P.-vasati-, (rarely A1.; exempli gratia, 'for example'perfect tense-vāsāṃ-cakre-; future-vatsyati-; ind.p.proṣya-), to go or sojourn abroad, leave home, depart etc. ; to disappear vanish, cease ; to stop at a place, abide, dwell ; (= Causal) to banish to (locative case) : Causal-vāsayati-, to make to dwell in ; to order to live abroad, turn out, expel, banish etc.: Desiderative-vivatsati-, to intend to set out on a journey ; to be about to depart from (ablative)
अभिमन्युः 1 N. of a son of Arjuna by his wife Subhadrā, sister of Kṛiṣṇa and Balarāma; also known by the metronymic Saubhadra. [He was called Abhimanyu because at his very birth he appeared to be heroic, long-armed and very fiery (अभिवृद्धः मन्युर्यस्य). When the Kauravas at the advice of Droṇa formed the peculiar battle-array called 'Chakravyuha' hoping that, as Arjuna was away, none of the Paṇḍavas
would be able to break through it, Abhimanyu assured his uncles that he was ready to try, if they only assisted him. He accordingly entered the Vyūha, killed many warriors on the Kaurava side, and was for a time more than a match even for such veteran and elderly heroes as Droṇa, Karṇa, Duryodhana &c. He could not, however, hold out long against fearful odds, and was at last overpowered and slain. He was very handsome. He had two wives, Vatsalā daughter of Balarāma and Uttarā daughter of the king of Virāṭa. Uttarā was pregnant when he was slain and gave birth to a son named Parīkṣita who succeeded to the throne of Hastināpura.] -2 Name of a son of Manu Chākṣuṣa. -3 Name of two kings of Kāshmir; Rāj. T. -पुरम् - Name of a town. Raj. T.
अमावसुः N. of a prince (a descendent of Purūravas); Mb. Hariv.
अमावस्या amāvasyā वास्या vāsyā वसी vasī वासी vāsī
अमावस्या वास्या वसी वासी (also written अमा- मसी-मासी) [अमावस् -ण्यत्, अमा सह वसतः चन्द्रार्कौ अस्यां सा. अमावस्यर्दन्यतरस्याम् P.III.1.122 Sk.] 1 The day of new moon, when the sun and moon dwell together or are in conjunction; the 15th day of the dark half of every lunar month; सूर्याजन्द्रमसोः यः परः सन्निकर्षः सा$मावस्या Gobhila; अमावास्यायां दीक्षित्वा Ch. Up.5.2.4. -2 A sacrifice offered at that time. -3 The sacrificial oblation.
अर्जुन a. [अर्ज्-उनन् णिलुक् च Uṇ.3.58] (-ना, -नी f.). 1 White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च Rv.6.9.1; पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् Śi.1.6. -2 Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना Av.4.37.5. -नः 1 The white colour. -2 A peacock. -3 A sort of cutaneous disease. -4 A tree (Mar. अर्जुनसादडा), with useful rind; Mb.3.64.3. -5 N. of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (पृथिव्यां चतुरन्तायां वर्णो मे दुर्लभः समः । करोमि कर्म शुद्धं च तेन मामर्जनं विदुः). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṁvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛiṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛiṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharata-khaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛiṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛiṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu- on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. अर्जनः फाल्गुनो जिष्णुः किरीटी श्वेतवाहनः । बीभत्सुर्विजयः कृष्णः सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः ॥ -6 N. of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See कार्तवीर्य. -7 N. of a country Bṛi. S.14. 25. -8 The only son of his mother. -9 N. of Indra. -1 N. of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. अईन). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree. -नी 1 A procuress, bawd. -2 A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा Mb.13.73.42. -3 A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु˚ Av.2.24.7. -4 N. of Uṣhā, wife of Aniruddha. -5 N. of a river commonly called करतोया. -6 (न्यौ, -न्यः dual and pl.) N. of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावो$र्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते Rv.1.85.13. -नम् 1 Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् Av.5.28.5. -2 Gold. -3 Slight inflammation of the white of the eye. -4 Grass. -न (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् ...Nm. -Comp. -अभ्रम N. of a medicament. -ईश्वरतीर्थम् N. of a holy place. Siva P. -उपमः the teak tree; also शाकद्रुम and महापत्राख्यवृक्ष. -काण्ड a. having a white stem or appendage. बभ्रोरर्जनकाण्डस्य यवस्य ते Av.2.8.3. -च्छवि a. white, of a white colour. -ध्वजः 'white-bannered', N. of Hanūmat. -पाकी N. of a plant and its fruits. -बदरः The fibre of the Arjuna plant; अर्जुन- बदरा मेखलाः क्रियन्ताभू । ŚB. on MS.9.4.25 -मिश्रः Name of a commentator on the Mb. -सखिः (L.) Kriṣṇa. -सिंहः N. of a prince (Inscriptions).
आयु a. [इ-ठण् Uṇ.1.2] Ved. Living, going, movable. -युः 1 A living being, man. -2 Mankind, human race. -3 Living beings taken collectively. -4 The first man. -5 Life, duration of life. -6 Wind, अहं केशरिणः क्षेत्रे वायुना जगदायुना Mb. -7 A son, descendant, offspring. -8 The son of Purūravas and Urvaśī. -Comp. -षक् a. attached to; joined with men; सोमः पवत आयुषक् Rv.9.25.5.
इडा ला [इल्-अच्, वा लस्य डत्वम्] 1 The earth; प्रवुध्यते नूनमिडातलस्थः Mb. -2 Speech. -3 An offering, libation (coming between प्रयाज and अनुयाज); अग्निश्चते योनिरिडा च देहः Mb.3.114.28. -4 Refreshing draught. -5 (Hence) Food. -6 (Fig.) Stream or flow of praise or worship personified as the goddess of sacred speech; इडोपहूताः क्रोशन्ति कुञ्जरास्त्वङ्कुशेरिताः Mb.12.98.26. -7 Libation and offering of milk. -8 A cow. इडेरन्ते &c. ŚB. on MS. 1.3.49. -9 N. of a goddess, daughter of Manu. (She is the wife of Budha and mother of Purūravas; she is also called मैत्रावरुणी as the daughter of मित्र and वरुण). -1 N. of Durgā -11 Heaven. -12 A tubular vessel (नाडीभेद), (being in the right side of the body).
इन्द्रः [इन्द्-रन्; इन्दतीति इन्द्रः; इदि ऐश्वर्ये Malli.] 1 The lord of gods. -2 The god of rain, rain; cloud; इन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः । शं न इन्द्रो बृहस्पतिः Tait. Vp.1.1.1. Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. -3 A lord or ruler (as of men &c.). इन्द्रो- मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते Bṛi. Up.2.5.19. first or best (of any class of objects), always as the last member of comp.; नरेन्द्रः a lord of men i. e. a king; so मृगेन्द्रः a lion; गजेन्द्रः the lord or chief of elephants; so योगीन्द्रः, कपीन्द्रः. -4 A prince, king. -5 The pupil of the right eye. -6 N. of the plant कुटज. -7 Night. -8 One of the divisions of भारतवर्ष. -9 N. of the 26th Yoga. -1 The human or animal soul. -11 A vegetable poison. -12 The Yoga star in the 26th Nakṣatra. -13 Greatness. -14 The five objects of senses. -द्रा 1 The wife of Indra, Indrāṇī. -2 N. of a plant (मरुबक Mar. मरवा) [Indra, the god of the firmament, is the Jupiter Pluvius of the Indian Āryans. In the Vedas he is placed in the first rank among the gods; yet he is not regarded as an uncreated being, being distinctly spoken of in various passages of the Vedas as being born, and as having a father and a mother. He is sometimes represented as having been produced by the gods as a destroyer of enemies, as the son of Ekāṣṭakā, and in Rv.1.9.13 he is said to have sprung from the mouth of Puruṣa. He is of a ruddy or golden colour, and can assume any form at will. He rides in a bright golden chariot drawn by two tawny horses. His most famous weapon is the thunderbolt which he uses with deadly effect in his warfare with the demons of darkness, drought and inclement weather, variously called Ahi, Vṛitra, Śambar, Namuchi &c. He storms and breaks through their castles, and sends down fertilizing showers of rain to the great delight of his worshippers. He is thus the lord of the atmosphere, the dispenser of rain, and governor of the weather. He is represented as being assisted by the Maruts or storm-gods in his warfare. Besides the thunderbolt he uses arrows, a large hook, and a net. The Soma juice is his most favourite food, and under its exhilarating influence he performs great achievements (cf. Rv.1.119), and pleases his devout worshippers, who are said to invite the god to drink the juice. He is their friend and even their brother; a father, and the most fatherly of fathers; the helper of the poor, and the deliverer and comforter of his servants. He is a wall of defence; his friend is never slain or defeated. He richly rewards his adorers, particularly those who bring him libations of Soma, and he is supplicated for all sorts of temporal blessings as cows, horses, chariots, health, intelligence, prosperous days, long life, and victory in war. In the Vedas Indra's wife is Indrānī, who is invoked among the goddesses.
Such is the Vedic conception of Indra. But in later mythology he falls in the second rank. He is said to be one of the sons of Kaśyapa and Dākṣāyaṇī or Aditi. He is inferior to the triad Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa (though in some places Viṣṇu is regarded as his younger brother, cf. R.14.59,15.4), but he is the chief of all the other gods, and is commonly styled Sureśa, Devendra &c. As in the Vedas so in later mythology, he is the regent of the atmosphere, and of the east quarter, and his world is called Svarga. He sends the lightning, uses the thunderbolt and sends down rain. He is frequently at war with Asuras, whom he constantly dreads, and by whom he is sometimes defeated. The Indra of mythology is famous for his incontinence and adultery, one prominent instance of which is his seduction of Ahalyā, the wife of Gautama (see Ahalyā), and for which he is often spoken of as Ahalyā-jāra. The curse of the sage impressed upon him a 1 marks resembling the female organ, and he was therefore called Sayoni; but these marks were afterwards changed into eyes, and he is hence called Netra-yoni and Sahasrākṣa. In the Rāmāyana Indra is represented as having been defeated and carried off to Laṅkā by Ravaṇa's son called Meghanāda, who for this exploit received
the title of 'Indrajit'. It was only at the intercession of Brahmā and the gods that Indra was released, and this humiliation was regarded as a punishment for his seduction of Ahalyā. He is also represented as being in constant dread of sages practising potent penances, and as sending down nymphs to beguile their minds (see Apsaras). In the Purāṇas he is said to have destroyed the offspring of Diti in her womb, and to have cut off the wings of mountains when they grew troublesome. Other stories are also told in which Indra was once worsted by Raja, grandson of Purūravas, owing to the curse of Durvāsas, and other accounts show that he and Kṛiṣna were at war with each other for the Pārijāta tree which the latter wanted to remove from Svarga, and which he succeeded in doing in spite of Indra's resistance. His wife is Indrāṇī, the daughter of the demon Puloman, and his son is named Jayanta. He is also said to be father of Arjuna. His epithets are numerous; mostly descriptive of his achievements, e. g. वृत्रहन्, बलभिद्, पाकशासन, गोत्रभिद्, पुरंदर, शतक्रतु, जिष्णु, नमुचिसूदन &c. (see Ak.I.1.44.47). The Heaven of Indra is Svarga; its capital, Amarāvatī; his garden, Nandana; his elephant, Airāvata; his horse, Uchchaiśravas; his bow, the rain-bow, and his sword, Paranja.]. -Comp. -अग्निः the fire produced from the contact of clouds; ˚धूमः frost, snow; ˚देवता the 16th lunar mansion. -अनुजः, -अवरजः an epithet of Viṣṇu and of Nārāyaṇa (उपेन्द्र); तस्थौ भ्रातृसमीपस्थः शक्रस्येन्द्रानुजो यथा Rām.6.91.4. -अरिः an Asura or demon. -अवसानः a desert. -अशनः 1 hemp (dried and chewed). -2 the shrub which bears the seed used in jeweller's weight, (गुंजावृक्ष). -आयुधम् Indra's weapon, the rainbow; इन्द्रा- युधद्योतिततोरणाङ्कम् R.7.4,12.79; K.127. (-ध) 1 N. of the horse in Kādambarī (i. e. Kapiñjala changed into a horse). -2 a horse marked with black about the eyes. -3 a diamond. (-धा) a kind of leech. -आसनम् 1 the throne of Indra. -2 a throne in general. -3 a foot of five short syllables. -इज्यः N. of बृहस्पति the preceptor of gods. -ईश्वरः one of the forms of Śiva-liṅga. -उत्सवः a festival honouring Indra. -ऋषभ a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an epithet of the earth. इन्द्रऋषभा द्रविणे नो दधातु Av.12.1.6. -कर्मन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra's deeds). -कान्तः A class of the four-storeyed buildings. (Mānasāra 21.6-68). -कीलः 1 N. of the mountain मन्दर. -2 a rock. (-लम्) 1 the banner of Indra. -2 A pin, nail, bolt फालका भाजनोर्ध्वे तु तदूर्ध्वे चेन्द्रकीलकम् (Mānasāra 12.126). cf. also Kau. A.2.3. -कुञ्जरः Indra's elephant, Airāvata. -कूटः N. of a mountain -कृष्ट a. 'ploughed by Indra', growing exuberantly or in a wild state. (-ष्टः) a kind of corn produced by rain-water. -केतुः Indra's banner. -कोशः, -षः, -षकः, -ष्ठः 1 a couch, sofa, which is generally made up of covering pieces of perforated wooden planks; cf. अट्टालक- प्रतोलीमध्ये त्रिधानुष्काधिष्ठानं-इन्द्रकोशं कारयेत् Kau. A.2.3. -2 a platform. -3 a projection of the roof of a house. -4 A pin or bracket projecting from the wall (नागदन्त). A projection of the roof of a house forming a kind of balcony; Kau. A.24. -गिरिः the महेन्द्र mountain. -गुरुः, -आचार्यः the teacher of Indra; i. e. बृहस्पति. -गोपः, -गोपकः [इन्द्रो गोपो रक्षको$स्य, वर्षाभवत्वात्तस्य] a kind of insect of red or white colour; Śukra.4.157; K.1. -चन्दनम् the white sandal wood. -चापम्, -धनुस् n. 1 a rainbow; विद्युत्वन्तं ललितवनिताः सेन्द्रचापं सचित्राः Me.64; Śi.7.4. -2 the bow of Indra -चिर्भटा A mild variety of Colocynth. The leaf is tripartite, rough and wrinkled. (Mar. कंवडळ, applied often as इन्द्रावण in the sense of vile, malignant, dark and hateful.) -च्छदः A necklace of pearls having 18 strings. -च्छन्दस् n. [इन्द्र इव सहस्रनेत्रेण सहस्रगुच्छेन च्छाद्यते] a necklace consisting of 1 strings. -जः N. of Vālī. -जतु n. Bitumen (Mar. शिलाजित). -जननम् Indra's birth. -जननीय a. treating of Indra's birth (as a work). -जा a. Ved. born or arising from Indra. Av.4.3.7. -जालम् [इन्द्रस्य परमेश्वरस्य जालं मायेव] 1 the net of Indra. तेनाह- मिन्द्रजालेनामूंस्तमसाभि दधामि सर्वान् Av.8.8.8. -2 a weapon used by Arjuna; a stratagem or trick in war. -3 deception, cheating. -4 conjuring, jugglery, magical tricks; इन्द्रजालं च मायां वै कुहका वा$पि भीषणा Mb.5.16.55. स्वप्नेन्द्रजालसदृशः खलु जीवलोकः Śānti.2.2; K.15. -जालिक a. [इन्द्रजाल-ठन्] deceptive, unreal, delusive. (-कः) a juggler, conjurer. -जित् m. 'conqueror of Indra', N. of a son of Rāvaṇa who was killed by Lakṣmaṇa. [Indrajit is another name of Meghanāda a son of Rāvaṇa. When Rāvaṇa warred against Indra in his own heaven, his son Meghanāda was with him, and fought most valiantly. During the combat, Meghanāda, by virtue of the magical power of becoming invisible which he had obtained from Śiva, bound Indra, and bore him off in triumph to Laṅkā. Brahmā and the other gods hurried thither to obtain his release, and gave to Meghanāda the title of Indrajit, 'conqueror of Indra'; but the victor refused to release his prisoners unless he were promised immortality. Brahmā refused to grant this extravagant demand, but he strenuously persisted, and achieved his object. In the Rāmāyaṇa he is represented to have been decapitated by Lakṣmaṇa while he was engaged in a sacrifice]. ˚हन्तृ or विजयिन् m. N. of Lakṣmaṇa. -ज्येष्ठ a. Ved. led by Indra. -तापनः the thundering of clouds. -तूलम्, -तूलकम् a flock of cotton. -दमनः the son of Bāṇāsura. -दारुः the tree Pinus Devadāru. -द्युति Sandal -द्रुः, -द्रुमः 1 the plant Terminalia Arjuna (अर्जुन). -2 The plant कुटज. -द्वीपः, -पम् one of the 9 Dvīpas or Divisions of the continent (of India). -धनुः N. of Indra's bow, the rainbow; स एकव्रा- त्यो$भवत्स धनुरादत्त तदेवेन्द्रधनुः Av.15.1.6. -ध्वजः 1 a flag
