Donate
 
   
Select your prefered input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Amarakosha Search  
Results for para
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
brahmā1.1.16-17MasculineSingularprajāpatiḥ, viścasṛṭ, aṇḍajaḥ, kamalodbhavaḥ, satyakaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, pitāmahaḥ, svayaṃbhūḥ, abjayoniḥ, kamalāsanaḥ, vedhāḥ, vidhiḥ, pūrvaḥ, sadānandaḥ, haṃsavāhanaḥ, surajyeṣṭhaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, caturāsanaḥ, druhiṇaḥ, sraṣṭā, vidhātā, nābhijanmā, nidhanaḥ, rajomūrtiḥ, parameṣṭhī, lokeśaḥ, dhātā, virañciḥbramha
kākaḥ2.5.22MasculineSingularcirañjīvī, parabhṛt, sakṛtprajaḥ, karaṭaḥ, maukuliḥ, vāyasaḥ, ātmaghoṣaḥ, balipuṣṭaḥ, ekadṛṣṭiḥ, balibhuk, dhvāṅkṣaḥ, ariṣṭaḥ
kaphoṇiḥ2.6.81Ubhaya-lingaSingularkūrpara
kokilaḥ2.5.21MasculineSingularparabhṛtaḥ, pikaḥ, vanapriyaḥ
makarandaḥMasculineSingularpuṣparasaḥ
om2.4.12MasculineSingularevam, paramam
pakṣma3.3.128NeuterSingulardhīḥ, paramātmā
para3.3.199MasculineSingularsvacchandaḥ, mandaḥ
paraidhitā2.10.17MasculineSingular‍‍parācitaḥ, pariskandaḥ, parajātaḥ
paramānnam2.7.26NeuterSingularpāyasam
paramparākam2.7.28NeuterSingularśamanam, prokṣaṇam
parānnaḥ3.1.19MasculineSingularparapiṇḍādaḥ
paratantraḥ3.1.14MasculineSingularnāthavān, parādhīnaḥ, paravān
punaḥ3.3.261MasculineSingularsvargaḥ, paraḥlokaḥ
sādhuḥ3.3.108MasculineSingularkṣaudram, madyam, puṣparasaḥ
sajjanam2.8.33NeuterSingularuparakṣaṇam
śaṃbhuḥMasculineSingularkapardī, kapālabhṛt, virūpākṣaḥ, sarvajñaḥ, haraḥ, tryambakaḥ, andhakaripuḥ, vyomakeśaḥ, sthāṇuḥ, ahirbudhnyaḥ, paśupatiḥ, mahānaṭaḥ, maheśvaraḥ, īśānaḥ, bhūteśaḥ, giriśaḥ, kṛttivāsāḥ, ugraḥ, śitikaṇṭhaḥ, mahādevaḥ, kṛśānuretāḥ, nīlalohitaḥ, bhargaḥ, gaṅgādharaḥ, vṛṣadhvajaḥ, bhīmaḥ, umāpatiḥ, īśaḥ, gajāriḥ, śūlī, śarvaḥ, candraśekharaḥ, girīśaḥ, mṛtyuñjayaḥ, prathamādhipaḥ, śrīkaṇṭhaḥ, vāmadevaḥ, trilocanaḥ, dhūrjaṭiḥ, smaraharaḥ, tripurāntakaḥ, kratudhvaṃsī, bhavaḥ, rudraḥ, aṣṭamūrtiḥ, śivaḥ, īśvaraḥ, śaṅkaraḥ, khaṇḍaparaśuḥ, mṛḍaḥ, pinākī(51)shiva, god
saṃkulamMasculineSingularkliṣṭam, parasparaparāhṛtaminconsistent
śatruḥ2.8.10MasculineSingularārātiḥ, śātravaḥ, ahitaḥ, durhṛd, sapatnaḥ, para, dasyuḥ, vipakṣaḥ, dveṣaṇaḥ, vairī, pratyarthī, abhighātī, amitraḥ, dviṭ, dviṣan, ripuḥ
śilājatuḥ2.9.105NeuterSingularprāṇaḥ, ‍piṇḍaḥ, goparasaḥ, bolaḥ
sopaplavaḥ1.4.10MasculineSingularuparaktaḥeclipsed sun or moon
surā2.10.39FeminineSingularva‍ruṇātmajā, halipriyā, madyam, pari‍srutā, prasannā, para‍srut, kaśyam, ‍‍kādambarī, gandhokṣamā, hālā, madirā, irā
vicikitsāFeminineSingularsaṃśayaḥ, sandehaḥ, dvāparadoubt
vraścanaḥ2.10.33FeminineSingularpatraparaśuḥ
vyasanārtaḥ3.1.42MasculineSingularuparaktaḥ
karpara2.6.69MasculineSingularkapālaḥ
puṣparathaḥ2.8.52MasculineSingular
tatpara3.1.7MasculineSingularprasitaḥ, āsaktaḥ
dvāpara3.3.170MasculineSingulardrumaḥ, śailaḥ, arkaḥ
     Monier-Williams
          Search  
Results for para1105 results for para
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
paramf(ā-)n. (1. pṛ-; ablative sg. m. n. p/arasmāt-, rāt-; locative case p/arasmin-, re-; Nominal verb plural m. p/are-, rās-, rāsas-; see ) far, distant, remote (in space), opposite, ulterior, farther than, beyond, on the other or farther side of, extreme View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. previous (in time), former View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. ancient, past View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. later, future, next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. following, succeeding, subsequent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. final, last View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. exceeding (in number or degree), more than View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. better or worse than, superior or inferior to, best or worst, highest, supreme, chief (in the Comparative degree meanings [where also -tara-],with ablative,rarely genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';exceptionally paraṃ śatam-,more than a hundred literally"an excessive hundred, a hundred with a surplus" ; parāḥ koṭayaḥ- ) etc.
paramf(ā-)n. strange, foreign, alien, adverse, hostile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. other than, different from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. left, remaining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. concerned or anxious for (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. another (different from one's self), a foreigner, enemy, foe, adversary etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. a following letter or sound (only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' mfn. exempli gratia, 'for example' ta-para-,having t-as the following letter, followed by t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. (scilicet graha-) a subsidiary soma-graha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. Name of a king of kosala- with the patronymic āṭṇāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. of another king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. of a son of samara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. (sc. prāsāda-) of the palace of mitravindā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
param. or n. the Supreme or Absolute Being, the Universal Soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paran. remotest distance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parain compound for ras-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabalan. the foe's army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabalīyasmfn. each more important than the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāgam. superior power or merit, excellence, supremacy ( parabhāgatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāgam. good fortune, prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāgam. the last part, remainder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāgatāf. parabhāga
parabhāgyan. another's wealth or prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāgyopajīvinmfn. living upon another's fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāṣāf. a foreign language View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāvamf(ā-)n. loving another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhāvam. the being subsequent or second member in a compound (see -bhūta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhedaka() mfn. destroying enemies. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhedana() mfn. destroying enemies. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtmfn. nourishing another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtm. a crow (see next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtam. "nourished by another", the Kokila or Indian cuckoo (supposed to leave its eggs to be hatched by the crow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtāf. the female Kokila View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtamayamf(ī-)n. consisting entirely of cuckoos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtikāf. a female cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtikāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtyamfn. to be nourished or supported by another ( parabhṛtyatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhṛtyatvan. parabhṛtya
parabhūin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūjātinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūmif. a foreign or hostile country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūmiṣṭhamfn. being in it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūprakaraṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūṣaṇan. another's ornament (wrong reading for pari-bh-and para-dūṣaṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabhūtamfn. following or subsequent (said of words) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmann. the Supreme Spirit or brahman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmann. Name of anUp. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmānandabodham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmāṣṭottaraśatanāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parabrahmopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracakran. the army of a foe (Scholiast or Commentator"a hostile prince") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracakrasūdanam. destroyer of it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracchandam. another's will ( paracchandānuvartana nuvartana- n.following it ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracchandamfn. depending on another's will, subservient (also -vat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracchandānuvartanan. paracchanda
paracchidran. another's fault or defect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracintāf. thinking of or caring for another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracittajñānan. knowing the thoughts of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paracittajñānan. knowledge of the thoughts of others, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradāram. sg. or plural another's wife or wives etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradāram. adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradārābhigamanan. approaching or touching or courting another's wife or wives, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradārābhimarśam. approaching or touching or courting another's wife or wives, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradārabhujm. one who takes or approaches or enjoys another's wife or wives, an adulterer () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradāraparigraham. one who takes or approaches or enjoys another's wife or wives, an adulterer () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradārinm. one who takes or approaches or enjoys another's wife or wives, an adulterer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradāropasevanafn. approaching or touching or courting another's wife or wives, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradeśam. another or a foreign or a hostile country (opp. to sva-d-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradeśasevinmfn. living abroad, a traveller View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradeśinmfn. foreign, exotic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradeśinm. a foreigner or a traveller View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradevatāf. the highest deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradevatāstutif. Name of a hymn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradhanan. another's wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradhanāsvādanasukhan. feeding luxuriously at another's expense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradharmam. another's duty or business, the duties of another caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradharmam. another's peculiarity ( paradharmatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradharmatvan. paradharma
paradhyānan. intent meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradoṣain -kīrtana- n. the proclaiming of another's faults, censoriousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradoṣajñamfn. knowing another's faults View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradravyan. plural another's property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradravyāpahārakamfn. robbing another's property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradroham. injuring another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradrohakarmadhīmfn. injuring another in deed or thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradrohinmfn. tyrannizing over another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraduḥkhan. another's pain or sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradūṣaṇam. (sc. saṃdhi-) peace purchased by the entire produce of a country (varia lectio para-bhūṣaṇa-and pari-bh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradveṣinmfn. hating another, inimical to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragāminmfn. idem or 'mfn. being with or relating to another ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragatamfn. being with or relating to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragehavāsam. dwelling in another's house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraglānif. the subjugation of a foe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragranthim. "extreme point of a limb", an articulation, joint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paragṛhavāsa m. dwelling in another's house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraguṇa(in the beginning of a compound) the virtues of another ( paraguṇagrāhin -grāhin- mfn.assuming them) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraguṇamfn. beneficial to another or to a foe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraguṇagrāhinmfn. paraguṇa
parain compound for ras-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahaṃsam. equals parama-h- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahanm. "foe-killer", Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitamfn. friendly, benevolent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitan. another's welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitagrantham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitarakṣitam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥkṛṣṇamfn. more than black, extremely dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥpuṃsāf. (a wife) dissatisfied with her husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥpuruṣamfn. higher than a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥsahasra(; p/araḥ-sahasra- ) mf(ā-)n. plural more than 1000. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥsāmanmfn. (p/a-) having superfluous or surplus sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥsāmanm. plural Name of particular sacrificial days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥṣaṣṭamfn. plural more than 60 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥśatamf(-)n. plural more than 100 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥśatamf(-)n. containing more than 100 verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥśatarggāthamfn. (r-for -) equals para-ṛk-śata-gātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraḥśvasind. equals para-śv- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraidhitam. "nourished by another", the Indian cuckoo (see para-bhṛta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraidhitam. a servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajamfn. being behind another, inferior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajamfn. coming from a foe
parajanam. another person, a stranger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajanam. (coll.) strangers (opp. to sva-j-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajanmann. a future birth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajanmikamfn. relating to it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajātam. "born of another", a stranger or servant (varia lectio -jita-,"conquered by another") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parajñānamayamf(ī-)n. consisting in knowledge of the Supreme Being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraka in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals para-,"the following sound or word", exempli gratia, 'for example' iti-śabda-p-, followed by the word iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakālamfn. relating to a later time, mentioned later (opp. to pūrva--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakalatran. another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakalatrābhigamanan. approaching another's wife, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakaragatamfn. being in another's hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakarmann. service for another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakarmaniratam. "engaged in service for another"a servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakāryan. another's business or affair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakathāf. plural talk about another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakāyapraveśanan. entering another's body (a supernatural art) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakhātakamfn. dug by another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakīyamf(ā-)n. belonging to another or a stranger, strange, hostile ( parakīyatā -- f.) (nipāna- n.a tank belonging to another ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakīyāf. another's wife or a woman dependent on others ( parakīyātva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakīyatāf. parakīya
parakīyātvan. parakīyā
parakramam. doubling the other (id est second) letter of a conjunction of consonants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakrāntif. the greatest declination, inclination of the ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakrāthinm. Name of a kuru- warrior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṛtif. the action or history of another, an example or precedent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṛtyan. another's business or affair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṛtyamfn. busy for another, hostile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṛtyapakṣam. the hostile party View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṣetran. another's field or wife (see kṣetra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṣetran. the body in another life (see kṣetriya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakṣudrāf. plural the very short verses (of veda-) (see kṣudrasūkta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakulam. an otter, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokam. the other or future world etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokabādham. loss of the future world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokagamfn. going or gone to the future world, dying, dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokagamam. dying, death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokagamanan. dying, death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokagatamfn. going or gone to the future world, dying, dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokahastamfn. holding in hand (id est quite certain of) the other world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokasthānan. the state of (being in) the other world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokavahamf(ā-)n. (a river) flowing in or toward the other world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokavidhim. rites for the other world, funeral rites View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paralokayānan. equals -gama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. afterwards, later View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. (with ablative) beyond, after (exempli gratia, 'for example' paraṃ vijñānāt-,beyond human knowledge; astam-ayāt p-,after sunset; mattaḥ p-,after me; ataḥ p-or param ataḥ-,after this, farther on, hereafter, next; itaḥ p-,henceforward, from now; tataḥ p-or tataś ca p-,after that, thereupon; smāt p-[for smāt p-],no more of this, enough) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. in a high degree, excessively, greatly, completely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. rather, most willingly, by all means View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. I will, so be it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. at the most, at the utmost, merely, no more than, nothing but View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. but, however, otherwise (paraṃ tu-or paraṃ kiṃ tu- idem or 'ind. at the most, at the utmost, merely, no more than, nothing but '; yadi p-,if at all, perhaps, at any rate; na-p-,not-but; na paraṃ-api-,not only-but also; paraṃ na-api na-,not only not-but not even; na paraṃ-yāvat-,not only-but even) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamf(ā-)n. (superl. of p/ara-) most distant, remotest, extreme, last etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamf(ā-)n. chief, highest, primary, most prominent or conspicuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamf(ā-)n. best, most excellent, worst (meṇa cetasā-,with all the heart; ma-kaṇṭhena-,"with all the throat", roaring, speaking aloud) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamf(ā-)n. (with ablative) superior or inferior to, better or worse than View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramam. Name of 2 authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraman. highest point, extreme limit (catur-viṃśati-p-,at the utmost 24) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraman. chief part or matter or object (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).= consisting chiefly of, completely occupied with or devoted to or intent upon) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraman. (also parama--in compound;See below) very much, excessively, excellently, in the highest degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramabhāsvaramfn. excessively radiant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramabhaṭṭārakam. a paramount sovereign, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramabrahmacāriṇīf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramabrahmann. the Supreme Spirit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramabrahmaṇyamfn. most kind to Brahmans, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramacetasn. all the heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadam. highest degree of intoxication, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadāruṇamfn. very dreadful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadharmātmanmfn. very dutiful or virtuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramādīśvara(l) m. Name of Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadrum. Amyris Agallocha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaduḥkhitamfn. deeply afflicted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramadurmedhasmfn. exceedingly stupid. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramādvaitam. "the highest being without a second", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramādvaitan. pure, non-duality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramagahanamfn. very mysterious or profound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāgamain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāgamacūḍāmaṇisaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāgamasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramagatif. any chief resource or refuge (as a god or protector) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramagatif. final beatitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramagavam. an excellent bull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāham. an excellent day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsam. an ascetic of the highest order, a religious man who has subdued all his senses by abstract meditation etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsadharmanirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsakavacamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsapañcāṅgan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsaparivrājakācāryam. Name of śaṃkarācārya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsaparivrājakadharmasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsaparivrājakopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsapaṭalamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsapriyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsasahasranāmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsastavarājam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopaniṣaddhṛdayan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramahaṃsopāsanaprakāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāhlādanamfn. most delightful or agreeable, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaiśvaryan. supremacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramajāf. equals prakṛti- (prob. corrupted) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramajyāmfn. holding supreme power (as indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakamf(ikā-)n. the most excellent, highest, best, greatest, extreme (wrong reading pār-and paramika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakāṇḍam. or n. a very auspicious moment, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakaṇṭhaonly in ṭhena-kruś-, to try with all one's throat id est might View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramākhyamfn. called supreme, considered as the highest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakrāntif. equals para-kr- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakrāntijyāf. the sine of the greatest declination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramakrodhinm. idem or 'mfn. extremely angry ' , Name of one of the viśve-devā-s
paramakruddhamfn. extremely angry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramākṣaran. the sacred syllable"Om"or brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramalaghumañjūṣāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamind. yes, very well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamahatmfn. infinitely great View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamanyumatmfn. deeply distressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramamokṣam. final emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāmṛtan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramanandam. Name of a teacher (wrong reading for n-?; see parān-under para-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandam. supreme felicity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandam. the Supreme Spirit, soul of the universe etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandam. Name of several authors (also -cakravartin-, -dāsa-, -deva-, -nātha-, -pāṭhaka-, -bhaṭṭācārya-, -yogīndra-, -sarasvatī-, śrama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandalaharīstotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandamādhavastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānandatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṅganāf. an excellent or beautiful woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaṇim. "excellent jewel", Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramānnan. "best food", rice boiled in milk with sugar (offered to gods or deceased ancestors) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramanthu m. Name of a son of kakṣeyu- (varia lectio markṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramantra varia lectio for mātra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇum. an infinitesimal particle or atom (30 are said to form a mote in a sun-beam) etc. (see bhṛtya-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇum. the passing of a sun-beam past an atom of matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇun. 1/8 of a mātrā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇukāraṇavādam. the atomistic system of the vaiśeṣika-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇumayamf(ī-)n. consisting merely of atoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇutāf. infinite minuteness, the state of an atom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇvaṅgakam. "subtle-bodied", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramanyum. Name of a son of kakṣeyu- (varia lectio markṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāpadf. the greatest misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadan. the highest state or position, eminence, final beatitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadanirṇāyakam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadātmavatmfn. whose essence is the highest of all states (id est brahmā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāpakramam. equals para-krānti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāpamam. "greatest declination", the inclination of a planet's orbit to the ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaparamamfn. highest or most excellent of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaprabham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaprītamfn. exceedingly rejoiced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāpsarasf. an excellent āpsara-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapuṃsm. the Supreme Spirit, Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapuruṣam. idem or 'm. the Supreme Spirit, Name of viṣṇu- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapūruṣam. equals -pur- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapuruṣamahotsavaprāyaścittan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapuruṣaprārthanāmañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapuruṣasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāram. Name of a son of the ṛṣi- śaunaka- and ancestor of bhoja-deva- (see -mṛtyu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārādhyam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyan. the deepest mystery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyajapasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyavādam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyopadeśasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarahasyopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarajam. a supreme monarch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarasam. "most excellent beverage", buttermilk mixed with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarddhikam. (ma-ṛddhika-) excessively fortunate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārhatam. "most excellent arhat-", Name of kumāra-pāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarkṣa(equals ma-ṛkṣa-) m. Name of a king (varia lectio para-manthu-and -manyu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarma(for -marman-), in -jña- mfn. knowing the secret plans or intentions of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarmabhāṣaṇan. telling another's secrets View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramarṣim. (ma-ṛṣi-) a great or divine sage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtamfn. much pained or depressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtavatind. very piteously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtham. the highest or whole truth, spiritual knowledge etc. (in the beginning of a compound; ena-, āt-,in reality) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtham. any excellent or important object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtham. the best sense View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārtham. the best kind of wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthabhājmfn. partaking of the highest truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthabodham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthadaridramfn. really poor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthadarśanam. Name of a samādhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthamatsyam. a real fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthapradīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthaprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthaprapāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasaṃdarbham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasaṃvṛtisatyanirdeśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasārasaṃkṣepavivṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasaritf. really a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasatyan. the real or entire truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthastutif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthasuptamfn. really asleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthatāf. the highest truth, reality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthatasind. in reality, really, in the true sense of the word etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthavidm. one who knows the highest truth, a philosopher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthavindamfn. acquiring knowledge of truth, obtaining the best kind of wealth etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramārthavivekam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaryam. a bodhi-sattva- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasaṃhṛṣṭamfn. equals -prīta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasammatamfn. highly esteemed, much revered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasaṃtuṣṭamfn. highly pleased or satisfied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasamudayamfn. very auspicious or successful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāsanam. (with śākta-s) Name of an author of mantra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasarvatraind. everywhere, throughout View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaśiva(with ācārya-and vendra-sarasvatī-) m. Name of authors. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramaśobhanamfn. exceedingly brilliant or beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramasvadharmanmfn. most exact in the observance of the duties of one's own (caste or tribe) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatan. a different opinion or doctrine, heterodoxy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatāf. (m/a--) highest position or rank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatāf. highest end or aim View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatabhaṅgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatabhañjanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatakālānalam. Name of a pupil of śaṃkara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatakhaṇḍanasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatasind. in the highest degree, excessively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatasind. worst of all View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatattvan. the highest truth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatattvaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramatattvarahasyopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṭikam. Name of a school of the yajus- (see vaṭ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmam. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmain compound equals tman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmagatiprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmakamf(ikā-)n. the highest, greatest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmamayamf(ī-)n. being entirely the soul of the universe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmanm. all the heart (only instrumental case = parameṇa cetasā-, column 1) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmanm. the Supreme Spirit etc. (see ) .
paramātmaprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmasaṃdarbham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātmavinodam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramātram. or n. (with Buddhists) a particular high number (varia lectio -mantra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāvadhim. utmost term or limit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāvaṭikam. plural Name of a school of the white yajus-, (see ṭika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramavismitamfn. greatly surprised or amazed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramavyomnikamfn. dwelling in the highest heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāyusmfn. reaching to a very advanced age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāyuṣam. Terminalia Tomentosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parame locative case of ma- in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramekṣum. Name of a son of anu- (varia lectio meṣu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśam. the supreme lord, Supreme Being, Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśastotrāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhamfn. standing at the top, supreme, superior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭham. Name of brahma- or any supreme deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhim. a superior or a chief god of the jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinmfn. standing at the head, highest, chief, principal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. Name of any supreme being, of agni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of prajā-pati- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. a son of prajā-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of manu- cakṣus- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. (with jaina-s) equals -ṣṭhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. the teacher of the teacher of any one's teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. a kind of virāj- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. a kind of ammonite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. Name of a son of aja-mīḍha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. of a son of indradyumna- (Devadyumna) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinm. dual number viṣṇu- and śrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhina equals -ṣṭh/in- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣṭhinīf. Ruta Graveolens
parameṣṭhitāf. supremacy, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. the supreme lord, Supreme Being, God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. of any eminent prince or illustrious man etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. a jaina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaram. Name of several authors ( parameśvarīya rīya- n.a work of parameśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaran. (sc. liṅga-) Name of a liṅga- sacred to śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaradattam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarapañcamukhadhyānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarapañcaratnan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarapraṇidhānan. meditation on God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvararakṣitam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarasākṣātkāram. intuitive perception of God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarāstitvavādinm. one who asserts the existence of God View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarastotran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarastutif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaratāf. supremacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaratantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaratvan. supremacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvaravarmanm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarīf. Name of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarīf. of sītā- ( parameśvarīdāsābdhi -dāsābdhi- m.Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameśvarīdāsābdhim. parameśvarī
parameśvarīyan. parameśvara
parameṣvāsam. an excellent archer, ( parameṣvāsatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parameṣvāsatāf. parameṣvāsa
paramokṣanirāsakārikāf. plural "memorial rules for preventing another's final beatitude", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramopāsakam. an excellent"server"or layman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparamfn. one following the other, proceeding from one to another (as from father to son), successive, repeated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparam. a great great-grandson or great-grandson with his descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparam. a species of deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparāf. an uninterrupted row or series, order, succession, continuation, mediation, tradition ( paramparayā rayā- ind.by tradition, indirectly) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparāf. lineage, progeny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparāf. hurting, killing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparabhojanan. eating continually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparamind. successively. uninterruptedly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparāprāptamfn. received by tradition ()
paramparāsambandham. an indirect conjunction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparatasind. successively continually, mutually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparāvāhanan. an indirect means of conveyance (exempli gratia, 'for example' the horse which draws a carriage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramparaind. paramparā
paramparāyātamfn. received by tradition ()
paramṛtyum. a crow (see -māra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṃtapamfn. destroying foes (said of heroes) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṃtapam. Name of a son of manu- tāmasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṃtapam. of a prince of magadha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramukhacapeṭikāf. "slap in the face of another", Name of a controversial work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṇamfn. (1. pṛ-) crossing (see aritra--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṇan. wrong reading for pāraṇa-, reading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṇan. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranandapurāṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranindāf. reviling others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranipātam. the irregular posteriority of a word in a compound (opp. to pūrva-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranirmitavaśavartinm. "constantly enjoying pleasures provided by others", Name of a class of deities (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paranirvāṇan. the highest nirvāṇa- (with Buddhists) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapadan. the highest position, final emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapākam. another's food or meal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapākanivṛttam. one who cooks his own food without observing a particular ceremony
parapākaratam. one who lives upon others but observes the due ceremonies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapākarucim. a constant guest at others' tables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapākopabhojinmfn. eating another's or a stranger's food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapakṣam. the other side, hostile party, enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapakṣam. Name of a son of anu- (varia lectio paramekṣu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapārabhūtam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparākam. immolating an animal at a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparibhavam. humiliation or injury suffered from others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparigraham. another's property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparigraham. another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparīṇamf(ā-)n. hereditary, traditional View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparitamfn. forming an uninterrupted series, continuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraparivādam. equals -nirvā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapatnīf. the wife of another or of a stranger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapauravatantavam. Name of a son of viśvāmitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapiṇḍain -puṣṭaka- m. "nourished by another's food", a servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapiṇḍādam. "eating another's food" idem or 'in -puṣṭaka- m. "nourished by another's food", a servant ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraprakāśaka m. Name of 2 poets View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapraṇavam. Name of 2 poets View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapravādinm. a false teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraprayojanamf(ā-)n. useful or beneficial to others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapreṣyatvan. the service of another, slavery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuraṃjayamfn. conquering an enemy's city (said of heroes) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuraṃjayam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapurapraveśam. entering an enemy's city (as a supernatural art), sāṃkhya-s. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuruṣam. the husband of another woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuruṣam. "the Supreme Spirit", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapūruṣam. the husband of another woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapūrvāf. a woman who has had a former husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapūrvāpatim. her husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapūrvatvan. the state of preceding that which ought to follow on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭamfn. nourished by another or a stranger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭam. the Kokila or Indian cuckoo (see -bhṛt-below and anya-p-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭāf. a female cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭam. a harlot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭam. a parasitical plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭam. Name of a daughter of a king of kauśāmbi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭamahotsavam. "the cuckoo's great feast", a mango tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parapuṣṭamayamf(ī-)n. being a cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pararamaṇam. "a strange lover", a paramour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pararāṣṭran. the country of an enemy on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraṛkśatagāthamfn. containing 100 verses of the veda- as well as gāthā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pararum. a species of pot-herb (varia lectio pavaru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pararūpan. the following or subsequent sound ( pararūpatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pararūpatvan. pararūpa
paraśin compound for ras-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. beyond, further, off, away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. in future, afterwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. (as preposition with accusative) on the other side of, beyond, higher or more than View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. (with instrumental case) idem or 'ind. (as preposition with accusative) on the other side of, beyond, higher or more than' (also par/a en/ā-or en/ā par/aḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. without View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. (with ablative) beyond, on the other side of (also en/ā par/aḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. exclusive of, except, without View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. (with locative case) over, more than (only triṃś/ati tr/ayas par/aḥ-,three more than thirty id est 33) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasind. (often in compound with numerals to express a surplus or superiority; see prec. and under paraḥ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśam. a species of gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśaktim. Name of an author of mantra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasambandham. relation or connection with another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasambandhinmfn. related or belonging to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasaṃcārakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasaṃgatamfn. associated or engaged id est fighting with another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasaṃjñakam. "called Supreme", the soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśarīrāveśam. equals -kāya-praveśana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśāsanan. the order of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasasthānamfn. equals -savarṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasātkṛto give (a woman) into the hands of another id est in marriage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśava() () mfn. fr. paraśu- (see pāraśavya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasavarṇamfn. homogeneous with a following letter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasavarṇībhūto become homogeneous etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśavya() mfn. fr. paraśu- (see pāraśavya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraścatvāriṃśamfn. plural more than forty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasevāf. service of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśivam. Name of an author of mantra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśivamahimastotran. Name of a stotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśivendrasarasvatīm. Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaidat, of para- in compound (see ātmane-and ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaibhāṣamfn. idem or 'mfn. taking those terminations ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaibhāṣāf. equals -pada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaipadan. "word for another", the transitive or active verb and its terminations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaipadan. (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasmaipadinmfn. taking those terminations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraspamfn. (r/as-) protecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraspan. () equals -tv/a- n. () protection. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraspām. a protector, protecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparamf(ā-)n. (fr. Nominal verb sg. m.of para-+ para-; see anyo'nya-) mutual, each other's View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparamf(ā-)n. plural like one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparaind. so also in the beginning of a compound (see below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparararely in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' exempli gratia, 'for example' avijñāta-parasparaiḥ-,"not knowing each other" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparādinmfn. consuming one another or one's own kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparahatamfn. killed by one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparahitan. one another's happiness or welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparajñam. "knowing one another", a friend, an intimate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparākrandinmfn. calling to one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparamind. (mostly in the oblique cases of m. sg. am-, eṇa-, āt-, asya-) one another, each other, with or from one another, one another's, mutually, reciprocally etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparāmiṣatāf. the being one another's prey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparānumatif. mutual concurrence or assent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparaprītif. mutual delight or content View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparasakhyan. mutual friendship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparasamāgamam. the meeting one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparāśrayamfn. mutual, reciprocal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparāśrayam. mutual dependence (especially as a fault in argument) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparasthitamfn. standing opposite to one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparasukhaiṣinmfn. wishing one another's happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparavibandhanamfn. vibandhana
parasparaviruddhamfn. opposed to one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparavivādam. quarrelling with one another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparavyāvṛttif. mutual exclusion, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparopakāram. mutual assistance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparopakārinm. an ally or associate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasparotpīḍanan. mutual pressing or squeezing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśrayam. dependence on others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśrayam. a refuge to enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśrayamfn. clinging to others, dependent on others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśrayāf. a parasitical plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśrīf. another's good fortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastaram() ind. further away, further View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastarāmind. () further away, further View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastarāmind. parastarām par-, further and further away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastātind. (p/ar-) further away, further on, towards (opp. to avastāt-, arvāk-;with genitive case) beyond, above etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastātind. from afar off, from before or behind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastātind. aside, apart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastātind. hereafter, afterwards, later (opp. to pūrvam-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasthānan. another place, strange place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parastrīf. the wife of another or an unmarried woman depending on another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśum. a hatchet, axe, the axe of a woodcutter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśum. () a thunderbolt etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśum. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśum. wrong reading for parśu- q.v ([ confer, compare Greek ,, etc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśucim. Name of a son of manu- auttama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśudharam. "axe-bearer", Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśudharam. of paraśu-rāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśuhastāf. "axe in hand", Name of a female attendant on devī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśumatmfn. having an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśupalāśam. the blade of an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśuphāṇṭam. or n. an infusion warmed by a heated axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmam. " rama- with the axe", Name of one of the three rāma-s (son of jamad-agni- and sixth avatāra- of viṣṇu-, he was a typical Brahman and his history typifies the contests between the brahman-s and kṣatriya-s) (also -ka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmam. Name of a prince and of several authors (also with garjara-, deva-, miśra-, muni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmajayantīf. the third day in the light half of vaiśākha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmaprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmapratāpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmāvatāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśurāmāvatārakathanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśuvanan. "forest of axes", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśuvanapradurbhāvam. "forest of axes", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśuvanasahasranāmann. "forest of axes", Name of a hell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvan. sg. or plural another's property etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvamfn. equals sarvasva-bhūta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvādāyinmfn. taking or seizing another's property () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvadham. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a hatchet, axe (also written parasv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvadhāyudhamfn. armed with an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvadhinmfn. furnished with an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvagraham. seizing another's property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvaharaṇan. equals -graha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvahṛtmfn. taking or seizing another's property () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvanm. a kind of snake (see next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvasind. the day after to-morrow (see paraḥ-śvas-under paras-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraśvat m. a kind of snake (see next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvatm. (prob.) the wild ass (see prec. and pārasvata-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvatvan. another's right ( parasvatvatvāpādāna -tvādāna- n.conferring a right upon another as by gift etc. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvatvatvāpādānan. parasvatva
parasvehāf. desire of another's property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvopajīvikamfn. living upon another's property, dependent. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasvopajīvinmfn. living upon another's property, dependent. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraf. highest degree, absoluteness, (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the being quite devoted to or intent upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parataḥpoṣamfn. receiving food from another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratalpam. plural another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratalpagāminm. one who approaches another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratama mfn. superl. and Comparative degree of para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parataṅgaṇa(?) m. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantran. a rule or formula for another rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantramf(ā-)n. dependent on or subject to another, obedient (opp. to sva-t-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantra n. (in the beginning of a compound) dependence on another's will View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantradṛṣṭimfn. one who asserts the dependence of the will View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantrahaṃsopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantratāf. () dependence on another's will View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantrīkṛtamfn. made dependent, brought into another's power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratantrīkṛtamfn. ceded, sold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratāpanam. "paining-foes", Name of a marut- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parataramfn. superl. and Comparative degree of para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratarkaka m. a beggar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratarkukam. a beggar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. = ablative of para- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. farther, far off, afterwards, behind (itas-paratas-,here-there; sapta puruṣān itaś ca paraś ca-,seven ancestors and seven descendants ; sani parataḥ-,sc. sati-,when san-follows ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. high above (in rank) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. (with prec. ablative) after (in time) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. beyond, above (in rank) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratasind. otherwise, differently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratastvan. (the state of) being from elsewhere or without View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratattvain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratattvanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratattvaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratattvavādam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratīrthikam. the adherent of another sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratoṣayitṛmfn. gratifying others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratraind. elsewhere, in another place, in a future state or world, hereafter etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratraind. below id est in the sequel (of a book) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratrabhīrum. "one who stands in awe of futurity", a pious or religious man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratvan. distance, remoteness, consequence, posteriority, difference, strangeness, superiority to (genitive case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratvan. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratvaratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parauru(r/a--) mf(-)n. broad on the outside or behind (see paro-varīyas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parauṣṇihf. a kind of metre (also paroṣṇih- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravācyamfn. blamable by others ( paravācyatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravācyan. another's fault or defect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravācyatāf. paravācya
paravādam. the talk of others, popular rumour or report, slander View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravādam. objection, controversy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravādinm. an opponent, controversialist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravākyan. words referring to something else, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravallabham. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravāṇim. () a judge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravāṇim. a year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravāṇim. Name of kārttikeya-'s peacock. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravāraṇam. one who averts or drives away enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravargam. the party or side of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravaśamfn. subject to another's will, subdued or ruled by (compound), subservient, obedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravaśākṣepam. an objection to anything under the pretext of being dependent on another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravastum. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravaśyamfn. equals -vaśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravaśyatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravatind. like a stranger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravatmfn. subject to or dependent on (instrumental case, genitive case locative case or compound), subservient, obedient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravatmfn. helpless, destitute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravattāf. subjection, obedience to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraveśmann. another's house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paraveśmann. the dwelling of the Supreme View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravīrahanm. killer of hostile heroes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravittan. another's wealth (wrong reading pari--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravratam. Name of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravyākṣepinmfn. scattering foes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paravyūhavināśanam. the destroyer of an enemy's ranks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parayattamf(ā-)n. dependent upon another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parayattamf(ā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') wholly subdued or overwhelmed by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parayoṣitf. another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parayuvatigam. equals -dārin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhoparan. the anus. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adṛṣṭaparasāmarthyam. one who has not experienced the power of an enemy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmnāyaparamfn. honouring sacred tradition, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaparamfn. without another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaparamfn. having no follower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaparamfn. single, sole (as Name of brahma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andhaparamparānyāyam. the rule of the blind following the blind (applied to people following each other thoughtlessly), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuparatamfn. uninterrupted, not stopped. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśāsanaparamfn. obedient. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūṣmaparamfn. (in grammar) not followed by a sibilant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyaparamfn. devoted to something else, zealous in something else. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamfn. having nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. (fr. /apa-), posterior, later, latter (opposed to p/ūrva-;often in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. following View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. western View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. inferior, lower (opposed to p/ara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. other, another (opposed to sv/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. different (with ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. being in the west of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamf(ā-)n. distant, opposite. Sometimes apara- is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences exempli gratia, 'for example' aparaṃ-ca-, moreover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparam. the hind foot of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apara(/am-) ([ ]) n. the future View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaalso (e-), m. plural others (= anye-, used to indicate a various reading), hāla-, Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparabhāvam. after-existence, succession, continuation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparadakṣiṇamind. south-west, (gaRa tiṣṭhadgv-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparadīkṣinmfn. undergoing the later consecration, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparagandhikāf. Name (also title or epithet) of a country (= ketumāla-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparagodānan. (in Buddhist cosmogony) a country west of the mahā-meru-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparagodāni(?), m. Name (also title or epithet) of one of the four dvīpa-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparahaimanamfn. belonging to the latter half of the winter season View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparahemantam. n. the latter part of winter. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparajamfn. born later View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparajana sg. or plural m. inhabitants of the west View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparakālam. a later period View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparakānyakubjam. Name of a village in the western part of kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparakāyam. the hind part of the body. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaktamfn. having a changed colour, grown pale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaktamfn. unfavourable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparalokam. another world, paradise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamind. (/aparam-[ ]or apar/am-[ ]) in future, for the future View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamind. again, moreover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparamind. in the west of (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparanidāgham. the latter part of the summer. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparañj -rajyate-, to become unfavourable to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapakṣam. the latter half of the month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapakṣam. the other or opposing side, the defendant. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapakṣīyamfn. belonging to the latter half of the month, (gaRa gahādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āparapakṣīyamfn. (fr. aparapakṣa-), belonging to the second half (of a month) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapañcālam. plural the western pañcāla-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaparam.(ās-or e-)fn. plural one and the other, various View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparāparam(ās-or e-)fn. plural another and another, various View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparāparaṇam. not having descendants or offspring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapraṇeyamfn. easily led by others, tractable. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparapuruṣam. a descendant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apararātram. the latter half of the night, the end of the night, the last watch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apararātrif. the second half of the night, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasadmfn. being seated behind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasakthan. the hind thigh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaśaradf. the latter part of the autumn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasparamfn. "not reciprocal, not one (by) the other", only in compound with -sambhūta- mfn. not produced one by the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasparamfn. plural one after the other View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasparaSee 1. a-para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasparaSee 2. /apara-.
