m. the sun or its deity (in the veda- the name sūrya- is generally distinguished from savitṛ- [q.v.] , and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods, whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind;in he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad, his place being in the sky, while that of agni- is on the earth, and that of indra- is in the atmosphere;ten hymns in the are entirely in praise of sūrya-exempli gratia, 'for example',also ;he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see saptāśva-, harit-, harid-aśva-];in the later mythology sūrya- is identified with savitṛ- as one of the 12 āditya-s or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year, and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by aruṇa- or the Dawn as its charioteer, who is represented without legs;the Sun, whether named sūrya- or vivasvat-, has several wivesSeesūryā-below) etc. (see)
m. the daughter of sūrya- or the Sun (See;also described as daughter of prajāpati- or of savitṛ- and wife of the aśvin-s, and in other places as married to soma-;in she is called ūrjānī-, and in the sister of pūṣan- [ q.v ], who is described as loving her, and receiving her as a gift from the gods; according to to some she represents a weak manifestation of the Sun; sūryā-sāvitrī- is regarded as the authoress of the sūryā-sūkta-)
m. "sun-loved", the sun-stone, sun-crystal (a kind of crystal supposed to possess fabulous properties as giving out heat when exposed to the sun;there is a corresponding moonstoneSeecandra-k-;also ta-maṇi-)
m. the solar race of kings (id est the royal dynasty of rāma-candra-, king of ayodhyā-, hero of the rāmāyaṇa-, who was descended from ikṣvāku- son of vaivasvata-manu-, son of the Sun;many Rajput tribes still claim to belong to this race;it is one of the two great lines of kings, the other being called"lunar"Seecandra-v-)
सूर्यः [सरति आकाशे सूर्यः, यद्वा सुवति कर्मणि लोकं प्रेरयति; cf. Sk. on P.III.1.114] 1 The sun; सूर्ये तपत्यावरणाय दृष्टेः कल्पेत लोकस्य कथं तमिस्रा R.5.13. [In mythology, the sun is regarded as a son of Kaśyapa and Aditi. He is represented as moving in a chariot drawn by seven horses, with Aruṇa for his charioteer. He is also represented as all-seeing, the constant beholder of the good and bad deeds of mortals. Samjñā (or Chhāyā or Aśvinī) was his principal wife, by whom he had Yama and Yamunā, the two Aśvins and Saturn. He is also described as having been the father of Manu Vaivasvata, the founder of the solar race of kings.] -2 The tree called Arka. -3 The number 'twelve' (derived from the twelve forms of the sun). -4 The swallow-wort. -5 N. of Śiva. -Comp. -अपायः sunset; सूर्यापाये न खलु कमलं पुष्यति स्वामभिख्याम् Me.82. -अर्ष्यम् the presentation of an offering to the sun. -अश्मन् m. the sun-stone. -अश्वः a horse of the sun. -अस्तम् sunset. -आतपः heat or glare of the sun, sunshine. -आलोकः sunshine. -आवर्तः 1 a kind of sun-flower. -2 a head-ache which increases or diminishes according to the course of the sun (Mar. अर्धशिशी).