raised on the 12th day of the bright half of Bhādra. -2 Indra's weapon; विस्रस्ताकल्पकेशस्रगिन्द्रध्वज इवापतत् Bhāg.1.44.22. -नक्षत्रम् Indra's lunar mansion फल्गुनी. -नेत्रम् 1 the eye of Indra. -2 the number one thousand. -नीलः [इन्द्र इव नीलः श्यामः] a sapphire; परीक्षाप्रत्ययैर्यैश्च पद्मरागः परीक्ष्यते । त एव प्रत्यया दृष्टा इन्द्रनीलमणेरपि ॥ Garuḍa. P.; R.13.54;16.69; Me.48,79. -नीलकः an emerald. -पत्नी 1 Indra's wife, शची. -पर्णी, -पुष्पा N. of a medicinal plant (Mar. कळलावी). -पर्वतः 1 the महेन्द्र mountain. -2 a blue mountain. -पुत्रा N. of अदिति. -पुरोगम, -पुरःसर, -श्रेष्ठ a. led or preceded by Indra, having Indra at the head. -पुरोहितः N. of बृहस्पति. (-ता) the asterism Puṣya. -प्रमतिः N. of the pupil of Paila and the author of some ṛiks of the Rv. -प्रस्थम् N. of a city on the Yamunā, the residence of the Paṇḍavas (identified with the modern Delhi); इन्द्रप्रस्थगमस्तावत्कारि मा सन्तु चेदयः Śi.2.63. -प्रहरणम् Indra's weapon, the thunderbolt. -भगिनी N. of Pārvatī. -भेषजम् dried ginger. -मखः a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -महः 1 a festival in honour of Indra. -2 the rainy season; ˚कामुकः a dog. -मादन a. animating or delighting Indra; ये वायव इन्द्रमादनासः Rv.7.92.4. -मेदिन् a. Ved. whose friend or ally is Indra; इन्द्रमेदी सत्वनो नि ह्वयस्व Av.5.2-.8. -यज्ञः (See इन्द्रमह and इन्द्रमख) श्वो$स्माकं घोषस्योचित इन्द्रयज्ञो नामोत्सवः भविष्यति Bālacharita I. -यवः, -वम् seed of the Kutaja tree. -लुप्तः, -प्तम्, -लुप्तकम् 1 excessive baldness of the head. -2 loss of beard. -लोकः Indra's world, Svarga or Paradise. -लोकेशः 1 lord of Indra's world, i. e. Indra. -2 a guest (who, if hospitably received, confers paradise on his host). -वंशा, -वज्रा N. of two metres, see Appendix. -वल्लरी, -वल्ली N. of a plant (पारिजात) or of इन्द्रवारुणी. -वस्तिः [इन्द्रस्य आत्मनः वस्तिरिव] the calf (of the leg). -वाततम a. Ved. desired by Indra. अस्मे ऊतीरिन्द्रवाततमाः Rv.1.6.6. -वानकम् A variety of diamonds. Kau. A.2.11. -वायू (du.) Indra and Vāyu. इन्द्रवायू उभाविह सुहवेह हवामहे Av.3.2.6. -वारुणी, -वारुणिका Colocynth, a wild bitter gourd cucumis colocynthis. (Mar. मोठी कंवडळ) किमिन्द्रवारुणी राम सितया कटुकीयते Laghu Yoga-vāsiṣṭha-sāra X. सौवर्चलं हरिद्रा च पिप्पली चेन्द्रवारुणिः । मूत्र- कृच्छ्रे प्रशंसन्ति पिण्डो$यं वाजिनां हितः ॥ शालिहोत्र of भोज 33. -वाह् a. carrying Indra. -वृक्षः the Devadāru tree. -वृद्धा a kind of abscess. -वैडूर्यम् a kind of precious stone. -व्रतम् Indra's rule of conduct; one of the duties of a king (who is said to follow इन्द्रव्रत when he distributes benefits as Indra pours down rain); वार्षिकांश्चतुरो मासान् यथेन्द्रो$प्यभिवर्षति । तथाभिवर्षेत्स्वं राष्ट्रं कामैरिन्द्रव्रतं चरन् ॥ Ms.9.34. -शक्तिः f. Indrāṇī, the wife of Indra, or his energy personified. -शत्रुः 1 an enemy or destroyer of Indra (when the accent is on the last syllable), an epithet of प्रह्लाद; इन्द्रशत्रो विवर्धस्व मा चिरं जहि विद्विषम् Bhāg.6.9.12. बलिप्रदिष्टां श्रियमाददानं त्रैविक्रमं पादमिवेन्द्रशत्रुः R.7.35. -2 [इन्द्रः शत्रुः यस्य] one whose enemy is Indra, an epithet of वृत्र (when the accent is on the first syllable). (This refers to a legend in the Śat. Br., where it is said that Vṛitra's father intended his son to become the destroyer of Indra, and asked him to say इन्द्रशत्रुर्वधस्व &c. but who, through mistake, accented the word on the first syllable, and was killed by Indra; cf. Śik.52; मन्त्रो हीनः स्वरतो वर्णतो वा मिथ्याप्रयुक्तो न तमर्थमाह । स वाग्वज्रो यजमानं हिनस्ति यथेन्द्रशत्रुः स्वरतो$पराधात् ॥ -शलभः a kind of insect (इन्द्रगोप). -संजयम् N. of a sāman. Arṣeya Br. -संधा connection or alliance with Indra. तयाहमिन्द्रसंधया सर्वान् देवानिह हुव Av.11.1.9. -सारथिः 1 N. of Mātali. -2 an epithet of Vāyu, driving in the same carriage with Indra; Rv.4.46.2. -सावर्णिः N. of the fourteenth Manu. -सुतः, -सूनुः 1 N. of (a) Jayanta; (b) Arjuna; (c) Vāli, the king of monkeys. -2 N. of the अर्जुन tree. -सुरसः, -सुरा a shrub the leaves of which are used in discutient applications (निर्गुंडी). -सेनः N. of several men; of Bali; of a mountain; Bhāg.8.2.23. -सेना 1 Indra's missile or host. -2 Indra's army; Rv.1.12.2. -सेनानीः the leader of Indra's armies, epithet of Kārtikeya. -स्तुत् m. -स्तोमः 1 praise of Indra; N. of a particular hymn addressed to Indra in certain ceremonies. -2 a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -हवः invocation of Indra; भद्रान् कृण्वन्निन्द्रहवान्त्सखिभ्य Rv.9.96.1. -हस्तः a kind of medicament.
उर्वशी [उरून् महतो$पि अश्नुते वशीकरोति, उरु-अश्-क गौरा˚ ङीष् Tv.] 1 N. of a famous Apsaras or nymph of Indra's heaven who became the wife of Purūravas. [Urvaśī is frequently mentioned in the Ṛigveda; at her sight the seed of Mitra and Varuṇa fell down, from which arose Agastya and Va&siṣṭa; (see Agastya). Being cursed by Mitra and Varuṇa she came down to the world of mortals, and became the wife of Purūravas, whom she chanced to see while descending, and who made a very favourable impression upon her mind. She lived with him for some time, and went up to heaven at the expiration of her curse. Purūravas was sorely grieved at her loss, but succeeded in securing her company once more. She bore him a son named Āyus, and then left him forever. The account given in the Vikramorvaśīyam differs in many respects, where Indra is represented to have favoured Purūra-vas with her lifelong company though he had himself cursed her. Mythologically she is said to have sprung from the thigh of the sage Nārāyaṇa, q. v.] उर्वशी वै रुपिण्यप्सरसाम् Mbh.5.2.95; मर्त्तासश्चिदुर्वशीरकृप्रन् Av. 18.3.23; स्त्रीरत्नेषु ममोर्वशी प्रियतमा यूथे तवेयं वशा V.4.47. -2 Wish, ardent desire. -Comp. -तीर्थम् N. of a sacred place referred to in Bhārata. -नाममाला N. of a lexicon. -रमणः, -सहायः, -वल्लभः N. of Purūravas.
कर्ण a. Ved. 1 Having long ears. -2 Furnished with chaff (as grain). -र्णः 1 The ear; अहो खलभुजङ्गस्य विपरीतवधक्रमः । कर्णे लगति चान्यस्य प्राणैरन्यो वियुज्यते ॥ Pt.1. 35, 34 also; -कर्णे दा to listen; कर्णमागम् to come to the ear, become known; तद्गुणैः कर्णमागत्य R.1.9; कर्णे कृ to put round the ear; Ch. P.1; कर्णे कथयति whispers in the ear; cf. षट्कर्ण, चतुष्कर्ण &c. also. -2 The handle or ear of a vessel; उभा कर्णा हिरण्यया Rv.8.72.12. -3 The helm or rudder of a ship; सेना भ्रमति संख्येषु हत- कर्णेव नौर्जले Rām.6.48.26. -4 The hypotenuse of a triangle. -5 The diameter of a circle; Sūrya. -6 An intermediate region or quarter (उपदिग्भाग); Mb.6. 6.1. -7 (In prosody) A spondee. -8 N. of a tree (Mar. बाहवा, रुइमांदार) Rām.5.56.34. -2 N. of a celebrated warrior on the side of the Kauravas mentioned in the Mahābhārata. भवान् भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च Bg.1.8;11.34. [He was the son of Kuntī begotten on her by the god Sun while she was yet a virgin residing at her father's house (see Kuntī). When the child was born, Kuntī, afraid of the censure of her relatives and also of public scandal, threw the boy into the river where he was found by Adhiratha, charioteer of Dhṛitrāṣṭra, and given over to his wife Rādhā, who brought him up like her own child; whence Karṇa is often called Sūtaputra, Rādheya &c. Karṇa, when grown up, was made king of Aṇga by Duryodhana, and became by virtue of his many generous acts a type of charity. On one occasion Indra (whose care it was to favour his son Arjuna) disguised himself as a Brāhmaṇa and cajoled him out of his divine armour and ear-rings, and gave him in return a charmed javelin. With a desire to make himself proficient in the science of war, he, calling himself a Brāhmaṇa went to Parasurāma and learnt that art from him. But his secret did not long remain concealed. On one occasion when Parasurāma had fallen asleep with his head resting on Karṇa's lap, a worm (supposed by some to be the form assumed by Indra himself to defeat Karṇa's object) began to eat into his lap and made a deep rent in it; but as Karṇa showed not the least sign of pain, his real character was discovered by his preceptor who cursed him that the art he had learnt would avail him not in times of need. On another occasion he was curse by a Brāhmaṇa (whose cow he had unwittingly slain in chase) that the earth would eat up the wheel of his chariot in the hour of trial. Even with such disadvantages as these, he acquitted himself most valiantly in the great war between the Paṇḍavas and Kauravas, while acting as generalissimo of the Kaurava forces after Bhīṣma and Droṇa had fallen. He maintained
the field against the Paṇḍavas for three days, but on the last day he was slain by Arjuna while the wheel of his chariot had sunk down into the earth. Karṇa was the most intimate friend of Duryodhana, and with Śakuni joined him in all the various schemes and plots that were devised from time to time for the destruction of the Paṇ&dvas.] -Comp. -अञ्चलः (लम्) Ear-lobe; (Mātaṅga L.5.12.) -अञ्जलिः 1 The auditory passage of the outer ear. -2 The ears pricked up; आपीय कर्णाञ्जलिभिर्भवापहाम् Bhāg.3.13.5. -अनुजः Yudhiṣṭhira. -अन्तिक a. close to the ear; स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः Ś.1.23. -अन्दुः, -न्दू f. an ornament for the ear, ear-ring. -अर्पणम् giving ear, listening. -आरा (= -वेधनी). -आस्फालः the flapping of the elephant's ears. -इन्दुः f. a semicircular ear-ring. -उत्तंसः an ear-ornament or merely an ornament (according to some authorities). (Mammaṭa says that here कर्ण means कर्णंस्थितत्व; cf. also his remark ad hoc:- कर्णावतंसादिपदे कर्णादिध्वनिनिर्मितः । सन्निधानार्थबोधार्थं स्थितेष्वेत- त्समर्थनम् ॥ K. P.7). -उपकर्णिका rumour; (lit. 'from ear to ear'). प्रागेव कर्णोपकर्णिकया श्रुतापवादक्षुभितहृदयः Pt. -ऊर्णः a kind of deer; कर्णोर्णैकपदं चास्मै निर्जुष्टं वृकनाभिभिः Bhāg. -कषायः Dirt in the ears; आपीयतां कर्णकषायशोषाननुक्रमिष्ये न इमान्सुपेशान् Bhāg.2.6.46. -कीटा, -टी 1 a worm with many feet and of a reddish colour, -2 a small centipede. -कुमारी N. of Bhavānī. -कूटः The tower at the corner of the roof; Māna.19.54-55. -क्ष्वेडः (in Medic.) a constant noise in the ear. -गूथम् earwax. (-थः) -गूथकः hardening of the wax of the ear. -गोचर a. audible. -ग्राहः a helmsman. -चूलिका f. An ear-ring; उत्कृत्तकर्णचूलिकेन मुखेन ...... Svapna.2. -जप a. (also कर्णेजप) a secret traducer, talebearer, informer. कर्णेजपः सूचकः Mbh. on P.III.2.13. -जपः, -जापः slandering, tale-bearing, calumniating. -जलूका a small centipede. (also -जलौकस्, -जलौका) -जाहम् the root of the ear; cf. तस्य पाकमूले पील्वादिकर्णादिभ्यः कुणब्जाह चौ Pān. V.2.24. अपि कर्णजाहविनिवेशिताननः Māl.5.8. -जित् m. 'conqueror of Karṇa', epithet of Arjuna, the third Pāṇḍava prince. -ज्वरः pain to the ear; U.5.6. -तालः the flapping of the elephant's ears, the noise made by it; विस्तारितः कुञ्जरकर्ण- तालैः R.7.39,9.71; Śi.17.37. -दर्पणः an ear-ring. -दुन्दुभिः = कर्णकीटा. -धारः a helmsman, a pilot; अकर्णधारा जलधौ विप्लवेतेह नौरिव H.3.2; अविनयनदीकर्णधार- कर्ण Ve.4. -धारिणी a female elephant. -पत्रकः The lobe of the ear; Y.3.96. -पथः the range of hearing. -परम्परा from ear to ear, hearsay; इति कर्णपरंपरया श्रुतम् Ratn.1. -पर्वन् n. the eighth (i. e. Karṇa) section of the Mahābhārata. -पाकः inflammation of the outer ear. -पालिः, -ली f. 1 the lobe of the ear. -2 the outer edge of the ear. (-ली) an ornament of the ear. -पाशः a beautiful ear; U.6.27. -पिशाची f. a type of goddess. -पुटम् the auditory passage of the ear. -पूरः 1 an ornament (of flowers &c.) worn round the ear, an ear-ring; इदं च करतलं किमिति कर्णपूरतामारोपितम् K.6. प्रचुरसमरशोभासुभ्रुवः कर्णपूरः Śiva. B.3.46. -2 the Aśoka tree. -3 the Śirīṣa tree. -4 the blue lotus. -पूरकः 1 an ear-ring. -2 the Kadamba tree. -3 the Aṣoka tree. -4 the blue lotus. -प्रणादः, -प्रतिनाहः a disease of the ear. -प्रान्तः the lobe of the ear. -फलः a kind of fish. -भूषणम्, -भूषा an ear-ornament. -मुकुरः an ear-ornament. -मूलम् the root of the ear; तं कर्णमूलमागत्य रामे श्रीर्न्यस्यतामिति R.12.2. -मोटी a form of Durgā. -योनि a. having the ear as a source. तस्य साध्वीरिषवो याभिरस्यति नृचक्षसो दृशये कर्णयोनयः Rv.2.24.8. -लता, -लतिका the lobe of the ear; मन्ये$मुना कर्णलतामयेन N.7.64. -वंशः a raised platform or dais of bamboo. -वर्जित a. earless. (-तः) a snake. -विवरम्, -छिद्रम्, -पुरम्, -रन्ध्रम् the auditory passage of the ear. -विष् f. ear-wax; Ms.5.135. -विषम् 'poisoning the ear', slandering, backbiting. -वेधः piercing the ears to put ear-rings on; a religious ceremony (संस्कार). -वेधनी, -वेधनिका an instrument for piercing the ear. -वेष्टः, -वेष्टनम् an ear-ring; सुकृतौ कर्णवेष्टौ च Rām.5.15.42. -शष्कुली the outer part of the ear (leading to the auditory passage); AV.9.8.1. अवलम्बितकर्णशष्कुलीकलसीकं रचयन्नवोचत N.2.8. -शूलः, -लम् ear-ache. -श्रव a. audible, loud; कर्णश्रवे$- निले Ms.4.12. -श्रावः, -संश्रवः 'running of the ear', discharge of pus or ichorous matter from the ear. -सूः f. Kuntī, mother of Karṇa. -स्रोतस् n. excretion of the ear (कर्णमल) कर्णस्रोतोभवं चापि मधुं नाम महासुरम् Mb.6. 67.14. -हर्म्यम् a tower, a side-tower. -हीन a. earless. (-नः) a snake.
कीर्तिः f. [कॄत्-क्तिन्] 1 Fame, renown, glory; इह कीर्तिमवाप्नोति Ms.2.9; वंशस्य कर्तारमनन्तकीर्तिम् R.2.64; स्रोतोमूर्त्या भुवि परिणतां रन्तिदेवस्य कीर्तिम् Me.47. For an interesting distinction between कीर्तिः and यशस् cf. खङ्गादिप्रभवा कीर्तिर्विद्यादिप्रभवं यशः -2 Favour, approbation. -3 Dirt, mud. -4 Extension, expansion. -5 Light, lustre, splendour. -6 Sound. -7 Mention, speech, report. -Comp. -भाज् a. famous, celebrated, renowned. (-m.) an epithet of Droṇa, the military preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. -शेषः survival or remaining behind only in fame, leaving nothing behind but fame i. e. death; cf. नामशेष, आलेख्यशेष; सरसीव कीर्तिशेषं गतवति भुवि विक्रमादित्ये Vās. -स्तम्भः a column of fame; B. R.
कुबे (वे) रः [कुत्सितं बे (वे) रं शरीरं यस्य सः] 1 The god of riches and treasure and the regent of the northern quarter; कुबेरगुप्तां दिशमुष्णरश्मौ गन्तुं प्रवृत्ते समयं विलङ्घ्य Ku.3.25 (vide Malli. thereon). [Kubera is the son of Viśravas by Iḍāviḍā, and thus the half brother of Rāvaṇa. Besides, being the lord of riches and regent of the north, he is the king of the Yakṣas and Kinnaras, and a friend of Rudra. His abode is Kailāsa. He is represented as being deformed in body-having three legs, only eight teeth, and a yellow mark in place of one eye.] -2 N. of a tree. -Comp. -अक्षी N. of a plant (Mar. सागरगोटी). -अद्रिः, -अचलः an epithet of mountain Kailāsa. -दिश् f. the north. -बान्धवः N. of Śiva.
