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     Grammar Search "rāti" has 4 results.
     
rāti: neuter nominative singular stem: rāti
rāti: neuter accusative singular stem: rāti
rāti: neuter vocative singular stem: rāti
rāti: third person singular present present class 2 parasmaipada
     Amarakosha Search  
6 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
indraḥ1.1.45MasculineSingularmarutvān, pākaśāsanaḥ, puruhūtaḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, divaspatiḥ, vajrī, vṛṣā, balārāti, harihayaḥ, saṅkrandanaḥ, meghavāhanaḥ, ṛbhukṣāḥ, maghavā, vṛddhaśravāḥ, purandaraḥ, śakraḥ, sutrāmā, vāsavaḥ, vāstoṣpatiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, svārāṭ, duścyavanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, viḍaujāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, śatamanyuḥ, gotrabhid, vṛtrahā, surapatiḥ, jambhabhedī, namucisūdanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, sahasrākṣaḥindra, the king of the gods
māyākāraḥ2.10.11MasculineSingularprātihārakaḥ
śatruḥ2.8.10MasculineSingularārāti, śātravaḥ, ahitaḥ, durhṛd, sapatnaḥ, paraḥ, dasyuḥ, vipakṣaḥ, dveṣaṇaḥ, vairī, pratyarthī, abhighātī, amitraḥ, dviṭ, dviṣan, ripuḥ
ulūkaḥ2.5.16MasculineSingularpecakaḥ, divāndhaḥ, kauśikaḥ, ghūkaḥ, divābhītaḥ, vāyasārāti, niśāṭanaḥ
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārāti, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
viviktaḥ3.3.89MasculineSingularpūjitaḥ, arāti, abhiyuktaḥ, agrataḥkṛtaḥ
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200 results for rāti
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
rātimfn. ready or willing to give, generous, favourable, gracious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātif. a favour, grace, gift, oblation etc. etc. (in also"the Giver"conceived of as a deity and associated with bhaga-; indrasya rātī- varia lectio tiḥ-Name of a sāman- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātikulan. a house (whose inhabitants are) disposed to give (alms), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātinmfn. containing gifts or oblations (as a sacrificial ladle) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātiṣāc(for -sāc-) mfn. granting favours, dispensing gifts, liberal, generous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alarṣirātimfn. eager to bestow (varia lectio /an-arśa-rati- q.v ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anarśarātimfn. giving uninjurious things, one whose gifts do not hurt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprātilomyan. the not being hostile to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aprātirūpyan. incomparableness, (a-- prat-, Calcutta edition). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātif. "non liberality", enviousness, malignity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātif. failure, adversity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātif. particular evil spirits (who frustrate the good intentions and disturb the happiness of man) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātim. (is) an enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātim. (in arithmetic) the number six (there being six sins or internal enemies see ṣaḍ-varga-).
ārātim. enemy (equals arāti- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātibhaṅgam. defeat of a foe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātidūṣaṇamfn. destroying adversity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātidūṣimfn. idem or 'mfn. destroying adversity ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātihamfn. equals -dūṣaṇa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātinudmfn. expelling enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arātiyaNom. P. (subjunctive tsy/āt-) to be malevolent, have hostile intentions against (dative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyarātim. Name of a son of janaṃtapa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balārātim. equals bala-dviṣ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhramarātithim. "bee-guest", Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇaprātiveśyam. a neighbouring Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmarāti wrong reading for brāhma-rāti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmarātim. (fr. brahma-rāta-) patronymic of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitrasaṃkrātif. Name (also title or epithet) of a festival usually celebrated early in April (in Bengal). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrātim. plural Name of a people (vakrātapa- edition Calc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthamandrātisvāryamfn. "to be lengthened in a particular way", said of a kind of recitation of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chattrāticchattram. a fragrant grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chattrāticchattrāf. idem or 'm. a fragrant grass ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirātiktam. equals ra-t- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrarāti(tr/a--) mfn. granting excellent gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dahanārātim. "fire-enemy", water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivarātim. patronymic fr. deva-rāta-, Name of janaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivarātim. of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānaprātibhāvyan. security for payment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darśanaprātibhāvyan. surety for appearance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣārātim. "crow-enemy", an owl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāntarātim. "id.", the sun or any luminary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ditijārātim. enemy of the daitya-s, Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durgāntarātithim. guest of the inside of a stronghold a prisoner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dviradārātim. "foe of the elephant", the fabulous animal śarabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gadārātim. "the enemy of diseases", a drug, medicament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghorātighoramfn. equals raghoratara- (said of a hell) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghrātif. smelling, perception of odour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghrātif. snuffling at View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghrātif. the nose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himārātim. "enemy of cold"fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himārātim. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himārātim. a kind of Plant (equals citraka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
himārātim. another plant (equals arka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambhārātim. idem or '(j/ambh-) mfn. pressed with the jaws, chewed ', View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṃsārātim. "enemy of kaṃsa-", Name of kṛṣṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauśikārātim. "enemy of owls", a crow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātif. (equals kirātī-), Name of gaṅgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātif. Indian spikenard (Nardostachys jaṭāmāṃsī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krauñcārātim. equals krauñca-ripu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛcchrātikṛcchram. Name of a penance (taking no sustenance but water for 3, 9, 12, or 21 days) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛcchrātikṛcchraum. dual number the ordinary and the extraordinary penance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuñjarārātim. "the enemy of elephants", a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuñjarārātim. the śarabha- (a fabulous animal with eight legs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṃhiṣṭharāti(m/aṃh-). mfn. one whose gifts are most abundant, very rich or bountiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrātithim. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgārātim. an enemy or pursuer of deer a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgārātim. a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūṣakārātim. "mouse's foe", a cat (see muṣikārāti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūṣikārātim. equals mūṣakārāti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgārātim. equals ga-hantrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netrātithimfn. one who has become visible (literally an eye guest) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirātithyamfn. inhospitable, lonely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitrātipavitramfn. most pure or holy, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśāntārātimfn. one whose enemies have been pacified or destroyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātif. filling (equals pūrti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātif. the span of the thumb and forefinger. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāti(for 1.See under prā-), vṛddhi- or lengthened form of 1. prati- in compound In the following derivatives formed with 2. prāti- only the second member of the simple compound from which they come is given in the parentheses (leaving the preposition prati-,which is lengthened to prāti-in the derivatives, to be supplied).
