ind. (a contraction of saṃ-vatsara-below) a year, in the year (in later times especially of the vikrama- era [beginning in 58 B.C.Seevikramāditya-]as opp. to the śaka- era [in modern times supposed to be founded by śāli-vāhana-;See 3. śaka-];sometimes = "in the year of the reign of") etc.
a year of the saptarṣi- era (the 1st year of which corresponds to the expired year 26, id est the 27th current year of the kali-yuga-; the hundreds of this era are often omitted, exempli gratia, 'for example' the saptarṣi- year 4869 will be called simply 69; the corresponding year of one of the centuries D. is found by adding 24-25; thus 69 [for 4869] corresponds to D. 1793-94).
संवत्सरः [संवसन्ति ऋतवो$त्र संवस्-सरन् Tv.] 1 A year; न ह पुरा ततः संवत्सर आस Bṛi. Up.1.2.4. -2 A year of Vikramāditya's era. -3 N. of Śiva. -4 The first year in the cycle of five years. -Comp. -करः an epithet of Śiva. -निरोधः Imprisonment for a year; वैश्यः सर्वस्वदण्डः स्यात् संवत्सरनिरोधतः Ms. 8.375. -भ्रमि a.
revolving in a year, completing one revolution in a year (said of the sun). -मुखी the tenth day in the light half of the month ज्यैष्ठ. -रयः a year's course.
परिसंवत्सर a. 1 A whole year old. -2 Inveterate, chronic (a disease). -रः A whole year; परिसंवत्सरात् 'after the expiration of one whole year'; राजर्त्विक्- स्नातकगुरून् प्रियश्वशुरमातुलान् । अर्हयेन्मधुपर्केण परिसंवत्सरात् पुनः ॥ Ms.3.119.
m. full year; a. a full year old; waiting a full year; -sakhya, n. true friendship; -samkhyâ, f. complete tale or enumeration; full number, totality, sum, number; exhaustive statement (i. e. excluding everything not specified): -na, n. complete enumeration, full number; exhaustive statement; just examination or estimate; -samghushta, pp. resonant on all sides; -samâpti, f. conclusion, completion, end; extension to (lc. or ad. with prati); -sara, a. adjacent; bordering on (--°ree;); m. neighbourhood, region, proximity; -sarpana, n. creeping about; walking about; running to and fro, continual change from place to place; -sarpin, a. moving about; -sâdhana, n. accomplishment; settlement, exaction (of debts); -sântvana, n. consoling: pl. blandish ments; -sâraka, n. N. of a place on the Sarasvatî.
‘Year,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna Sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend days in each of the Nakṣatras. The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year (whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to effect an assimilation of the natural and the accepted year. As has been seen (see Māsa), the evidence goes strongly to show that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Brāh¬maṇa period, though there are traces of what may be re¬garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really observed. Zimmer,4 indeed, considers that the evidence required is afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Idvatsara, and Vatsara ;δ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara;® or Samvatsara, Idāvatsara, Iduvat- sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;7 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara;8 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara.9 But it must be noted not merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are mentioned in some places,10 in others11 three, in others12 two, and in yet others13 six. Moreover, in none of these enumera¬tions is there any reference to the names being connected with a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Saipvatsara and Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, ‘year.’ The key to the invention of the series is probably to be found in passages like that of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, where the several Cāturmāsya ( four-monthly ’) sacrifices are equated with the different years. Particularly unjustifiable is the attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the second; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have existed before the Sūtra period. Zimmer ® also finds an attempt at intercalation in the famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in the house of Agohya. He thinks that they represent twelve days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever¬ence paid in German antiquity to the ‘ 12 nights,’ he infers that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic. There can be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are merely the ' reflexion of the year ’ (samvatsarasya pratima) in the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no relation to chronology at all. A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry in the peculiar dating of certain notices in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, but this view is improbable.
noun (masculine neuter) a full year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a year of the the first in a cycle of five or six years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Year personified (having the new and full moon for eyes and presiding over the seasons) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adjective a full year old (or older) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
chronic (as a disease) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inveterate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
waiting a full year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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