aparasparasambhūtamfn. not produced one from another or in regular order, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaśuvṛkṇamfn. not hewn off with an axe, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaśvasind. the day after to-morrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaśvasind. the day after to-morrow, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparasvastikan. the western point in the horizon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaf. distance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaf. posteriority (in place or time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaf. opposition, contrariety, relativeness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparaf. nearness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatamfn. ( ram-), turned off from, unfavourable to (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatamfn. resting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatasind. elsewhere, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatason the west side, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatraind. in another place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatraind. (eka-tra-, aparatra-,in one place, in the other place ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparatvan. equals -- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavam. contest, dispute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavam. discord. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavaktrāf. a kind of metre of four lines (having every two lines the same). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavallabham. Name (also title or epithet) of a people, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavarṣāf. plural the latter part of the rains. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavatmfn. having nothing following View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavatSee 1. a-para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavedanīyan. (Karman) manifesting itself at a subsequent period, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparavojjhitamfn. free from dispute, undisturbed, undisputed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparayogamfn. without another addition, unmixed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariparamfn. not going by a tortuous course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aritraparaṇamf(ī-)n. crossing over by means of oars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthaparamfn. intent on gaining wealth, niggardly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthaparamfn. greedy, covetous, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asparśaparamfn. not followed by a letter called sparśa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asvādhyāyaparamfn. not devoted to the repetition of the veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvaparaśu(?), m. the rib of a horse, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ataḥparamind. henceforth, further on.
atiparamfn. one who has over come his enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiparam. a great enemy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmasparaṇamfn. saving the person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
auparam. a descendant of upara-, Name of daṇḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
auparavamfn. relating to the hole called upa-rava-, q.v commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaraparamf(ā-)n. preceding and following, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaraparamind. one upon the other , successively (see avaras-par/a-below) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avarasparamfn. ([ avara-para-]) having the last first or the hindermost foremost, inverted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālātaparaktamfn. red with the morning sunbeams View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandhūkapuṣparajasn. bandhūkapuṣpa
bhartṛśokaparamfn. absorbed in it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavānīparam. or n. Name of a stotra-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛtyaparamāṇum. a very humble (literally"an atom of a") servant (see padāti-lava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmānandaparamahaṃsam. brahmānanda
paravam. the whizzing of a bow, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chalanāparamfn. deceitful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cikitsāparatantran. a med. work, 15 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cintāparamfn. lost in thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citparan. the Supreme Spirit (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivaparamfn. trusting to fate, fatalist (also yaṇa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivaparamfn. fated, willed, predestined View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivataparamfn. worshipper of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇāparamf(ā-)n. southwestern View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānaparamfn. devoted to liberality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānaparaf. liberality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devatābhyarcanaparamfn. devoted to it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devīparapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanaparamf(ā-)n. fond of money View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanurvedaparamfn. devoted to archery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaparamfn. intent on virtue, pious, righteous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānapara() mfn. engaged in meditation, thoughtful. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānatatparamfn. lost in meditation, thoughtful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
diṣṭaparamfn. relying on fate, fatalist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drohaparamfn. full of malice, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparam. n. that die or side of a die which is marked with two spots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparam. the Die personified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparam. "the age with the number two", Name of the 3rd of the 4 yuga-s or ages of the world (comprising 2400 years;the yuga-s itself = 2000, and each twilight = 200 years;it is also personified as a god) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparam. Name of a mythology being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparam. doubt, uncertainty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparacchandasn. plural a particular class of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāparastomam. plural of stoma-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvirabhyāsākūparan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekaparamfn. of singular importance, more important than any other, first of all (said of dice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekatatparamfn. solely intent on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
etatparamfn. intent on or absorbed in this commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭakarparam. Name of the author of a highly artificial poem called after him (also author of the nītisāra- and mentioned as one of the 9 gems of king vikramāditya-'s court) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭakarparan. the fragments of a pot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭakarparan. Name of ghaṭa-karpara-'s poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭakarparakulakavṛttif. Name of a commentator or commentary on the preceding. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
giriparamfn. following after gir/i- (as a Name of rudra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
goparasam. myrrh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmyehoparamam. ceasing from sexual desires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gurutalparatamfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. one who violates his teacher's bed etc.' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guruvṛttiparamfn. trying to behave respectfully towards a Guru View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsaparameśvaram. Name of a tantra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hataparamārthamfn. neglectful of the highest truth (said of the senses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itiparamfn. followed by iti- (as a word) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñānaparamfn. wholly devoted to knowledge of Spirit. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālaparaśudhāram. "bearing the axe of Death", all executioner, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇaparaṃparāf. the going from one ear to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. a cup, pot, bowl etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. the skull, cranium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. the shell of a tortoise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. a kind of weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. Ficus glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparam. Name of a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparan. a pot, potsherd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karparakam. Name of a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karuṇāparamfn. compassionate, tender View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṇḍoparatham. plural Name of a warrior-tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṇḍoparathīyaa prince of that tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaurparamfn. (fr. kūrp-), being at the elbow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautūhalaparamfn. curious, inquisitive. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keliparamfn. wanton, sportive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāṇḍaparaśavamfn. (fr. khaṇḍa-paraśu-), belonging to śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaṇḍaparaśum. "cutting (his foes) to pieces with an axe", śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaṇḍaparaśum. viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāparam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. a thief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. a rogue, cheat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. the skull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. the half of a skull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. a beggar's bowl or dish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. an umbrella or parasol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharparan. and f(ī-). a kind of mineral substance (used as a collyrium) (see karpara-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāparamfn. attentive to the performance of one's duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣamāparamfn. very patient, forbearing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣutparamfn. very hungry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulaparamparāf. the series of generations comprising a race. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍoparatham. "Name of a man" See kauṇḍoparatha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kurparafor kūrp- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūrparam. the elbow commentator or commentary on : the knee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūrparam. Name of a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
labdhaparabhāgamfn. one who has gained preeminence over (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānaparamf(ā-)n., wholly addicted to pride, very proud or arrogant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matparamfn. devoted to me View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matparama mfn. devoted to me View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyāchadmaparamfn. only intent upon fraud and deceit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muniparamparāf. a tradition handed down from muni- to muni-, uninterrupted tradition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naparamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥśvāsaparamamf(ā-)n. quite addicted to sighing, melancholy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṣeparakṣāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niparaṇaSee ni-pṝ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niparaṇan. the putting down or offering (of rice etc. to deceased relatives) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirbandhaparamf(ā-)n. intent upon, desirous of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamaparamfn. observing fixed rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niyamaparamfn. relating to or corroborative of a rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nṛsiṃhaparamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pānaparamfn. addicted to drinking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parahitamfn. free from guilt, harmless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāramparamfn. further, future (world) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparamfn. remote and proximate, prior and posterior (as cause and effect), earlier and later, higher and lower, better and worse etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparam. equals -guru- below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparan. (in logic) a community of properties in a small class under the larger or generic, a species or class between the genus and individual View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparan. Grewia Asiatica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparadṛṣṭārthamfn. knowing the real nature of the remote and proximate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparagurum. a Guru of an intermediate class View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparagurum. Name of the goddess durgā- (see parāt-parag-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparaitṛ(p/arāp-) mfn. going after another, going in a line (to the next world) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparajñamfn. knowing what is remote and proximate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparaf. higher and lower degree, absolute and relative state, priority and posteriority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparaf. the state of being both a genus and a species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparatvan. higher and lower degree, absolute and relative state, priority and posteriority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāparatvan. the state of being both a genus and a species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parātparamfn. superior to the best View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parātparamfn. senior to the senior (see next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parātparagurum. the teacher of the teacher of the teacher of a teacher (see, parāpara-g-under para-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariparaSee a-pari-para-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. (only ) a handful of rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. consumption or some other disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. a filament of the Nauclea Cadamba View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. ashes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. Name of yama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārparam. equals jarāṭa- (?) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattraparaśu m. a fine file or saw View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitṛvākparamfn. obedient to (the voice of) parents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapañcamithyātvānumānakhaṇḍanaparaśum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasaṃkhyānaparamfn. engrossed or absorbed in meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣaparamfn. setting the highest value on the visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyaparamfn. equals -avara- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāsaparamfn. addicted to living abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
premaparamfn. intent on love, filled with affection, affectionate, loving, constant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthivyuparamfn. higher than the earth, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvaghaṭakarparam. or n. Name of work (prob. the first part of the poem ghaṭa-karpara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparamfn. being before and behind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparamfn. directed forward and backward, eastern and western etc. ( pūrvāparatva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparamfn. prior and subsequent, first and last View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparamfn. preceding and following, following one another, connected with one another etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparan. that which is before and behind, east and west View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparan. connection View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparan. the proof and thing to be proved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparadakṣiṇamf(ā-)n. eastern, western and southern View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparadinan. forenoon and afternoon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparagrantham. Name of work
pūrvāparamind. one after another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāpararātrif. the former and latter half of the night, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparasmārtaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvāparatvan. pūrvāpara
pūrvāparavirodham. opposition of prior and subsequent, inconsistency, incongruity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparacanan. making flower into a garland (one of the 64 arts or kalā-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparajasn. "flower-dust", pollen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparajasn. (especially) saffron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparaktamfn. red as a flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparaktamfn. dyed red with vegetable colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparaktam. Hibiscus Phoeniceus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparasa(or hvaya-) m. (having the name) flower-juice, the nectar or honey of flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣparatham. "flower-chariot", a car for travelling or for pleasure
rahasyālocanāparamfn. addicted to pondering over secret things View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmānujaguruparamparāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmaparamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasoparasam. or n. (?) Name of a medical work (also rasoparasaśodhana -śodhana- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasoparasaśodhanan. rasoparasa
ratoparatasaṃsuptamfn. sleeping after the cessation of sexual enjoyment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasagandhasparśavatmfn. having colour and taste and smell and palpability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasasparśavatmfn. having colour and taste and palpability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paratnākaram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasraparamamf(ā-)n. the most excellent among thousand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmagapūrvāparamn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmagapūrvāparamn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śamaparamfn. devoted to quiet, tranquil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayabhedoparacanacakran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampara gaRa utkarādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saparan. a particular high number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(ā-)n. together with the west View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptakṛdbhavaparamam. a śrāvaka- in a particular stage of progress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvāparatvan. "being beyond all things", final emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvoparamam. cessation of all things, absolute rest ( sarvoparamatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvoparamatvan. sarvoparama
satyabodhaparamahaṃsaparivrājakam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyānandaparamahaṃsaparivrājakam. Name of scholar. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyaparamfn. given up to truth, thoroughly honest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauraparaName of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sepānakaparamparāf. a flight of steps, staircase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śiṣyaparamparāf. a series or succession of pupils or disciples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sītārāmaparalīkaram. (?) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivaparan. (prob.) Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivāparamfn. "other than propitious", cruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śliṣṭaparamparitarūpakan. a continuous series of words having a double meaning (a kind of metaphor) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānaparamparāf. equals -paṅkti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
soparamfn. with the under part of the sacrificial post View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spara raṇa- etc. See column 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sparan. Name of particular sāman- days and the texts and sacrifices connected with them ( sparatva -tv/a- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sparaṇamf(ī-)n. saving, delivering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sparaseSee under root. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sparatvan. spara
śrīnivāsabrahmatantraparakālasvāmyaṣṭottaraśatan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotraparamparāf. successive oral report or hearsay (rayā-,"by successive oral communication") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutitatparamfn. having ears, hearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutitatparamfn. intent on hearing or studying the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīparam. "devoted to women", a libertine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhaparamfn. fond of ease or comfort, intent on enjoyment (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklāparamfn. having a white hinder part (said of the body) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suparamaturitāf. (with Buddhists) Name of a deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasam. the taste or flavour of sauce View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuśrūṣāparamfn. diligent or attentive in service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtpara(?) n. the distilling of spirituous liquor (= surā-saṃdhāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svaparamaṇḍalan. one's own and an enemy's country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svaparapratārakamfn. deceiving one's self and others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svargaparamfn. desirous of heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svārthaparamfn. intent on one's own advantage, self-interested ( svārthaparatā -- f."selfishness") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svārthaparaf. svārthapara
svārthasādhanatatparamfn. intent upon it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṭāparaName of a village, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taparamfn. followed by t- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taparakaraṇan. causing - to follow, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tarparam. a bell hanging down from the throat of cattle, gaRa kapilakādi- () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparamf(ā-)n. following that or thereupon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparamf(ā-)n. having that as one's highest object or aim, totally devoted or addicted to, attending closely to, eagerly engaged in (locative case [ ]or generally in compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparam. 1/30 of an eye's twinkle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparaf. scope, design, intention View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparaf. entire devotion or addiction to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparatvan. idem or 'f. entire devotion or addiction to (locative case) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparatvan. aiming at, tending to (a-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatparatvan. "the state of following behind", inferiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṭoparaa small bag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(- )n. Ved. hornless, (m.) a hornless goat etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramf(-)n. blunt (yūpa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upacāraparamfn. intent on service or politeness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakāraparamfn. intent on doing benefits or good, beneficent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamfn. (fr. upa-), situated below, under View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamfn. posterior, later View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamfn. nearer, approximate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparam. the lower stone on which the soma- is laid (that it may be ground by means of another stone held in the hand) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparam. the lower part of the sacrificial post View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparam. a cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparam. region View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparac Causal P. -racayati-, to construct, form, make, prepare, effect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparacitamfn. constructed, formed, made, prepared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparadh Causal P. -randhayati-, to pain, torment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparajya ind.p. having dyed or coloured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparajyadarkening, obscuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparakṣaṇan. a guard, outpost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparaktamfn. dyed, coloured, coloured red View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparaktamfn. heated, inflamed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparaktamfn. afflicted, distressed (especially by rāhu-;said of sun and moon), eclipsed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparaktamfn. influenced or affected by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparaktam. Name (also title or epithet) of rāhu-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamP. A1. () -ramati-, -te-, to cease from motion, stop ; to cease from action, be inactive or quiet (as a quietist) ; to pause, stop (speaking or doing anything) etc. ; to leave off, desist, give up, renounce (with ablative) commentator or commentary on ; to await, wait for ; to cause to cease or stop ; to render quiet : Causal -ramayati-, to cause to cease or stop ; to render quiet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamam. cessation, stopping, expiration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamam. leaving off, desisting, giving up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamam. death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamaṇan. the abstaining from worldly actions or desires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparamaṇan. ceasing, discontinuance.