prātibhamf(ī-)n. (fr. -bhā-) intuitive, divinatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhan. (with or scilicet jñāna-) intuitive knowledge, intuition, divination ( prātibhavat -vat- ind. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhāf. presence of mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhāsikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -bhāsa-) having only the appearance of anything, existing only in appearance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhāsikamf(ī-)n. Gov. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhaṭyan. (fr. -bhaṭa-) rivalry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhavatind. prātibha
prātibhāvyan. (fr. -bhū-) the act of becoming bail or surety, surety for (genitive case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhāvyan. certainty of or about (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibodham. patronymic fr. prati-b- gaRa bidādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibodhāyanam. patronymic fr. prātibodha- gaRa haritādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibodhīputram. See pratībodhī-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātidaivasikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -divasam-) happening or occurring daily View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihantran. (fr. -hantṛ-) the state or condition of a revenger, vengeance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihāram. a juggler View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihārakam. id. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihārikamf(ī-)n. containing pratihāra-s (as a Vedic hymn) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihārikam. a doorkeeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihārikam. a juggler, conjurer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihartran. the office or duty of the pratihartṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihāryan. (fr. -hāra-) the office of a door-keeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihāryan. jugglery, working miracles, a miracle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihāryasaṃdarśanam. a particular samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātihatam. a kind of svarita- accent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātijanīnamf(ī-)n. (fr. -kṣepa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātijanīnamf(ī-)n. (fr. -jana-) suitable for an adversary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātijanīnamf(ī-)n. (fr. janam-) suitable for everybody, popular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātijñan. (fr. -jñā-) the subject under discussion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātif. the China rose, Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikāminmfn. (fr. -kāmam-; accusative m. Calcutta edition mīm-) a servant or messenger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikaṇṭhikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -kaṇṭham-) seizing by the throat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikṣepikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -kṣepa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikūlikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -kūla-) opposed to, contrary (wrong reading prati-k-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikūlikatāf. opposition, hostility View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikūlyan. (fr. -kūla-) contrariety, adverseness, opposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikūlyan. disagreeableness, unpleasantness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikūlyan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') disagreement with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātikyan. (fr. pratika-) gaRa purohitādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātilambhikamfn. (fr. lambha-) ready to receive, expecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātilomikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -lomam-) against the hair or grain, adverse, disagreeable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātilomyan. (fr. -loma-) contrary direction, inverse order etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātilomyan. opposition (a-prātil-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātimokṣam. equals prati-m- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātinidhikam. (fr. -nidhi-) a substitute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadamf(ī-)n. (fr. -pad-) forming the commencement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -padam-) express, explicit ( prātipadikānurodhāt nurodhāt- ind.in conformity with express terms, expressly) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadikan. the crude form or base of a noun, a noun in its uninflected state ( prātipadikatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadikam. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadikānurodhātind. prātipadika
prātipadikasaṃjñāvādam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipadikatvan. prātipadika
prātipakṣamf(ī-)n. belonging to the enemy, hostile, adverse, contrary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipakṣyan. (fr. -pakṣa-) hostility, enmity against (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipānamfn. (a jar) containing water to drink, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipathikamf(ī-)n. going along a road or path View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipathikam. a wayfarer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipauruṣikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -pauruṣa-) relating to manliness or valour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipeyam. idem or 'm. patronymic of balhika- ' (also plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātipīyam. patronymic of balhika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātirūpikamfn. (fr. -rūpa-) counterfeit, spurious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātirūpikamfn. using false weight or measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātirūpyan. similarity of form (a-prātir-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiśākhyan. (fr. -śākham-) a treatise on the peculiar euphonic combination and pronunciation of letters which prevails in different śākhā-s of the veda-s (there are 4 prātiśākhya- one for the śākala-śākhā- of the ;two for particular śākhā-s of the black and white yajur-veda-s, and one for a śākhā- of the ; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiśākhyabhāṣyan. Name of uvaṭa-'s commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiśākhyakṛtm. the author of a prātiśākhya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātisatvanamind. in the direction of the satvan- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) (-sutvan/am- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātisīmam. (fr. -sīman-) a neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiśravasam. patronymic fr. prati-śravas- (wrong reading prati-śravasa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiśrutkamf(ī-)n. (fr. -śrut-) existing in the echo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiṣṭhita wrong reading for -svika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātisvikamf(ī-)n. (fr. -sva-) own, not common to others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātisvikamf(ī-)n. granting to every one his own due View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātithayīf. (fr. -tithi-) Name of a female sage (varia lectio -tītheyī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśikam. (fr. -veśa-) a neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśmaka wrong reading for next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśmikam. (fr. -veśman-) a neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśmikīf. a female next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśyamfn. (fr. -veśa-) neighbouring (also in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśyam. an opposite neighbour (see ānuveśya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśyam. any neighbor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātiveśyakam. idem or 'm. any neighbor ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puraṃdarapurātithim. puraṃdarapura