कुम्भः [कुं भूमिं कुत्सितं वा उम्भति पूरयति उम्भ्-अच् शकं˚ Tv.] 1 A pitcher, water-pot, jar; इयं सुस्तनी मस्तकन्यस्तकुम्भा Jag.; वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुम्भं पयोमुखम् H.1.74; R.2.36; so कुच˚, स्तन˚. -2 The frontal globe on the forehead of an elephant; इभकुम्भ Māl.5.32; मत्तेभकुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः Bh.1.59. -3 Aquarius, the eleventh sign of the zodiac. -4 A measure of grain equal to 2 droṇas; धान्यं दशभ्यः कुम्भेभ्यो हरतो$भ्यधिकं वधः Ms.8.32. -5 (In Yoga phil.) Closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing. -6 The paramour of a harlot. -7 An urn in which the bones of dead bodies are collected. -8 A kind of heart-disease. -9 N. of a plant (and also of its fruit); क्वचिद् बिल्वैः क्वचित्कुम्भैः क्वचिच्चा- मलकमुष्टिभिः Bhāg.1.18.14. -भा A harlot, a whore. -भम् A fragrant resin (गुग्गुल). -Comp. -उदरः one of the attendants of Śiva; अवेहि मां किङ्करमष्टमूर्तेः कुम्भोदरं नाम निकुम्भमित्रम् R.2.35. -उलूकः a kind of owl; हृत्वा पिष्ट- मयं पूपं कुम्भोलूकः प्रजायते Mb.13.111.11. -उलूखकम् a medicinal plant (Mar. गुग्गुळ). -कर्णः 'pitcher-eared', N. of a gigantic Rākṣasa, a brother of Rāvaṇa and slain by Rāma. [He is said to have devoured thousands of beings including sages and heavenly nymphs, and the gods were anxiously waiting for an opportunity to retaliate upon the powerful demon. After Brahmā had inflicted on him a curse for the humiliation to which he subjected Indra and his elephant Airāvata, Kumbhakarṇa began to practise the most rigid austerities. Brahmā was pleased and was about to grant him a boon, when the gods requested Sarasvatī to sit on his tongue and to pervert it. Accordingly when he went to the god, instead of asking Indrapada he asked Nidrāpada which was readily granted. It is said that he slept for six months at a time, and, when roused, was awake for only one day. When Lankā was besieged by the monkey-troops of Rāma, Ravāṇa with great difficulty roused Kumbhakarṇa, desirous of availing himself of his gigantic strength. After having drunk 2 jars of liquor, he took Sugrīva prisoner, besides devouring thousands of monkeys. He was ultimately slain by Rāma.] Rām.6; R.12.8. -2 an epithet of Śiva; Mb.12. -कामला a bilious affection. -कारः 1 a potter; मृद्दण्डचक्रसंयोगात्कुम्भकारो यथा घटम् (करोति) Y.3.146. -2 a mixed tribe (वेश्यायां विप्रतश्चौर्यात् कुम्भकारः स उच्यते Uśanas; or मालाकारात्कर्मकर्यां कुम्भकारो व्यजायत Parāśara). -3 a serpent. -4 a kind of wild fowl. (-री), -कारिका 1 the wife of a potter. -2 a kind of collyrium. -घोणः N. of a town. -जः, -जन्मन् m. -योनिः, m. -संभवः 1 epithets of Agastya; एतदाख्याय रामाय महर्षिः कुम्भसंभवः Rām.7.8.1; प्रससादोदयादम्भः कुम्भयोनेर्महौजसः R.4.21;15.55. -2 an epithet of Droṇa, the military preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. -3 an epithet of Vasiṣṭha. -दासी a bawd, procuress; sometimes used as a term of reproach or abuse. -धरः the sign ef the zodiac called Aquarius. -पञ्जरः a niche in the wall. -राशिः the sign Aquarius. -रेतस् m. a form of Agni. -लग्नम् that time of the day in which Aquarius rises above the horizon.
-मण्डूकः 1 (lit.) a frog in a pitcher. -2 (fig.) an inexperienced man; cf. कूपमण्डूक. -शाला pottery. -सन्धिः the hollow on the top of an elephant's head between the frontal globes.
कुरुः (pl.) 1 N. of a country situated in the north of India about the site of the modern Delhi; श्रियः कुरूणा- मधिपस्य पालनीम् Ki.1.1; चिराय तस्मिन् कुरवश्चकासति 1.17. -2 The kings of this country. -रुः 1 A priest. -2 Boiled rice. -Comp. -क्षेत्रम् N. of an extensive plain near Delhi, the scene of the great war between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1; Ms.2.19. -क्षेत्रियोगः a solar day in the
course of which three lunar days, three asterisms and three yogas occur. The yoga is indicative of death; पञ्चग्रहयुते मृत्यौ लग्नसंस्थे बृहस्पतौ । सौम्यक्षेत्रगते लग्ने कुरुक्षेत्रे मृति- र्भवेत् ॥ -चिल्लः a crab. -जाङ्गलम् = कुरुक्षेत्र q. v. -नन्दनः epithet of Arjuna; Bg.2.41;6.43. -पञ्चालाः N. of a country; कुरुपञ्चालानां ब्राह्मणाः Bṛi. Up.3.9.19. -बिल्वः a ruby. -राज् m. -राजः 1 an epithet of Duryodhana. स्वस्था भवन्तु कुरुराजसुताः सभृत्याः Ve.1.7. -2 N. of Yudhi-ṣṭhira; कस्यचित्त्वथ कालस्य कुरुराजो युधिष्ठिरः Mb.16.1.7. -विस्तः a weight of gold equal to about 7 Troy grains. -वृद्धः an epithet of Bhīṣma; तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः Bg.1.12.
कृत p. p. [कृ-क्त] 1 Done, performed, made, effected accomplished, manufactured &c.; (p. p. of कृ 8. U. q. v.) ते करान् संप्रयच्छन्तु सुवर्णं च कृताकृतम् Mb.3.255.17; दिव्याः प्रसन्ना विविधाः सुराः कृतसुरा अपि Rām.5.11.22; natural and manufactured wines. -2 Wounded, hurt; सिद्ध्येत ते कृतमनोभवधर्षितायाः Bhāg.3.23.11. -3 Acquired, bought (a kind of son); Mb.13.49.4. -4 Cultivated; अकृतं च कृतात्क्षेत्राद् गौरजाविकमेव च Ms.1.114. -5 Appointed (as a duty); सो$पि यत्नेन संरक्ष्यो धर्मो राजकृतश्च यः Y.2.186. -6 Relating to, referring to; पतनीयकृते क्षेपे Y.2.21. -तम् 1 Work, deed, action; कृतं न वेत्ति Pt.1.424; ungrateful; Ms.7.197. -2 Service, benefit. -3 Consequence, result. -4 Aim, object. -5 N. of that side of a die which is marked with four points; this is lucky; cf. Vāj.3.18. -6 N. of the first of the four Yugas of the world extending over 1728 years of men (see Ms.1.69 and Kull. thereon). -7 The number '4'. -8 A stake at a game. -9 Prize or booty gained in a battle. -1 An offering. -11 Magic sorcery. -Comp. -अकृत a. done and not done; i. e. done in part but not completed; कृताकृतस्यैव च काञ्चनस्य Bu. Ch.2.2; that which is done and that which is not done (Dvandva Comp.) मा त्वा ताप्तां कृताकृते Mbh. on P.II.2.29; कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम्. (-तः) the Supreme Being. -अङ्क a. 1 marked, branded; कठ्यां कृताङ्को निर्वास्यः Ms.8.281. -2 numbered. (ङ्कः) that side of a die which is marked with four points. -अञ्जलि a. folding the hands in supplication; प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिरभाषत Bg.11.14,35; Ms.4.154. -अनुकर a. following another's example, subservient. -अनुसारः custom, usage. -अन्त a. bringing to an end, terminating. (-तः) 1 Yama, the god of death; कृतान्त आसीत्समरो देवानां सह दानवैः Bhāg.9.6.13; द्वितीयं कृतान्त- मिवाटन्तं व्याधमपश्यत् H.1. -2 fate, destiny; कृतान्त एव सौमित्रे द्रष्टव्यो मत्प्रवासने Rām.2.22.15; क्रूरस्तस्मिन्नपि न सहते संगमं नौ कृतान्तः Me.17. -3 a demonstrated conclusion, dogma, a proved doctrine; दैवं पुरुषकारश्च कृतान्ते- नोपपद्यते Mb.12.153.5; यथा लौकिकेषु वैदिकेषु च कृतान्तेषु Mbh. on P.I.1.1,56; साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि Bg.18.13. -4 a sinful or inauspicious action. -5 an epithet of Saturn. -6 Saturday. -7 the inevitable result of former actions. -8 the second lunar mansion. -9 the number 'two'. ˚कुशल an astrologer; आधिराज्ये$भिषेको मे ब्राह्मणैः पतिना सह । कृतान्त- कुशलैरुक्तं तत्सर्वं वितथीकृतम् Rām.6.48.14. ˚जनकः the sun. -अन्नम् 1 cooked food. कृतान्नमुदकं स्त्रियः Ms.9.219;11.3. -2 digested food. -3 excrement. -अपराध a. guilty, offender, criminal. -अभय a. saved from fear or danger. -अभिषेक a. crowned, inaugurated. (-कः) a prince. -अभ्यास a. practised. -अयः the die called कृत marked with four points. -अर्थ a. 1 having gained one's object, successful; एकः कृतार्थो भवते वीतशोकः Śwet. Up.2.14. -2 satisfied; happy, contented; वयं कृतार्था इत्यभिमन्यन्ति बालाः Muṇḍ.1.2.9; कृतः कृतार्थो$स्मि निबर्हितांहसा Śi.1.29; R.8.3; Ki.4.9; Ś.2.1; Pt.1.194. -3 clever. -4 that which has served its purpose (and hence incapable of yielding any further sense or serving any other purpose); पुरुषे यागं श्रावयित्वा कृतार्थः शब्द एकस्य द्वयोर्बहूनां वा यागं न वारयति । ŚB. on MS.6.2.3. सकृत् कृत्वा
कृतार्थः शब्दः न नियमः पौनःपुन्ये । ŚB. on MS.6.2.27; सा चाकाङ्क्षा एकेनापि कृतार्था भवतीत्युक्तम् । ŚB. on MS.11.1.13. (कृतार्थीकृ 1 to render fruitful or successful; कृतार्थीकृत्य तं विप्रम् Ks.74.125. -2 to make good; कान्तं प्रत्युपचारतश्चतुरया कोपः कृतार्थीकृतः Amaru.15; so कृतार्थयति to make fruitful; Māl.3.6.) -अवधान a. careful, attentive. -अवधि a. 1 fixed, appointed. -2 bounded, limited. -अवमर्ष a. 1 effacing from recollection. -2 intolerant. -अवस्थ a. 1 summoned, caused to be present; Ms.8.6. -2 fixed, settled. -अस्त्र a. 1 armed. -2 trained in the science of arms or missiles; पित्रा संवर्धितो नित्यं कृतास्त्रः सांपरा- यिकः R.17.62. -अहक a. having performed the daily ceremonies. -आगम a. advanced, proficient, skilled. (-m.) the Supreme soul. -आगस् a. guilty, offending, criminal, sinful; अध्ने प्र शिरो जहि ब्रह्मजस्य कृतागसः Av.12.5.6; कृतागाः कौटिल्यो मुजग इव निर्याय नगरात् Mu.3.11. -आत्मन् a. 1 having control over oneself, self-possessed, of a selfgoverned spirit; कृतात्मा ब्रह्मलोकमभिसंभवामि Ch. Up.8.13.1; कृतात्मानो वीतरागाः प्रशान्ताः Muṇḍ. Up.3.2.5; Rām.5.61.6; ऐहिष्ट तं कारयितुं कृतात्मा Bk.1.11. -2 purified in mind; magnanimous; तमरिघ्रं कृतात्मानं क्षिप्रं द्रक्ष्यसि राघवम् Rām.5.39.48. -आभरण a. adorned. -आयास a. labouring, suffering. -आलय a. one who has taken up his abode in any place; यत्र ते दयिता भार्या तनयाश्च कृतालयाः Rām. (-यः) a frog; dog ? M. W. -आवास a lodging. -आस्पद a. 1 governed; ruled. -2 supporting, resting on. -3 residing in. -आहार a. having taken one's meals. -आह्वान a. challenged. -उत्साह a. diligent, making effort, striving. -उदक a. one who had performed his ablutions; Mb.3. -उद्वाह a. 1 married. -2 practising penance by standing with up-lifted hands. -उपकार a. 1 favoured, befriended, assisted; अज्ञातभर्तृव्यसना मुहूर्तं कृतोपकारेव रतिर्बभूव Ku.3.73. -2 friendly. -उपभोग a. used, enjoyed. -कर, -कारिन् a. Enjoining what is already known or done; कृतकरो हि विधिरनर्थकः स्यात् ŚB. on MS.1.5.58; कृतकरं शास्त्रमनर्थकं स्यात् ŚB. on MS.1.7.25; कृतकारि खलु शास्त्रं पर्जन्यवत् Mbh. on P.I.2.9. -कर्मन् a. 1 one who has done his work; R.9.3. -2 skilful, clever. (-m.) 1 the Supreme spirit. -2 a Saṁnyāsin. -काम a. one whose desires are fulfilled. -कार्य a. 1 one who has done his work or obtained his object. -2 having no need of another's aid. -काल a. 1 fixed or settled as to time. -2 who has waited a certain time. (-लः) appointed time; कृतशिल्पो$पि निवसेत्कृतकालं गुरोर्गृहे Y.2.184. -कृत्य, -क्रिय a. 1 who has accomplished his object; Bg.15.2. -2 satisfied, contented; Śānti.3.19; Māl.4.3. -3 clever. -4 having done his duty; कृतकृत्यो विधिर्मन्ये न वर्धयति तस्य ताम् Śi.2.32. -क्रयः a purchaser. -क्रियः 1 one who has accomplished any act. -2 one who has fulfilled his duty. -3 one who has performed a religious ceremony; Ms.5.99. -क्षण a. 1 waiting impatiently for the exact moment; कृतक्षणाहं भद्रं ते गमनं प्रति राघव Rām.2.29.15; वयं सर्वे सोत्सुकाः कृतक्षणास्तिष्ठामः Pt.1. -2 one who has got an opportunity. -घ्न a. 1 ungrateful; Ms.4.214;8.89. -2 defeating all previous measures. -चूडः a boy on whom the ceremony of tonsure has been performed; Ms.5.58,67; नृणामकृतचूडानां विशुद्धिर्नौशिकी स्मृता. -जन्मन् a. planted; Ku.5.6. -ज्ञ a. 1 grateful; Ms.7.29,21; Y.1.38. -2 correct in conduct; कृतज्ञतामस्य वदन्ति सम्पदः Ki. (-ज्ञः) 1 a dog. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -तीर्थ a. 1 one who has visited or frequented holy places. -2 one who studies with a professional teacher. -3 fertile in means or expedients. -4 a guide. -5 rendered accessible or easy; Ki.2.3. -दार a. married. -दासः a servant hired for a stated period, a hired servant. -दूषणम् spoiling what is done; उद्धतायाः पुनरुद्धनने न हि किञ्चित्कार्यमस्ति । केवलं कृतदूषणं भवेत् । ृŚB. on MS.12.2.16. (see कृतदूषा) -दूषा f. a blemish or vitiating factor for what is done; अकर्म वा कृतदूषा स्यात् MS.12.1.1. (कृतायाः दूषणम् ŚB). -धी a. 1 prudent, considerate. -2 learned, educated, wise; पुत्रेभ्यः कृतवेदिनां कृतधियां येषां न भिन्ना वयम् Mu.5.2; Bg.2.54; Śi.2.79. -नामधेय a. named, called as; Ś6. -निर्णेजनः a penitent. -a. one who has performed penance; कृतनिर्णेजनांश्चैव न जुगुप्सेत कर्हिचित् Ms.11.189. -निश्चय a. 1 resolute, resolved; युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः Bg.2.37. -2 confident, sure. -पुङ्ख a. skilled in archery. -पूर्व a. done formerly. -प्रतिकृतम् assault and counter-assault, attack and resistance; R.12.94. -प्रतिज्ञ a. 1 one who has made an agreement or engagement. -2 one who has fulfilled his promise. -प्रयोजन a. one who has attained his object; Ks.13.158. -फल n. successful. (-लम्) result, consequence. -बुद्धि a. 1 learned, educated, wise; विद्वत्सु कृतबुद्धयः (श्रेष्ठाः) Ms.1.97, 7.3. -2 a man of resolute character. -3 informed of one's duty. -ब्रह्मन् a. Ved. one who has performed his devotions; कृतब्रह्मा शूशुवद् रातहव्य इत् Rv.2. 25.1. -मङ्गल a. blessed, consecrated. -मति a. firm, resolute. -मन्यु a. indignant. -मालः, -लकः 1 a kind of cassia. -2 the spotted antelope. -मुख a. learned, clever, wise. -युगम् the first (golden) of the four ages. -रूप one who knows the customary rites (कृतकल्प); Rām.2.1.2. -लक्षण a. 1 stamped, marked. -2 branded; ज्ञातिसम्बन्धिभिस्त्वेतास्त्यक्तव्याः कृत- लक्षणाः Ms.9.239. -3 excellent, amiable. -4 defined, discriminated. -वर्मन् m. N. of a warrior on the side of the Kauravas who with Kṛipa and Aśvatthāman survived the general havoc of the great Bhārata war. He was afterwards slain by Sātyaki. -वापः a penitent who has shaven his head and chin; Ms.11.18. -विद् a. grateful; तस्यापवर्ग्यशरणं तव पादमूलं विस्मर्यते कृतविदा कथमार्तबन्धो Bhāg.4.9.8. -विद्य a. learned, educated; शूरो$सि कृत- विद्यो$सि Pt.4.43; सुवर्णपुष्पितां पृथ्वीं विचिन्वन्ति त्रयो जनाः । शूरश्च कृतविद्यश्च यश्च जानाति सेवितुम् ॥ Pt.1.45. -वीर्य a. being strong or powerful; Av.17.1.27. (-र्यः) N. of the father of Sahasrārjuna. -वेतन a. hired, paid (as a servant); प्रमादमृतनष्टांश्च प्रदाप्यः कृतवेतनः Y.2.164. -वेदिन् a. 1 grateful; न तथा कृतवेदिनां करिष्यन्प्रियतामेति यथा कृता-
वदानः Ki.13.32; see कृतज्ञ. -2 observant of propriety. -वेश a. attired, decorated; गतवति कृतवेशे केशवे कुञ्जशय्याम् Gīt.11. -व्यावृत्ति a. dislodged or dismissed from office, set aside; Ku.2.27. -शिल्प a. skilled in art or trade; कृतशिल्पो$पि निवसेत्कृतकालं गुरोर्गृहे Y.2.184. -शोभ a. 1 splendid. -2 beautiful. -3 handy, dexterous. -शौच a. purified; पुण़्डरीकमवाप्नोति कृतशौचो भवेच्च सः Mb.3.83.21. -श्मश्रुः one who is shaven; न हि कृतश्मश्रुः पुनः श्मश्रूणि कार- यति Mbh. on P.I.2.9. -श्रमः, -परिश्रमः one who has studied; कृतपरिश्रमो$स्मि ज्योतिःशास्त्रे Mu.1; I have devoted my time to (spent my labours on) the science of astronomy. -संकल्प a. resolved, determined. -संकेत a. making an appointment; नामसमेतं कृतसंकेतं वादयते मृदु वेणुम् Gīt.5. -संज्ञ a. 1 having presence of mind ... स्थापयेद् दासान् कृत- संज्ञान् समन्ततः Ms. -2 restored to consciousness or senses. -3 aroused. -4 one to whom sign has been given; Rāj. T.4.221. -संनाह a. clad in armour, accoutred. -संस्कार a. 1 one who has performed all purificatory rites, initiated; वैश्यस्तु कृतसंस्कारः Ms.9.326; R.1.78. -2 Prepared, adorned. -सापत्निका, -सापत्नी, सापत्नीका, -सापत्नका, सपत्निका a woman whose husband has married another wife, a married woman having a co-wife or a superseded wife. -हस्त, -हस्तक a. 1 dexterous, clever, skilful, handy. -2 skilled in archery. -हस्तता 1 skill, dexterity; ... संनिपाते । सुमहति कृतहस्ताः सैनिकास्तं ररक्षुः ॥ Śiva. B.13.3.47. -2 skill in archery or generally in handling arms; कौरव्ये कृतहस्तता पुनरियं देवे यथा सीरिणि Ve.6.13; Mv.6.41.