uparamatvan. the state of ceasing from (all worldly desires and actions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparambhP. -rambhati-, to cause to resound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparandhran. a minor hole or cavity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparandhran. Name of a particular part of the body of a horse (probably a hollow place or depression on the flanks or ribs; see randhra- ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparañj Causal P. -rañjayati-, to influence, affect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparañjakamfn. dyeing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparañjakamfn. affecting, influencing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparañjyamfn. to be dyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparañjyamfn. to be affected or influenced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparasam. a secondary mineral (as red chalk, bitumen etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparasam. a secondary feeling or passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparasam. a secondary flavour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatamfn. ceased, stopped, quiet, indifferent, patient etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatamfn. dead etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatamfn. ceasing to exist, disappeared, non-existing, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatamfn. withdrawn or retired from, left off, given up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatarāsamfn. ceasing to play or dance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatārimfn. one whose foes are quiet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatārimfn. having no foe, being at peace with all. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparataśoṇitāf. (a woman) whose menses have ceased View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparataspṛhamfn. one in whom desire has ceased, free from desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatātiind. (upa-r/a-) in the proximity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatātiind. a circumference View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparataviṣayābhilāṣamfn. one whose desire after worldly things has ceased. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparathyāf. a side-street, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatif. cessation, stopping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatif. death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatif. desisting from sensual enjoyment or any worldly action, quietism, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparatnan. a secondary or inferior gem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparavam. ( ru-), a hole (over which the soma- is ground;so called from its increasing the sound of the grindstones) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uparava() mfn. eclipsed, obscured, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūṣmaparamfn. followed by an ūṣman- sound See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśaparamparāf. family succession, lineage, descent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyuparamāṇum. a primary aerial atom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vediparam. plural Name of a country and people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicāraparam. Name of a king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhvastaparaguṇamfn. one who detracts from the merits of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vigrahaparamfn. intent on war, engaged in fighting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindhyaparam. Name of a king of the vidyādhara-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipathāvapātaparaf. the inclination to go in wrong ways (or pursue evil courses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣayoparamam. cessation or abandonment of sensual pleasures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāsaparamamfn. wholly possessed of confidence, thoroughly trustful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuparamA1. -ramate- (Epic also ti-; ind.p. -ramam-;in augmented forms not separable from vy-upā-ram-below) , to leave off or pause variously ; to come to an end, cease ; to desist from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuparamam. pause, cessation, interruption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuparamam. end, close (of day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuparamamind. See vy-upa-ram- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuparatamfn. rested, stopped, ceased, desisted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāparamind. (prob.) as otherwise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
Results for para77 results
     
para पर a. [पॄ-भावे-अप्, कर्तरि अच्-वा] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position) 1 Other, different, another; see पर m also. -2 Distant, removed, remote; अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः Bg.4.4. -3 Beyond, further, on the other side of; म्लेच्छदेशस्ततः परः Ms.2.23;7.158. -4 Subsequent, following, next to, future, after (usually with abl.); बाल्यात् परामिव दशां मदनो$ध्युवास R.5.63; Ku.1.31. -5 Higher, superior; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे परमाणुताम् R.15.22; इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहु- रिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥ Bg.3.42. -9 Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतो$पि परः Ku.2.14 'higher than the highest'; 6.19; Ś7.27. -7 Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.). -8 Alien, estranged, stranger. -9 Hostile, inimical, adverse, -1 Exceeding, having a surplus or remainder, left over; as in परं शतम् 'exceeding or more than a hundred. -11 Final, last. -12 (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर &c. -रः 1 Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि Bv.1.9; Śi.2.74; see एक, अन्य also. -2 A foe, an enemy, adversary; उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यभिच्छता Śi.2.1; Pt.2.158; R.3.21. -3 The Almighty; तावदध्यासते लोकं परस्य परचिन्तकाः Bhāg.3.32.8. -रम् 1 The highest point or pitch, culminating point. -2 The Supreme Sprit; तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् Bg.5.16. -3 Final beatitude; असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः Bg.3.19. -4 The secondary meaning of a word. -5 (In logic) One of the two kinds of सामान्य or generality of notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. पृथ्वी is पर with respect to a घट). -6 The other or future world; परासक्ते च वस्तस्मिन् कथमासीन्मनस्तदा Mb.6.14.55. Note-The acc., instr. and loc. singulars of पर are used adverbially; e. g. (a) परम् 1 beyond, over, out of (with abl.); वर्त्मनः परम् R.1.17. -2 after (with abl.); अस्मात् परम् Ś.6.24; R.1.66;3.39; Me.12; भाग्यायत्त- मतः परम् Ś.4.17; ततः परम् &c. -3 thereupon, thereafter. -4 but, however. -5 otherwise. -6 in a high degree, excessively, very much, completely, quite; परं दुःखितो$स्मि &c. -7 most willingly. -8 only. -9 at the utmost. (b) परेण 1 farther, beyond, more than; किं वा मृत्योः परेण विधास्यति Māl.2.2. -2 afterwards; मयि तु कृतनिधाने किं विदध्याः परेण Mv.2.49. -3 after (with abl.) स्तन्यत्यागात् परेण U.2.7. (c) परे 1 afterwards, thereupon; अथ तेन दशाहतः परे R.8.73. -2 in future. -Comp. -अङ्गम् the hinder part of the body. -अङ्गदः an epithet of Śiva. -अणुः See परमाणु; Bhāg.1.14.11. -अदनः a horse found in the country of Persia or Arabia. -अधिकारचर्चा officiousness, meddlesomeness. -अधीन a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद्भिन्नभाजने Ms.1.54,83; H.1.119. -अन्तः final death. (-ताः) m. (pl.) N. of a people. -अन्तकः an epithet of Śiva. -2 a frontier. -अन्तकालः the time of death; ते ब्रह्मलोकेषु परान्तकाले परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे Muṇḍ.3.2.6. -अन्न a. living or subsisting on another's food. (-न्नम्) the food of another; परगृहललिताः परान्नपुष्टाः Mk.4.28. ˚परिपुष्टता being fed with the food of others; Y.3.241. ˚भोजिन् a. subsisting on the food of others; रोगी चिरप्रवासी परान्नभोजी परावसथशायी । यज्जीवति तन्मरणं यन्मरणं सो$स्य विश्रामः ॥ H.1.12. -अपर a. 1 far and near, remote and proximate. -2 prior and posterior. -3 before and beyond, earlier and later. -4 higher and lower, best and worst. (-रः) a Guru of an intermediate class. (-रम्) (in logic) a property intermediate between the greatest and smallest numbers, a species (as existing between the genus and individual); e. g. पृथ्वी which is पर with _x001F_1respect to a घट is अपर with respect to द्रव्य; द्रव्यत्वादिक- जातिस्तु परापरतयोच्यते Bhāṣā. P.8. -अभिध्यानम् self-conceit; high opinion for self or body (देहाभिमान); स्वयं पराभिध्यानेन विभ्रंशितस्मृतिः Bhāg.5.14.1. -अमृतम् rain. -अयण (अयन) a. 1 attached or devoted to, adhering to. -2 depending on, subject to. -3 intent on, solely devoted to or absorbed in (at the end of comp.); प्रभुर्धनपरायणः Bh.2.56; so मोह˚; अथ मोहपरायणा सती विवशा कामवधूर्विबोधिता Ku.4.1; अग्निहोत्र˚ &c. -4 connected with. -5 being a protector (त्राता); अबर्हाश्चरणैर्हीनाः पूर्वेषां वः परायणाः Mb.1.23.4. -6 leading or conducive to. -(णम्) 1 the principal or highest objest, chief aim, best or last resort; एतत् परायणम् Praśna Up.1.1; तपसश्च परायणम् Rām.1.21.1; Mb.12.179.12. -2 essence, sum. -3 Ved. going away, departure, exit. -4 firm devotion. -5 a universal medicine, panacea. -6 a religious order. -अर्थ a. 1 having another aim or meaning. -2 intended or designed for another, done for another. (-र्थः) 1 the highest interest or advantage. -2 the interest of another (opp. स्वार्थ); स्वार्थो यस्य परार्थ एव स पुमानेकः सतामग्रणीः Subhāṣ.; R.1.29. -3 the chief or highest meaning. -4 the highest object (i.e. sexual intercourse). -5 the supreme good (मोक्ष); ज्ञात्वा प्रजहि कालेन परार्थमनुदृश्य च Mb.12.288.9. -6 Something else. Hence परार्थता or परार्थत्व means 'being subsidiary to something else; परार्थता हि गुणभावः ŚB. on MS.4.3. -7 an object which is meant for another's use (Sāṅ. Phil.); सङ्घातपरार्थत्वात् त्रिगुणादिविपर्ययादधिष्ठानात् Sāṅ. K.17. ˚वादिन् a. speaking for another; mediator, substitute. -अर्थिन् a. striving for the supreme good. (-र्थम् -र्थे) ind. for the sake of another. -अर्धम् 1 the other part (opp. पूर्वार्ध); the latter half; दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभिन्ना छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् Bh.2.6. -2 a particular high number; i. e. 1,,,,,; एकत्वादिपरार्धपर्यन्ता संख्या T. S. -अर्धक a. One half of anything. -अर्ध्य a. 1 being on the farther side or half. -2 most distant in number; हेमन्तो वसन्तात् परार्ध्यः Śat. Br. -3 most excellent, best, most exalted, highly esteemed, highest, supreme; R.3.27;8.27;1.64;16;39; आबद्धप्रचुरपरार्ध्यकिंकिणीकः Śi.8.45. -4 most costly; Śi.4.11; श्रियं परार्ध्यां विदधद् विधातृभिः Bu. Ch.1.1. -5 most beautiful or lovely, finest; R.6.4; परस्परस्पर्धिपरार्ध्यरूपाः पौरस्त्रियो यत्र विधाय वेधाः Śi.3.58. -6 Divine: असावाटीत् सङ्ख्ये परार्ध्यवत् Bk.9.64. (-र्ध्यम्) 1 a maximum. -2 an infinite number. -अवर a. 1 far and near; परावराणां स्रष्टारं पुराणं परमव्ययम् Mb.1.1.23. -2 earlier and later. -3 prior and posterior or subsequent. -4 higher and lower. -5 traditional; पुनाति पङ्क्तिं वंश्यांश्च सप्त सप्त परावरान् Ms.1. 15. -6 all-including; परावरज्ञो$सि परावरस्त्वम् Mb.3.232. 18. (-रा) descendants. (-रम्) 1 cause and effect. -2 the whole extent of an idea. -3 the universe. -4 totality. ˚ज्ञ, ˚दृश् a. knowing both the past and the future; परावरज्ञो ब्रह्मर्षिः Mb.1.6.5. -अवसथ- शायिन् a. sleeping in another's house; H.1.12. -अहः the next day. -अह्णः the afternoon, the latter part of the day. -आगमः attack of an enemy. -आचित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) a slave. -आत्मन् m. the Supreme Spirit. -आयत्त a. 1 dependent on another, subject, subservient; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -2 Wholly subdued or overwhelmed by. -आयुस् m. an epithet of Brahman; नाहं परायुर्ऋषयो न मरीचिमुख्या जानन्ति यद्विरचितं खलु सत्त्वसर्गाः Bhāg.8.1.12. -आविद्धः 1 an epithet of Kubera. -2 of Viṣṇu. -आश्रय a. dependent upon another. (-यः) 1 dependence upon another. -2 the retreat of enemies. (-या) a plant growing on another tree. -आसङ्गः dependence upon another. -आस्कन्दिन् m. a thief, robber. -इतर a. 1 other than inimical; i. e. friendly, kind. -2 one's own; विधाय रक्षान् परितः परेतरान् Ki.1.14. -ईशः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -इष्टिः N. of Brahman. -इष्टुका a cow which has often calved. -उत्कर्षः another's prosperity. -उद्वहः the Indian cuckoo. -उपकारः doing good to others, benevolence, beneficence, charity; परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम्. -उपकारिन् a. benevolent, kind to others. -उपजापः causing dissension among enemies; परोपजापात् संरक्षेत् प्रधानान् क्षुद्रकान् अपि Kau. A.1.13. -उपदेशः advising others; परोपदेशे पाण्डित्यम्. -उपरुद्ध a. besieged by an enemy. -उपसर्पणम् approaching another; begging. -ऊढा another's wife. -एधित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) 1 a servant. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -कर्मन् n. service for another. ˚निरतः a servant. -कलत्रम् another's wife. ˚अभिगमनम् adultery; वरं क्लैब्यं पुसां न च परकलत्राभिगमनम् H.1.116. -कायप्रवेशनम् entering another's body (a supernatural art). -कारः The deeds of the enemy; राज्ञः समीपे परकारमाह प्रज्ञापनैषा विबि- धोपदिष्टा Kau. A.2.1. -कार्यम् another's business or work. ˚निरतः 1 a benevolent man. -2 a slave, servant. -काल a. relating to a later time, mentioned later. -कृतिः an example or precedent, a passage descriptive of the doings of men; MS.6.7.26. -क्रमः doubling the second letter of a conjunction of consonants. -क्रान्तिः f. inclination of the ecliptic. -क्षेत्रम् 1 another's body. -2 another's field; ये$क्षेत्रिणो बीजवन्तः परक्षेत्रप्रवापिणः । ते वै सस्यस्य जातस्य न लभन्ते फलं क्वचित् ॥ Ms.9.49. -3 another's wife; तौ तु जातौ परक्षेत्रे Ms.3.175. -गामिन् a. 1 being with another. -2 relating to another. -3 beneficial to another. -गुण a. beneficial to another. (-णः) the virtue of another; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् Bh.2.78. -ग्रन्थिः joint (as of a finger); an articulation. -ग्लानिः f. subjugation of an enemy; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3. -चक्रम् 1 the army of an enemy. -2 invasion by an enemy, one of the six itis q. v. -3 a hostile prince. -छन्द a. dependent. (-दः) 1 the will of another. -2 dependence. ˚अनुवर्तनम् following the will of another. -छिद्रम् a weak or vulnerable point of another, a defect in another. -ज a. 1 stranger. -2 coming from a foe. -3 inferior. -जनः a stranger (opp. स्वजन); शक्तः परजने दाता Ms.11.9. -जन्मन् n. a future birth. -जात a. 1 born of another. -2 dependent on another for livelihood. (-तः) a servant. -जित a. 1 conquered by another. -2 maintained by another. (-तः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -तन्त्र a. dependent on another, dependent, subservient. -तन्त्रम् (a common group of) subsidiaries belonging to another; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् MS.12.1.8. (see तन्त्रम्). -तर्ककः a suppliant, beggar; Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica, 274, Fascicule 1, p.15; also परतर्कुक. -तल्पगामिन् m. One who approaches another man's wife. -तार्थिकः The adherent of another sect. -दाराः m. (pl.) another's wife; ˚अभिगमनम्, ˚अभिमर्षः Adultery. -दारिन् m. an adulterer. -दुःखम् the sorrow or grief of another; विरलः परदुःखदुःखितो जनः; महदपि परदुःखं शीतलं सम्यगाहुः V.4.13. -देवता the Supreme Being. -देशः a hostile or foreign country. -देशिन् m. a foreigner. -द्रोहिन्, -द्वेषिन् a. hating others, hostile, inimical. -धनम् another's property. -धर्मः 1 the religion of another; स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः Bg.3.35. -2 another's duty or business. -3 the duties of another caste; परधर्मेण जीवन् हि सद्यः पतति जातितः Ms.1.97. -ध्यानम् absolute meditation or contemplation; ध्येये मनो निश्चलतां याति ध्येयं विचिन्तयत् । यत् तद् ध्यानं परं प्रोक्तं मुनिभिर्ध्यानचिन्तकैः ॥ Garuḍa P. -निपातः the irregular posteriority of a word in a compound; i. e. भूतपूर्वः where the sense is पूर्वं भूतः; so राजदन्तः, अग्न्याहितः &c. -निर्वाणम् the highest निर्वाण; (Buddh.). -पक्षः the side or party of an enemy. -पदम् 1 the highest position, eminence. -2 final beatitude. -परिग्रह a. see पराधीन; स्ववीर्यविजये युक्ता नैते पर- परिग्रहाः Mb.7.144.22. -हः another's property (as wife &c); यथा बीजं न वप्तव्यं पुंसा परपरिग्रहे Ms.9.42-3. -परिभवः humiliation or injury suffered from others. -पाकनिवृत्त a. One who does not depend on others for his sustenance and performs the पञ्चयज्ञs faultlessly and takes food in his own house. -पाकरत a. one who depends upon others for his sustenance but performs the usual ceremonies before cooking; पञ्चयज्ञान् स्वयं कृत्वा परान्नमुपजीवति । सततं प्रातरुत्थाय परपाकरतस्तु सः ॥ -पाकरुचिः having a liking for others' food; परपाकरुचिर्न स्यादनिन्द्या- मन्त्रणादृते Y.1.112. -पिण्डः another's food, food given by another. ˚अद् a., ˚भक्षक a. one who eats another's food or one who feeds at the cost of another; यादृशो$हं परपिण्डभक्षको भूतः Mk.8.25/26; (-m.) a servant. ˚रत a. feeding upon another's food; परपिण्डरता मनुष्याः Bh. -पुरञ्जयः a conqueror, hero. -पुरुषः 1 another man, a stranger. -2 the Supreme Spirit, Viṣṇu. -3 the husband of another woman. -पुष्ट a. 1 fed or nourished by another. -2 Stranger. (-ष्टः) the (Indian) cuckoo. ˚महोत्सवः the mango tree. -पुष्टा 1 the (Indian) cuckoo. -2 a parasitical plant. -3 a harlot, prostitute. -पूर्वा a woman who has or had a former husband; Ms.3.166; पतिं हित्वा$पकृष्टं स्वमुत्कृष्टं या निषेवते । निन्द्यैव सा भवेल्लोके परपूर्वेति चोच्यते Ms.5.163. -प्रतिनप्तृ m. son of the great grand son. -प्रपौत्रः (see प्रतिनप्तृ). -प्रेष्यः a servant, menial, slave. -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit; cf. लीने परे ब्रह्मणि Bh. परे ब्रह्मणि को$पि न लग्नः Śaṅkara (चर्पटपञ्जरिका 7). -भागः 1 another's share. -2 superior merit. -3 good fortune, prosperity. -4 (a) excellence, superority, supremacy; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत् पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33;5.34. (b) excess, abundance, height; स्थलकमलगञ्जनं मम हृदय- रञ्जनम् जनितरतिरङ्गपरभागम् Gīt.1; आभाति लब्धपरभागतया- धरोष्ठे R.5.7; Ku.7.17; Ki.5.3;8.42; Śi.7.33; 8.51;1.86;12.15. -5 the last part, remainder. -भाव a. loving another. -भावः the being second member in a compound. -भाषा a foreign tongue. -भुक्त a. enjoyed or used by another; परभुक्तां च कान्तां च यो भुङ्क्ते स नराधमः । स पच्यते कालसूत्रे यावच्चन्द्रदिवाकरौ ॥ Brav. P. -भूत a. following, subsequent (as words). -भृत् m. a crow (said to nourish the cuckoo). -भृत a. nourished by another. -भृतः, -ता the (Indian) cuckoo; (so called because she is nourished by another i. e. by a crow); प्रागन्तरिक्षगमनात्- स्वमपत्यजातमन्यैर्द्विजैः परभृताः खलु पोषयन्ति Ś.5.22; Ku.6.2; R.9.43; Ś.4.1. -भतम् 1 another's opinion. -2 different opinion or doctrine; heterodoxy. -मर्मज्ञ a. knowing the secrets of another. -मृत्युः a crow. -रमणः a married woman's gallant or paramour; स्वाधीने पररमणे धन्यास्तारुण्यफलभाजः Pt.1.18. -लोकः the next (or furture) world; परलोकनवप्रवासिनः प्रतिपत्स्ये पदवीमहं तव Ku. 4.1. ˚गमः, ˚यानम् death. ˚विधि funeral rites; परलोक- विधौ च माधव स्मरमुद्दिश्य (निबपेः सहकारमञ्जरीः) Ku.4.38. -वश, -वश्य a. subject to another, dependent, dependent on others; सर्वं परवशं दुःखं सर्वमात्मवशं सुखम्. -वाच्यम् a fault or a defect of another; प्रकटान्यपि नैपुणं महत् परवाच्यानि चिराय गोपितुम् Śi.16.3. -वाणिः 1 a judge. -2 a year. -3 N. of the peacock of Kārtikeya. -वादः 1 rumour, report. -2 Objection, controversy. -वादिन् m. a disputant, controversialist. -वेश्मन् n. the abode of the Supreme Being. -व्रतः an epithet of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -शब्दः a word expressive of something else; परशब्दस्य परत्र वृत्तौ तद्वद् भावो गम्यते ŚB. on MS.7.2.1. -श्वस् ind. the day after tomorrow. -संगत a. 1 associated with another. -2 fighting with another. -संज्ञकः the soul. -सवर्ण a. homogeneous with a following letter (in gram.). -सात् ind. into the hands of another. ˚कृता a woman given in marriage. -सेवा service of another. -स्त्री another's wife. -स्वम् another's property; व्यावृता यत् परस्वेभ्यः श्रुतौ तस्करता स्थिता R.1.27; Ms.7.123. ˚हरणम् seizing another's property. -हन् a. killing enemies. -हित a. 1 benevolent. -2 profitable to another. -तम् the welfare of another; सन्तः स्वयं परहिताभिहिताभियोगाः Bh.
parakīya परकीय a. 1 Belonging to another; अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव Ś.4.22; Ms.4.21. -2 Stranger, hostile. -या Another's wife, a woman not one's own, one of the three main kinds of heroines; see अन्यस्त्री and S. D.18 et seq.; cf. also अप्रकटपरपुरुषानुरागा परकीया । सा च द्विधा । परोढा कन्यका च । कन्यकायाः पित्राद्यधीनतया परकीयता । Rasamañjarī. परंजनः parañjanḥ परंजयः parañjayḥ परंजनः परंजयः An epithet of Varuṇa.
parama परम a. [परं परत्वं माति-क Tv.] 1 Most distant, last. -2 Highest, best, most excellent, greatest; प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.4.14;7.1;2.13. -3 Chief, principal, primary, supreme; सर्वथा ब्राह्मणाः पूज्याः परमं दैवतं हि तत् Ms.9.319. -4 Exceeding, extreme. -5 Adequate, sufficient; परमं यत्नमातिष्ठेत् स्तेनानां निग्रहे नृपः Ms.8.32. -6 Worst. -7 Higher than, superior to; न मन्ये वाणि- ज्यात् किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह Pt.1.11. -मम् The utmost or highest; the chief or prominent part; (at the end of comp.) consisting principally of, solely occupied with; कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः Bg.16.11; Ms.6.96. -मम् ind. 1 A particle of assent, acceptance or agreement (well, very well, yes, be it so); ततः परममित्युक्त्वा प्रतस्थे मुनिमण्डलम् Ku.6.35. -2 Exceedingly, very much; परमक्रुद्धः &c. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable 'om' or Brahmā. -अङ्गना an excellent woman. -अणुः an infinitesimal particle, an atom; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे पर- माणुताम् R.15.22; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् Bh.2.78; पृथ्वी नित्या परमाणुरूपा T. S; (a परमाणु is thus defined:-- जालान्तरस्थसूर्यांशौ यत् सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः । भागस्तस्य च षष्ठो यः परमाणुः स उच्यते ॥ Tarka K., or less accurately:-- जाला- न्तरगते रश्मौ यत् सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः । तस्य त्रिंशत्तमो भागः परमाणुः स उच्यते ॥) ˚अङ्गकः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अद्वैतम् 1 the Supreme Spirit. -2 pure unitarianism. -अन्नम् rice boiled in milk with sugar. -अपमः the inclination of a planet's orbit to the ecliptic. -अर्थः 1 the highest or most sublime truth, true spiritual knowledge, knowledge about Brahman or the Supreme Spirit; इदं हि तत्त्वं परमार्थभाजाम् Mv.7.2. -2 truth, reality, earnestness; परिहासविजल्पितं सखे परमार्थेन न गृह्यतां वचः Ś.2.19; oft in comp. in the sense of 'true' or 'real'. ˚मत्स्याः R.7.4. Mv.4.3. -3 any excellent or important object. -4 the best sense. -5 the best kind of wealth. ˚दरिद्र really poor; Mk. ˚भाज a. partaking of the highest truth; Mv. ˚विद् a philosopher. -अर्थतः ind. truly, really, exactly, accurately; विकारं खलु परमार्थतो$ज्ञात्वा$नारम्भः प्रतीकारस्य Ś.4; उवाच चैनं परमार्थतो हरं न वेत्सि नूनं यत एवमात्थ माम् Ku.5.75; Pt.1.136. -अहः an excellent day. -आत्मन् m. the Supreme Spirit or Brahman; न च योगविधेर्नवेतरः स्थिरधीरा परमात्मदर्शनात् R.8.22; स्वर्गापवर्गयो- र्मार्गमामनन्ति मनीषिणः । यदुपास्तिमसावत्र परमात्मा निरूप्यते ॥ Kusum. -आनन्दः 'supreme felicity', Supreme Spirit. -आपद् f. the greatest calamity or misfortune. -आयु- धम् the wheel (चक्र); शूलैः प्रमथिताः केचित् केचित्तु परमायुधैः Rām.6.58.12. -आर्यः a Bodhisattva (q. v.). -इष्वासः an excellent archer. -ईशः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 of Indra. -3 of Śiva. -4 the Almighty god, the Supreme Being. -5 N. of Brahman. -6 a universal monarch, sovereign of the world; see चक्रवर्तिन्. -ऋषिः a great sage. -ऐश्वर्यम् supremacy. -काण़्डः, -ण्डम् a very auspicious moment. -क्रान्तिः f. the sine of the greatest declination. -गतिः f. 1 any chief object or refuge (as a god). -2 final beatitude, emancipation. -गवः an excellent bull or cow. -गहन a. very myserious, profound. -तत्त्वम् the highest truth. -धर्मात्मन् a. very dutiful, virtuous. -पदम् 1 the best position, highest rank. -2 final beatitude; विष्णोः पदे परमे मध्व उत्सः Rv.1.154.5. -परम a. most excellent of all. -पुंस् the Supreme Spirit; N. of Viṣṇu. -पुरुषः, -पूरुषः the Supreme Spirit. -प्रख्य a. celebrated, renowned. -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -मुद्रा f. One of the poses of goddess त्रिपुरा. -रसः butter-milk mixed with water. -राजः a supreme monarch. -समुदय a. very auspicious or successful; परमसमुदयेनाश्वमेधेन चेष्ट्वा Mk.1.4. -सम्मत a. highly esteemed; much revered. -हंसः an ascetic of the highest order, one who has controlled and subdued all his senses by abstract meditation; cf. कुटीचक; कुटीचको बहूदकः हंसश्चैव तृतीयकः । चतुर्थः परमो हंसो यो यः पश्चात् स उत्तमः ॥ Hārītāsmṛiti. ˚परिव्राजकाचार्यः N. of Śaṅkarāchārya.
paramaka परमक a. Highest, most excellent, best &c.; also परमिक; चतुर्णामात्मजानां हि प्रीतिः परमिका मम Rām.1.2.11.
paramatā परमता 1 Highest rank, position; यद्यपि राजा परमतां गच्छति ब्रह्मैवान्तत उपनिश्रयति Bṛi. Up.14.11. -2 Highest aim or end.
paramataḥ परमतः ind. In the highest degree, exceedingly, very much.
parameṣṭha परमेष्ठ a. Superior, supreme. -ष्ठः 1 An epithet of Brahman. -2 A deity.
parameṣṭhin परमेष्ठिन् a Standing at the head, highest, chief; परमेष्ठिनां प्रभुः Bhāg.1.89.58. -m. 1 An epithet of Brahman. -2 Of Śiva. -3 Of Viṣṇu. -4 Of Garuḍa. -5 Of Agni. -6 Any spiritual teacher. -7 (with Jainas) An Arhat.
paraṃpadam परंपदम् 1 The abode of Viṣṇu. -2 Eternal felicity. -3 A high position.
parapara परंपर a. One following the other; परंपराणां भक्षिष्ये वानराणां मृतं मृतम् Rām.4.56.5. -2 Successive, repeated. -रः 1 A great-grandson. -2 A kind of deer. -रा 1 An uninterrupted series, regular series, succession; महतीयं खल्वनर्थपरंपरा K.13; कर्णपरंपरया 'from ear to ear, by hear-say'; परंपरया आगम् 'to be handed down in regular succession'. -2 A row, line, collection, assemblage (of regular things); तोयान्तर्भास्करालीव रेजे मुनिपरंपरा Ku.6.49; R.6.5,35,4;12.1. -3 Method, order, due arrangement; एवं परंपराप्राप्तमिमं राजर्षयो विदुः Bg.1.2. -4 Race, family, lineage. -5 Injury, hurting, killing. -Comp. -यात a. received by tradition. -वाहनम् an indirect means of conveyance (such as horse which draws the carriage). -सम्बन्धः an indirect conjunction; cf. P.VIII.1.24 com. -रम् ind. Successively, one after the other.
paraṃparāka परंपराक a. Immolating an animal at a sacrifice.
paraṃparīṇa परंपरीण a. 1 Obtained by succession or descent, hereditary; लक्ष्मीं परंपरीणां त्वं पुत्रपौत्रीणतां नय Bk.5.15. -2 Traditional.
paraṃparita परंपरित a. Continuous, forming a series.
paraṃtapa परंतप a. [cf. P.III.2.39] Annoying or vexing others, subduing one's enemy; Bg.4.2; यः कश्चन रघूणां हि परमेकः परंतपः R.15.7. -पः A hero, conqueror.
paraṃtapa परंतप a. Destroying foes (a hero).
parañjaḥ परञ्जः 1 An oil-mill. -2 The blade of a sword. -3 Foam. -4 A scymitar. -जा The sounds of instruments at festivals. -जम् Indra's sword.
paras परस् ind. (Rarely used by itself in classical Sanskrit) 1 Beyond, further, more than; परोरजः सवितुर्जातवेदः Bhāg.5.7.14. -2 On the other side of. -3 Far away, at a distance -4 With the exception of. -5 Ved. In future, afterwards. -Comp. -कृष्ण a. very black. -पुंसा Ved. a woman not satisfied with her husband (and therefore seeking for a paramour). -पुरुष a. higher than a man. -शत a. more than a hundred; स जवेन पतन् परःशतानां पततां ब्रात इवारवं वितेने Ki.13.26; Śi. 12.5. -श्वस् ind. the day after tomorrow. -सहस्र a. more than a thousand; परःसहस्राः शरदस्तपांसि तप्त्वा U. 1.15; परःसहस्रैः पिशाचैः Mv.5.17.
paraśaḥ परशः A kind of stone or gem, the touch of which is said to turn other metals, such as iron, into gold; perhaps the philosopher's stone.
paraspara परस्पर a. 1 Mutual; परस्परस्य मर्माणि ये न रक्षन्ति जन्तवः । त एव निधनं यान्ति वल्मीकोदरसर्पवत् ॥ Pt.3.186; परस्परां विस्मय- वन्ति लक्ष्मीमालोकयांचक्रुरिवादरेण Bk.2.5. -2 (pl.) Like one another; Mb.12. -pron., a. Each other, one another (used in the sing. only; often in comp.); परस्परस्योपरि पर्यचीयत R.3.24;7.38; अविज्ञातपरस्परैः अपसर्पैः 17.51; परस्पराक्षिसादृक्ष्यम् 1.4;3.24. Note:-The acc. and abl. singulars are often used adverbially in the sense of 'mutually', reciprocally', 'one another', 'by, from' or 'to one another'. 'against one another' &c.; see परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ Bg.3.11;1.9; R.4. 79;6.46;7.14,53;12.94. -Comp. -अदिन् a. consuming one another; परस्परादिनस्स्तेनाः (भवन्ति) Ms.12.59. -ज्ञः a friend. -विलक्षण a. mutually opposing; परस्पर- विलक्षणा गुणविशेषाः Sāṅ. K.36. -व्यावृत्तिः f. mutual exclusion. -स्थित a. standing opposite to one another. परस्मैपदम् parasmaipadam परस्मैभाषा parasmaibhāṣā परस्मैपदम् परस्मैभाषा 'A voice for another', one of the two voices in which verbs in Sanskrit are conjugated; आत्मनेपदनिमित्तहीनाद् धातोः परस्मैपदं स्यात्.
parastāt परस्तात् ind. 1 Beyond, on the other side of, further than (with gen.); आदित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात् Bg.8.9. -2 Hereafter, afterwards; परस्तादवगम्यते Ś.1. -3 Higher than. -4 Ved. From above. -5 Aside, apart.