purārātim. equals pura-dviṣ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūṣarātimfn. (prob.) giving growth or increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgvedaprātiśākhyan. the prātiśākhya- of the ṛg-- veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākalaprātiśākhyan. Name of the ṛg-- veda- prātiśākhya- (ascribed to śaunaka- and handed down for the use of the śākala- school). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samarātithim. "battle -comer", any one encountered in battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śarātif. idem or ' f. idem or 'f. idem or 'f. a sort of bird (of the heron kind;more commonly called śarāli-) ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarāti(s/a-.) mfn. equal in (bestowing) gifts, equally kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpārātim. "enemy of snake", Name of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpārātim. an ichneumon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpārātim. a peacock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrātigamfn. offending against the śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrātikramam. transgressing the śāstra-, violation of sacred precepts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyamprātikamfn. (fr. sāyam-prātar-) belonging to evening and morning , Va1rtt. 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śiśukṛcchrātikṛcchran. another kind of penance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivārāti (śivār-) m. "jackal's enemy", a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smadrātiṣac(sm/ad--;strong form ṣāc-) mfn. attended by givers or liberal men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śokārātibhayatrāṇan. protection or a protector from sorrow and enemies and danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śroturāti(śr/otu--) mfn. giving an ear, hearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suprātiveśmikamfn. having a good neighbour, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surātimfn. rich in gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surāti su-rādhas- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrpakārāti m. "enemy of śūrpaka-", Name of kāma- (god of love) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādurātimfn. bestowing agreeable gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyan. the prātiśākhya- of the taittirīya-s (commented on by tri-bhāṣya-ratna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiraḥprātiveśyam. a near neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiraḥprātiveśyam. (also tiraskṛta-pr-,134) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiraskṛtaprātiveśyam. equals tiraḥ-pr- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīvrātitīvramfn. excessively severe (penance) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triprātihāryasampannamfn. "possessed of magical power of 3 kinds", a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tripurārātim. equals radruh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājasaneyiprātiśākhyan. the prātiśākhya- of the vājasaneyin-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varātisargam. the granting a boon or request View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyasārātim. "crow's enemy" idem or ' m. "crow's enemy" idem or 'm. "crow's enemy" idem or 'f. (only ) Name of various plants or trees (Agati Grandiflora;Cardiospermum Halicacabum;Capparis Sepiaria; equals kāka-tuṇḍī-).' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtarātimfn. (vi-) bestowing rich gifts. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihaṃgārātim. "bird-enemy", a falcon or hawk. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣārātim. "enemy of poison", a kind of thorn-apple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visṛṣṭarātimfn. (v/i--) munificent in gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrātikan. a particular observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkārāti m. "wolf-enemy", a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yamanagarātithim. "guest in yama-'s city" id est dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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rāti राति a. Ved. 1 Liberal, favourable, generous. -2 Ready. -तिः A friend (opp. to अरातिः). -f. 1 Giving, bestowing, presentation. -2 Wealth; विज्ञानमानन्दं ब्रह्म रातिर्दातुः परायणम् Bṛi. Up.3.9.28; Bhāg.5.5.3. -3 A favour. -4 A gift, present. -Comp. -साच् a. (-षाच्) bestowing gifts, liberal, bountiful.
anarśarāti अनर्शराति a. [अनर्शाय अपापिष्ठाय रातिर्दानं यस्य] One who does not give to sinful persons, a sinless donor.
arāti अरातिः [न राति ददाति सुखं, रा-क, न. त.] 1 An enemy, foe; देशः सो$यमरातिशोणितजलैर्यस्मिन् ह्रदाः पूरिताः Ve.3.33; अरातिं बह्वमन्यत R.12.89. (in the Veda) non-offering (of sacrifices), stinginess, hardness, malignity, malevolence, failure or adversity; malignity personified; evil spirit whose aim it was to defeat the good intentions and disturb the happiness of man (used in f.). -2 The number six. -3 The sixth position in (astronomy). -Comp. -दूषण, -दूषि, -ह a. Ved/ destroying adversities or enemies; Av.19.34.4. -भङ्गः destruction of enemies.
arāti अराति (ति) यति Den. P. Ved. To desire not to offer; to act like an enemy, act maliciously; अथो यो नो अरातियात् Av.4.36.1.
ārāti आरातिः [आ-रा क्तिच्] An enemy.
kirāti किरातिः f. 1 The Ganges. -2 An epithet of Durgā.
kirāti किरातिनी f. N. of a plant (जटामांसी).
ghrāti घ्रातिः f. The act of smelling; न हि घ्रातुर्घातेर्विपरिलोपो विद्यते Bṛi.4.3.24; घ्रातिरघ्रेयमद्ययोः Ms.11.68. -2 Smell -3 The nose.
prāti प्रातिः f. 1 The span of the thumb and the forefinger. -2 Filling.
prāti प्रातिका The China rose (जवा).
prātikāmin प्रातिकामिन् A servant or messenger.
prātikūlika प्रातिकूलिक a. (-की f.) Opposed, opposing, contrary; आः प्रातिकूलिकः संवृत्तः Mv.5. प्रातिकूलिकता Opposition, hostility.
prātikūlyam प्रातिकूल्यम् Adverseness, opposition, hostility, unfavourableness, unfriendliness.
prātijanīna प्रातिजनीन (-नी f.) 1 Suitable against an adversary. -2 Suitable for everybody, popular.
prātijñam प्रातिज्ञम् The subject under discussion.
prātidaivasika प्रातिदैवसिक a. (-की f.) Occurring daily.
prātinidhikaḥ प्रातिनिधिकः A substitute; Kāty. ŚS.
prātipakṣa प्रातिपक्ष a. (-क्षी f.) 1 Contrary, adverse. -2 Hostile, inimical.
prātipakṣyam प्रातिपक्ष्यम् Enmity, hostility.
prātipada प्रातिपद a. (-दी f.) 1 Forming the commencement. -2 Produced in, or belonging to, the day called प्रतिपद् q. v.
prātipathikaḥ प्रातिपथिकः A wayfarer.
prātipadika प्रातिपदिक a. Express, explicit. -कः Fire. -कम् The crude form of a substantive, a noun in its uninflected state (before receiving the case-terminations); अर्थवद- धातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् P.I.2.45.
prātipauruṣika प्रातिपौरुषिक a. (-की f.) 1 Common to all men; (सर्वपुरुषसाधारण); मध्ये राज्ञामहं तत्र प्रातिपौरुषिकान् गुणान् । तव संकीर्तयिष्यामि... Mb.5.74.3. -2 Relating to manliness or valour.
prātibha प्रातिभ a. (-भी f.) 1 Relating to divination or genius. -2 Intellectual, mental. -भम् Genius or vivid imagination, intuition, divination; ... प्रभोः प्रातिभदर्पणः । प्रतिबिम्बित- मात्मानं यत्र पश्यति भारती Dharmābhyudayamahākāvya 1.1; प्रातिभं त्रिसरकेण गतानां वक्रवाक्यरचनारमणीयः Śi.1.12; Mb.5.63.2.
prātibhāvyam प्रातिभाव्यम् Becoming bail or security, suretyship, becoming answerable for the appearance of a debtor, for his being trustworthy, and for paying his debt; श्रेणी- प्रातिभाव्येनातिष्ठत् Dk.; Ms.8.159. -2 Opposition (विरोध); न दुर्बलः प्रातिभाव्यं करोति Mb.5.33.11.
prātibhāsika प्रातिभासिक a. (-की f.) 1 Existing only in appearance, not real. -2 Looking like.
prātilomika प्रातिलोमिक a. (-की f.) Against the grain, adverse, hostile, disagreeable.
prātilomyam प्रातिलोम्यम् 1 Inversion, inverted or reverse order; क्षत्तृवैदेहकौ तद्वत् प्रातिलोम्ये$पि जन्मनि (स्पर्शादियोग्यौ) Ms.1.13. -2 Hostility, opposition, hostile feeling; दुःशासनः प्राति- लोम्यान्निनाय सभामध्ये श्वशुराणां च कृष्णाम् Mb.5.29.39. प्रातिवेशिकः prātivēśikḥ प्रातिवेश्मकः prātivēśmakḥ प्रातिवेश्यकः prātivēśyakḥ प्रातिवेशिकः प्रातिवेश्मकः प्रातिवेश्यकः A neighbour.
prātiveśyaḥ प्रातिवेश्यः 1 A neighbour (in general). -2 A nextdoor neighbour (निरन्तरगृहवासी Kull.); Ms.8.392.
prātiśākhyam प्रातिशाख्यम् A grammatical treatise laying down rules for the phonetic changes which words in any Śākhā of the Vedas undergo, and teaching the mode of pronouncing the accents &c. (There exist four Prātiśākhyas, one for the Śākala branch of Ṛigveda, one for each of the two branches of the Yajurveda, and one for the Atharvaveda.)
prātiśrutka प्रातिश्रुत्क a. Existing in the echo; यश्चायमध्यात्मं श्रौत्रः प्रातिश्रुत्कः Bṛi. Up.2.5.6.
prātisvika प्रातिस्विक a. (-की f.) 1 Peculiar, not common to others, one's own. -2 Granting to every one what is his due.
prātihantram प्रातिहन्त्रम् Vengeance, revenge. प्रातिहारः prātihārḥ प्रातिहारकः prātihārakḥ प्रातिहारिकः prātihārikḥ प्रातिहारः प्रातिहारकः प्रातिहारिकः A juggler, conjurer.
prātihāryam प्रातिहार्यम् 1 Juggling, conjuring, legerdemain. -2 Working miracles. -3 A miracle.
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arāti á-rāti, f. hostility, ii. 35, 6; iv. 50, 11; viii. 48, 3; x. 34, 14 [non-giving, niggardliness, enmity].
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rāti a. ready to give, gracious (V.); f. (V.) favour, grace; gift: -sh&asharp;k, (V.) a. -sâk, strg. form of √ sak], granting favour or gifts, bountiful; m. bountiful genius (V.).
arāti f. disfavour, enmity; fiend; m. foe.
ārāti m. enemy.
kṛcchrātikṛcchra m. du. ordinary and extraordinary penance; sg. kind of penance.
prātikāmin m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kâmam), ser vant; messenger; -kûlika, a. (î) resisting, hostile, contrary: -tâ, f. opposition, hostility; -kûlya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--°ree;); -gña, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy oradversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhâv ya, n. surety, for (--°ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhâs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rûp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: î, f.female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--°ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -sâkhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedasaccording to the respective recension (prati-sâkham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hârika, m. door-keeper; -hâr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.
varātisarga m. bestowal of a boon; -½ânanâ, a. f. fair-faced.
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"rāti" has 103 results.
     
