mfn. (prob.) crying, howling, roaring, dreadful, terrific, terrible, horrible (applied to the aśvin-s, agni-, indra-, mitra-, varuṇa-, and the sp/aśaḥ-) (according to to others"red, shining, glittering", fr. arud-or rudh-connected with rudhira-;others"strong, having or bestowing strength or power", fr. arud-equalsvṛd-, vṛdh-;native authorities give also the following meanings,"driving away evil";"running about and roaring", fr. ru-+ dra-= dru-2;"praiseworthy, to be praised";"a praiser, worshipper"equalsstotṛ-)
m. "Roarer or Howler", Name of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the rudra-s and marut-s (in the veda- he is closely connected with indra- and still more with agni-, the god of fire, which, as a destroying agent, rages and crackles like the roaring storm, and also with kāla- or Time the all-consumer, with whom he is afterwards identified;though generally represented as a destroying deity, whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle, he has also the epithet śiva-,"benevolent"or"auspicious", and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere;in the later mythology the word śiva-,which does not occur as a name in the veda-, was employed, first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for rudra-, who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle;while a new class of beings, described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number, though still called rudra-s, took the place of the original rudra-s or marut-s: in , rudra- is said to have sprung from brahmā-'s forehead, and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female, the former portion separating again into the 11 rudra-s, hence these later rudra-s are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of śiva-, and most of their names, which are variously given in the different purāṇa-s, are also names of śiva-;those of the are ajaikapād-, ahir-budhnya-, hara-, nirṛta-, īśvara-, bhuvana-, aṅgāraka-, ardha-ketu-, mṛtyu-, sarpa-, kapālin-; according to to others the rudra-s are represented as children of kaśyapa- and surabhi- or of brahmā- and surabhi- or of bhūta- and su-rūpā-; according to to , rudra- is one of the 8 forms of śiva-;elsewhere he is reckoned among the dik-pāla-s as regent of the north-east quarter) etc. (see)
रुद्र a. [रोदिति रुद्-रक् Uṇ.2.22] 1 Dreadful, terrific frightful, formidable. -2 Great, large. -3 Driving away evil. -4 Praiseworthy. -द्रः 1 N. of a group of gods, eleven in number, supposed to be inferior manifestations of Śiva or Śaṁkara, who is said to be the head of the group; रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि Bg.1.23; रुद्राणामपि मूर्धानः क्षतहुंकारशंसिनः Ku.2.26. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 Fire. -4 The number 'eleven'. -5 (pl.) प्राणs and इन्द्रियs; Mb.12.316.5 (com.). -6 N. for the hymns addressed to Rudra. -Comp. -अक्षः a kind of tree. (-क्षम्) 1 a rosary. -2 the berry of this tree, used for rosaries; भस्मोद्धूलन भद्रमस्तु भवते रुद्राक्षमाले शुभम् K. P.1. -अरिः the god of love. -आक्रीडः a cemetery. -आवासः 1 'the abode of Rudra', the mountain Kailāsa. -2 N. of Benares. -3 a cemetery; cf. पितृसद्मगोचरः Ku.5.77. -गर्भः N. of Agni. -जः quicksilver. -दर्शन a. terrific. -पत्नी 1 the goddess Durgā. -2 linseed. -प्रयागः the sacred place where the मन्दाकिनी joins the गङ्गा. -प्रिया 1 Pārvatī. -2 The yellow myrobalan tree. -भूः f. a cemetery. -यामलम् N. of a Tantra (a dialogue between भैरव and भैरवी). -रोदनम् gold; यत्सेवयाग्नेरिव रुद्ररोदनम् Bhāg.
8.24.48. -वीणा a kind of lute. -सखः N. of Kubera. -संमित a. equal to eleven. -सावर्णिः N. of the 12th Manu. -सूः f. a mother giving birth to eleven children.
a. roaring, terrific; m. Storm-god (chief of the Maruts): Rudra is sts. in Br. regarded as a form of Agni, but is later identified with Siva: pl. the Sons of Rudra, the Maruts (supposed to be either eleven or thirty-three in number); abbreviation for verses addressed to Rudra; N.: -kosa, m. Rudra's dictionary; -gapa, m. kind of prayer addressed to Rudra; -gâpin, a. muttering the Rudragapa; -ta, m. N.=Rudra-bhatta; -pâla, m. N.; -bhatta, m. N. of a scholar: -½âkârya, m. id.; -yagña, m. sacrifice to Rudra; (á)-vat, a. accompanied by Rudra or the Rudras; (á)-vartani, a. ep. of the Asvins; -sarman, m. N.; -suta, m. son of Rudra, Skanda; -soma, m. N. of a Brâh man; -hâsa, m. N. of a divine being.
noun (masculine) (in astrol.) name of the first Muhūrta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
(in music) of a kind of stringed instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the Rudras and Maruts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the letter e (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the number eleven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various teachers and authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the eleventh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Rudras or sons of Rudra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adjective (prob.) crying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dreadful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
horrible (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
howling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
roaring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
terrible (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
terrific (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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