-आह्व a. named after the sun. (-ह्वः) the gigantic swallow-wort. (-ह्वम्) copper. -इन्दुसंगमः the day of the new moon (the conjunction of the sun and moon); दर्शः सूर्येन्दुसंगमः Ak. -उत्थानम्, -उदयः sunrise. -ऊढः 1 'brought by the sun', an evening guest; संप्राप्तो यो$तिथिः सायं सूर्योढो गृहमेधिनाम् । पूजया तस्य देवत्वं लभन्ते गृहमेधिनः ॥ Pt.1.17. -2 the time of sunset. -उपस्थानम्, -उपासना attendance upon or worship of the sun; V.1. -कमलम् the sun-flower, a heliotrope. -कान्तः 1 the sun-stone, sun-crystal; स्पर्शानुकूला इव सूर्यकान्तास्तदन्यतेजो$भिभवाद्वमन्ति । Ś.2.7. -2 a crystal. -कान्ति f. 1 sun-light. -2 a particular flower. -3 the flower of sesamum. -कालः day-time, day. ˚अनलचक्रम् a particular astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune. -ग्रहः 1 the sun. -2 an eclipse of the sun. -3 an epithet of Rāhu and Ketu. -4 the bottom of a water-jar. -ग्रहणम् a solar eclipse. -चन्द्रौ (also सूर्याचन्द्रमसौ) m. du. the sun and moon. -जः, -तनयः, पुत्रः 1 epithets of Sugrīva; यो$हं सूर्यसुतः स एष भवतां यो$यं स वत्सो$ङ्गदः Mv. 5.55. -2 of Karṇa. -3 of the planet Saturn. -4 of Yama. -जा, -तनया the river Yamunā. -तेजस् n. the radiance or heat of the sun. -द्वारम् the way of the sun; उत्तरायण q. v.; सूर्यद्वारेण ते विरजाः प्रयान्ति यत्रामृतः स पुरुषो ह्याव्ययात्मा Muṇḍ.1.2.11. -नक्षत्रम् that constellation (out of the 27) in which the sun happens to be. -पर्वन् n. a solar festival, (on the days of the solstices, equinoxes, eclipses &c.). -पादः a sun-beam. -पुत्री 1 lightning. -2 the river Yamunā. -प्रभव a. sprung or descended from the sun; क्व सूर्यप्रभवो वंशः क्व चाल्पविषया मतिः R.1.2. -फणिचक्रम् = सूर्यकालानलचक्रम् q. v. above. -बिम्बः the disc of the sun. -भक्त a. one who worships the sun. (-क्तः) the tree Bandhūka or its flower. -मणिः the sunstone. -मण्डलम् the orb of the sun. -मासः the solar month. -यन्त्रम् 1 a representation of the sun (used in worshipping him). -2 an instrument used in taking solar observations. -रश्मिः a ray of the sun, sun-beam; Ms.5.133. -लोकः the heaven of the sun. -वंशः the solar race of kings (who ruled at Ayodhyā). -वर्चस् a. resplendent as the sun. -वारः Sunday. -विलोकनम् the ceremony of taking a child out to see the sun when four months old; cf. उपनिष्क्रमणम्. -संक्रमः, -संक्रातिः f. the sun's passage from one zodiacal sign to another. -संज्ञम् saffron. -सारथिः an epithet of Aruṇa. -सिद्धान्तः a celebrated astronomical work (supposed to have been revealed by the god Sun). -स्तुतिः f., -स्तोत्रम् a hymn addressed to the sun. -हृदयम् N. of a hymn to the sun.
m. [svar] sun; sun-god; N. (C.): -ka, m. N.; -kara, m. sunbeam; -kân ta, m. (beloved of the sun), sun-stone, sun crystal; -kandra, m. N.; -tapas, m. N. of a sage; -tegas, n. sunshine;(s&usharp;rya)-tvak, a. having a sun-bright skin or covering (RV.); -pâda, m. sunbeam; -putra, m. son of the sun, pat. of the Asvins, planet Saturn, and Yama: î, f. daughter of the sun, the Yamu nâ; -prabha, a. sun-bright; m. N. among others of the king after whom the eighth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara is called: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prabhava, a. sprung from the sun (race); -prabhîya, a. belonging to king Sûryaprabha; -prasishya, m. ep. of Ganaka; -bimba, m. or n. disc of the sun; -mandala, n. id.; -matî, f. N. of a princess; -ratha, m. car of the sun; -rasmi, m. sun beam; -ruk, f. sunlight; -vamsa, m. solar race of kings; -vams-ya, a.belonging to the solar race; -varman, m. N. of a Dâmara; -vâra, m. Sunday; -sishya, m. ep. of Yâgña valkya: -½antevâsin, m. ep. of Ganaka; -samkrama, m. entrance of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; -samkrânti, f. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of an astronomical trea tise ascribed to the Sun; -suta, m. (son of the sun) planet Saturn; the monkey Sugrîva; -stuti, f., -stotra, n. praise of the sun.