atharvaprātiśākhyathe Prātiśākhya work of the Atharva veda believed to have been written by Śaunaka. It consists of four Adhyāyās and is also called शौनकीया चतुरध्यायिका.
aprātipatti(1)impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikakāryacorresponding to अङ्गकार्य in the case of the declinables, which the Sutrakara mentions specifically with respect to the noun-base.
prātipadikagrahaṇaexpress mention by wording of a noun-base as in दित्यदित्यादित्य , सुधातुरकङ् च et cetera, and others, and not by description as अदन्त in अत इञ् (P.IV.1.95) or in a group of words ( गण ) ; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. 71, which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation, provided the base is specifically expressed and not merely describedition e. g युवतिः खलतिः युवखलतिः, चटकस्यापत्यं चाटकैरः, वह्नीनां पूरणी बहुतिथी et cetera, and others
prātipadikasvarathe general accent of the Pratipadika viz. the acute ( उदात्त ) for the last vowel as given by the Phit sutra फिषः ( प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकस्वरस्यावकाशः । अाम्रः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.91 Vart. 7.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātilomyain inverse order, antithesis. reverse sense; e. g. प्र and परा mean the reverse of अा, or प्रति means the reverse of अभि; cf अा इत्यर्वागर्थे । प्र परेत्येतस्य प्रातिलोम्यम् et cetera, and others Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prātiśrutkaplaces of echo or reverberation viz.chest and others, of sound which gets its origin at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest, throat, top of the month, mouth and nose; confer, compare तस्य ( उत्पत्त्याश्रयस्य शब्दस्य ) प्रातिश्रुत्कानि भवन्ति उरः कण्ठः शिरो मुखं नासिके इति, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 3.
prātihataname given to the circumflex vowel, standing at the beginning of a word and following the final vowel of the previous word which is acute ( उदात्त ); confer, compare अपि चेन्नानापदस्थमुदात्तमथ चेत्सांहितेन स्वर्यते स प्रतिहतः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.xx. 3.
maitrāyaṇīya prātiśākhyaa Pratiskhya or :Parsada work giving the peculiarities of Sandhi, accent and the like, in changing the Maitrayaniya Samhitaapatha into the Padapatha.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śaunakaprātiśākhyaa popular name of the well-known Pratisakhya of the Rgveda, named ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य as well as ऋग्वेदप्रातिशाख्य.
sarvaprātipadikaany noun-base irrespective of any discrimination; confer, compare अपर अाह सर्वप्रातिपादेकेभ्य आचारे किब्वक्तव्योश्वति गर्दभतीत्येवमर्थम् M.Bh. on P. III. 1.11 Vart, 3.
sāmavedprātiśākhyaname of a Pratisakhya work on Samaveda. It is probable that there were some Pratisakhya works written dealing with the different branches or Sakhas of the Samaveda, as could be inferred from indirect references to such works. For instance in the Mahabhasya there is a passage "ननु च भोश्छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीयाः अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते। ..पार्षदकृतिरेषां तत्रभवताम् " which refers to such works At present, however, one such work common to the several branches of the Samaveda, called Rktantra is available, and it is called Samaveda Pratisakhya. It is believed to have been written by औदव्रजि and revised by शाकटायन.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agniveśyaan ancient writer of Vedic grammar mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. confer, compare कपवर्गपरश्च (विसर्ग:) अग्निवेश्यवाल्मीक्योः ( मतेन ऊष्माणं न आपद्यते ) T.Pr. IX. 4.
agniveśyāyanawriter of Vedic grammar, mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. confer, compare नाग्निवेश्यायनस्य ( मते उदात्तपरः स्वरितपरो वा अनुदात्तः स्वरितं नापद्यते इति न) Tait. Pr. XIV.32.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
anahvatech. term used by the writers; of the Prātiśākhya works for frequentative formations such as रीरिष:, चाक्लृपत् et cetera, and others; cf Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. 4.86.
anirdaprathamaan underived word: an ancient term used by writers of the Prātiśākhyas to signify 'original' words which cannot be subjected to निर्वचन.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
ambūkṛtautterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained differently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; confer, compareग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avagrahavirāmathe interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.
āgastyaname of an ancient writer of Vedic grammar and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)I.2.
ācārakvipdenominative case. affix क्विप् applied to any prātipadika or noun in the sense of behaviour: confer, compare सर्वप्रातिपदिकेभ्य आचारे क्विब् वक्तव्यः अश्वति गर्दभति इत्येवमर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.11; confer, compare हलन्तेभ्य आचाराक्विबभावाच्च Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari.52.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
iṅgathe same as इङ्ग्य. See below. The word इङ्ग is used for इङ्ग्य in the Atharva Prātiśākhya confer, compare नीहारााददिष्वनिङगेयूत्तरपदे दीर्घं इघ्नेषु च A.Pr. III. 3.12.
ukhyaa writer on Vedic phonetics and euphony quoted in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya; confer, compare उख्यस्य सपूर्वः Tai. Pra. VIII. 22.
utkramaa variety of the Krama described in the Prātiśākhya works.
udayathat which follows; a term frequently used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of 'following' or पर; confer, compare उदयस्वरादिसस्थानो हकार एकेषाम् explained by the commentator as आत्मन उपरिस्वरादिसस्थानः T.Pr.II.47: confer, compare also ऋकार उदये कण्ठ्यौ explained by the commentator as ऋकारे उदये परभूते सति R.Pr.II.11;confer, compare also नेादात्तस्वरितेादयं P.V.III.4.67.
udgrāhaalleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśākhya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; confer, compare R.Pr.II.10.
udgrāhapadavṛttiname given in the Rk. Prātiśākhya to the Udgrāhasaṁdhi where the vowel अ is followed by a long vowel; e.g, कः ईषते =क ईषते R.Pr.II.10.
udgrāhavatname given to a saṁdhi in the Rk. Prātiśākhya when the vowel अ or अा is changed into अ e. g. प्र ऋभुभ्यः=प्रऋभुभ्य: also मधुना + ऋतस्य=मधुन ऋतस्य confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 11.
upajanaliterallyorigin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The word is used in the sense of 'additional phonetic element'; confer, compare उपजन आगमः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5; confer, compare also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविकारेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Māheśvarasūtras. 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance ofeminine. उपजन confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; confer, compare उपेत्युपजनम्: The commentary on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upabandhaa technical term used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of words which proceed from a rule to the following rules upto a particular stated limit; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम् T. Pr I.59 explained by the commentator as उपबध्यते इति उपबन्धः । एतस्मिन्नित्यधिकरणरूपः संख्यानविषयः प्रदेशश्च उपबन्ध उच्यते । उपबन्धे यदुक्तं तदन्यत्र न भवतीति तुशब्दार्थः ।
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
ubhayadīrghāa hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prātiśākhya literature. The term उभयह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.
uvaṭaalso उव्वट or ऊअट a reputed Kaāśmirian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bhasyas. Some of his important works are Ṛkprātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyī prātiśākhyabhāṣya, Vājasaneyīsamhitābhāṣya, Vedārthadīpika et cetera, and others
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
aicshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; confer, compare न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; confer, compare ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed confer, compare P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; confer, compare P. III.2.106. They are called द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र.
otthe vowel ओ; confer, compare ओत् PI.1.15,16 prescribingप्रगृह्यसंज्ञा for Nipātas like अहो, उताहो and others with a view that the wowel at their end should not coalesce with the following vowel. The Prātiśākhya works prohibit the coalescence of ओ in many cases with the succeeding vowel; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.70; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.94.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