कृपः The maternal uncle of अश्वत्थामन्. [He was born of the sage Śaradvat by a nymph called Jānapadī, but along with his sister Kṛipī, also born from the nymph, he was brought up by Śantanu. He was proficient in the science of archery. In the great war he sided with the Kauravas, and after all had been slain he was given an asylum by the Pāṇḍavas. He is one of the seven Chirajīvins.] कृपश्च समितिञ्जयः Bg.1.8.
कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives,
but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
केशिनी 1 A woman with a beautiful braid of hair. -2 N. of the wife of Viśravas and mother of Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa; ततस्तौ राक्षसौ जातौ केशिन्यां विश्रवःसुतौ । रावणः कुम्भकर्णश्च सर्वलोकोपतापनौ ॥ Bhāg.7.1.44. -3 An epithet of Durgā. -4 N. of a plant (जटामांसी).
गान्धारी 1 An [गान्धारस्यापत्यं इञ्] 1 N. of the daughter of Subala, king of the Gāndhāras and wife of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. [She bore to her husband 1 sons-Duryodhana and his 99 brothers. As her husband was blind she always wore a scarf over her face (probably to reduce herself to his state). After the destruction of all the Kauravas, she and her husband lived with their nephew Yudhiṣṭhira]. -2 A kind of intoxicant; L. D. B. -3 A particular vein in the left eye; Gorakṣa Śataka 26. -Comp. -ग्रामः a kind of musical scale.
गुरु a. (-रु, -र्वी f.) [ग कु उच्च Uṇ.1.24.] (compar. गरीयस्; superl. गरिष्ठ) 1 Heavy, weighty (opp. लघु); (fig. also); तेन धूर्जगतो गुर्वी सचिवेषु निचिक्षिपे R.1.34;3.35; 12.12; विमुच्य वासांसि गुरूणि साम्प्रतम् Ṛs.1.7. -2 Great, large, long, extended. -3 Long (in duration or length). आरम्भगुर्वी Bh.2.6; गुरुषु दिवसेष्वेषु गच्छत्सु Me.85. -4 Important, momentous, great; विभवगुरुभिः कृत्यैः Ś.4. 19; स्वार्थात्सतां गुरुतरा प्रणयिक्रियैव V.4.31; Ku.3.13; Bh.3.7; R.14.35. -5 Arduous, difficult (to bear); कान्ताविरहगुरुणा शापेन Me.1. -6 Great, excessive, violent, intense; गुरुः प्रहर्षः प्रबभूव नात्मनि R.3.17; गुर्वपि विरहदुःखम् Ś.4.16; Bg.6.22. -7 Venerable, respectable. -8 Heavy, hard of digestion (as food). -9 Best, excellent. -1 Dear, beloved. -11 Haughty, proud (as a speech). -12 (In prosody) Long, as a syllable, either in itself, or being short, followed by a conjunct consonant &c.; e. g. ई in ईड् or त in तस्कर (It is usually represented by ग in works on prosody; मात्तौ गौ चेच्छालिनी वेदलोकैः &c.). -13 Irresistible, unassailable; जागर्ति दंशाय...गुरुर्भुजङ्गी Māl.6.1. -14 Mighty; powerful. -15 Valuable, highly prized; पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु ज्ञेयम् Y.2.3. -16 Grievous; Me.85. -रुः 1 (a) A father; न केवलं तद्गुरुरेकपार्थिवः क्षितावभूदेकधनुर्धरो$पि सः R.3.31,48;4.1; 8.29. (b) Forefather, ancestor; त्वां मैत्रावरुणो$भिनन्दतु गुरुर्यस्ते गुरूणामपि U.5.27. (c) Father-in-law; त्वं हि मे गुरुः (तद्धर्मतः स्नुषा ते$हम्) Rām.7.26.28-29. -2 Any venerable or respectable person, an elderly personage or relative, the elders (pl.) शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् Ś.4.18; Bg. 2.5; Bv.2.7,18,19,49; आज्ञा गुरूणां ह्यविचारणीया R. 14.46. -3 A teacher, preceptor; गुरुशिष्यौ. -4 Particularly, a religious teacher, spiritual preceptor. तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रतिननन्दतुः R.1.57; (technically a Guru is one who performs the purificatory ceremonies over a boy and instructs him in the Vedas; स गुरुर्यः क्रियाः कृत्वा वेदमस्मै प्रयच्छति Y.1.34). -5 A lord, head, superintendent, ruler; सर्वे गुरुहिते स्थिताः Rām.4.4.6; कर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी R.5.19 the head of the castes or orders; गुरुर्नृपाणां गुरवे निवेद्य 2.68. -6 N. of Bṛihaspati, the preceptor of the gods; गुरुं नेत्रसहस्रेण चोदयामास वासवः Ku.2.29; Pt.1.23. -7 The planet Jupiter; गुरुकाव्यानुगां बिभ्रच्चान्द्रीमभिनभः श्रियम् Śi.2.2. -8 The propounder of a new doctrine. -9 The lunar asterism called पुष्य. -1 N. of Droṇa, teacher of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. -11 N. of Prabhākara, the leader of a school of the Mīmāṁsakas (called after him Prābhākara). -12 The supreme spirit. -Comp. -अक्षरम् a long syllable. -अङ्गना 1 the wife of a Guru. -2 A woman entitled to great respect. -अर्थ a. important; सतीं व्यादाय शृण्वन्तो लघ्वीं गुर्वर्थगह्वराम् Bhāg.3. 16.14. (-र्थः) a preceptor's fee for instructing a pupil; गुर्वर्थमाहर्तुमहं यतिष्ये R.5.17. -उत्तम a. highly revered. (-मः) the Supreme soul. -उपदेशः 1 Consultation of the experts; एषु स्थानेषु गुरूपदेशात् सम्यङ् नाडीं परीक्ष्य शिरामोचनं कुर्यात् Śālihotra of Bhoja, 82. -2 advice by the elders or by the preceptor. -कण्ठः a peacock. -कारः worship, adoration. -कार्यम् 1 a serious or weighty affair. -2 the office of a spiritual teacher. -कुलम् the residence of a Guru (गुरुगृह), academy; वसन् गुरुकुले नित्यं नित्यम- ध्ययने रतः Mb.9.4.3; आवृत्तानां गुरुकुलाद्विप्राणां पूजको भवेत्
Ms.7.82. -कृत a. 1 worshipped. -2 made much of; अहो निन्द्यं रूपं कविजनविशेषैर्गुरु कृतम् Bh.3.2. -क्रमः instruction handed down through a series of teachers, traditional instruction. -गृहम् signs (राशिs) Sagittarius (धनु) and Pisces (मीन). -घ्नः white mustard. -चर्या attendance upon a preceptor; Māl.9.51. -जनः any venerable person, an elderly relative, the elders collectively; नापेक्षितो गुरुजनः K.158; Bv.2.7. -तल्पः 1 the bed (wife) of a teacher. -2 violation or violator of a teacher's bed; Mb.12.56.32. -तल्पगः, -तल्पिन् m. 1 one who violates his teacher's bed (wife), (ranked in Hindu law as a sinner of the worst kind, committer of an अतिपातक; cf. Ms.11.13); Mb.3.43.6. -2 one who defiles his step-mother. -दक्षिणा fee given to a spiritual preceptor; उपात्तविद्यो गुरुदक्षिणार्थी R.5.1. -दानम् a Guru's gift. -दैवतम् the constellation पुष्य. -पत्रा the tamarind tree. -त्रम् tin. -पाक a. difficult of digestion. -पूजा 1 the ceremonies in propitiation of Bṛihaspati when a work is to be performed or undertaken. -2 the worship of one's spiritual preceptor. -प्रसादः the product of a Guru's blessing, i. e. learning. -भम् 1 the constellation पुष्य. -2 a bow. -3 the sign Pisces of the zodiac. -भावः importance, weight. -मर्दलः a kind of drum or tabor. -रत्नम् 1 topaz; (Mar. पुष्पराग, गोमेद). -2 a gem brought from the Himālaya and the Indus. -लाघवम् relative importance or value; विरोधिषु महीपाल निश्चित्य गुरु- लाघवम् Mb.3.131.12; Ś.5. -वर्चोघ्नः the lime, citron. -वर्तिन्, -वासिन् m. a student (ब्रह्मचारिन्) who resides at his preceptor's house. -वर्ति, -ता f. respectful behaviour towards Guru (elder or venerable person); निवेद्य गुरवे राज्यं भजिष्ये गुरुवर्तिताम् Rām.2.115.19. -वारः, -वासरः Thursday. -वृत्तिः f. the conduct of a pupil towards his preceptor; Rām.2.9.2. -व्यथ a. greatly distressed, heavy with grief; वचोभिराशाजननैर्भवानिव गुरुव्यथम् V. 3.9. -शिखरिन् m. an epithet of the Himālaya. -श्रुतिः a mantra (especially गायत्री); जपमानो गुरुश्रुतिम् Mb.13. 136.6. -स्वम् (= ष्वम्) the preceptor's wealth or property; गवां क्षीरं गुरुष्वं ते... Bm.1.35.
घटोत्कचः N. of a son of Bhīma by a female demon named हिडिम्बा; Bhāg.9.22.3-31. He was a very powerful person and fought valiantly in the great war
between the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas on the side of the former, but was slain by Karṇa with the Śakti or missile he had received from Indra; cf. Mu.2.15. The derivation of the name is given in the आदिपर्व of महाभारत as follows : घटो हास्योत्कच इति माता तं प्रत्यभाषत । अब्रवीत्तेन नामास्य घटोत्कच इति स्म ह ॥ Mb.1.155.38.
दुर् ind. (A prefix substituted for दुस् before words beginning with vowels or soft consonants in the sense of 'bad'. 'hard' or 'difficult to do a certain thing'; for compounds with दुस् as first member see दुस् s. v.). -Comp. -अक्ष a. 1 weak-eyed. -2 evileyed. (-क्षः) 1 a loaded or false die. -2 dishonest gambling. -अक्षरम् an evil word; श्रुतिं ममाविश्य भवद्दुरक्षरं सृजत्यदः कीटकवदुत्कटा रुजः N.9.63. -अतिक्रम a. difficult to be overcome or conquered, unconquerable; सर्वं तु तपसा साध्यं तपो हि दुरति- क्रमम् Ms.11.2.38; स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः 'nature cannot be changed'; स्वजातिर्दुरतिक्रमा Pt.1. -2 insurmountable, impassable; B. R.6.18-19. -3 inevitable. (-मः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अत्यय a. 1 difficult to be overcome; स्वर्गमार्गपरिघो दुरत्ययः R.11.88. -2 hard to be attained or fathomed; स एष आत्मा स्वपरेत्यबुद्धिभिर्दुरत्यया- नुक्रमणो निरूप्यते Bhāg.7.5.13. -अदृष्टम् ill-luck, misfortune. -अधिग, -अधिगम a. 1 hard to reach or attain, unattainable; Bhāg.3.23.8; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत्पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33. -2 insurmountable. -3 hard to be studied or understood; इह दुरधिगमैः किञ्चि- देवागमैः Ki.5.18. -अधिष्ठित a. badly performed, managed, or executed. (-तम्) improper stay at a place. -अधीत a. badly learnt or read. -अध्यय a. 1 difficult of attainment; सहस्रवर्त्मा चपलैर्दुरध्ययः Śi.12.11. -2 hard to be studied. -अध्यवसायः a foolish undertaking. -अध्वः a bad road; स्वयं दुरध्वार्णवनाविकाः कथं स्पृशन्तु विज्ञाय हृदापि तादृशीम् N.9.33. -अन्त a. 1 whose end is difficult to be reached, endless, infinite; संकर्षणाय सूक्ष्माय दुरन्तायान्तकाय च Bhāg. -2 ending ill or in misery, unhappy; अहो दुरन्ता बलवद्विरोधिता Ki.1.23; नृत्यति युवति- जनेन समं सखि विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते (वसन्ते) Gīt.1; इयमुदरदरी- दुरन्तधारा यदि न भवेदभिमानभङ्गभूमिः Udb. -3 hard to be understood or known. -4 insurmountable. -अन्तक a. = दुरन्त q. v. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -अन्वय a. 1 difficult to be passed along; Mb.14.51.17. -2 hard to be carried out or followed. -3 difficult to be attained. or understood; बुद्धिश्च ते महाप्राज्ञ देवैरपि दुरन्वया Rām.3. 66.18. -4 not suitable, improper; वचो दुरन्वयं विप्रास्तूष्णी- मासन्भ्रमद्धियः Bhāg.1.84.14. (-यः) 1 a wrong conclusion, one wrongly inferred from given premisses. -2 (in gram.) a false agreement. -अपवादः ill report. slander. -अभिग्रह a. difficult to be caught. -अभि- मानिन् a. vain-glorious, disagreeably proud. -अवगम a. incomprehensible; Bhāg.5.13.26. -अवग्रह a. 1 difficult to be restrained or subjugated; भक्ता भजस्व दुरवग्रह मा त्यजास्मान् Bhāg.1.29.31. -2 disagreeable. -अवग्राह a. difficult to be attained; Bhāg.7.1.19. -अवच्छद a. difficult to be hidden; हेतुभिर्लक्षयांचक्रुराप्रीतां दुरवच्छदैः Bhāg.1.62.28. -अवबोध a. unintelligible. Bhāg.1.49.29. -अवसित a. unfathomed, difficult to be ascertained, द्युपतिभिरजशक्रशंकराद्यैर्दुरवसितस्तवमच्युतं नतो$स्मि Bhāg.12.12.67. -अवस्थ a. ill off, badly or poorly circumstanced. -अवस्था, -स्थानम् a wretched or miserable state; Bhāg.5.3.12. -अवाप a. difficult to be gained or fulfilled; Ś.1. -अवेक्षितम् an improper look. -अह्नः a bad day. -आकृति a. ugly, mis-shaped. -आक्रन्द a. crying bitterly or miserably; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्ष- क्षयकारक Pt.4.29. -आक्रम a. 1 invincible, unconquerable. -2 difficult to be passed. -आक्रमणम् 1 unfair attack. -2 difficult approach. -आगमः improper or illegal acquisition. -आग्रहः foolish obstinacy, headstrongness, pertinacity; ममाहमित्यूढदुराग्रहाणां पुंसाम् Bhāg.3. 5.43. -आचर a. 1 hard to be performed. -2 incurable (as a disease). -आचार a. 1 ill-conducted, badly behaved. -2 following bad practices, wicked, depraved; अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् Bg.9.3. (-रः) bad practice, ill-conduct, wikedness. -आढ्य a. not rich, poor. -आत्मता vileness, baseness, wickedness. -आत्मन् a. evil-natured, low, wicked, vile, base, mean; ये च प्राहुर्दुरात्मानो दुराराध्या महीभुजः Pt.1.39. (-m.) a rascal, villain, scoundrel. -आधर a. difficult to be withstood or overpowered, irresistible. -आधर्ष a. hard to be approached or assailed, unassailable जगन्नाथो दुराधर्षो गङ्गां भागीरथीं प्रति Mb. -2 not to be attacked with impunity. -3 haughty. (-र्षः) white mustard. -आधारः an epithet of Śiva. -आधिः (m.) 1 distress or anxiety of mind; निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः Ki.1.28. -2 indignation. -आधी a. Ved. malignant, thinking ill of. -आनम a. difficult to bend or draw; स विचिन्त्य धनुर्दुरानमम् R.11.38. -आप a. 1 difficult to be obtained; श्रिया दुरापः कथमीप्सितो भवेत् Ś.3.13; R.1.72;6.62. -2 difficult to be approached; Pt.1.67. -3 hard to be overcome. -आपादन a. difficult to be brought about; किं दुरापादनं तेषाम् Bhāg.3.23.42. -आपूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; Bhāg.7.6.8. -आबाध a. hard to be molested. (-धः) N. of Śiva. -आमोदः bad scent, stench; शवधूमदुरामोदः शालिभक्ते$त्र विद्यते Ks.82.22. -आराध्य a. difficult to be propitiated, hard to be won over or conciliated; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.38. -आरुह a. difficult to be mounted. (-हः) 1 the Bilva tree. -2 the cocoanut tree. -3 the date tree. -आरोप a. difficult to be strung (bow); दुरारोपमैन्दुशेखरं धनुर्दुर्निवारा रावणभुजदण्डाः B. R.1.46-47.