paraśuḥ परशुः [परं-शृणाति, शॄ-कु डिच्च; cf. Uṇ.1.34.] 1 An axe, a hatchet, a battle-axe; तर्जितः परशुधारया मम R.11.78. -2 A weapon in general. -3 A thunderbolt. -Comp. -धरः 1 an epithet of Paraśurāma. -2 of Gaṇeśa. -3 a soldier armed with an axe. -मुद्रा a kind of pose in Tantraśāstra. -रामः 'Rāma with the axe', N. of a celebrated Brāhmaṇa warrior, son of Jamadagni and the sixth incarnation of Viṣṇu. [While young he cut off with his axe the head of his mother Reṇukā at the command of his father when none of his other brothers was willing to do so; (see जमदग्नि). Some time after this, king Kārtavīrya went to the hermitage of his father, and carried off his cow. But Paraśurāma, when he returned home, fought with the king and killed him. When his sons heard this they became very angry, and repaired to the hermitage, and on finding Jamadagni alone, they shot him dead. When Paraśurāma, who was not then also at home, returned, he became very much exasperated, and made the dreadful vow of exterminating the whole Kṣatriya race. He succeeded in fulfilling this vow, and is said to have 'rid the earth thrice seven times of the royal race'. He was afterwards, destroyer of the Kśatriyas as he was, defeated by Rāma, son of Daśaratha, though quite a boy of sixteen (see R.11.68- 91). He is said to have at one time pierced through the Krauñcha mountain, being jealous of the might of Kārtikeya; cf. Me.57. He is one of the seven chirajivins and is believed to be still practising penance on the Mahendra mountain; cf. Gīt 1. :-- क्षत्रियरुधिरमये जगदपगतपापं स्नपयसि पयसि शामतभवतापम् । केशव धृतभृगुपतिरूप जय जगदीश हरे ।]. -वनम् N. of a certain part of hell.
paraśva परश्व (स्व) धः A hatchet, a battle-axe; धारां शितां रामपरश्वधस्य संभावयत्युत्पलपत्रसाराम् R.6.42.
paratas परतस् ind. 1 From another; सन्तः स्वतः प्रकाशन्ते गुणा न परतो नृणाम् Bv.1.12. -2 From an enemy; यशस्तु रक्ष्यं परतो यशोधनैः R.3.48. -3 Further, more (than), beyond, after, over (often with abl.); यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः Bg.3.42. -4 Otherwise. -5 Differently. -6 Further, afterwards.
parathā परथा ind. (like अन्यथा) Otherwise; Cholachampūkāvya 5.5; P.4; P.13.
paratra परत्र ind. 1 In another world, in a future birth; परत्रेह च शर्मणे R.1.69; Ku.4.37; Ms.3.275;5.166; 8.127. -2 In the sequel, further or later on. -3 Hereafter, in future. -त्रम् Future world. -Comp. -भीरुः one who stands in awe of the future world, a pious or religious man.
paratvam परत्वम् 1 The following of another letter, posteriority. -2 Distinction, difference. -3 Remoteness. -4 Consequence, result. -5 Enmity, hostility. -6 Priority of place or time, proximity, one of the 24 guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas.
paravat परवत् a. 1 Dependent upon or subject to another, ready to obey; सा बाला परवतीति मे विदितम् Ś.3.2; भगवन्- परवानयं जनः R.8.81;2.56; oft. with instr. or loc. of person; भ्रात्रा यदित्थं परवानसि त्वम् R.14.59. -2 Deprived of strength, rendered powerless; परवानिव शरीरोपतापेन Māl.3. -3 Completely under the influence of (another), not master of oneself, overpowered or overcome; विस्मयेन परवानस्नि U.5; आनन्देन परवानस्मि U.3; साध्वसेन Māl.6. -4 Devoted to.
paravattā परवत्ता Subjection to another, dependence; न हि सुलभवियोगा कर्तुमात्मप्रियाणि प्रभवति परवत्ता V.5.17.
atipara अतिपर a. One who has vanquished his enemies. -रः A great or superior enemy.
anapara अनपर a. Having no other or second, having no follower, sole; तदेतद् ब्रह्मापूर्वमनपरम् Bṛ. Up.2.5.19.
anuparata अनुपरत a. 1 Not dead. -2 Not stopped, uninterrupted.
apara अपर a. (treated as a pronoun in some senses) 1 Having nothing higher or superior, unrivalled. matchless; without rival or second (नास्ति परो यस्मात्); स्त्रीरत्नसृष्टिर- परा प्रतिभाति सा मे Ś.2.1; cf. अनुत्तम, अनुत्तर. -2 [न पृणाति संतोषयति पृ अच्] (a) Another, other (used as adj. or subst.). वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरो$पराणि Bg.2.22. (b) More, additional; कृतदारो$परान् दारान् Ms.11.5. (c) Second, another Pt.4.37; स्वं केशवो$पर इवाक्रमितुं प्रवृत्तः Mk.5.2 like another (rival) Keśava. (d) Different; other; अन्ये कृतयुगे धर्मास्त्रेतायां द्वापरे$परे Ms. 1.85; Ks.26.235; Pt.4.6 (with gen.). (e) Ordinary, of the middle sort (मध्यम); परितप्तो$प्यपरः सुसंवृतिः Śi. 16.23. -3 Belonging to another, not one's own (opp. स्व); यदि स्वाश्चापराश्चैव विन्देरन् योषितो द्विजाः Ms.9.85 of another caste. -4 Hinder, posterior, latter, later, (in time space) (opp. पूर्व); the last; पूर्वां सन्ध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत्स्वकाले चापरां चिरम् Ms.4.93; रात्रेरपरः कालः Nir.; oft. used as first member of a genitive Tatpuruṣa comp. meaning 'the hind part,' 'latter part or half'; ˚पक्षः the latter half of a month; ˚हेमन्तः latter half of a winter; ˚कायः hind part of the body &c.; ˚वर्षा, ˚शरद् latter part of the rains, autumn &c. -5 Following, the next. -6 Western; पयसि प्रतित्सुरपराम्बुनिधेः Śi.9.1. पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य Ku. 1.1; Mu.4.21 -7 Inferior, lower (निकृष्टः); अपरेयमि- तस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् Bg.7.5. -8 (In Nyāya) Non-extensive, not covering too much, one of the two kinds of सामान्य, see Bhāṣā P.8. (परं = अधिकवृत्ति higher अपरम् = न्यूनवृत्ति lower or अधिकदेशवृत्तित्वं परं, अल्पदेशवृत्तित्वं अपरम् Muktā.) -9 Distant; opposite. When अपर is used in the singular as a correlative to एक the one, former, it means the other, the latter; एको ययौ चैत्ररथप्रदेशान् सौराज्य- रम्यानपरो विदर्भान् R.5.6; when used in pl. it means 'others', 'and others', and the words generally used as its correlatives are एके, केचित्-काश्चित् &c., अपरे, अन्ये; केचिद् रक्तपटीकृताश्च जटिलाः कापालिकाश्चापरे Pt.4.34; एके समूहुर्बलरेणुसंहतिं शिरोभिराज्ञामपरे महीभृतः Śi.12.45 some-others; शाखिनः केचिदध्यष्ठुर्न्यमाङ्क्षुरपरे$म्बुधौ । अन्ये त्वलङ्घिषुः शैलान् गुहास्त्वन्ये न्यलेषत ॥ केचिदासिषत स्तब्धा भयात्केचिदघूर्णिषुः । उदतारिषुरम्भोधिं वानराः सेतुनापरे Bk. 15.31.33. -रः 1 the hind foot of an elephant; बद्धापराणि परितो निगडान्यलावीत् Śi.5.48 (Malli. चरमपादाग्राणि). -2 An enemy (न पृणाति सन्तोषयति). -रा 1 Western direction, the west अपरां च दिशं प्राप्तो वालिना समभिद्रुतः Rām.4.46.18. -2 The hind part of an elephant. -3 Sacred learning, learning the four Vedas with the 6 Aṅgas. -4 The womb; the outer skin of the embryo. -5 Suppressed menstruation in pregnancy. -री Ved. The future, future times; उतापरीभ्यो मघवा विजिग्ये Rv.1.32.13. -रम् 1 The future, any thing to be done in future (कार्य); तदेतद्ब्रह्मापूर्वमपरमनन्तम् Bṛi. Ār. Up. (नास्ति अपरं कार्यं यस्य). -2 The hind quarter of an elephant. -रम् adv. Again, moreover, in future, for the future; अपरं च moreover; अपरेण behind, west of, to the west of (with gen. or acc.). [cf. Goth. afar; Germ. aber, as in aberglauben]. -Comp. -अग्नि (अग्नी dual) 1 the southern and western fires (दक्षिण and गार्हपत्य). -2 the last fire i. e. used at the funeral ceremony (˚ग्निः). -अङ्गम् one of the 8 divisions of गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्य (the second kind of काव्य) mentioned in K. P.5. In this the व्यङ्ग्य or suggested sense is subordinate to something else; अगूढमपरस्याङ्गम्; अपरस्य रसादेर्वाच्यस्य वा (वाक्यार्थीभूतस्य) अङ्गं रसादि अनुरणनरूपं वा; e. g. अयं स रसनोत्कर्षी पीनस्तनविमर्दनः । नाभ्यूरुजघनस्पर्शी नीवीविस्रंसनः करः ॥ where शृङ्गार is subordinate to करुण. -अन्त a. living at the western borders. (-न्तः) 1 the western border or extremity, the extreme end or term. the western shore. -2 (pl.) the country or inhabitants of the western borders near the Sahya mountain; अपरान्तजयोद्यतैः (अनीकैः) R.4.53 Western people. दशार्णाश्चापरान्ताश्च द्विपानां मध्यमा मताः Kau.A.1.2. -3 the kings of this country. -4 death, Pātañjala Yogadarśana 3.22. ˚ज्ञानम् anticipation of one's end. -5 the hind foot of an elephant; मृदुचलदपरान्तोदीरितान्दूनिनादम् Śi.11.7;18.32. -6 Islander, inhabitant of an island (द्वीपवासिन्) कोट्यापरान्ताः सामुद्रा रत्नान्युपहरन्तु ते Rām.2.82.8. -अन्तकः 1. = ˚अन्तः pl. -2 N. of a song; अपरान्तकमुल्लोप्यं मद्रकं प्रकरीं तथा । औवेणकं सरोबिन्दुमुत्तरं गीतकानि च ॥ Y3.113; ˚अन्तिका N. of a metre consisting of 64 mātrās. -अपराः, -रे, -राणि another and another, several, various. -अपरम् ind. Further and further (उत्तरोत्तरम्); अहं हि वचनं त्वत्तः शुश्रूषुरपरापरम् Mb.5.136.14. -अर्धम् the latter or second half. -अह्न [fr.अहन् changed to अह्न P.II. 4.29, V.4.88.] the latter part of the day, the afternoon, closing or last watch of the day; Ms.3.278; अपराह्णशीतलतरेण शनैरनिलेन Śi.9.4; ˚तन, ˚ह्णेतन belonging to this time; ˚कृतं P.II.1.45. -इतरा the east. -कान्य- कुब्ज a. situated in or belonging to the western part of Kānyakubja. -कालः later period. -गात्रम् a minor limb (hand, foot etc.); कोपप्रसादापरगात्रहस्तः (सुप्तः क्षितौ) रावणगन्धहस्ती) Rām.6.19.1. -गोदानम् (also गोडनि or गोडानि) N. of a country to the west of Mahāmeru (according to Buddhistic ideas). -ज a. born later or at the end of the world. (-जः) the destroying fire. -जनः an inhaditant of the west, the western people. -दक्षिणम् ind. in the south-west (belonging to the तिष्ठद्गु class). -पक्षः 1 the second or dark half of the month. -2 the other or opposite side; a defendant (in law). -पञ्चालाः the western Pañchālas. -पर a. one and the other, several, various; अपरपराः सार्थाः गच्छन्ति P.VI.1.144. Sk. several caravans go; (अपरे च परे च सकृदेव गच्छन्ति). -पाणिनीयाः the pupils of Pāṇini living in the west. -प्रणेय a. easily led or influenced by others, docile, tractable. -भावः 1 being another or different, difference. -2 succession, continuation. -रात्रः [अपरं रात्रेः] the latter or closing part of night, the last watch of night (P.V.4.87); उत्थायापररात्रान्ते प्रयताः सुसमाहिताः Bhāg.8.4.24. ˚कृतम् P.II.1.45. -लोकः the other world, the next world. Paradise. -वक्त्रा, -क्त्रम् N. of a metre. -वैराग्यम् a kind of Vairāgya mentioned by Patañjali (दुष्टानुश्राविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्ञं वैराग्यम्). -सक्थम् the hind thigh. -स्वस्तिकम् the western point in the horizon. -हैमन a. belonging to the latter helf of winter (P.VII.3.11).
apara अपरता त्वम् 1 Being another or different (one of the 24 Guṇas); difference, opposition, contrariety, relativeness. -2 Nearness. -3 Distance, posteriority (in time or space).
aparatra अपरत्र adv. In another place, elsewhere; एकत्र or क्वचित्-अपरत्र in one place-in another place; in the first casein the second case.
aparathā अपरथा ind. In another manner; जलदकालमबोधकृतं दिशामपरथाप रथावयवायुधः Śi.6.41. ध्रुवं ज्ञाने दोषः कथमपरथा दुर्व्यवहृतिः Mv.3.36.
aparavat अपरवत् a. Like what follows.
aparaspara अपरस्पर n. [अपर-पर] 1 One after another, uninterrupted, continued (as applied to an action); अपरस्पराः क्रियासातत्ये P.VI.1.144; सुट् निपात्यते; ˚राः सार्था गच्छन्ति, सततमविच्छेदेन गच्छन्तीत्यर्थः Sk. -2 One another (अन्योन्य); अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् Bg.16.8.
aparañj अपरञ्ज् (Used in pass. only) To be disaffected or discontented (with abl.); नयहीनादपरज्यते जनः Ki.2.49; K.287.
aparakta अपरक्त a. 1 Colourless, bloodless, pale; श्वासापरक्ताधरः Ś.6.6. -2 Discontented, dissatisfied, disaffected; चन्द्रगुप्तादपरक्ताः Mu.1.
aparatiḥ अपरतिः f. 1 Cessation (= अपरति q. v.); -2 Dissatisfaction.
aparavaḥ अपरवः 1 Contest, dispute (about the enjoyment of property); ˚उज्झित uncontested, undisputed (as possession of any thing). -2 Ill-repute.
aparaspara अपरस्पर a. [अ-परस्पर] Not reciprocal, not mutual; असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् । अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् ॥ Bg.16.8 (Mr. Telang renders ˚र by 'produced by union of male and female', caused by lust, where अपरस्पर must be supposed to be connected with अपरस्पर under अपर q. v.)
aparāparaṇa अपरापरण a. Destitute of descendants or offspring.
aparipara अपरिपर a. Ved. Not going by a tortuous course. Av.18.2.46.
āparapakṣīya आपरपक्षीय a. Belonging to the second half (of a month); कुर्यादापरपक्षीयं मासि प्रौष्ठपदे द्विजः (श्राद्धं पित्रोः) Bhāg.7.14.19.
upara उपर a. Ved. 1 Being below, under. -2 Posterior, later. -3 Nearer. -रः 1 The lower stone on which the Soma plant is laid that it may be ground by means of other stones (ग्रावन्); त्वचं पृञ्चन्त्युपरस्य योनौ Rv.1.79.3. -2 The lower part of the sacrificial post. -3 A cloud. -4 A region, direction.
uparatāti उपरताति ind. In the proximity, near to; विश्वाँ अर्य उपरताति वन्वन् Rv.7.48.3;1.151.5.
uparañj उपरञ्ज् 4 U. or in pass. To be red; to be eclipsed; उपरज्यते भगवान् चन्द्रः Mu.1. -Caus. 1 To colour, tint, dye. -2 To affect, grieve, distress.
uparakta उपरक्त p. p. 1 Afflicted, overtaken by calamity, distressed. -2 Eclipsed; K.314. -3 Tinged, coloured; द्विषद्द्वेषोपरक्ताङ्गसङ्गिनीः Śi.2.18. -क्तः 1 The sun or moon in eclipse. -2 Rāhu.
uparajya उपरज्य ind. Darkening, obscuring, तमश्चन्द्रमसीवेदमुपर- ज्यावभासते Bhāg.4.29.7.
uparañjaka उपरञ्जक a. 1 Dyeing. -2 Affecting, influencing.
uparakṣaḥ उपरक्षः A body-guard.
uparakṣaṇam उपरक्षणम् A guard, an out-post.
uparatnam उपरत्नम् [उपमितं रत्नेन उप गौणे वा] A secondary or inferior gem; उपरत्नानि काचश्च कर्पूरोश्मा तथैव च । मुक्ताशुक्ति- स्तथा शङ्ख इत्यादीनि बहून्यपि ॥ गुणा यथैव रत्नानामुपरत्नेषु ते तथा । किं तु किंचित्ततो हीना विशेषो$यमुदाहृतः ॥
uparathyā उपरथ्या A bye-road, minor road; तथा रथ्योपरथ्याश्च Rām.5.53.21.
uparam उपरम् 1 P. (Sometimes Ā. also) 1 To cease, end, terminate; संगतावुपरराम च लज्जा Ki.9.44,13.69; इत्युक्त्वो- परराम; युद्धमुपारमत् ceased &c. -2 To cease or desist from, stop (oft. with pres, part.); व्यापादयन्नोपरराम Pt. 1; or with abl.; Bg.2.35; Bk.8.54;9.51; or with inf.; Ki.4.17; or by itself; Bk.8.55. -3 To be quiet or calm; यत्रोपरमते चित्तम् Bg.6.2. -4 To await, wait for; Śat Br.2.2.1-2;3.8.2-29. -5 To make quiet (= Caus). -Caus. To cause to cease, stop, make quiet or still.