kāṇḍamāyananame of an ancient writer of a Prātiśākhya work who held that Visarga before the consonant स् is dropped only when स् is followed by a surd consonant; confer, compare Tai.Pr. IX. 1.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kāśyapaname of an ancient grammarian quoted by Pāṇini, possibly an author of some Prātiśākhya work now lost.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛdantathe word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; confer, compare कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns derived from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्.
kauṇḍinyaan ancient grammarian referred to in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 38) and Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., (P.II.4.70).
kauhalīputraan ancient grammarian referred to in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya: confer, compare T.Pr. XVIII.2.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kṣipraliterally rapid, accelerated, a short name given in the a Prātiśākhya works to a Saṁdhi or euphonic combination of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ,; लृ with a following dissimilar vowel; confer, compare Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.Bhāṣya on R.Pr. III.10; confer, compare also इको यणचि P.VI.1.77. The name Kṣipra is given to this Saṁdhi possibly because the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this saṁdhi becomes very short (id est, that is shorter than a short vowel id est, that is a semi-vowel). The word क्षैप्र is also used in this sense referring to the Kṣiprasaṁdhi.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
ghi(1)a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; confer, compare P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
jyotsnā(Ι)name of a commentary by Rāmacandra possibly belonging to the 18th century on the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's 'Laghuśabdenduśekhara by Udayaṃakara Pāṭhaka of Vārāṇasi in the 18th century.
nyāyyaproper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् confer, compare P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; confer, compareउत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
pañcapadīa term used in the AtharvaPrātiśākhya for the strong case affixes viz. the nominative case affixes and the accusative singular. and dual affixes; confer, compare चत्वारि क्षैप्रञ्च पञ्चपद्यामन्तोदात्तादीनि यात् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. I. 3.14. The term corresponds to the Sarvanāmasthāna of Pāņini, which is also termed सुट् ; confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य P. I. 1.43.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padaprabhedalit, divisions of words: parts of speech. There are four parts of speech viz.नामन् , आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Prātiśākhya works, while there are given only two, सुबन्त and तिङन्त by Pāņini. For details see pp. 145, 146 Vol. VII. Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
padavirāmapause between two words measuring two mātrās, or equal to the time required for the utterance of a long vowel; e. g. in इषे त्वोर्जे त्वा, the pause between इषे and त्वा is measured by two mātrās; confer, compare पदविरामो द्विमात्रः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII.13.Some Prātiśākhya texts declare that the pause between two words is of one mātra as at avagraha; confer, compare R Pr. II.1 and Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 35-38.
padyaforming a part of a word or pada; confer, compare उपोत्तमं नानुदात्तं न पद्यम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; confer, compare also पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30. The word is used in this sense ( पदावयव ) mostly in the Prātiśākhya works. The word is used in the sense of पादसंपन्न, made up of the feet (of verses), in the Rk Prātiśākhya in contrast with अक्षर्य, made up of syllables. In this sense the word is derived from the word पाद; confer, compare पद्याक्षर्ये स उत्थितः R. Pr, XVIII. 3.
pārṣada parṣadi bhavaṃ pārṣadamliterally the interpretation or theory discussed and settled at the assembly of the learnedition The word is used in the sense of works on Nirukti or derivation of words as also works of the type of the Prātiśākhyās; confer, compare पदप्रकृतीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I. 17 and the commentary of, दुर्गाचार्यः confer, compare also पार्षदकृतिरेषा तत्रभवतां नैव लोके नान्यस्मिन्वेदे अर्ध एकारः अर्ध ओकारो वास्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 48: see also pp. 104, 105 Vol. VII Mahābhāsya D. E. Society's edition. See पारिषद.
pārṣada​vyākhyāname given to the commentary written by विष्णुमित्र on the Ŗk Prātiśākhya.
pārṣadasūtravṛtiname given to the works of the type of commentaries written by उव्व​ट on the old Prātiśākhya books.
bhugnaname of a Saṁdhi or coalescence given by the writers of the Prātiśākhya works where the diphthong vowels ओ and औ, followed by any vowel which is not labial, are turned respectively into अव् and आव्: exempli gratia, for example ऋतेन मित्रावरुणावृतावृधावृतस्पृशा (Ṛ. Saṁh.I.2.8); confer, compare ओष्ठ्ययोन्योर्भुग्नमनोष्ठये वकारोत्रान्तरागमः । यथा ऋतेन मित्रावरुणावृतावृधावृतस्पृशा | अनोष्ठये इति किम्| वायो उक्थेभि: 2.2. (R.Saṁh. I.2.2). इत्यतः वाय उक्थेभि confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.11.
mātuthe same as मतुप् a taddhita affix. affix showing possession; the word is frequently used in Pāṇini's rules for मतुप्. confer, compare मतोश्च बह्वजङ्गात् | P. IV 2.72; confer, compare also, P.IV. 4.125, 136; V. 2.59, VI.1.215, VI.3.118,130; VIII. 2.9; for the sense of मतु see मतुप् below. The affix मतु (instead of मतुप् of Pāṇini) is found in the Atharva Prātiśakhya.
word-form of the ajbhakti or svarabhakti ( a term used in the ancient Prātiśākhya works), where ऋ is looked upon as the consonant र् surrounded by, or followed by the nature of a vowel. ऋ as a vowel is possessed of one mātrā of which in svarabhakti, the consonant र् possesses half and the svarabhakti possesses half: cf रेफात् स्वरोपहिताह्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभाक्तिरूत्तरा Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI.13.
leśasuch a slow or indistinct utterance or pronunciation of the letter य् or व् preceded by अ, as shows that it is almost droppedition This indistinct or slurred utterance of य् or व, which is described as advocated by the Prātiśākhyakāra Vātsapra, corresponds to the utterance of य् or व् with a very low tone as mentioned by Pāņini in the rule व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य; exempli gratia, for example अाप उन्दन्तु; या जाता ओषधयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare लेशो वात्सप्रस्य एतयोः T.Pr. 10.23; confer, compare also लेशेन प्रयत्नशैथिल्येन ब्यञ्जनानां वचनमुच्चारणं क्रियते Uvvața on R.Pr. XIV.5.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vivṛtti(1)separation of the two vowels which were euphonically combined into one; the hiatus or position of two vowels near each other; confer, compare विवृत्तिः स्वरयोरसंधिः; (2) the interval between two vowels placed near each other; confer, compare स्वरयोरनन्तरयोरन्तरं विवृत्तिः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.119; confer, compare also संहितायां यत्स्वरयोरन्तरं तद्विवृत्तिसंज्ञं स्यात् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.I. This interval is one mātrā according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya, while it is only half-a-mātrā according to the Ṛktantra and the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3५. See विराम.
viṣṇumitraa Vedic scholar who wrote a gloss on the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya which is known as पार्षदव्याख्या.
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
visarjanīyasame as विसर्ग which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare विसृज्यते पुनर्वर्णैर्न संबध्यते इति विसर्गः; Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kat. I. 1. 16. The term विसृष्ट is also used in the same sense. The visarjanīya has the same position (स्थान) in the mouth as the vowel after which it occurs. It is a glottal sound; the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya says that some scholars describe visarjanīya as a chest sound: confer, compare कण्ठयोकार:प्रथमपञ्चमौ च द्वावूष्माणौ केचिदेतावुरस्यौ | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I 18: confer, compare also उरसि विसर्जनीयो वा Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3.
śākalyaname of an ancient grammarian and Vedic scholar who is supposed to have revised the Vedic texts and written their Pada-pātha. He is often quoted by Pāṇini and the writers of the Prātiśākhya works: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य संहितामनुप्रावर्षत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.84; also on P.I.1.18, IV.1.18; confer, compare also उपचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धं अाचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्या: R.Pr.XIII.12.
     Vedabase Search  
18 results
     