-आरोह a. difficult of ascent. (-हः) 1 The cocoanut tree. -2 the palm tree. -3 the date tree. -आलापः 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 foul of abusive language. -आलोक a. 1 difficult to be seen or perceived. -2 painfully bright, dazzling; दुरालोकः स समरे निदाघाम्बररत्नवत् K. P.1. (-कः) dazzling splendour. -आव(वा)र a. 1 difficult to be covered or filled up; दुरावरं त्वदन्येन राज्यखण्डमिदं महत् Rām.2.15.5. -2 difficult to be restrained, shut in, kept back or stopped. -आवर्त a. difficult to be convinced or set up; भवन्ति सुदुरावर्ता हेतुमन्तो$पि पण्डिताः Mb.12.19.23. -आशय a. 1 evil-minded, wicked, malicious, स्फुटनिर्भिन्नो दुराशयो$धमः Śi. उपेयिवान् मूलमशेषमूलं दुराशयः कामदुघाङ्घ्रिपस्य Bhāg.3.21.15. -2 having a bad place or rest. (-m.) the subtle body which is not destroyed by death (लिङ्गदेह); एतन्मे जन्म लोके$स्मिन्मुमुक्षूणां दुराशयात् Bhāg.3.24. 36. -आशा 1 a bad or wicked desire. -2 hoping against hope. -आस a. difficult to be abided or associated with; संघर्षिणा सह गुणाभ्यधिकैर्दुरासम् Śi.5.19. -आसद a. 1 difficult to be approached or overtaken; स सभूव दुरासदः परैः R.3.66; 8.4; Mv.2.5; 4.15. -2 difficult to be found or met with. -3 unequalled, unparalleled. -4 hard to be borne, insupportable. -5 difficult to be conquered, unassailable, unconquerable; जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् Bg.3.43. (-दः) an epithet of Śiva. -इत a. 1 difficult. -2 sinful. (-तम्) 1 a bad course, evil, sin; दरिद्राणां दैन्यं दुरितमथ दुर्वासनहृदां द्रुतं दूरीकुर्वन् G. L.2; R.8.2; Amaru.2; Mv.3.43. -2 a difficulty, danger. -3 a calamity, evil; अपत्ये यत्तादृग्- दुरितमभवत् U.4.3. -इतिः f. Ved. 1 a bad course. -2 difficulty. -इष्टम् 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 a spell or sacrificial rite performed to injure another person. -ईशः a bad lord or master. -ईषणा, -एषणा 1 a curse, an imprecation. -2 an evil eye. -उक्त a. harshly uttered; Pt.1.89. -उक्तम्, -उक्तिः f. offensive speech, reproach, abuse, censure; लक्ष्मि क्षमस्व वचनीयमिदं दुरुक्तम् Udb. -उच्छेद a. difficult to be destroyed. -उत्तर a. 1 unanswerable. -2 difficult to be crossed; दुरुत्तरे पङ्क इवान्धकारे Bk.11.2; प्राप्तः पङ्को दुरुत्तरः Ki.15.17. -उदय a. appearing with difficulty, not easily manifested; यो$ नात्मनां दुरुदयो भगवान्प्रतीतः Bhāg.3.16.5. -उदर्क a. having bad or no consequences; N.5.41. -उदाहर a. difficult to be pronounced or composed; अनुज्झितार्थसंबन्धः प्रबन्धो दुरुदाहरः Śi.2.73. -उद्वह a. burdensome, unbearable. -उपसद a. difficult of approach; Ki.7.9. -उपसर्पिन् a. approaching incautiously; एकमेव दहत्यग्निर्नरं दुरुपसर्पिणम् Ms.7.9. -ऊह a. abstruse; जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्ये दुरूहद्रुते Gīt. -एव a. Ved. 1 having evil ways. -2 irresistible, unassailable. (-वः) a wicked person. -ओषस् a. Ved. slow, lazy. -ग 1 difficult of access, inaccessible, impervious, impassable; दुर्गस्त्वेष महापन्थाः Mb.12.3. 5; दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति Kaṭh.1.3.14. -2 unattainable. -3 incomprehensible. -4 following wicked path, vicious; Rām.2.39.22. (-गः, -गम्) 1 a difficult or narrow passage through a wood or over a stream, mountain &c., a defile, narrow pass. -2 a citadel. fortress, castle; न दुर्गं दुर्गमित्येव दुर्गमं मन्यते जनः । तस्य दुर्गमता सैव यत्प्रभुस्तस्य दुर्गमः ॥ Śiva. B.16.61. -3 rough ground. -4 difficulty, adversity, calamity, distress, danger; निस्तारयतिं दुर्गाच्च Ms.3.98;11.43; मच्चित्तः सर्व- दुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि; Bg.18.58. (-गः) 1 bdellium. -2 the Supreme Being. -3 N. of an Asura slain by Durgā (thus receiving her name from him). ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚पतिः, ˚पालः the commandant or governor of a castle. ˚अन्तः The suburb of a fort; दुर्गान्ते सिद्धतापसाः Kau. A. 1.12. ˚कर्मन् n. fortification. ˚कारक a. making difficult. (-कः) the birch tree. ˚घ्नी N. of Durgā. ˚तरणी an epithet of Sāvitrī. सावित्री दुर्गतरणी वीणा सप्तविधा तथा Mb. ˚मार्गः a defile, gorge. ˚लङ्घनम् surmounting difficulties. (-नः) a camel. ˚संचरः 1 a difficult passage as to a fort &c., a bridge &c. over a defile. ˚संस्कारः Repairs to the old forts; अतो दुर्गसंस्कार आरब्धव्ये किं कौमुदीमहोत्सवेन Mu. ˚सिंहः N. of the author of कलापपरिशिष्ट. ˚व्यसनम् a defect or weak point in a fortress. (-र्गा) an epithet of Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. -2 the female cuckoo -3 N. of several plants. ˚नवमी the 9th day of the bright half of कार्तिक. ˚पूजा the chief festival in honour of दुर्गा in Bengal in the month of Āśvina. -गत a. 1 unfortunate, in bad circumstances; समाश्वसिमि केनाहं कथं प्राणिमि दुर्गतः Bk.18.1. -2 indigent, poor. -3 distressed, in trouble. -गतता ill-luck, poverty, misery; तावज्जन्मातिदुःखाय ततो दुर्गतता सदा Pt.1.265. -गतिः f. 1 misfortune, poverty, want, trouble, indigence; न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद् दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति Bg.6.4. -2 a difficult situation or path. -3 hell. -गन्ध a. ill-smelling. (-न्धः) 1 bad odour, stink -2 any ill-smelling substance. -3 an onion. -4 the mango tree. (-न्धम्) sochal salt. -गन्धि, -गन्धिन् a. ill-smelling. -गम a. 1 impassable, inaccessible, impervious; कामिनीकायकान्तारे कुचपर्वतदुर्गमे Bh.1.86; Śi. 12.49. -2 unattainable, difficult of attainment. -3 hard to be understood. (-मम्) a difficult place like hill etc; भ्राम्यन्ते दुर्गमेष्वपि Pt.5.81. -गाढ, -गाध, -गाह्य a. difficult to be fathomed or investigated, unfathomable. -गुणितम् not properly studied; चिराम्यस्तपथं याति शास्त्रं दुर्गुणितं यथा Avimārakam.2.4. -गोष्ठी evil association; conspiracy. वृद्धो रक्कः कम्पनेशो दुर्गोष्ठीमध्यगो$भवत् Rāj. T.6. 17. -ग्रह a. 1 difficult to be gained or accomplished. -2 difficult to be conquered or subjugated; दुर्गाणि दुर्ग्रहाण्यासन् तस्य रोद्धुरपि द्विषाम् R.17.52. -3 hard to be understood. (-हः) 1 a cramp, spasm. -2 obstinacy. -3 whim, monomania; कथं न वा दुर्ग्रहदोष एष ते हितेन सम्य- ग्गुरुणापि शम्यते N.9.41. -घट a. 1 difficult. कार्याणि घटयन्नासीद् दुर्घटान्यपि हेलया Rāj. T.4.364. -2 impossible. -घण a. 1 closely packed together, very compact. -घुरुटः An unbeliever; L. D. B. -घोषः 1 a harsh cry. -2 a bear. -जन a. 1 wicked, bad, vile. -2 slanderous, malicious, mischievous; यथा स्त्रीणां तथा वाचां साधुत्वे दुर्जनो जनः U.1.6. (-नः) a bad or wicked person, a malicious or mischievous man, villain; दुर्जनः प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वास-
कारणम् Chāṇ.24,25; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. (दुर्जनायते Den. Ā. to become wicked; स्वजनो$पि दरिद्राणां तत्क्षणाद् दुर्जनायते Pt.1.5.). (दुर्जनीकृ [च्वि] to make blameworthy; दुर्जनीकृतास्मि अनेन मां चित्रगतां दर्शयता Nāg.2). -जय a. invincible. (-यः) N. of Viṣṇu. -जर a. 1 ever youthful; तस्मिन्स्तनं दुर्जरवीर्यमुल्बणं घोराङ्कमादाय शिशोर्दधावथ Bhāg.1.6.1. -2 hard (as food), indigestible. -3 difficult to be enjoyed; राजश्रीर्दुर्जरा तस्य नवत्वे भूभुजो$भवत् Rāj. T.5.19. -जात a. 1 unhappy, wretched. -2 bad-tempered, bad, wicked; Rāj. T.3. 142. -3 false, not genuine. ˚जीयिन् a. one who is born in vain; यो न यातयते वैरमल्पसत्त्वोद्यमः पुमान् । अफलं जन्म तस्याहं मन्ये दुर्जातजायिनः ॥ Mb. (-तम्) 1 a misfortune, calamity, difficulty; त्वं तावद् दुर्जाते मे$त्यन्तसाहाय्यकारिणी भव M.3; दुर्जातबन्धुः R.13.72. 'a friend in need or adversity.' -2 impropriety. -जाति a. 1 bad natured, vile, wicked; रुदितशरणा दुर्जातीनां सहस्व रुषां फलम् Amaru.96. -2 outcast. (-तिः f.) misfortune, ill condition. -ज्ञान, -ज्ञेय a. difficult to be known, incomprehensible. उच्चावचेषु भुतेषु दुर्ज्ञेयामकृतात्मभिः Ms.6.73. (-यः) N. of Śiva. -णयः, -नयः, -नीतिः 1 bad conduct. -2 impropriety -3 injustice. -णामन्, -नामन् a. having a bad name. -णीत a. 1 ill-behaved. -2 impolitic. -3 forward. (-तम्) misconduct; दुर्णीतं किमिहास्ति किं सुचरितं कः स्थानलाभे गुणः H. -दम, -दमन, -दम्य a. difficult to be subdued, untamable, indomitable. -दर्श a. 1 difficult to be seen. -2 dazzling; सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मन Bg.11.52. -दर्शन a. ugly, ill-looking; दुर्दर्शनेन घटतामियमप्यनेन Māl.2.8. -दशा a misfortune, calamity. -दान्त a. 1 hard to be tamed or subdued, untamable; Śi.12.22. -2 intractable, proud, insolent; दुर्दान्तानां दमनविधयः क्षत्रियेष्वायतन्ते Mv.3.34. (-तः) 1 a calf. -2 a strife, quarrel. -3 N. of Śiva. -दिन a. cloudy, rainy. (-नम्) 1 a bad day in general; तद्दिनं दुर्दिनं मन्ये यत्र मित्रागमो हि न Subhāṣ. -2 a rainy or cloudy day, stormy or rainy weather; उन्नमत्यकालदुर्दिनम् Mk.5; Ku.6 43; Mv.4.57. -3 a shower (of anything); द्विषां विषह्य काकुत्स्थस्तत्र नाराचदुर्दिनम् ॥ सन्मङ्गलस्नात इव R.4.41,82;5.47; U.5.5. -4 thick darkness; जीमूतैश्च दिशः सर्वाश्चक्रे तिमिरदुर्दिनाः Mb. (दुर्दिनायते Den. Ā. to become cloudy.) -दिवसः a dark or rainy day; Pt.1.173. -दुरूटः, -ढः 1 an unbeliever -2 an abusive word. -दृश a. 1 disagreeable to the sight, disgusting; दुर्दृशं तत्र राक्षसं घोररूपमपश्यत्सः Mb.1.2.298. -2 difficult to be seen; पादचारमिवादित्यं निष्पतन्तं सुदुर्दृशम् Rām.7.33.5. -दृष्ट a. illjudged or seen, wrongly decided; Y.2.35. -दैवम् ill-luck, misfortune. -द्यूतम् an unfair game. -द्रुमः onion (green). -धर a. 1 irresistible, difficult to be stopped. -2 difficult to be borne or suffered; दुर्धरेण मदनेन साद्यते Ghat.11; Ms.7.28. -3 difficult to be accomplished. -4 difficult to be kept in memory. (-रः) quicksilver. -धर्ष a. 1 inviolable, unassailable. -2 inaccessible; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्य- मतः परम् ॥ H. Pr.5. -3 fearful, dreadful. -4 haughty. -धी a. stupid, silly. -नयः 1 arrogance. -2 immorality. -3 evil strategy; उन्मूलयितुमीशो$हं त्रिवर्गमिव दुर्नयः Mu.5.22. -नामकः piles. ˚अरिः a kind of bulbous root (Mar. सुरण). -नामन् m. f. a cockle. (-n.) piles. -निग्रह a. irrepressible, unruly; मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् Bg.6.35. -निमित a. carelessly put or placed on the ground; पदे पदे दुर्निमिते गलन्ती R.7.1. -निमित्तम् 1 a bad omen; R.14.5. -2 a bad pretext. -निवार, -निवार्य a. difficult to be checked or warded off, irresistible, invincible. -नीतम् 1 misconduct, bad policy, demerit, misbehaviour; दुर्णीतं किमि- हास्ति Pt.2.21; H.1.49. -2 ill-luck. -नीतिः f. maladministration; दुर्नीतिं तव वीक्ष्य कोपदहनज्वालाजटालो$पि सन्; Bv.4.36. -नृपः a bad king; आसीत् पितृकुलं तस्य भक्ष्यं दुर्नृप- रक्षसः Rāj. T.5.417. -न्यस्त a. badly arranged; दुर्न्यस्त- पुष्परचितो$पि Māl.9.44. -बल a. 1 weak, feeble. -2 enfeebled, spiritless; दुर्बलान्यङ्गकानि U.1.24. -3 thin, lean, emaciated; U.3. -4 small, scanty, little; स्वार्थोप- पत्तिं प्रति दुर्बलाशः R.5.12. -बाध a. Unrestrained (अनिवार); दुर्बाधो जनिदिवसान्मम प्रवृद्धः (आधिः); Mv.6.28. -बाल a. 1 bald-headed. -2 void of prepuce. -3 having crooked hair. -बुद्धि a. 1 silly, foolish, stupid. -2 perverse, evil-minded, wicked; धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः (समा- गताः) Bg.1.23 -बुध a. wicked-minded, silly; Mb. 11.4.18. -बोध a. unintelligible, unfathomable, inscrutable; निसर्गदुर्बोधमबोधविक्लवाः क्व भूपतीनां चरितं क्व जन्तवः Ki. 1.6. -भग a. 1 unfortunate, unlucky; श्रीवल्लभं दुर्भगाः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -2 not possessed of good features, ill-looking. -भगा 1 a wife disliked by her husband; दुर्भगाभरणप्रायो ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना H.1.17. -2 an ill-tempered woman, a shrew. -3 a widow; -भर a. insupportable, burdensome, heavily laden with (comp.); ततो राजाब्रवीदेतं बहुव्यसनदुर्भरः Ks.112.156. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. (ग्यम्) ill-luck. -भावना 1 an evil thought. -2 a bad tendency. -भिक्षम् 1 scarcity of provisions, dearth, famine; Y.2.147; Ms.8.22; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे... यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः H.1.71; Pt.2. -2 want in general. -भिद, -भेद, -भेद्य a. firm; सुजनस्तु कनकघटवद् दुर्भेद्यश्चाशु संध्येयः Subhāṣ. -भृत्यः a bad servant. -भिषज्यम् incurability; Bṛi. Up.4.3.14. -भ्रातृ m. a bad brother. -मङ्कु a. obstinate, disobedient. -मति a. 1 silly, stupid, foolish, ignorant. -2 wicked, evilminded; न सांपरायिकं तस्य दुर्मतेर्विद्यते फलम् Ms.11.3. -मद a. drunken, ferocious, maddened, infatuated; Bhāg.1.15.7. -दः foolish pride, arrogance. -दम् the generative organ; ग्रामकं नाम विषयं दुर्मदेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.52. -मनस् a. troubled in mind, discouraged, disspirited, sad, malancholy; अद्य बार्हस्पतः श्रीमान् युक्तः पुष्येण राघवः । प्रोच्यतै ब्राह्मणैः प्राज्ञैः केन त्वमसि दुर्मनाः ॥ Rām. [दुर्मनायते Den. Ā. to be troubled in mind, be sad, meditate sorrowfully, to be disconsolate, become vexed or fretted; Māl.3]. -मनुष्यः a bad or wicked man. -मन्त्रः, -मन्त्रितम्, -मन्त्रणा evil advice, bad counsel; दुर्मन्त्रान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति; Pt.1.169. -मरम् a hard or difficult death; Mb.14.61.9. -मरी a kind of दूर्वा grass. -मरणम् violent or unnatural death. -मर्ष a. 1 unbearable; Bhāg.6.5.42. -2 obstinate,