The ‘sun,’ plays a great part in Vedic mythology and religion, corresponding with the importance of the sun as a factor in the physical life of the peninsula. In the Rigveda2 the sun is normally regarded as a beneficent power, a not unnatural view in a people which must apparently have issued from the cold regions of the Himālaya mountains. Its heat is, however, alluded to in some passages of the Rigveda, as well as referred to in the Atharvaveda and the literature of the Brāhmaṇas. In one myth Indra is said to have vanquished Sūrya and to have stolen his wheel: this is possibly a reference to the obscuration of the sun by a thunderstorm. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa presents a naive conception of the course of the sun, which it regards„ as bright on one side only, and as returning from west to east by the same road, but with the reverse side turned towards the earth, thus at night illumining the stars in heaven. In the Rigveda wonder is expressed that the sun does not fall. There are several references to eclipses in the Rigveda. In one passage Svarbhānu, a demon, is said to have eclipsed the sun with darkness, while Atri restores the light of the sun, a similar feat being elsewhere attributed to his family, the Atris. In the Atharvaveda Rāhu appears for the first time in connexion with the sun. Indra’s defeat of Sūrya may also be explained as alluding to an eclipse; in two other passages such an interpretation seems at least probable. Ludwig not only argues that the Rigveda knows the theory of eclipses caused by an occultation of the sun by the moon, and regards the sun as going round the earth, but even endeavours to identify an eclipse referred to in the Rigveda with one that occurred in 1029 B.C. These views are completely refuted by Whitney. The sun as a maker of time determines the year of 360 days, which is the civil year and the usual year (Saipvatsara) of Vedic literature. This solar year is divided into two halves— the Uttarāyaṇa, when the sun goes north, and the Dakṣiṇā- yana, when it goes south. There can be no doubt that these periods denote the time when the sun turns north from the winter solstice, and when it turns south from the summer solstice, for the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa says so in perfectly clear language. The alternative theory is to regard the periods as those when the sun is in the north—i.e., when it is north of the equator, and when it is in the south, taking as points of departure the equinoxes, not the solstices; but this view has no support in Vedic literature, and is opposed to the fact that the equinoxes play no part in Vedic astronomical theory. There are only doubtful references to the solstices in the Rigveda. The Brāhmanas, and perhaps the Rigveda, regard the moon as entering the sun at new moon. According to Hillebrandt, the Rigveda recognizes that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun, but this seems very doubt-ful. See also Aryamṇalj Panthā, Nakṣatra, and Sapta Sūryāh.
Is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana in a passage where Sāyana takes it as denoting a Nakçatra, which gives out rays of light like the sun. But the real sense (as the Kāṇva text helps to show) is that the sacrificer may take the sun for his Nakṣatra—i.e., he may neglect the Nakṣatras altogether and rely on the sun.
noun (masculine) arka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a symbolical expression for the number "twelve" (in allusion to the sun in the 12 signs of the zodiac) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
epithet of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the son of Bali (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun or its deity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the swallow-wort; Calotropis gigantea Beng. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[Yoga] the right nostril Frequency rank 298/72933
noun (masculine neuter) a kind of flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
crystal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hibiscus Phoeniceus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun-crystal (a kind of crystal supposed to possess fabulous properties as giving out heat when exposed to the sun) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun-stone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a kind of flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hibiscus phoeniceus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun-gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun-stone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sūryakānta Frequency rank 72036/72933
noun (masculine) a kind of Samādhi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Bodhisattva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the palace of Lakṣmaṇā (wife of Kṛṣṇa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various kings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) name of Karṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Sugrīva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the planet Saturn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Varuṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patr. of the Aśvins (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a chameleon (which lies or basks in the sun) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of lizard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mock sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
parhelion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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