rāti administersSB 6.9.50
rāti bestowsSB 6.11.22
SB 7.10.5
rāti followsSB 4.27.25
rāti He bestowsSB 8.3.19
rāti wealth or friendsSB 5.5.3
arāti a demon named NivātakavacaSB 1.15.13
arāti of the enemiesSB 3.28.28
arātim the enemySB 3.18.17
arātim his enemiesSB 10.50.31
arātiṣu in the midst of enemiesSB 9.15.16
prātikūlyasya of anything that hinders devotional serviceCC Madhya 22.100
prātilomyena in the reverse orderSB 5.23.6
prātiṣṭham departedSB 1.6.10
prātiṣṭhan they departedSB 3.24.25
prātiṣṭhat departedSB 4.5.26
prātiṣṭhat departedSB 4.9.67
trāti protectsSB 11.28.6-7
     Wordnet Search "rāti" has 24 results.
     

rāti

virodhaḥ, pratirodhaḥ, pratikāraḥ, pratīkāraḥ, vipratikāraḥ, pratikriyā, pratikūlatā, prātikūlyam, pratiyogaḥ, pratiyogitā, paryavasthānam, paryavasthā, paryavasthitiḥ, pratyavasthatiḥ, praticchedaḥ, nikāraḥ, pratibandhaḥ, pratibandhakatā, pratiṣṭambhaḥ, nivāraṇam   

kāryapratibandhakakriyā।

rāmasya virodhe satyapi mayā nirvācanārthaṃ yatitam।

rāti

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

rāti

agniḥ, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, kaviḥ   

tejaḥpadārthaviśeṣaḥ।

parvate dṛśyamānaḥ dhūmaḥ agneḥ sūcakaḥ।

rāti

ulūkaḥ, ūlūkaḥ, pecakaḥ, kauśikaḥ, vāyasārātiḥ, divāndhaḥ, divābhītaḥ, niśāṭaḥ, naktañcaraḥ, niśādarśī, naktacārū, rajanīcaraḥ, kākabhīruḥ, kāvarukaḥ, ghūkaḥ, vakranāsikā, raktanāsikaḥ   

pakṣiviśeṣaḥ yaḥ niśāyām aṭati।

ulūkaḥ niśācaraḥ asti।

rāti

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

rāti

kṛṣṇaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, acyutaḥ, govindaḥ, janārdanaḥ, giridharaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, mādhavaḥ, śauriḥ, ahijitaḥ, yogīśvaraḥ, vaṃśīdharaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, vanamālī, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, mukundaḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, vāsuḥ, muralīdharaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, nandātmajaḥ, gopālaḥ, nandanandanaḥ, yādavaḥ, pūtanāriḥ, mathureśaḥ, dvārakeśaḥ, pāṇḍavāyanaḥ, devakīsūnuḥ, gopendraḥ, govardhanadharaḥ, yadunāthaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, trivikramaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvambharaḥ, viśvarujaḥ, sanātanaḥ, vibhuḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, prabhuḥ, jitāmitraḥ, sahasravadanaḥ   