uparata उपरत p. p. 1 Stopped, ceased; उपरतान्यस्मिन् कुले व्रतानि Mbh. on P.I.4.11; रजस्युपरते Ms.5.66. -2 Dead; अद्य दशमो मासस्तातस्योपरतस्य Mu.4. -3 Withdrawn or retired from; रणात्, कलहात् &c. भयाद्रणादुपरतम् Bg.2.34. -4 One who is disgusted with the world and has retired from it. -Comp. -अरि a. having no foe. -कर्मन् a. ceasing from works, not relying on worldly acts. -विषयामिलाष a. one who has renounced all desire for worldly things. -शोणिता (a woman) whose menses have ceased. -स्पृह a. void of desire, indifferent to worldly attachments or possessions.
uparatiḥ उपरतिः f. 1 Ceasing, stopping. -2 Death. -3 Abstaining from sexual enjoyment. -4 Indifference. -5 Abstaining from prescribed acts; the conviction that ceremonial acts are futile and ceasing to rely on them. -6 Intellect.
upara उपर (रा) मः 1 Ceasing, stopping; ending; भवप्रवाहोप- रमं पदाम्बुजम् Bhāg.1.8.36. -2 Abstaining from, giving up. -3 Death.
uparamaṇam उपरमणम् 1 Abstaining from sexual pleasures. -2 Refraining from ceremonial acts. -3 Ceasing, stopping.
uparambh उपरम्भ् P. To cause to resound; जातहर्ष उपरम्भति विश्वम् Bhāg.1.35.12.
uparavaḥ उपरवः A sort of hole used in the extraction of Soma juice (सोमाभिषबाङ्गो गर्ताकारो देशभेदः); name of certain holes which increase the sound of the stones when Soma juice is being extracted); cf. also पीठपादचतुष्टयाकारो बाहुमात्रो गर्तभेद उपरवः । ŚB. on MS.11.4.52.
uparasaḥ उपरसः 1 A secondary mineral, (red chalk, bitumen, माक्षिक, शिलाजित &c). -2 A secondary passion or feeling. -3 A subordinate flavour.
auparaidhikaḥ औपरैधिकः A staff made of the wood of the Pilu tree.
karpara कर्परः 1 An iron sauce-pan, a frying-pan. -2 A pot or vessel in general (as of a potter). -3 A pot-sherd, piece of a broken jar; as in घटकर्पर; जीयेय येन कविना यमकैः परेण तस्मै वहेयमुदकं घटकर्परेण Ghaṭ.22. -4 The skull. -5 A kind of weapon. -6 A back-bone; न्यञ्चत्कर्परकूर्म Māl.5.22. -रम् A pot, pot-sherd.
kūrpara कूर्परः 1 The elbow; Śi.2.19. -2 The knee.
kharpara खर्परः 1 A thief. -2 A rogue, cheat. -3 A beggar's bowl. -4 The skull. -5 A piece of a broken jar, potsherd. -6 An umbrella. -रम् = खर्परी q. v. खर्परीका kharparīkā खर्परी kharparī खर्परीका खर्परी A kind of collyrium.
ṭopara टोपरः A small bag.
para तूपरः Ved. A hornless beast, particularly a goat; तमसा ये च तूपरा अथो बस्ताभिवासिनः Av.11.9.22.
dvāpara द्वापरः रम् [द्वाभ्यां सत्यत्रेतायुगाभ्यां परः पृषो˚ Tv.] 1 N. of the third Yuga of the world; Ms.9.31; अष्टौ शत- सहस्राणि वर्षाणां मानुषाणि तु । चतुःषष्टिः सहस्राणि वर्षाणां द्वापरं युगम् ॥ Matsya P. -2 The side of a die marked with two points. -3 Doubt, suspense, uncertainty. -4 A kind of deity; द्वापरं शकुनिः प्राप धृष्टद्युम्नस्तु पावकम् Mb.18.5.21; N.13.37.
parātpara परात्परः The Supreme Being. -a. Supreme; परात्परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम्.
paripara परिपरः A tortuous or round-about way; see अपरिपर.
pāraṃpara पारंपर a. Further, future. -री Regular succession, order.
pārpara पार्परः 1 A handful of rice. -2 Consumption (क्षयरोग). -3 Ashes. -4 A filament of Kadamba. -5 N. of Yama.
vyuparamaḥ व्युपरमः Cessation, stop, close; खरस्नायुच्छेदक्षणविहितवेग- व्युपरमः (v. l. व्युपशमः) Māl.5.34.
vyuparata व्युपरत p. p. Rested, stopped; अन्तःप्राणावरोधव्युपरतसकल- ज्ञानरुद्धेन्द्रियस्य Mk.1.1.
sūtparam सूत्परम् The distillation of sprituous liquor.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
Results for para6 results
     
para pár-a, a. farther, ii. 12, 8; higher, x. 15, 1; remote, x. 15, 10 [pṛ pass].
parama para-má, spv. a. farthest, iv. 50, 3; x. 14, 8; 129, 7; highest, i. 154, 5. 6; ii. 35, 14; iv. 50, 4.
paras par-ás, adv. far away, ii. 35, 6; beyond, x. 129, 1. 2.
paraṣtād paráṣ-tād, adv. from afar, vi. 54, 9; above, x. 129, 5.
upara úpa-ra, cpv. a. later, x. 15, 2 [Av. upara ‘upper’, Gk. ὕπερο-ς ‘pestle’, Lat. s-uperu-s ‘upper’].
ekapara eka-pará, a. too high by one, x. 34, 2.
     Macdonell Search  
Results for para70 results
     
para a. [leading beyond: √ 2. pri], 1. of place: farther, than (ab.); remoter, ulterior; opposite (shore); next (life); 2. of time: past, previous; future, subsequent; following (ab.); latest, extreme (age), high (time); 3. of amount: exceeding, more than (ab., --°ree;); remaining over; 4. of sequence: following, coming next after (ab., --°ree;); repeated: each successive; 5. of degree: superior, higher, better, worse, than (ab.; rarely --°ree;); supreme, pre-eminent, best; utmost, deepest, greatest; 6. of range: transcending (ab.); 7. of relation: other; alien, strange, hostile; different, from (ab.); m. descendant; stranger; adversary, foe, enemy; universal soul, the Absolute; n. remotest distance; height, summit, acme; supreme bliss; extreme limit (--°ree;); further or wider meaning of a word (--°ree;, a. synonymous with); chief aim, main thing: --°ree;, a. having -as the main thing=intent on, absorbed in, deeply affected with, mainly consisting in, chiefly meant for, altogether based on; -m, ad. afterwards, subsequently; beyond, after (ab.); highly, excessively; completely; at the most; nothing but, only; however, but; atah param, beyond that; after that; next; hereafter; still further; itah param, henceforth; tatah or tatas ka --, id.; thereupon; na½asmât param, no more of that, enough; na param - api, not only--but also; na param--yâvat, not only--but even; yadi param, if at all, perhaps; param tu or kim tu, however, but; param na--api na, not only not--but also not.
parabrahman n. supreme Brahman; -bhâga, m. supreme state, pre-eminence: -tâ, f. high position, pre-eminence; -bhâgya½upagîvin, a. living on another's fortune; -bhûmishtha, a. abiding in a foreign country; -bhûshana, m., v. r. for -dûshana; -bhrita, (pp., nourished by others), m., â, f. Indian cuckoo: -maya, a. consisting altogether of cuckoos; -bhedana, a. foe-piercing.
paracintā f. thought for others; -kkhidra, n. another's failings or weak points; -gana, m. stranger; -tantra, a. dependent on another; dependent on (--°ree;): î-kri, make dependent; make over to another, sell.
paradāra m. sg. & pl. another man's wife; adultery; -dûshana, m. ruin of the foe, peace in which the enemy seizes the revenue of the country; -desa, m. another place; foreign country; enemy's territory; -dosha-gña, a. knowing the faults of others; -dravya, n. pl. goods of others: -½apahâraka, a. stealing others' property; -droha, m. hostility towards others: -karma-dhî, a. injuring others in deed or thought; -dhana, n. another's property; -dharma, m. law or duties of another or of another caste; another's peculiarity.
parahita n. welfare of others.
paraḥsahasra a. pl. more than a thousand.
paraḥśata a. more than 100; containing more than 100 verses.
parakaragata pp. passed into the hands of others.
parakathā f. pl. talk about others; -kara-gata, pp. being in the hands of another or others; -karman, n. service for others; -kalatra½abhigamana, n. adultery; -kârya, n. another person's business oraffair; -kâla, a. belonging to a later time, subsequent.
parakīya a. belonging to another or others; hostile.
parakṛta pp. done or committed by another; -kriti, f. act of another; analogous case, precedent; -kritya, n. another person's business or affair; a. belonging to the enemy's party, supporting the enemy's cause: -paksha, m. hostile party; -kshetra, n. another's field; another man's wife; -gata, pp. belonging to another; -gâmin, a. benefiting another; relating to another (adjective); -guna, m. pl. or °ree;--, other people's merits: -grâhin, a. recognising the merits of others; -geha-vâsa, m. sojourn in another's house; -glâni, f. laxity of the enemy.
parama spv. farthest, remotest, extreme, last; highest, chief, primary; su preme, transcendant; most excellent, best, greatest; worst; better, greater, worse, than (ab.); n. extreme limit; chief aim, main thing: only --°ree; a. amounting at the most to; wholly occupied with, doing nothing but, solely intent on, engrossed with: -m, ad. very well, yes (expressing assent); °ree;--, ad. extremely, exceedingly, greatly, very.
paramaka a. most excellent, supreme, highest, best, greatest; worst.
paramāṇu m. infinitesimal por tion, atom: -tâ, f. atomic nature, -kârana vâda, m. doctrine of atoms, Vaiseshika system.
paramanyumat a. deeply dis tressed; -marma-gña, a. knowing the secret designs of others.
paramapuṃs m. supreme soul, ep. of Vishnu; -purusha, m. id.
paramarṣi m. great sage.
paramaśobhana a. exceedingly beautiful; -samhrishta, pp. exceedingly rejoiced; -hamsa, m. ascetic of the highest order; universal soul; -½akshara, n. syllable om or the Absolute; -½a&ndot;ganâ, f. most excellent woman.
paramatā f. highest position, supremacy; summit, highest aim; -dâruna, a. very dreadful; -duhkhita, pp. deeply afflicted.
paramata n. opinion of others.
paramātman m. supreme or universal soul; -½âtma-tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -½ânanda, m. supreme joy; -½anna, n. (best food), rice boiled in milk; -½âpad, f. greatest misfortune; -½artha, m.highest or whole truth, true state of the case, reality: °ree;--, -tas, in., ab. in reality, -bhâg, a. possessed of the highest truth.
parameṣṭhin a. standing at the head or in the highest place, supreme; m. lord, ep. of various gods or divine beings.
parameśvara m. mighty or supreme lord, prince; God: -tâ, f., -tva, n. sovereignty, lordship.
parameṣvāsa m. excellent bowman; -½upâsaka, m. zealous Buddhist layman.
parapara a. one after another, successive: -m, ad. in regular succession; â, f. uninterrupted line, unbroken series, regu lar succession; mediateness: in. indirectly; (â)-prâpta, pp. handed down by tradition, -½âyâta, pp. id.
paraṃśakti f.: only in. with all one's might; to the best of one's ability.
paraṃtapa a. vexing the foe; N. of a prince of Magadha.
parapakṣa m. party of the enemy; -patnî, f. another's wife; -parigraha, m. another's property; another's wife; -pari bhava, m. humiliation of others; -parivâda, m. speaking ill of others; -pâka, m.another's food or table; -pinda, n. another's cake; -puram-gaya, a. conquering the city or cities of the foe; -purusha, m. another man, stranger; -pushta, (pp.) m. Indian cuckoo: â, f.; N. of a princess; -pushta-maya, a.(î) being a perfect cuckoo; -pûrvâ, f. woman having had another husband before, woman previously married: -pati, m. husband of a woman married before; -prayogana, a. useful to or benefiting others.
paras (V.) ad. [√ 2. pri: cp. tir-as] further, beyond, away, afar; in future, later; prp. with ac. beyond, more than; with in., id.; without; with ab. beyond, except.
parasevā f. service of others.
parasmaipada n. (word for an other), transitive form, personal endings of the active (gr.).
paraspara a.: ac. each other; in. by or with each other; g. of each other; °ree;--, -tas, -m, ad. each other, mutually; -gña, a. knowing one another, intimate; -vyâvritti, f. mutual exclusion; -sthita, pp.standing op posite each other; -½âdin, a. devouring one another; -½amisha-tâ, f. condition of being one another's prey; -½âsraya, m. mutual de pendence, petitio principii; a. mutual; -½upa-kâra, m. mutual benefit.
parastarām ad. further.
parastāt ad. prp. with g. afar, fur ther, beyond; above, higher than; from above, before, or behind; afterwards, later: (d) ava gamyata eva, what follows can be guessed.
parasthāna n. foreign country; strange place.
paraśu m. axe, hatchet: (u)-mát, a. provided with an axe; -râma, m. Râma with the axe, ep. of Râma, son of Gamadagni.
parasva n. sg. & pl. property of others: -½âdâyin, a. appropriating the property of others.
paraśvadha m. axe, hatchet.
paraśvas ad. day after to-morrow.
para f. absoluteness; highest degree.
paratara cpv. greater, more.
paratas ad. 1.=ab. of para, a. highest; belonging to another; m. stranger; 2. further; henceforward, afterwards; high up; with ab. high above, over (of power or rank); after (of time); itas--paratas,here--there; before--after.
paratra ad. in the other world, here after; below (in a book): -bhîru, a. anxious about the next world.
paratva n. remoteness; posteriority; superiority, to (g.); intentness or emphasis on (--°ree;).
parayoṣit f. wife of another man; -ramana, m. second lover, paramour; -loka, m. the other or future world: -½arthin, n. seeking heaven; -vat, 1. ad. like a stranger; -vat, 2. a. depending on another; ready to obey (lc.); dependent on (in., g.); devoted to, a prey to (--°ree;): -tâ, f. readiness to gratify or obey, complaisance; -varga, m. party of others; -vasa, a. dependent on the will of another, subservient; overpowered by, a prey to (--°ree;): -m kri, overcome; -vâkya, n. fault of another; -vâda, m. talk of others, rumour; detraction; objection; -vîra-han, a. slayer of the warriors of the enemy; -vyâ kshepin, a. scattering foes; -vyûha-vinâsana, m. destroyer of the ranks of the enemy.
atatpara a. not intent on that.
aparathā ad. otherwise.
aparatva a-para-tva, ˚ka n. not being far (ph.).
aparatas apara-tas, ˚tra ad. elsewhere.
aparajaladhi m. western ocean.
aparakta pp. bleached, pale.
apara n. future; -kârya, n. later transaction.
apara a. hinder, further; later, fol lowing; western; to the west of (ab.); inferior; other; different from (ab.); opposite; strange, unusual: -m, ad. subsequently, in the future, after; moreover, besides; to the west of (ab.); m. elephant's hind foot.
aparasparasaṃbhūta pp. not produced one from the other.
aparaśuvṛkṇa pp. not felled with an axe.
aparapakṣa m. second half of the lunar month; -râ⃛rá, m., i, f. second half of the night; -vaktra, n. a metre.
uparati f. cessation; quiescence; death; -rama, m. cessation; relinquishment; decease: -na, n. cessation from (ab.), -tva, n. quiescence.
upara cpv. lower; later; nearer; m. the nether stone (on which Soma is pounded).
ekatatpara a. solely intent on; -tamá (or é-), spv. one among many; -tara, a. cpv. one of two (sts.=eka-tama); -tas, ad. =ab. of eka; from or on one side; ekatas-ekatas or anyatas, on the one side--on the other; here--there; (á)-tâ, f. unity, union, identity: -m api-yâ, be united with (in.); -tâna, a. intent on one object only (often --°ree;): -tâ, f. abst. n.; -tâla, a. having but one fan-palm; -tîrthin, a. inhabiting the same hermitage; -to-dant, a. having teeth in one jaw only; -tra=lc. of eka, one; in one place, together; -trimsá, a. thirty-first; -trimsat, f. (é-) thirty-one; -tva, n. unity; union; identity; singular (gr.); -m gam, be united with (in.); -d&asharp;, ad. simultaneously; some times; once upon a time, one day; -duhkha, a. having the same pains; -drisya, fp. alone worthy to be seen; -drishti, f. gaze directed to a single object, unaverted gaze; -devatyã, a. sacred to a single deity; -desa, m. some place; part; identical spot; -dhana, 1. n. one part of the property; 2. m. pitcher with which water is drawn for a certain rite; â, f. pl. (sc. âpas) the water drawn with it;3. a. having as the single, i. e. highest treasure, quite filled with (--°ree;); -dharma, a. homogeneous; -dharmin, a. id.; -dh&asharp;, ad. singly, simply; at once, together; continuously; -naksha trá, n. lunar mansion consisting of a single star, whose name occurs simply (without pûrva or uttara); -narâdhipa, m. emperor.
karpara m. bowl; pot; n. potsherd.
kūrpara m. elbow; sts. knee.
para a. unhorned; m. hornless goat.
dvāpara m. n. die or side of die marked with two points; also personified; third cosmic age (lasting 2000 years).
parāpara n. the further and the nearer; the earlier and the later (cause and effect); the higher and the lower, the better and the worse: -tâ, f. condition of being both genus and species; absoluteness and relativity; -tva, n. id.; priority and posteriority; absoluteness and relativity.
pāraṃpara a. relating to the other side: with loka, m. the other world: î-ya, a. traditional, handed down; -ya, n. uninterrupted succession, oral tradition: -krama½â gata, pp. or -½âgata, pp. handed down in regular succession.
bhṛtyaparamāṇu m. mean est atom of a servant=most humble servant; -bhâva, m. condition of a servant; -vritti, f. maintenance of servants.
mānapara a. excessively proud: â, f. N.; -parikhandana, n. loss of honour; -purahsaram, ad. with marks of honour; -prâna, a. valuing honour like one's life; -bha&ndot;ga, m. loss of honour, mortification, indignity; -bhadra-ka, m. kind of pavilion; -bhâg, a. receiving honour from (--°ree;); -bhrit, a. proud; -mahat, a. great in pride, exces sively proud.