hostile. -मर्षणः N. of Viṣṇu. -मर्षित a. provocated, encouraged; एवं दुर्मर्षितो राजा स मात्रा बभ्रुवाहनः Mb.14. 79.13, -मर्याद a. immodest, wicked. -मल्लिका, -मल्ली a minor drama, comedy, farce; S. D.553. -मित्रः 1 a bad friend. -2 an enemy. -मुख a. 1 having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bh.1.9. -2 foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bh.2.69. (-खः) 1 a horse. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of a serpent king (Nm.) -4 N. of a monkey (Nm.) -5 N. of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle). -मूल्य a. highly priced, dear. -मेधस् a. silly, foolish, dull-headed, dull; Pt.1. (-m.) a dunce, dull-headed man, blockhead; ग्रन्थानधीत्य व्याकर्तु- मिति दुर्मेधसो$प्यलम् Śi.2.26. -मैत्र a. unfriendly, hostile; Bhāg.7.5.27. -यशस् n. ill-repute, dishonour. -योगः 1 bad or clumsy contrivance. -2 a bad combination. -योध, -योधन a. invincible, unconquerable. (-नः) the eldest of the 11 sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. [From his early years he conceived a deep hatred for his cousins the Pāṇḍavas, but particularly Bhīma, and made every effort he could to compass their destruction. When his father proposed to make Yudhiṣṭhira heir-apparent, Duryodhana did not like the idea, as his father was the reigning sovereign, and prevailed upon his blind father to send the Pāṇḍavas away into exile. Vāraṇāvata was fixed upon as their abode, and under pretext of constructing a palatial building for their residence, Duryodhana caused a palace to be built mostly of lac, resin and other combustible materials, thereby hoping to see them all destroyed when they should enter it. But the Paṇḍavas were forewarned and they safely escaped. They then lived at Indraprastha, and Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Rājasuya sacrifice with great pomp and splendour. This event further excited the anger and jealousy of Duryodhana, who was already vexed to find that his plot for burning them up had signally failed, and he induced his father to invite the Pāṇḍavas to Hastināpura to play with dice (of which Yudhiṣṭhira was particularly fond). In that gambling-match, Duryodhana, who was ably assisted by his maternal uncle Śakuni, won from Yudhiṣṭhira everything that he staked, till the infatuated gambler staked himself, his brothers, and Draupadī herself, all of whom shared the same fate. Yudhiṣṭhira, as a condition of the wager, was forced to go to the forest with his wife and brothers, and to remain there for twelve years and to pass one additional year incognito. But even this period, long as it was, expired, and after their return from exile both the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas made great preparations for the inevitable struggle and the great Bhāratī war commenced. It lasted for eighteen days during which all the Kauravas, with most of their allies, were slain. It was on the last day of the war that Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana and smashed his thigh with his club.] मोघं तवेदं भुवि नामधेयं दुर्योधनेतीह कृतं पुरस्तात् न हीह दुर्योधनता तवास्ति पलायमानस्य रणं विहाय Mb.4.65.17. -योनि a. of a low birth, न कथंचन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति Ms.1.59. -लक्ष्य a. difficult to be seen or perceived, hardly visible. -क्ष्यम् bad aim; मनः प्रकृत्यैव चलं दुर्लक्ष्यं च तथापि मे Ratn.3.2. -लभ a. 1 difficult to be attained, or accomplished; R.1.67;17.7; Ku.4.4;5.46,61; दुर्लभं भारते जन्म मानुष्यं तत्र दुर्लभम् Subhāṣ. -2 difficult to be found or met with, scarce, rare; शुद्धान्तदुर्लभम् Ś.1.17. -3 best, excellent, eminent. -ग्रामः a village situated close to a large village and inhabited by the free-holders (अग्र- हारोपजीविनः); Māna.1.79-8. -4 dear, beloved. -5 costly. -ललित a. 1 spoilt by fondling, fondled too much, hard to please; हा मदङ्कदुर्ललित Ve.4; V.2.8; Māl.9. -2 (hence) wayward, naughty, illbred, unruly; स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7. (-तम्) waywardness, rudeness. -लेख्यम् a forged document. Y.2.91. -वच a. 1 difficult to be described, indescribable. अपि वागधिपस्य दुर्वचं वचनं तद् विदधीत विस्मयम् Ki.2.2. -2 not to be talked about. -3 speaking improperly, abusing. (-चम्) abuse, censure, foul language. -वचस् n. abuse, censure; असह्यं दुर्वचो ज्ञातेर्मेघा- न्तरितरौद्रवत् Udb. -वर्ण a. bad-coloured. -र्णः 1 bad colour. -2 impurity; यथा हेम्नि स्थितो वह्निर्दुवर्णं हन्ति धातु- जम् Bhāg.12.3.47. (-र्णम्) 1 silver. दुर्वर्णभित्तिरिह सान्द्रसुधासुवर्णा Śi.4.28. -2 a kind of leprosy. -वस a. difficult to be resided in. -वसतिः f. painful residence; R.8.94. -वह a. heavy, difficult to be borne; दुर्वहगर्भखिन्नसीता U.2.1; Ku.1.11. -वाच् a. speaking ill. (-f.) 1 evil words, abuse. -2 inelegant language or speech. -वाच्य a. 1 difficult to be spoken or uttered. -2 abusive, scurrilous. -3 harsh, cruel (as words). (-च्यम्) 1 censure, abuse. -2 scandal, ill-repute. -वातः a fart. ˚वातय Den. P. to break wind or fart; इत्येके विहसन्त्येनमेके दुर्वातयन्ति च Bhāg.11.23.4. -वादः slander, defamation, calumny. -वार, -वारण a. irresistible, unbearable; R.14.87; किं चायमरिदुर्वारः पाणौ पाशः प्रचेतसः Ku.2.21. -वासना 1 evil propensity, wicked desire; कः शत्रुर्वद खेददानकुशलो दुर्वासनासंचयः Bv. 1.86. -2 a chimera. -वासस् a. 1 ill-dressed. -2 naked. (-m.) N. of a very irascible saint or Ṛiṣi, son of Atri and Anasūyā. (He was very hard to please, and he cursed many a male and female to suffer misery and degradation. His anger, like that of Jamadagni, has become almost proverbial.) -वाहितम् a heavy burden; उरोजपूर्णकुम्भाङ्का सदुर्वाहितविभ्रमा Rāj. T.4.18. -विगाह, -विगाह्य a. difficult to be penetrated or fathomed, unfathomable. -विचिन्त्य inconceivable, inscrutable -विद a. difficult to be known or discovered; नूनं गतिः कृतान्तस्य प्राज्ञैरपि सुदुर्विदा Mb.7.78. 2. -विदग्ध 1 unskilled, raw, foolish, stupid, silly. -2 wholly ignorant. -3 foolishly puffed up, elated.
vainly proud; वृथाशस्त्रग्रहणदुर्विदग्ध Ve.3; ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति Bh.2.3. -विद्ध a. Badly perforated (a pearl); Kau. A.2.11. -विद्य a. uneducated; Rāj. T.1.354. -विध a. 1 mean, base, low. -2 wicked, vile. -3 poor, indigent; विदधाते रुचिगर्वदुर्विधम् N.2.23. -4 stupid, foolish, silly; विविनक्ति न बुद्धिदुर्विधः Śi.16.39. -विनयः misconduct, imprudence. -विनीत a. 1 (a) badly educated, ill-mannered; ill-behaved, wicked; शासितरि दुर्विनीतानाम् Ś.1.24. (b) rude, naughty, mischievous. -2 stubborn, obstinate. (-तः) 1 a restive or untrained horse. -2 a wayward person, reprobate. -विपाक a. producing bad fruit; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.46. (-कः) 1 bad result or consequence; U.1.4; किं नो विधिरिह वचने$प्यक्षमो दुर्विपाकः Mv. 6.7. -2 evil consequences of acts done either in this or in a former birth. -विभाव्य a. inconceivable; also दुर्विभाव; असद्वृत्तेरहो वृत्तं दुर्विभावं विधेरिव Ki.11.56. -विमर्श a. difficult to be tried or examined; यो दुर्विमर्शपथया निजमाययेदं सृष्ट्वा गुणान्विभजते तदनुप्रविष्टः Bhāg.1.49.29. -विलसितम् a wayward act, rudeness, naughtiness; डिम्भस्य दुर्विलसितानि मुदे गुरूणाम् B. R.4.6. -विलासः a bad or evil turn of fate; U.1. -विवाहः a censurable marriage; इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसानृतवादिनः । जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ Ms.3.41. -विष a. ill-natured, malignant. (-षः) N. of Śiva. -विषह a. unbearable, intolerable, irresistible. (-हः) N. of Śiva. -वृत्त a. 1 vile, wicked, ill-behaved. -2 roguish. (-त्तम्) misconduct, ill-behaviour. दुर्वृत्तवृत्तशमनं तव देवि शीलम् Devīmāhātmya. -वृत्तिः f. 1 misconduct. -2 misery, want, distress. -3 fraud. -वृष्टिः f. insufficient rain, drought. -वेद a. difficult to be known or ascertained. -व्यवहारः a wrong judgment in law. -व्यवहृतिः f. ill-report or rumour. -व्यसनम् 1 a fond pursuit or resolve; Mu.3. -2 bad propensity, vice; तेन दुर्व्यसनेनासीद्भोजने$पि कदर्थना Ks.73.73. -व्रत a. not conforming to rules, disobedient. -हुतम् a badly offered sacrifice. -हृद् a. wicked-hearted, ill-disposed, inimical; अकुर्वतोर्वां शुश्रूषां क्लिष्टयोर्दुर्हृदा भृशम् Bhāg.1.45.9. (-m.) an enemy. -हृदय a. evil-minded, evil-intentioned, wicked. -हृषीक a. having defective organs of sense.
द्रोणः [cf. Un. 3. 1.] 1 A lake 4 poles long. -2 A cloud (or a particular kind of cloud) abounding in water (from which rain streams forth as from a bucket). को$यमेवंविधे काले कालपाशस्थिते मयि । अनावृष्टिहते शस्ये द्रोणमेघ इवोदितः ॥ Mk.1.26. -3 A raven or a carrion crow. -4 A scorpion. -5 A tree (in general). -6 A tree bearing (white) flowers. -7 N. of the preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. [Droṇa was the son of the sage Bharadvāja, and was so called because the seed, which fell at the sight of a nymph called Ghṛitāchī, was preserved by the sage in a droṇa. Though a Brāhmaṇa by birth, he was well-versed in the science of arms which he learnt from Paraśurāma. He afterwards taught the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas the science of arms and archery. When, however, the great war commenced, he attached himself to the side of the Kauravas, and after Bhīṣma had been mortally wounded-'lodged in the cage of darts'he assumed the command of the Kaurava forces and maintained the struggle for four successive days, achieving wonderful exploits and killing thousands of warriors on the Pāṇḍava side. On the fifteenth day of the battle the fight continued even during the night, and it was on the morning of the 16th that Bhīma, at the suggestion of Kṛiṣṇa, said within Droṇa's hearing that Aśvatthāman was slain (the fact being that an elephant named Aśvatthaman had fallen on the field). Being at a loss to understand how that could be, he appealed to Yudhiṣṭhira, 'the truthful', who also, at the advice of Kṛiṣṇa, gave an evasive reply--uttered loudly the word Aśvatthāman and added 'Gaja or elephant' in a very low tone; sec Ve.3.9. Sorely grieved at the death of his only son, the kind-hearted old father
fell in a swoon, and Dhṛiṣṭadyumna, his avowed enemy, took advantage of this circumstance, and cut off his head.] -णः, -णम् A measure of capacity, either the same as an Āḍhaka or equal to 4 Āḍhakas or 1/16 of a Khāri, or 32 or 64 shers; द्रोणस्तु खार्याः खलु षोडशांशः Lilā (Mar. अदमण). -णम् 1 A wooden vessel or cup, bucket; ततो$स्य रेतश्चस्कन्द तदृषिर्द्रोण आदधे Mb.1.13. 37. -2 A tub. -Comp. -आचार्यः see द्रोण above. -कलशः A kind of sacrificial vessel. -काकः, -काकलः a raven. -क्षीरा, -घा, -दुग्धा, -दुघा a cow yielding a droṇa of milk; सर्वा द्रोणदुघा गावो रामे राज्यं प्रशासति Mb.12.29.58. -गन्धिका a kind of plant (रासना). -मुखम् the capital of 4 villages; चतुःशतग्राम्या द्रोणमुखम् Kau. A.22. -मेघः see द्रोण (2) above. -वृष्टिः rain streaming forth from the द्रोण (cloud); अनावृष्टिहते सस्ये द्रोणवृष्टिरिवागता Mk.1.39.