yaduvaṃśīya vasudevasya putraḥ yaḥ viṣṇoḥ avatāraḥ iti manyate।

sūradāsaḥ kṛṣṇasya paramo bhaktaḥ।

rāti

indraḥ, devarājaḥ, jayantaḥ, ṛṣabhaḥ, mīḍhvān, marutvān, maghavā, viḍojā, pākaśāsanaḥ, vṛddhaśravāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, puruhūtaḥ, purandaraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, śakraḥ, śatamanyuḥ, divaspatiḥ, sutrāmā, gotrabhit, vajrī, vāsavaḥ, vṛtrahā, vṛṣā, vāstospatiḥ, surapatiḥ, balārātiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, jambhabhedī, harihayaḥ, svārāṭ, namucisūdanaḥ, saṃkrandanaḥ, duścyavanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, meghavāhanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, sahastrākṣaḥ, ṛbhukṣā, mahendraḥ, kośikaḥ, pūtakratuḥ, viśvambharaḥ, hariḥ, purudaṃśā, śatadhṛtiḥ, pṛtanāṣāḍ, ahidviṣaḥ, vajrapāṇiḥ, devarājaḥ, parvatāriḥ, paryaṇyaḥ, devatādhipaḥ, nākanāthaḥ, pūrvadikkapatiḥ, pulomāriḥ, arhaḥ, pracīnavarhiḥ, tapastakṣaḥ, biḍaujāḥ, arkaḥ, ulūkaḥ, kaviḥ, kauśikaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

sā devatā yā svargasya adhipatiḥ iti manyate।

vedeṣu indrasya sūktāni santi।

rāti

agadaḥ, bheṣajam, bhiṣaj, āsrāvabheṣajam, upakrama, auṣadhaḥ, auṣadhī, auṣadhi, oṣadhi, jāyuḥ, bhaiṣajyam, āyuryogaḥ, gadārātiḥ, amṛtam, āyurdravyam   

roganāśakadravyam।

yogādapi viṣaṃ tīkṣṇamuttamaṃ bheṣajaṃ bhavet bheṣajaṃ vāpi duryuktaṃ tīkṣṇaṃ sampadyate viṣam।

rāti

campakaḥ, cāmpeyaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ, svarṇapuṣpaḥ, śītalachadaḥ, subhagaḥ, bhṛṅgamohī, śītalaḥ, bhramarātithiḥ, surabhiḥ, dīpapuṣpaḥ, sthiragandhaḥ, atigandhakaḥ, sthirapuṣpaḥ, hemapuṣpaḥ, pītapuṣpaḥ, hemāhvaḥ, sukumāraḥ, vanadīpaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi pītavarṇīyāni sugandhitāni ca santi।

tasya prāṅgaṇe campakaḥ kundam ityādīni santi।

rāti

śarāṭiḥ, śarāti   

khagaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ jalasya pārśve nivasati।

śarāṭiḥ kīṭān khāditvā udarabharaṇaṃ karoti।

rāti

śatruḥ, ripuḥ, vairiḥ, sapatnaḥ, ariḥ, dviṣaḥ, dveṣaṇaḥ, durhṛd, dviṭ, vipakṣaḥ, ahitaḥ, amitraḥ, dasyuḥ, śātravaḥ, abhighātī, paraḥ, arātiḥ, pratyartho, paripanthī, vṛṣaḥ, pratipakṣaḥ, dviṣan, ghātakaḥ, dveṣī, vidviṣaḥ, hiṃsakaḥ, vidviṭ, apriyaḥ, abhighātiḥ, ahitaḥ, dauhṛdaḥ   

yena saha śatrutā vartate।

śatruḥ agniśca durbalaḥ nāsti।

rāti

mārjāraḥ, biḍālaḥ, otuḥ, kundamaḥ, mūṣakārātiḥ, ākhubhuk, vṛṣadaṃśakaḥ, payaspaḥ, vyāghrāsyaḥ, dīptākṣaḥ   

vyāghrajātīyaḥ grāmyapaśuḥ yaḥ vyāghrāt laghuḥ asti।

mārjāraḥ mūṣakaṃ harati।

rāti

arkapriyā, arkavallabhā, varā, raktajapā, raktapiṇḍakaḥ, raktapuṣpī, hemapuṣpikā, prātikā, tāmravarṇā, vikrāntā   

madhyamākārakaḥ vṛkṣaḥyasya puṣpāṇi raktāni santi।

mālī upavane arkapriyā ropayati।

rāti

brātislāvānagaram, presabarganagaram   

slovākiyādeśasya rājadhānī।

brātislāvānagaraṃ slovākiyādeśasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram।

rāti

jaṭāmāṃsī, tapasvinī, jaṭā, māṃsī, jaṭilā, lomaśā, misī, naladam, vahninī, peṣī, kṛṣṇajaṭā, jaṭī, kirātinī, jaṭilā, bhṛtajaṭā, peśī, kravyādi, piśitā, piśī, peśinī, jaṭā, hiṃsā, māṃsinī, jaṭālā, naladā, meṣī, tāmasī, cakravartinī, mātā, amṛtajaṭā, jananī, jaṭāvatī, mṛgabhakṣyā, miṃsī, misiḥ, miṣikā, miṣiḥ   

auṣadhīyavanaspateḥ sugandhitaṃ mūlam।

jaṭāmāṃsyāḥ upayogaḥ vibhinneṣu auṣadheṣu bhavati।

rāti

agniḥ, vaiśvānaraḥ, vītahotraḥ, agnihotraḥ, huraṇyaretāḥ, saptārci, vibhāvasuḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, svāhāpatiḥ, svāhāprayaḥ, svāhābhuk, agnidevaḥ, agnidevatā, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedaḥ, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, uṣarbudhaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, hutabhuk, haviraśanaḥ, hutāśaḥ, hutāśanaḥ, havirbhuk, havyavāhanaḥ, havyāśanaḥ, kravyavāhanaḥ, tanunapāt, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇiḥ, āśrayāśaḥ, āśayāśaḥ, āśrayabhuk, āśrayadhvaṃsī, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, bhuvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ-hindudharmānusāram agneḥ devatāsvarūpam।

