहि । आदौ इन्द्र आ इत्येतयोः; न तु अा इहि इत्येतयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.2; confer, compare also आनुपूर्व्यात् सिद्धम् Sīra. Pari. 6.
ānumānikaobtained or made out by inference such as Paribhāṣā rules as opposed to Śrauta rules such as the Sūtras of Pāṇini; confer, compare आनुमानिकं स्थानित्वमवयवयो; Kāś. on VI.1.85; also confer, compare आनुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्यादेशभावस्य न त्यागः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 11; confer, compare also किं च पूर्वत्रेत्यस्य प्रत्यक्षत्वेन अानुमानिक्या अस्या बाध एवोचितः Pari. Śek. on Pari. 50.
aāntaratamyaclosest affinity; confer, compare अष्टन्जनादिपथिमथ्यात्वेषु आन्तरतम्यादनुनासिकप्रसङ्गः M.Bh. on VII.2.84, as also अान्तरतम्याच्च सिद्धम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1. 96 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
aānpadword ending with अान् which has the consonant dropped and the preceding आ nasalized; e. g. सर्गा इव सृजतम् Ṛk.Saṁ. VIII. 35. 20, महा इन्द्रः Ṛk Saṁ VI.19.1; confer, compare दीर्घादटि समानपादे, अातोऽटि नित्यम् P. VIII.3.9, VIII.3.3; confer, compare also हन्त देवो इति चैता अान्-पदाः पदवृत्तयः R.Pr.IV.26,27.
āp(1)common term for the feminine. endings टाप्, डाप् and चाप् given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; confer, compare also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. et cetera, and others; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the locative case plural confer, compare अनाप्यकः P. VII.2.112.
aāpatti(1)production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's commentary thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 9. (2) modification; confer, compare अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result.
āpatyapatronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6.
āpadevason of अनन्तदेव, the author of Sphoṭanirūpaṇa (17th cent. A.D.).
ābhācchāstraa rule given in the section called आभीयप्रकरण extending from P.VI.4.22 to VI.4.175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as invalid to another ; confer, compare असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon; confer, compare also यावता अनिदितां हलः इत्यपि आभाच्छास्त्रम् Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.Pari. 38.
ābhīyaprakaraṇaa section of Pāṇini's grammar from VI.4.-2 to VI. 4.129, called अाभीय, as it extends to the rule भस्य VI.4.129, including it but as the governing rule भस्य is valid in every rule upto the end of the Pāda, the आभीयप्रकरण also extends upto the end of the Pāda.See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aābhyantaraprayatnainternal effort made in producing a sound, as contrasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; confer, compare चत्वार आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च et cetera, and others Si. Kau. on I.1.9.
aāmantryaa word in the vocative case; literally a word possessed of the sense of invocation; confer, compare अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; confer, compare also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.1.25.
aāyāmatension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; commentary on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं U1. varia lectio, another reading,on R. Prāt. III.1; confer, compare also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य commentary on Vāj. Prāt I.31; confer, compare also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārdhadhātukādhikārathe topic or section in Pāṇini's grammar where operations, caused by the presence of an ārdhadhātuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the rule आर्धधातुके VI.4.46 and ending with न ल्यपि VI.4.69, Such operations are summed up in the stanza अतो लोपो चलोपश्च णिलोपश्च प्रयोजनम् । आल्लोप इत्वमेत्वं च चिण्वद्भावश्च सीयुटि; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). as also Kāś, on VI.4.46.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
ārhīyatad-affixes ठक्, ठञ् et cetera, and others as also the senses in which the affixes are applied, given in the section of Pāṇinis grammar P.V.1.19-71.
aāvṛttirepetition, exempli gratia, for example पदावृत्तिः; see commentary on Vāj. Prāt. IV.21; confer, compare also आवृत्तितः सप्तदशत्वं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2.
āsannanearest, most proximate: confer, compare विकारी यथासन्नम् V.Pr.I.142: confer, compare also the sūtra आसन्नः Śāk.I.1.7, explained as स्थानगुणप्रमाणादिभिर्यथास्वमासन्नः confer, compare also अासन्नः Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. VII.4.120.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
iglakṣaṇavṛddhithe substitution of the vowel called वृद्वि id est, that is the vowel आ, ए or औ prescribed specifically for the vowels called इक् id est, that is इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, exempli gratia, for example तस्मादिग्लक्षणा वृद्विः P.1.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11; confer, comparealso इग्लक्षणवृद्धिप्रतिषेधस्तावत् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 2.
ic(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for vowels except अ. confer, compare इजोदश्च गुरुमतोSनृच्छः P.III.1.36; cf also VI. I.104, VI.3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) Samāsānta affix इ after Bahuvrīhi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127 also 128.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for all vowels except अ and the consonants ह् ,य् ,व् , र्, ल् confer, compare इणः षः P.VIII.3.39,also P.VIII.3.57,78 (2) kṛt (affix). affix इ applied to roots such as अज् अत् et cetera, and others in the sense of verbal activity.e.g आजिः,अतिः, आदि; confer, compareइणजादिभ्यः P. III.3,108, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
iphataddhita affix. affix applied to र ( letter र् ) in the sense of the consonant र्; e. g. रेफः; confer, compare रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4.
irmute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); confer, compare also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); confer, compare P.III.1.57.
ilac(1)taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of pity; e. g. देवियः, यज्ञिलः confer, compare P.IV.2.79. The taddhita affix.affix घन् is also affixed in the same sense. See ईय. (2) taddhita affix. affix इल (इलच्) in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words फेन, लोमन् कपि, सिकता, शर्करा, तुन्द, उदर, घट, यव et cetera, and others; exempli gratia, for example फेनिल, लोमिल, कपिल, सिकतिल तुन्दिल et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.2.99, 100, 105, 117.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īkataddhita affix. affix ईकक added to शक्ति and यष्टि exempli gratia, for example शाक्तकिः feminine. शाक्तीकी; याष्टीकः; confer, compare P.IV.4.59; (2) taddhita affix. affix ईक added to कर्क and लोहित in the sense of comparison, e. g. कार्कीकः, लौहितीकः ( स्फटिकः ), confer, compare Kāś. on P.V. 3.110; (3) taddhita affix. affix ईकक् added to बहिस्, exempli gratia, for example बाहीकः confer, compare बहिषष्टिलोपो यश्च, ईकक्च P.IV.1.85. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4-5; (4) tad affix इकङ् in Vedic Literature added to बहिस् exempli gratia, for example बाहीकः confer, compare Kāś.on P. IV. 1.85,Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6; (5) taddhita affix. affix ईकन् added to खारी exempli gratia, for example द्विखारिकम्; confer, compare P. V. 1.33.
īṭaugment ई prefixed to a Sārvadhātuka (strong) affix beginning with a consonant after the roots ब्रू, रु, स्तु, and others exempli gratia, for example अब्रवीत्, रोरवीति, स्तवीति, अकार्षीत्, अवादीत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 3.93-98.