धर्मः [ध्रियते लोको$नेन, धरति लोकं वा धृ-मन्; cf. Uṇ 1. 137] 1 Religion; the customary observances of a caste, sect, &c. -2 Law, usage, practice, custom, ordinance, statue. -3 Religious or moral merit, virtue, righteousness, good works (regarded as one of the four ends of human existence); अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्ग- सारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38, and see त्रिवर्ग also; एक एव सुहृद्धर्मो निधने$प्यनुयाति यः H.1.63. -4 Duty, prescribed course of conduct; षष्ठांशवृत्तेरपि धर्म एषः Ś.5.4; Ms.1.114. -5 Right, justice, equity, impartiality. -6 Piety, propriety, decorum. -7 Morality, ethics -8 Nature. disposition, character; उत्पत्स्यते$स्ति मम को$पि समानधर्मा Māl.1.6; प्राणि˚, जीव˚. -9 An essential quality, peculiarity, characteristic property, (peculiar) attribute; वदन्ति वर्ण्यावर्ण्यानां धर्मैक्यं दीपकं बुधाः Chandr.5.45; Pt.1.34. -1 Manner, resemblance, likeness. -11 A sacrifice. -12 Good company, associating with the virtuous -13> Devotion, religious abstraction. -14 Manner, mode. -15 An Upaniṣad q. v. -16 N. of Yudhiṣṭhira, the eldest Pāṇḍava. -17 N. of Yama, the god of death. -18 A bow. -19 A drinker of Soma juice. -2 (In astrol.) N. of the ninth lunar mansion. -21 An Arhat of the Jainas. -22 The soul. -23 Mastery, great skill; दिव्यास्त्रगुणसंपन्नः परं धर्मं गतो युधि Rām.3.31.15. -र्मम् A virtuous deed. -Comp. -अक्षरम् (pl.) holy mantras; a formula of faith; धर्माक्षराण्युदाहरामि Mk.8.45-46. -अङ्गः (-ङ्गा f.) the Indian crane. -अधर्मौ m. (du.) right and wrong, religion and irreligion; धर्माधर्मौ सपदि गलितौ पुण्यपापे विशीर्णे. ˚विद् m. a Mīmāṁsaka who knows the right and wrong course of action. -अधिकरणम् 1 administration of the laws. 1 a court of justice. (-णः) a judge. -अधिकरणिकः, -अधिकारिन् m. a judge, magistrate, any judicial functionary. -अधिकरणिन् m. a judge, magistrate. -अधिकारः 1 superintendence of religious affairs; Ś1. -2 administration of justice. -3 the office of a judge. -अधि- ष्ठानम् a court of justice. -अध्यक्षः 1 a judge. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अनुष्ठानम् acting according to religion, virtuous or moral conduct. -अनुसारः conformity to virtue or justice. -अपेत a. deviating from virtue, wicked, immoral, irreligious. (-तम्) vice, immorality, injustice. -अयनम् course of law, law-suit. -अरण्यम् a sacred or penance grove, a wood inhabited by ascetics; धर्मारण्यं प्रविशति गजः Śi.1.32. -अर्थौः religious merit and wealth; धर्मार्थौ यत्र न स्याताम् Ms.2.112. -अर्थम् ind. 1 for religious purposes. -2 justly, according to justice or right. -अलीक a. having a false character. -अस्तिकायः (with Jainas) the category or predicament of virtue; cf. अस्तिकाय. -अहन् Yesterday. -आगमः a religious statute, lawbook. -आचार्यः 1 a religious teacher. -2 a teacher of law or customs. -आत्मजः an epithet of Yudhiṣṭhira q. v. -आत्मता religiousmindedness; justice, virtue. -आत्मन् a. just righteous, pious, virtuous. (-m.) a saint, a pious man. -आश्रय, -आश्रित a. righteous, virtuous; धर्माश्रयं पापिनः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -आसनम् the throne of justice, judgmentseat, tribunal; न संभावितमद्य धर्मासनमध्यासितुम् Ś.6; धर्मासनाद्विशति वासगृहं नरेन्द्रः U.1.7. -इन्द्रः, -ईशः an epithet of Yama; पितॄणामिव धर्मेन्द्रः Mb.7.6.6. -ईप्सु a. wishing to gain religious merit; Ms.1.127. -उत्तर a. 'rich in virtue,' chiefly characterized by justice, eminently just and impartial; धर्मोत्तरं मध्यममाश्रयन्ते R.13.7. -उपचायिन् a. religious; यच्च वः प्रेक्षमाणानां सर्व- धर्मोपचायिनाम् Mb.5.137.16. -उपदेशः 1 instruction in law or duty, religious or moral instruction. आर्षं धर्मोपदेशं च वेदशास्त्राविरोधिना । यस्तर्केणानुसंधत्ते स धर्मं वेद नेतरः ॥ Ms.12.16. -2 the collective body of laws. -उपदेशकः 1 a teacher of the law. -2 a spiritual teacher, a Guru. -कथकः an expounder of law. -कर्मन् n., -कार्यम्, -क्रिया 1 any act of duty or religion, any moral or religious observance, a religious act or rite. -2 virtuous conduct. -कथादरिद्रः the Kali age. -काम a. 1 devoted to virtue. -2 observing duty or right. -कायः 1 an epithet of Buddha. -2 a Jaina saint. -कारणम् Cause of virtue. -कीलः 1 a grant, royal edict or decree. -2 husband. -कृत् a. observing duty, acting justly. (-m.) 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 a pious man. धर्मा- धर्मविहीनो$पि धर्ममर्यादास्थापनार्थं धर्ममेव करोतीति धर्मकृत् Bhāg. -केतुः an epithet of Buddha. -कोशः, -षः the collective body of laws or duties; धर्मकोषस्य गुप्तये Ms.1.99. -क्रिया, -कृत्यम् any act of religion, any moral or religious rite. -क्षेत्रम् 1 Bhāratavarṣa (the land of religion). -2 N. of a plain near Delhi, the scene of the great battle between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः Bg.1.1. (-त्रः) a virtuous or pious man. -गुप्त a. observing and protecting religion. (-प्तः) N. of Viṣṇu. -ग्रन्थः a sacred work or scripture. -घटः a jar of fragrant water offered daily (to a Brāhmaṇa) in the month of Vaiśākha; एष धर्मघटो दत्तो ब्रह्माविष्णुशिवात्मकः । अस्य प्रदानात् सफला मम सन्तु मनोरथाः ॥ -घ्न a. immoral, unlawful. -चक्रः 1 The wheel or range of the law; Bhddh. Jain. -2 a Buddha. ˚मृत् m. a Buddha or Jaina. -चरणम्, -चर्या observance of the law, performance of religious duties; शिवेन भर्त्रा सह धर्मचर्या कार्या त्वया मुक्तविचारयेति Ku.7.83; वयसि प्रथमे, मतौ चलायां बहुदोषां हि वदन्ति धर्मचर्याम्
Bu. Ch.5.3. चारिन् a. practising virtue, observing the law, virtuous, righteous; स चेत्स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्त- रायो भवसि R.3.45. (-m.) an ascetic. चारिणी 1 a wife. -2 a chaste or virtuous wife. cf. सह˚; इयं चोर्वशी यावदायुस्तव सहधर्मचारिणी भवत्विति V.5.19/2. -चिन्तक a. 1 studying or familiar with duty. -2 reflecting on the law. -चिन्तनम्, चिन्ता study of virtue, consideration of moral duties, moral reflection. -च्छलः fraudulent transgression of law or duty. -जः 1 'duly or lawfully born', a legitimate son; cf. Ms.9.17. -2 N. of युधिष्ठिर; Mb.15.1.44. -जन्मन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर. -जिज्ञासा inquiry into religion or the proper course of conduct; अथातो धर्मजिज्ञासा Jaimini's Sūtra. -जीवन a. one who acts according to the rules of his caste or fulfils prescribed duties. (-नः) a Brāhmaṇa who maintains himself by assisting other men in the performance of their religious rites; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -ज्ञ a. 1 knowing what is right, conversant with civil or religious law; Ms.7.141;8.179;1.127. -2 just, righteous, pious. -त्यागः abandoning one's religion, apostacy. -दक्षिणा a fee for instruction in the law. -दानम् a charitable gift (made without any self-interest.) पात्रेभ्यो दीयते नित्यमनपेक्ष्य प्रयोजनम् । केवलं धर्मबुद्ध्या यद् धर्मदानं प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.262. -दुघा a cow milked for religious purposes only. -द्रवी N. of the Ganges. -दारा m. (pl.) a lawful wife; स्त्रीणां भर्ता धर्मदाराश्च पुंसाम् Māl. 6.18. -द्रुह् a. voilating the law or right; निसर्गेण स धर्मस्य गोप्ता धर्मद्रुहो वयम् Mv.2.7. -द्रोहिन् m. a demon. -धातुः an epithet of Buddha. -ध्वजः -ध्वजिन् m. a religious hypocrite, an impostor; Bhāg.3.32.39. -नन्दनः an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -नाथः a legal protector, rightful master. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निबन्धिन् a. pious, holy. -निवेशः religious devotion. -निष्ठ a. devoted to religion or virtue; श्रीमन्तः पान्तु पृथ्वीं प्रशमित- रिपवो धर्मनिष्ठाश्च भूपाः Mk.1.61. -निष्पत्तिः f. 1 discharge or fulfilment of duty. -2 moral or religious observance; -पत्नी a lawful wife; R.2.2,2,72;8.7; Y.2.128. -पथः the way of virtue, a virtuous course of conduct. -पर a. religious-minded, pious, righteous. -परिणामः rise of righteous conduct in the heart (Jainism); cf. also एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः Yoga-darśana. -पाठकः a teacher of civil or religious law; Ms.12.111. -पालः 'protector of the law', said metaphorically of (दण्ड) 'punishment or chastisement', or 'sword'. -पाडा transgressing the law, an offence against law. -पुत्रः 1 a lawful son, a son begotten from a sense of duty and not from mere lust or sensual pleasure. -2 an epithet of युधिष्ठिर. -3 any one regarded as a son for religious purposes, a spiritual son. -प्रचारः (fig.) sword. -प्रतिरूपकः a counterfeit of virtue; Ms.11.9. -प्रधान a. eminent in piety; धर्मप्रधानं पुरुषं तपसा हतकिल्बिषम् Ms.4.243. -प्रवक्तृ m. 1 an expounder of the law, a legal adviser. -2 a religious teacher, preacher. -प्रवचनम् 1 the science of duty; U.5.23. -2 expounding the law. (-नः) an epithet of Buddha. -प्रेक्ष्य a. religious or virtuous (धर्मदृष्टि); Rām.2.85.16. -बाणिजिकः, -वाणिजिकः 1 one who tries to make profit out of his virtue like a merchant. -2 one who performs religious rites with a view to reward, like a merchant dealing in transactions for profit. -बाह्यः a. contrary to religion or what is right. -भगिनी 1 a lawful sister. -2 a daughter of the spiritual preceptor. -3 a spiritual sister, any one regarded as a sister or discharging the same religious duties एतस्मिन्विहारे मम धर्मभगिनी तिष्ठति Mk.8.46/47. -भागिनी a virtuous wife. -भाणकः a lecturer or public reader who reads and explains to audiences sacred books like the Bhārata, Bhāgavata, &c. -भिक्षुकः a mendicant from virtuous motives; Ms. 11.2. -भृत् m. 1 'a preserver or defender of justice,' a king. -2 a virtuous person. -भ्रातृ m. 1 a fellow religious student, a spiritual brother. -2 any one regarded as a brother from discharging the same religious duties. वानप्रस्थयतिब्रह्मचारिणां रिक्थभागिनः । क्रमेणाचार्यसच्छिष्य- धर्मभ्रात्रेकतीर्थिनः ॥ Y.2.137. -महामात्रः a minister of religion, a minister in charge of religious affairs. -मूलम् the foundation of civil or religious law, the Vedas. -मेघः a particular Samādhi. -युगम् the Kṛita age; अथ धर्मयुगे तस्मिन्योगधर्ममनुष्ठिता । महीमनुचचारैका सुलभा नाम भिक्षुकी Mb.12.32.7. -यूपः, -योनिः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -रति a. 'delighting in virtue or justice', righteous, pious, just; तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद् वृद्धत्वं जरसा विना R.1.23. -रत्नम् N. of a Jaina स्मृतिग्रन्थ prepared by Jīmūtavāhana. -राज् -m. an epithet of Yama. -राज a. धर्मशील q. v.; धर्मराजेन जनकेन महात्मना (विदेहान् रक्षितान्) Mb.12.325 19. -राजः an epithet of 1 Yama. -2 Jina. -3 युधिष्ठिर. -4 a king. -राजन् m. N. of युधिष्ठिर. -राजिका a monument, a stūpa (Sārnāth Inscrip. of Mahīpāla; Ind. Ant. Vol.14, p.14.) -रोधिन् a. 1 opposed to law, illegal, unlawful. -2 immoral. -लक्षणम् 1 the essential mark of law. -2 the Vedas. (-णा) the Mīmāṁsā philosophy. -लोपः 1 irreligion, immorality. -2 violation of duty; धर्मलोपभयाद्राज्ञीमृतुस्नातामिमां स्मरन् R. 1.76. -वत्सल a. loving piety or duty. -वर्तिन् a. just, virtuous. -वर्धनः an epithet of Śiva. -वादः discussion about law or duty, religious controversy; अनुकल्पः परो धर्मो धर्मवादैस्तु केवलम् Mb.12.165.15. -वासरः 1 the day of full moon. -2 yesterday. -वाहनः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a buffalo (being the vehicle of Yama). -विद् a. familiar with the law (civil or religious). ˚उत्तमः N. of Viṣṇu. -विद्या knowledge of the law or right. -विधिः a legal precept or injunction; एष धर्मविधिः कृत्स्नश्चातुर्वर्ण्यस्य कीर्तितः Ms.1.131. -विप्लवः violation of duty, immorality. -विवेचनम् 1 judicial investigation; यस्य शूद्रस्तु कुरुते राज्ञो धर्मविवेचनम् । तस्य सीदति तद्राष्ट्रं पङ्के गौरिव पश्यतः ॥ Ms.8.21. -2 dissertation on duty. -वीरः (in Rhet.) the sentiment of heroism arising out of virtue or piety, the sentiment of chivalrous piety; the following instance is given in R. G.:-- सपदि विलयमेतु राज्यलक्ष्मीरुपरि पतन्त्वथवा
कृपाणधाराः । अपहरतुतरां शिरः कृतान्तो मम तु मतिर्न मनागपैतु धर्मात् ॥ स च दानधर्मयुद्धैर्दयया च समन्वितश्चतुर्धा स्यात् S. D. -वृद्ध a. advanced in virtue or piety; न धर्मवृद्धेषु वयः समीक्ष्यते Ku.5.16. -वैतंसिकः one who gives away money unlawfully acquired in the hope of appearing generous. -व्यवस्था m. judicial decision, decisive sentence. -शाला 1 a court of justice, tribunal. -2 any charitabla institution. -शासनम्, शास्त्रम् a code of laws, jurisprudence; न धर्मशास्त्रं पठतीति कारणम् H.1.17; Y.1.5. [मनुर्यमो वसिष्ठो$त्रिः दक्षो विष्णुस्तथाङ्गिराः । उशना वाक्पतिर्व्यास आपस्तम्बो$ थ गौतमः ॥ कात्यायनो नारदश्च याज्ञवल्क्यः पराशरः । संवर्तश्चैव शङ्खश्च हारीतो लिखितस्तथा ॥ एतैर्यानि प्रणीतानि धर्मशास्त्राणि वै पुरा । तान्येवातिप्रमाणानि न हन्तव्यानि हेतुभिः ॥] -शील a. just, pious, virtuous. -शुद्धिः a correct knowledge of the law; प्रत्यक्षं चानुमानं च शास्त्रं च विविधागमम् । त्रयं सुविदितं कार्यं धर्मशुद्धिमभीप्सता ॥ Ms.12.15. -संहिता a code of laws (especially compiled by sages like Manu, Yājñavalkya, &c.). -संगः 1 attachmet to justice or virtue. -2 hypocrisy. -संगीतिः 1 discussion about law. -2 (with Buddhists) a council. -सभा a court of justice. -समयः a legal obligation; यश्चापि धर्मसमयात्प्रच्युतो धर्मजीवनः Ms.9.273. -सहायः a partner or companion in the discharge of religious duties. -सूः m. the fork-tailed shrike. -सूत्रम् a book on पूर्वमीमांसा written by Jaimini. -सेतुः an epithet of Śiva. -सेवनम् fulfilment of duties. -स्थः a judge; धर्मस्थः कारणैरेतैर्हीनं तमिति निर्दिशेत् Ms.8.57. -स्थीय a. Concerning law; धर्मस्थीयं तृतीयं प्रकरणम् Kau. A.3. -स्वामिन् m. an epithet of Buddha.
नहुषः N. of a king of the lunar race, son of Āyus and grandson of Purūravas and father of Yayāti. [He was a very wise and powerful king, and when Indra lay concealed under waters to expiate the sin of having killed the demon Vṛitra, a Brāhmaṇa, he was asked to occupy his seat. While there he thought of winning the love of Indrāṇī and caused the seven sages to convey him in a palanquin to her house. On his way he asked each of them to be quick using the words 'sarpa', 'sarpa', (move on, move on), when one of the sages (Agastya ?) cursed him to be a 'sarpa' (serpent). He fell down from the sky, and remained in that wretched state till he was relieved from it by Yudhiṣttod;hira.]
पुरु a. (-रु -र्वी f.) [पृ-पालनपोषणयोः कु; Uṇ.1.24] Much, abundant, excessive, many; (in classical literature पुरु occurs usually at the beginning of proper names); इन्द्रो मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते Bṛi. Up.2.5.19; स्त्रीणां प्रियतमो नित्यं मत्तस्तु पुरुलम्पटः Bhāg.7.15.7. -रुः 1 The pollen of flowers. -2 Heaven, the world of the immortals. -3 N. of a demon killed by Indra. -4 N. of a prince, the sixth monarch of the lunar race. [He was the youngest son of Yayāti and Śarmiṣṭhā. When Yayāti asked his five sons if any one of them would exchange his youth and beauty for his own decrepitude and infirmities, it was Puru alone who consented to make the exchange. After a thousand years Yayāti restored to Puru his youth and beauty
and made him successor to the throne. Puru was the ancestor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas.] -ind. 1 Much, exceedingly. -2 Repeatedly, often. -Comp. -कृत, -कृत्वन् a. efficacious. -जित् m. 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 N. of king Kuntibhoja of his brother. -दम् gold. -दंशकः a goose. -दंश (-स) -सा, -दत्रः, -द्रुह् m. epithets of Indra (Ved.). -निष्ठ a. excelling among many. -प्रौढ a. possessing much self-confidence. -भोजस् m. a cloud. -लम्पट a. very lustful or lascivious. -ह, -हु much, many. -हूत a. invoked by many; प्रादुश्चकर्थ यदिदं पुरुहूतरूपम् Bhāg.3.15.5. (-तः) an epithet of Indra; पुरुहूतध्वजः R.4.3;16.5; पुरुहूतमुख्याः (लोकपालाः) Ku.7.45. Ms.11.122. ˚द्विष् m. an epithet of Indrajit. -हूतिः m. an epithet of Viṣṇu. -f. manifold invocation.
पुरूरवस् m. [cf. Uṇ.4.231] The son of Budha and Ilā and founder of the lunar race of kings. [He saw the nymph Urvaśī, while descending upon earth owing to the curse of Mitra and Varuṇa, and fell in love with her. Urvaśī, too, was enamoured of the king who was as renowned for personal beauty as for truthfulness, devotion, and generosity, and became his wife. They lived happily together for many days, and after she had borne him a son, she returned to the heaven. The king heavily mourned her loss, and she was pleased to repeat her visits five successive times and bore him five sons. But the king, who wanted her life-long company, was not evidently satisfied with this; and he obtained his desired object after he had offered oblations as directed by the Gandharvas. The story told in Vikramorvaśīya differs in many respects; so does the account given in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, based on a passage in the Ṛigveda, where it is said that Urvaśī agreed to live with Purūravas on two conditions:-namely that her two rams which she loved as children must be kept near her bed-side and never suffered to be carried away, and that he must take care never to be seen by her undressed. The Gandharvas, however, carried away the rams, and so Urvaśī disappeared.]