agneḥ patnī svāhā।

rāti

sūryaḥ, sūraḥ, aryamā, ādityaḥ, dvādaśātmā, divākaraḥ, bhāskaraḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vradhraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, bhāsvān, vivasvān, saptāśvaḥ, haridaśvaḥ, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, vivarttanaḥ, arkaḥ, mārttaṇḍaḥ, mihiraḥ, aruṇaḥ, vṛṣā, dyumaṇiḥ, taraṇiḥ, mitraḥ, citrabhānuḥ, virocan, vibhāvasuḥ, grahapatiḥ, tviṣāmpatiḥ, ahaḥpatiḥ, bhānuḥ, haṃsaḥ, sahastrāṃśuḥ, tapanaḥ, savitā, raviḥ, śūraḥ, bhagaḥ, vṛdhnaḥ, padminīvallabhaḥ, hariḥ, dinamaṇiḥ, caṇḍāṃśuḥ, saptasaptiḥ, aṃśumālī, kāśyapeyaḥ, khagaḥ, bhānumān, lokalocanaḥ, padmabandhuḥ, jyotiṣmān, avyathaḥ, tāpanaḥ, citrarathaḥ, khamaṇiḥ, divāmaṇiḥ, gabhastihastaḥ, heliḥ, pataṃgaḥ, arcciḥ, dinapraṇīḥ, vedodayaḥ, kālakṛtaḥ, graharājaḥ, tamonudaḥ, rasādhāraḥ, pratidivā, jyotiḥpīthaḥ, inaḥ, karmmasākṣī, jagaccakṣuḥ, trayītapaḥ, pradyotanaḥ, khadyotaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, padminīkāntaḥ, aṃśuhastaḥ, padmapāṇiḥ, hiraṇyaretāḥ, pītaḥ, adriḥ, agaḥ, harivāhanaḥ, ambarīṣaḥ, dhāmanidhiḥ, himārātiḥ, gopatiḥ, kuñjāraḥ, plavagaḥ, sūnuḥ, tamopahaḥ, gabhastiḥ, savitraḥ, pūṣā, viśvapā, divasakaraḥ, dinakṛt, dinapatiḥ, dyupatiḥ, divāmaṇiḥ, nabhomaṇiḥ, khamaṇiḥ, viyanmaṇiḥ, timiraripuḥ, dhvāntārātiḥ, tamonudaḥ, tamopahaḥ, bhākoṣaḥ, tejaḥpuñjaḥ, bhānemiḥ, khakholkaḥ, khadyotanaḥ, virocanaḥ, nabhaścakṣūḥ, lokacakṣūḥ, jagatsākṣī, graharājaḥ, tapatāmpatiḥ, sahastrakiraṇaḥ, kiraṇamālī, marīcimālī, aṃśudharaḥ, kiraṇaḥ, aṃśubharttā, aṃśuvāṇaḥ, caṇḍakiraṇaḥ, dharmāṃśuḥ, tīkṣṇāṃśuḥ, kharāṃśuḥ, caṇḍaraśmiḥ, caṇḍamarīciḥ, caṇḍadīdhitiḥ, aśītamarīciḥ, aśītakaraḥ, śubharaśmiḥ, pratibhāvān, vibhāvān, vibhāvasuḥ, pacataḥ, pacelimaḥ, śuṣṇaḥ, gaganādhvagaḥ, gaṇadhvajaḥ, khacaraḥ, gaganavihārī, padmagarbhaḥ, padmāsanaḥ, sadāgatiḥ, haridaśvaḥ, maṇimān, jīviteśaḥ, murottamaḥ, kāśyapī, mṛtāṇḍaḥ, dvādaśātmakaḥ, kāmaḥ, kālacakraḥ, kauśikaḥ, citrarathaḥ, śīghragaḥ, saptasaptiḥ   

hindūnāṃ dharmagrantheṣu varṇitā ekā devatā।

vedeṣu sūryasya pūjāyāḥ vāraṃvāraṃ vidhānam asti।

rāti

siṃhaḥ, kesarī, keśarī, hapiḥ, mṛgendraḥ, mṛgarājaḥ, mṛgarāṭ, mṛgapatiḥ, paśurājaḥ, paśupatiḥ, śārdūlaḥ, vanarājaḥ, mṛgaripuḥ, mṛgāriḥ, gajāriḥ, kuñjarārātiḥ, dviradāntakaḥ, hastikakṣyaḥ, bhīmanādaḥ, bhīmavikrāntaḥ, bhāriḥ, haryyakṣaḥ, pañcāsyaḥ, pañcānanaḥ, pañcamukhaḥ, pañcavaktraḥ, pañcaśikhaḥ, vyālaḥ, saṭāṅkaḥ, jaṭilaḥ, araṇyarāj, araṇyarāṭ, ibhamācalaḥ, ibhāriḥ, karidārakaḥ, karimācalaḥ, kalaṅkaṣaḥ, palaṅkaṣaḥ, keśī, kravyādaḥ, gajāriḥ, nakhāyudhaḥ, nakharāyudhaḥ, nadanuḥ, pārindraḥ, pārīndraḥ, bahubalaḥ, bhāriḥ, bhīmavikrāntaḥ, mahānādaḥ, mahāvīraḥ, mṛgadviṣ, mṛgadviṭ, mṛgaprabhuḥ, raktajihvaḥ, vanahariḥ, visaṅkaṭaḥ, vikramī, vikrāntaḥ, śṛṅgoṣṇīṣaḥ, śailāṭaḥ, śaileyaḥ, sakṛtprajaḥ, harit, haritaḥ, hemāṅgaḥ   

siṃhajātīyaḥ naraḥ vanyapaśuḥ।

siṃhasya grīvā saṭayā āvṛtā asti।

rāti

arāti   

manuṣyasya kāmakrodhādayaḥ ṣaḍripavaḥ।

arātīn jītvā eva manuṣyaḥ bhagavataḥ bhaktiṃ kartuṃ śaknoti।

rāti

prātipeyaḥ   

paurāṇikaḥ rājā।

prātipeyasya varṇanaṃ mahābhārate prāpyate।

rāti

prātipīyaḥ   

ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

prātipīyasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

rāti

kairātam, bhūnimbaḥ, kirātaḥ, anāryatiktaḥ, kāṇḍatiktakaḥ, kirātakaḥ, ciratiktaḥ, cirātitiktaḥ, tiktakaḥ, sutktakaḥ kaṭutiktakaḥ, rāmasenakaḥ   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ yasya guṇāḥ vāyuvṛddhikāritvaṃ rūkṣatvaṃ kaphapittajvaranāśitvaṃ ca ।

kairātasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

rāti

prātipadaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śatruṃjaya-māhātmye prātipadasya ullekhaḥ vidyate

rāti

cakrāti   

ekaḥ janasamūhaḥ ।

cakrātayaḥ mahābhārate ullikhitāḥ santi









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