बलम् [बल्-अच्] 1 Strength, power, might, vigour; क्षत्त्रियाणां बलं युद्धम् Brav. P. -2 Force, violence; as in बलात् q. v. -3 An army, host, forces, troops; भवेदभीष्म- मद्रोणं धृतराष्ट्रबलं कथम् Ve.3.24,43; बलं भीष्मा(भीमा)भिरक्षितम् Bg.1.1; R.16.37. -4 Bulkiness, stoutness (of the body). -5 Body, figure, shape. -6 Semen virile. -7 Blood, -8 Gum myrrh. -9 A shoot, sprout. -1 Force or power of articulation; वर्णः स्वरः । मात्रा बलम् । साम संतानः । इत्युक्तः शीक्षाध्यायः T. Up.1.2.1. -11 The deity of power (such as Indra); नमो बलप्रमथनाय Mb.12.284. 94. -12 The hand; क्रान्ते विष्णुर्बले शक्रः कोष्ठे$ग्निर्भोक्तुमिच्छति Mb.12.239.8. -13 Effort (यत्न); विधिः शुक्रं बलं चेति त्रय एते गुणाः परे Mb.12.32.11 (com. बलं वासनाविषयप्राप्त्यनु- कूलो यत्नः). (बलेन means 'on the strength of', 'by means or virtue of'; बाहुबलेन जितः, वीर्यबलेन &c.; बलात् 'perforce', 'forcibly', 'violently', 'against one's will'; बलान्निद्रा समायाता Pt.1; हृदयमदये तस्मिन्नेवं पुनर्वलते बलात् Gīt.7.). -लः 1 A crow; Rām.6.54.9. -2 N. of the elder brother of Kṛiṣṇa; see बलराम below. -3 N. of a demon killed by Indra. -Comp. -अग्रम् excessive strength or force. (-ग्रः) the head of an army. -अङ्गकः the spring; 'वसन्त इष्यः सुरभिः पुष्पकालो बलाङ्गकः' H. Ch.156. -अञ्चिता the lute of Balarāma. -अटः a kind of beam. -अधिक a. surpassing in strength, of superior strength or force. -अधिकरणम् the affairs of an army; -अध्यक्षः 1 a general or commander of an army; सेनापतिबलाध्यक्षौ सर्वदिक्षु निवेशयेत् Ms.7.189. -2 a war-minister. -3 An officer in charge of infantry. -अनुजः an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -अन्वित a. 1 endowed with strength, mighty, powerful. -2 leading an army. -अबलम् 1 comparative strength and want of strength, relative strength and weakness; परात्मनोः परिच्छिद्य शक्त्या- दीनां बलाबलम् R.17.59. -2 relative significance and insignificance, comparative importance and unimportance; समय एव करोति बलाबलम् Śi.6.44. ˚अधिकरणम् a kind of न्यायभेद according to Jaimini. -अभ्रः an army in the form of a cloud. -अरातिः an epithet of Indra. -अर्थिन् a. desirous of power; राज्ञो बलार्थिनः षष्ठे (वर्षे उपनयनं कार्यम्) Ms.2.37. -अवलेपः pride of strength. -अशः, -असः 1 consumption. -2 the phlegmatic humour (कफ). -3 a swelling in the throat (which stops the passages of food). -आढ्यः a bean. -आत्मिका a kind of sun-flower (हस्तिशुण्डी). -आलयः a military camp; पूज्यमानो हरिगणैराजगाम बलालयम् Rām.6.112.8. -आहः water. -उत्कट a. of mighty strength; न वध्यते ह्यविश्वस्तो दुर्बलो$पि बलोत्कटैः Pt.2.44;3.115. -उपपन्न, -उपेत a. endowed with strength, strong, powerful;
एतां रामबलोपेतां रक्षां यः सुकृती पठेत् Rāmarakṣā.1. -उपादानम् Recruitment of the army; Kau. A. -ओघः a multitude of troops, numerous army; लक्ष्मीं दधत् प्रति- गिरेरलघुर्बलौघः Śi.5.2. -कर, -कृत् a. strengthening. -कृत done by force or against free consent; सर्वान् बलकृता- नर्थानकृतान् मनुरब्रवीत् Ms.8.168. -क्षोभः disturbance in the army, mutiny, revolt. -चक्रम् 1 dominion, sovereignty. -2 an army, a host. -ज a. produced by power. (-जम्) 1 a city-gate, gate. -2 a field. -3 grain, a heap of grain; त्वं समीरण इव प्रतीक्षितः कर्षकेण बलजान् पुपूषता Śi.14.7. -4 war, battle -5 marrow, pith. -6 a pretty figure. (-जा) 1 the earth. -2 a handsome woman. -3 a kind of jasmine (Arabian). -4 a rope. -तापनः an epithet of Indra; अफिषिषेच मरन्दरसामृतैर्नवलताबलता- पनरत्नभम् (अलिनम्) Rām. Ch.4.12. -दः an ox, a bullock -दर्पः pride of strength. -देवः 1 air, wind. -2 N. of the elder brother of Kṛiṣṇa; see बलराम below. -बलदेवा (वी) f. N. of a medicinal herb which is also called त्रायमाण. It grows in the forests on the slopes of the Himālayas and in Persia. -द्विष् m., -निषूदनः epithets of Indra; बलनिषूदनमर्थपतिं च तम् R.9.3. -निग्रह a. weakening, enervating. -पतिः 1 a general, commander. -2 an epithet of Indra. -पुच्छकः a crow; Nigh. Ratn. -पृष्ठकः a kind of deer (Mar. रोहें). -प्रद a. giving strength, invigorating. -प्रमथनी N. of a form of Durgā. -प्रसूः N. of Rohinī, mother of Balarāma. -भद्र a. strong, powerful. (-द्रः) 1 a strong or powerful man. -2 a kind of ox. -3 N. of Balarāma, q. v. below. -4 the tree called लोध्र. -5 N. of Ananta. (-द्रा) a maiden. -भिद् m. an epithet of Indra; Ś.2. -भृत् a. strong, powerful. -मुख्यः the chief of an army. -रामः 'the strong Rāma', N. of the elder brother of Kṛiṣṇa. [He was the seventh son of Vasudava and Devakī; but transferred to the womb of Rohiṇī to save him from falling a prey to the cruelty of Kaṁsa. He and his brother Kṛiṣṇa were brought up by Nanda in Gokula. When quite young, he killed the powerful demons Dhenuka and Pralamba, and performed, like his brother, many feats of surprising strength. On one occasion Balarāma under the influence of wine, of which he was very fond, called upon the Yamunā river to come to him that he might bathe; and on his command being unheeded, he plunged his plough-share into the river and dragged the waters after him, until the river assumed a human form and asked his forgivenss. On another occasion he dragged towards himself the whole city of Hastināpura along with its walls. As Kṛiṣṇa was a friend and admirer of the Pāṇḍavas, so Balarāma was of the Kauravas, as was seen in his desire of giving his sister Subhadrā to Duryodhana rather than to Arjuna; yet he declined to take any part in the great Bhāratī war either with the Pāṇḍavas or the Kauravas. He is represented as dressed in blue clothes, and armed with a ploughshare which was his most effective weapon. His wife was Revatī. He is sometimes regarded as an incarnation of the serpent Śeṣa and sometimes as the eighth incarnation of Viṣṇu; see the quotation under हल]. -वर्जित a. infirm, weak. -वर्णिन् a. strong and looking well. -वर्धन a. invigorating, strengthening. -m. N. of स्थण्डिलाग्नि in उत्सर्जन or उपाकर्म. -विन्यासः array or arrangement of troops. -व्यसनम् the defeat of an army. -व्यापद् f. decrease of strength. -शालिन् a. strong; बलशालितया यथा तथा वा धियमुच्छेदपरामयं दधानः Ki.13.12. -समुत्थानम् Recruiting a strong army; Kau. A.1.16; तमभियोक्तुं बलसमुत्थानमकरोत् Dk.2.8. -सूदनः an epithet of Indra. -सेना a strong army, an army, host. -स्थ a. strong, powerful. (-स्थः) a warrior, soldier. -स्थितिः f. 1 a camp; an encampment. -2 a royal camp. -हन्, -हन्तृ m. 1 an epithet of Indra; पाण्डुः स्मरति ते नित्यं बलहन्तुः समीपगः Mb.15.2.17. -2 of Balarāma. -3 phlegm. -हीन a. destitute of strength, weak, feeble.
बुध a. [बुध्-क] 1 Wise, clever, learned. -2 Intelligent. -3 Waking, awaking. -धः 1 A wise or learned man; निपीय यस्य क्षितिरक्षिणः कथां तथाद्रियन्ते न बुधाः सुधामपि N.1.1. -2 A god; N.1.1. -3 A dog. -4 The planet Mercury; रक्षत्येन तु बुधयोगः Mu.1.6 (where बुध has sense 1 also); R.1.47;13.76. -धा Spikenard. -धे ind. On a Wednesday. -Comp. -अष्टमी N. of a festival. -जनः a wise or learned man. -तातः the moon. -दिनम्, -वारः, -वासरः Wednesday. -रत्नम् an emerald. -सानुः 1 a leaf; L. D. B. -2 the presiding deity in a sacrifice. -सुतः an epithet of Purūravas.
भरतः [भरं तनोति तन्-ड] 1 N. of the son of Duṣyanta and Śakuntalā, who became a universal monarch (चक्रवर्तिन्), India being called Bharatavarṣa after him. He was one of the remote ancestors of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas; cf. Ś.7.33. -2 N. of a brother of Rāma, son of Kaikeyī, the youngest wife of Daśaratha. He was very pious and righteous, and was so much devoted to Rāma that when the latter prepared to go to the forest in accordance with the wicked demand of Kaikeyī, he was very much grieved to find that his own mother had sent his brother into exile, and refusing the sovereignty that was his own, ruled the kingdom in the name of Rāma (by bringing from him his two sandals and making them the 'regents' of the realm) till he returned after his fourteen years' exile. भरतो नाम कैकेय्यां जज्ञे सत्यपराक्रमः । साक्षाद्विष्णोश्चतुर्भागः सर्वैः समुदितो गुणैः ॥ Rām.1.18.13. -3 N. of an ancient sage who is supposed to have been the founder of the science of music and dramaturgy. -4 An actor, a stage-player; तत्किमित्युदासते भरताः Māl.1. -5 A hired soldier, mercenary. -6 A barbarian, mountaineer. -7 An epithet of Agni. -8 A weaver. -9 N. of the sage Jaḍabharata. -Comp. -अग्रजः 'the elder brother of Bharata', an epithet of Rāma; अस्त्येव मन्युर्भरताग्रजे मे R.14.73. -ऋषभः N. of Viśvāmitra. ऋषभः, -शार्दूलः,
-श्रेष्ठः the best or most distinguished of the descendants of Bharata. -खण़्डम् N. of a part of India; भरतवर्षे भरतखण्डे जम्बुद्वीपे दण्डकारण्ये. -ज्ञ a. knowing the science of Bharata or the dramatic science. -पुत्रः, -पुत्रकः an actor; a mime. -वर्षः 'the country of Bharata', i. e. India. -वाक्यम् the last verse or verses in a drama, a sort of benediction (said to be in honour of Bharata, the founder of the dramatic science); तथापीदमस्तु भरत- वाक्यम् (occurring in every play); cf. Nāg.5 (end.) -शास्त्रम् = नाट्यशास्त्रम्.
भारद्वाजः [भरद्वाजस्यापत्यम् अण्] 1 N. of Droṇa, the military preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas;
यदाश्रौषं व्यूहमभेद्यमन्यैर्भारद्वाजेनात्तशस्त्रेण गुप्तम् Mb.1.1.19. -2 Of Agastya. -3 The planet Mars. -4 One of the seven Ṛiṣis. -5 A sky-lark. -6 N. of the author on the science of Government mentioned by Kauṭilya; Kau. A.1.15. -जम् A bone. -जी The wild cotton shrub. -जाः One of the अर्थशास्त्र schools mentioned by Kauṭilya in connection with राजपुत्ररक्षण; Kau. A.1.17.
भीम a. [बिभेत्यस्मात्, भी अपादाने मक] Fearful, terrific, terrible, dreadful, formidable; न भेजिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम् Bh.2.8; R.1.16;3.54. -मः 1 An epithet of Śiva.
and Viṣṇu; भीमो भीमपराक्रमः V. Sah. -2 The Supreme Being. -3 The sentiment of terror (= भयानक q. v.). -4 N. of the second Pāṇḍava prince. [He was begotten on Kuntī by the god Wind. From a child he showed that he was possessed of extraordinary strength and hence he was called Bhīma. He had too a most voracious appetite, and was called Vṛikodara, or 'wolf bellied'. His most effective weapon was his mace (गदा). He played a very important part in the great war, and, on the last day of the battle, smashed the thigh of Duryodhana with his unfailing mace, Some of the principal events of his earlier life are his defeat of the demons Hiḍimba and Baka, the overthrow of Jarāsandha, the fearful vow which he uttered against the Kauravas and particularly against Duhśāsana for his insulting conduct towards Draupadī, the fulfilment of that vow by drinking Duhśāsana's blood, the defeat of Jayadratha, his duel with Kīchaka while he was serving as headcook (बल्लव) to king Virāṭa, and several other exploits in which he showed his usual extraordinary strength. His name has become proverbial for one who possesses immense strength and courage]. -मम् Horror, terror. -Comp. -अञ्जस् a. having terrible strength. -उदरी an epithet of Umā. -एकादशी the eleventh day in the light half of Māgha. -कर्मन् a. of terrific prowess; पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः Bg.1.15. -तिथिः f. = भीमैकादशी. -दर्शन, -मुख a. frightful in appearance, hideous. -नाद a. sounding dreadfully. (-दः) 1 a loud or dreadful sound; भीमनादमयमाहतोच्चकैः Śi.15.1. -2 a lion. -3 N. of one of the seven clouds that will appear at the destruction of the world. -पराक्रम a. of terrific prowess. (-मः) N. of Viṣṇu. -पुरम् N. of Kuṇḍinapura q. v. -रथः 1 N. of one of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -2 N. of one of the kings born in the family of Dhanvantarī and in the family of Daśārha. -3 N. of one of the sons of Śrīkṛiṣṇa. -रथी 1 N. of the 7th night in the 7th month of the 77th year of a man's life (said to be a very dangerous period); (सप्तसप्ततितमे वर्षे सप्तमे मासि सप्तमी । रात्रिर्भीमरथी नाम नराणामतिदुस्तरा). -2 N. of a river in the Himālayas. -रूप a. of terrific form; केनापि भीमरूपेण ब्रह्मराक्षसेनाभिपत्य Dk.2.6. -विक्रम a. of terrific prowess. -विक्रान्त a. fearfully powerful. (-तः) a lion. -विग्रह a. gigantic, of terrific form. -वेग a. terribly swift. -शङ्करम् one of the 12 most sacred Liṅgas (in the Poona District). -शासनः an epithet of Yama. -सेनः 1 N. of the second Pāṇḍava prince. -2 a kind of camphor. -हासम् the flocculent down blown about in the air in summer.
भीष्म a. [भी-णिच्-सुक्-अपादाने मक्] Terrible, dreadful, frightful, fearful; भीष्मो हि देवः सहसः सहीयान् Bhāg. 11.23.48. -ष्मः 1 The sentiment of terror (in rhetoric); see भयानक. -2 A demon, an imp, a fiend, goblin. -3 An epithet of Śiva. -4 N. of the son of Śantanu by Gangā; हृते भीष्मे हते द्रोणे शल्ये च निधनं गते Mb. [He was the youngest of the eight sons of Śantanu by Gangā; but all the others having died, he remained the sole heir to the throne after his father. On one occasion while Śantanu was walking by the side of a river, he beheld a charming young damsel named Satyavatī, the daughter of a fisherman, and, though bowed down
with age, conceived a passion for her, and sent his son to negotiate the marriage. But the parents of the girl said that if their daughter bore sons to the king, they would not succeed to the throne, for after his death Śāntanava, being the rightful heir, would be the king. But Śāntanava, to please his father, made a vow to the parents that he would never accept the kingdom or marry a wife or become the father of children by any woman, so that if their daughter bore a son to Śantanu, he would be the king. This dreadful vow soon became known abroad, and thenceforth he was called Bhiṣma. He remained single, and, after the death of his father, he installed Vichitravīrya, the son of Satyavatī, on the throne, got him married to the two daughters of king Kāśirāja (see Ambikā), and became the guardian of his sons and grandsons, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. In the great war he fought on the side of the Kauravas, but was wounded by Arjuna with the assistance of Śikhanḍin and was lodged in a 'cage of darts'. But having got from his father the power of choosing his own time for death, he waited till the sun had crossed the vernal equinox, and then gave up his soul. He was remarkable for his continence, wisdom, firmness of resolve, and unflinching devotion to God]. -ष्मम् Horror, horribleness. -Comp. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the light half of Māgha (when Bhīṣma died). -जननी an epithet of the Ganges. -पञ्चकम् N. of the five days from the eleventh to the fifteenth of the bright balf of Kārtika (said to be sacred to Bhīṣma). -पर्वन् N. of the 6th Book of the Mahā-Bhārata. -सूः f. an epithet of the river Ganges; हरशिरसि पतन्ती भीष्मसूर्वः पुनातु Udb. -स्तवराजः N. of the 47th Chapter of शान्तिपर्व in Mahābhāraṭa.
रावण a. [रु-णिच् ल्यु] Crying, screaming, roaring, bewailing; इत्युक्त्वा परुषं वाक्यं रावणः शत्रुरावणः Rām.3.56. 26 (com. शत्रून् रावयति क्रोशयति शत्ररावणः). -णः N. of a celebrated demon, king of Laṅkā and the chief of the Rākṣhasas; स रावणो नाम निकामभीषणं बभूव रक्षः क्षतरक्षणं दिवः Śi.1.48. [He was the son of Viśravas by Keśinī or Kaikaśī and so half-brother of Kuber. He is called Paulastya as being a grandson of the sage Pulastya. Laṅkā was originally occupied by Kubera, but Rāvaṇa ousted him from it and made it his own capital. He had ten heads (and hence his names Daśagrīva, Daśa- vadana &c.) and twenty arms, and according to some, four legs (cf. R.12.88 and Malli.). He is represented to have practised the most austere penance for ten thousand years in order to propitiate the god Brahman, and to have offered one head at the end of each one thousand years. Thus he offered nine of his heads and was going to offer the tenth when the God was pleased and granted him immunity from death by either god or man. On the strength of this boon he grew very tyrannical and oppressed all beings. His power became so great that even the gods are said to have acted as his domestic servants. He conquered almost all the kings of the day, but is said to have been imprisoned by Kārtavīrya for some time when he went to attack his territory. On one occasion he tried to uplift the Kailāsa mountain, but Śiva pressed it down so as to crush his fingers under it. He, therefore, hymned Śiva for one thousand years so loudly that the God gave him the name Rāvaṇa and freed him from his painful position. But though he was so powerful and invincible, the day of retribution drew near. While Rāma who was Viṣṇu descended on earth for the destruction of this very demon was passing his years of exile in the forest, Rāvaṇa carried off his wife Sītā and urged her to become his wife but she persistently refused and remained loyal to her husband. At last Rāma assisted by his monkey-troops invaded Laṅkā, annihilated Rāvaṇa's troops and killed the demon himself. He was a worthy opponent of Rāma, and hence the expression:-- रामरावणयोर्युद्धं रामरावणयोरिव ।]. -णम् 1 The act of screaming. -2 N. of a Muhūrta. -Comp. -अरिः N. of Rāma. -गङ्गा N. of a river in Laṅkā.
संजयः 1 Conquest, victory. -2 A kind of military array. -3 N. of the charioteer of king Dhṛitarāṣṭra. He tried to bring about a peaceful settlement of the dispute between the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas, but failed. It was he who narrated the events of the great Bhāratī war to the blind king Dhṛitarāṣṭra; cf. धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः । मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत संजय ॥ Bg.1.1.
Sanskrit Dictionary understands and transcodes देवनागर्-ई IAST, Harvard-Kyoto, SLP1, ITRANS. You can type in any of the Sanskrit transliteration systems you are familiar with and we will detect and convert it to IAST for the purpose of searching.
Using the Devanagari and IAST Keyboards
Click the icon to enable a popup keybord and you can toggle between देवनागरी and IAST characters. If you want a system software for typing easily in देवनागरी or IAST you can download our software called SanskritWriter
Wildcard Searches and Exact Matching
To replace many characters us * example śakt* will give all words starting with śakt. To replace an individual character use ? for example śakt?m will give all words that have something in place of the ?. By default our search system looks for words “containing” the search keyword. To do an exact match use “” example “śaktimat” will search for this exact phrase.
Type sandhi: and a phrase to search for the sandhi of the two words example.
sandhi:sam yoga will search for saṃyoga
Type root: and a word to do a root search only for the word. You can also use the √ symbol, this is easily typed by typing \/ in SanskritWriter software.