śliṣṭaparaṃparitarūpaka n. continuous chain of ambiguities (a kind of metaphor); -rûpaka, n. ambiguity as a metaphor; -½âkshepa, m. expression of dissatisfaction by means of equivocation (rh.); -½ukti, f. ambiguous expression.
sparaṇa V. a. (î) saving, delivering √ spri].
svaparapratāraka a. de ceiving oneself and others.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
Results for para10 results
     
para āṭṇāra (‘Descendant of Atnāra ’) appears in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas as one of the ancient great kings who won sons by performing a particular sacrifice. In the śatapatha Brāhmana he is styled Hairanyanābha, de­scendant of Hiranyanābha,’ and in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is called Para Ahlāra Vaideha, a fact testifying to the close connexion of Kosala and Videha. A Yajña-gāthā, or ‘sacrificial verse,’ there cited mentions Hiraçyanābha Kausalya in connexion with Para.
paramajyā ‘Of supreme power,’ is understood by Ludwig in one passage of the Rigveda as the proper name of a great man among the Yadus. But it is doubtful whether the word is more than an epithet.
paraśu In the Rigveda and later denotes the axe of the woodcutter. Of its form we know nothing. A red-hot axe was used in a form of ordeal (Divya) applied in accusations of theft. See also Parśu.
paraśvan See Parasvant.
parasvant Denotes a large wild animal which Roth con­jectures to be the wild ass. It is mentioned in the Vrsākapi hymn of the Rigveda, twice in the Atharvaveda, and in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās, in all of which passages the sense of ‘ wild ass ’ is satisfactory. More doubtful is the meaning of the word paraśvā{n) in the Kausītaki Upanisad, where the com­mentary explains it as ‘serpent.’ It is, of course, quite possible that the word has nothing to do with parasvant Buhler suggests connexion with the Pāli palāsāda, ‘ rhinoceros.’
upara Which, according to Pischel, means ‘ stone ’ in general, is the technical name of the stone on which the Soma plant was laid in order to be pounded for the extraction of the juice by other stones (adri, grāvan). The word is rare, occur­ring only thrice in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda.
aupara ‘Descendant of Upara,’ is the patronymic of Danda in the Taittirīya Samhitā.
para ‘Hornless,’ is a frequent description of animals intended for the sacrifice, especially of the goat, in the Atharvaveda and later.
daṇḍa aupara (‘Descendant of Upara’) is mentioned in the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Maitrāyanī Samhitā as having performed a certain rite.
dvāpara See Aksa and Yuga.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
Results for para88 results
     
para ṛṇā sāvīr adha matkṛtāni RV.2.28.9a; MS.4.14.9a: 228.15.
para ekena durdāśaṃ cid anyat AVP.8.1.6b. See enā para.
para kambūkāṃ apa mṛḍḍhi dūram AVś.11.1.29b. P: paraḥ kambūkān Kauś.63.7.
para kroṣṭāro abhibhāḥ śvānaḥ AVś.11.2.11d.
para so astu tanvā tanā ca RV.7.104.11a; AVś.8.4.11a.
para svapna mukhā kṛdhi Kś.25.11.20d. See parā svapna-.
paraḥsahasrā hanyantām AVś.8.8.11c.
paraḥsahasrān indrāya śB.13.5.4.13c.
paraiḥ pūrvaiḥ pitṛbhir (AVś. pūrvair ṛṣibhir) gharmasadbhiḥ RV.10.15.10d; AVś.18.3.48d.
paraiṇān etc. see parainān.
parainān (AVś. -ṇān) devaḥ savitā dadātu RV.10.87.18c; AVś.8.3.16c.
paraitu mṛtyur amṛtaṃ na aitu (śśṣMB. amṛtaṃ ma ā gāt) AVś.18.3.62b; śś.4.16.5a; SMB.1.1.15a. See apaitu mṛtyur.
para yoner avaraṃ te kṛṇomi AVś.7.35.3a.
para vyoma sahasravṛt TA.1.10.1b.
para nedīyo 'varaṃ davīyaḥ AVś.10.8.8d.
param akṣy utāvaram AVś.1.8.3d; AVP.4.4.9d.
param atra janmāgne tapaso nirmito 'si svāhā SMB.1.1.2.
para mṛtyo anu parehi panthām RV.10.18.1a; AVś.12.2.21a; VS.35.7a; śB.13.8.3.4a; TB.3.7.14.5a; TA.3.15.2a; 6.7.3a; Tā.10.46a; Apś.21.4.1a; AG.4.6.10; SMB.1.1.15c; HG.1.28.1a; MG.2.18.2a; N.10.7a. P: paraṃ mṛtyo Kś.21.4.7; Kauś.71.11,21; 72.13; 86.24; PG.1.5.12; Rvidh.3.7.6.
paramāc cit sadhasthāt RV.8.11.7b; SV.1.8b; 2.516b; VS.12.115b.
paramachado vara (KS. paramachad avarāṃ) ā viveśa TS.4.6.2.1d; KS.18.1d. See prathamachad, and prathamachado.
paramajyā ṛcīṣamaḥ (SV. -ma) RV.8.90.1d; AVś.20.104.3d; SV.1.269d; 2.842d.
paramaliṅgāya namaḥ Tā.10.16.
paramam iva janā viduḥ AVś.10.7.21b.
paramaṃ padam ava bhāti (VS.śB. bhāri) bhūri (TS. bhūreḥ) RV.1.154.6d; VS.6.3d; TS.1.3.6.2d; MS.1.2.14d: 23.17; KS.3.3d; śB.3.7.1.15d; N.2.7d.
paramāṃ cit parāvatam AVP.10.1.9e.
paramāṃ taṃ (TB.Apś. tvā) parāvatam AVś.6.75.2a; TB.3.3.11.3a; Apś.3.14.2a.
paramāṃ te parāvataṃ manaḥ siṣaktu yātudhāna svāhā AVP.2.82.5.
paramarṣīṃs tarpayāmi BDh.2.5.9.14.
paramasyāḥ parāvataḥ RV.5.61.1c; VS.11.72a; TS.4.1.9.3a; MS.2.7.7a: 83.5; 3.1.9: 12.7; KS.16.7a; 19.10; śB.6.6.3.4; Apś.16.9.12; Mś.6.1.3.28 (33). P: paramasyāḥ Kś.16.4.37.
paramasyāṃ parāvati AVP.1.94.3a; 12.2.6b; śś.8.16.1.
paramātmā me śudhyantām Tā.10.66.
paramātmā vyavasthitaḥ TA.10.11.2b; MahānU.11.13b.
paramāya namaḥ Tā.10.16.
paramāyā diśaḥ parameṣṭhinā rājñādhyakṣeṇa AVP.4.30.8b.
parame vṛkṣa āyudhaṃ nidhāya VS.16.51c; TS.4.5.10.4c; KS.17.16c.
paramebhiḥ pathibhiḥ AVś.19.47.7c; AVP.6.20.8a.
parameṇa dhāmnā dṛṃhasva VS.1.2; śB.1.7.1.11.
parameṇa pathā vṛkaḥ AVP.2.8.2a. See pareṇaitu pathā.
parameṇa paśunā krīyase (MS. krīyasva) VS.4.26; MS.1.2.5: 14.10; KS.2.6; 24.6; śB.3.3.3.8. See tasyās te sahasrapoṣaṃ.
parameṇota taskaraḥ AVś.4.3.2b. Cf. pareṇa steno.
parameṣṭhī chandaḥ VS.14.9; TS.4.3.5.1; MS.2.8.2: 107.18; KS.17.2; śB.8.2.3.13.
parameṣṭhī te 'dhipatiḥ TS.4.4.6.1.
parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divas (MS.KS. divaḥ) pṛṣṭhe jyotiṣmatīm (KS. adds vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīṃ bhāsvatīṃ raśmivatīm) VS.15.58; MS.2.7.16: 99.12; KS.40.5; śB.8.7.1.21. P: parameṣṭhī tvā Kś.17.12.24. See next.
parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divas (TSṃS. divaḥ) pṛṣṭhe vyacasvatīṃ prathasvatīm (TS. adds vibhūmatīṃ prabhūmatīṃ paribhūmatīm; MS. adds bhāsvatīṃ raśmīvatīm) VS.15.64; TS.4.4.3.3; MS.2.8.14: 118.4; śB.8.7.3.14,18. Ps: parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu divaḥ pṛṣṭhe Apś.17.3.8; parameṣṭhī tvā sādayatu Mś.6.2.2.8; 6.2.3.13. See prec.
parameṣṭhī devatā MS.2.13.14: 163.14; KS.39.4; Apś.16.28.1.
parameṣṭhī prajāpatiḥ AVś.9.3.11d; AVP.9.26.8b; ArS.3.1c. See tan mayi.
parameṣṭhī prajābhyaḥ TB.1.5.5.6b; Apś.8.21.1b.
parameṣṭhī bhavati gachati parameṣṭhitām adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda AVP.11.16.14.
parameṣṭhī rakṣitā AVP.10.16.10.
parameṣṭhī rakṣohā tigmas tigmaśṛṅgaḥ AVP.4.8.13a.
parameṣṭhin saṃ nahyasva AVP.10.14.9.
parameṣṭhinā mṛtyum KS.35.15.
parameṣṭhinaṃ tarpayāmi BDh.2.5.9.5.
parameṣṭhine svāhā śB.12.6.1.3; Tā.10.67.2; MahānU.19.2.
parameṣṭhy adhipatir mṛtyur gandharvaḥ TS.3.4.7.2.
parameṣṭhy abhidhītaḥ VS.8.54.
parameṣṭhy asi paramāṃ mā śriyaṃ gamaya ApMB.2.18.1 (ApG.7.19.7).
paraś cit putrakā saty upakūlaṃ pitāyati JB.3.247.
paras tarda parastaram AVP.5.20.1b.
paras tṛtīyād uta vā caturthāt JB.3.385b.
paras tā bhagavo vapa NīlarU.13d. See parā tā.
parasmai va tvaṃ cara AVP.12.2.6a.
parasmin dhāmann ṛtasya RV.1.43.9b.
paraspā no vareṇyaḥ RV.8.61.15b; AVP.3.35.3b.
paraspā ma edhi MS.1.5.2: 67.15; 1.5.8: 76.14; KS.6.9; Apś.6.16.12.
parastād yaśo guhāsu mama MahānU.6.8a.
paraśuṃ cid vi tapati RV.3.53.22a.
paraśur na druhaṃtaraḥ RV.1.127.3c; SV.2.1165c.
paraśur vediḥ paraśur naḥ svasti AVś.7.28.1b. See parśur vediḥ.
parasvantaṃ hataṃ vidat RV.10.86.18b; AVś.20.126.18b.
paraśveva ni vṛścasi RV.1.130.4g.
parasyā adhi saṃvataḥ RV.8.75.15a; VS.11.71a; TS.2.6.11.3a; 4.1.9.2a; MS.2.7.7a: 83.3; 3.1.9: 12.6; KS.7.17; 16.7a; 19.10; JB.1.65a; śB.6.6.3.1; 12.4.4.3a; Apś.16.9.11; Mś.6.1.3.28 (33). P: parasyāḥ Kś.16.4.36.
parau-parāv ārpito aṅge-aṅge AVP.1.70.4b. Cf. aṅge-aṅga ārpita.
apara nānuvidyate # AVś.19.50.4b. See pred divā.
aparapakṣāḥ purīṣam # TB.3.10.4.1; TA.4.19.1.
utāpara tuvijāta bravāma # RV.2.28.8b.
uttarāparasyāṃ etc. # see uttarapūrvasyāṃ etc.
uparaṃsyate svāhā # TS.7.1.19.1; KSA.1.10.
uparatāya svāhā # TS.7.1.19.1; KSA.1.10; 5.1.
uparavāś ca me 'dhiṣavaṇe ca me # TS.4.7.8.1. See under adhiṣavaṇe.
dakṣiṇāparasyāṃ diśy avisarpī narakaḥ, tasmān naḥ paripāhi # TA.1.19.1.
parāparaitā vasuvid vo astu # AVś.18.4.48c.
punarbhuvāpara patiḥ # AVś.9.5.28b; AVP.8.19.11b.
pūrvāpara carato māyayaitau # RV.10.85.18a; AVś.7.81.1a; 13.2.11a; 14.1.23a; MS.4.12.2a: 181.3; TB.2.7.12.2a; 8.9.3a. P: pūrvāparam Mś.5.1.10.17; Kauś.75.6; 79.28. Cf. Kauś.24.18.
pratyādāyāpara iṣvā # AVś.10.1.27b. Read pratyādhāyā-.
brahmāpara yujyatāṃ brahma pūrvam # AVś.14.1.64a. P: brahmāparam Kauś.77.2,20; 79.28,32.
mārgaśīrṣapauṣamāghāparapakṣeṣu tisro 'ṣṭakāḥ # Kauś.141.24cd.
yathāpara na māsātai # AVś.18.2.38b--44b,45c.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"para" has 132 results.
     
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
kalāparatnaa commentary on the kāraka portion of the Kalāpa grammar ascribed to the famous commentator Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
taparakaraṇaaddition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; confer, compare P. I. 1.70. See त्.
paraṃkāryatvaor परंकार्यत्वपक्ष the view that the subsequent संज्ञा or technical term should be preferred to the prior one, when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. The word is frequently used in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the reading आ काडारात् परं कार्यम् which is believed to have been an alternative reading to the reading अा कडारादेका संज्ञा;confer, compare ननु च यस्यापि परंकार्यत्वं तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.1; also भवेदेकसंज्ञाधिकारे सिद्धम् | परंकार्यत्वे तु न सिद्ध्यति: M.Bh. on II. 1.20, II.2.24.
parakramaa term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | confer, compare सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV. 23.
paragrahaṇathe use of the word पर;insertion of the word पर in a rule; confer, compare तेनापि परग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् : M.Bh. on I.4.1; confer, compare also परग्रहृणमनर्थकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.2.
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
paratvanyāyaapplication of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; confer, compare परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paranimittakacaused by something which follows; the term is used in grammar in connection with something caused by what follows; confer, compare परनिमित्तकोजादेश: पूर्वविधिं प्रति न स्थानिवत् S. K, on अचः परस्मिन्पूर्वविधौ P.I.1.57.
paramaprakṛtithe most original base; the original of the original base; the word is used in connection with a base which is not a direct base to which an affix is added, but which is a remote base;confer, compare अापत्यो वा गेात्रम् | परमप्रकृतश्च अापत्यः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.89; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om IV.1.93,98,163.
paramāṇua time-unit equal to one-half of the unit called अणु, which forms one-half of the unit called मात्रा which is required for the purpose of the utterance of a consonant; confer, compare परमाणु अर्धाणुमात्रा V. Pr.I.61. परमाणु, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramanu; confer, compare वर्णान्तरं परमाणु R.T.34.
pararūpathe form of the subsequent letter (परस्य रूपम्). The word is used in grammar when the resultant of the two coalescing vowels ( एकादेश ) is the latter vowel itself, as for instance ए in प्रेजते ( प्र+एजते ); confer, compare एङि. पररूपम् P.VI.1.94.
paravalliṅgatāpossession of the gender of the final member of a compound word, which, in tatpurusa compounds, is the second of the two or the 1ast out of many; confer, compare परवल्लिङ्गद्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयो: (P. II.4 26) इति परवाल्लिङ्गता यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.4.68.
paravipratiṣedhathe conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by. Virtue of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I. 4.2; confer, compare कथं ये परविप्रतिषेधाः M.Bh. on I.4.2.
parasaptamīa locative case in the sense of 'what follows', as contrasted with विषयसप्तमी, अधिकरणसप्तमी and the like; confer, compare लुकीति नैषा परसप्तमी शक्या विज्ञातुं न हि लुका पौर्वापर्यमस्ति । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी M.Bh. on P.I.2. 49.
parasavarṇacognate of the latter vowel or consonant. The word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a substitute or आदेश which is specified to be cognate ( सवर्ण ) of the succeeding vowel or consonant: confer, compare अनुस्वरस्य यथि परसवर्ण: P.VIII. 4. 58.
parasparavyapekṣāmutual expectancy possessed by two words, which is called सामर्थ्र्य in grammar. Such an expectancy is necessary between the two or more words which form a compound: confer, compare परस्परव्यपेक्षां सामर्थ्र्यमेके P.II.1.1, V.4; confer, compare also इह राज्ञ: पुरुष इत्युक्ते राजा पुरुषमपेक्षते ममायमिति पुरुषोपि राजानमपेक्षते अहृमस्य इति | M.Bh. om II.1.1.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
pūrvāparapādaname given to the second pada of the second adhyaya of Panini's Asadhyayi which begins with the Sutra पूर्वापराधरोत्तरमेकदेशिनैकाधिकरणे P. II. 2.1.
raparawith the letter र inserted after it; the term is used in connection with the guna and vrddhi substitutes for ऋ. These substitutes are respectively अ and अा, which, by the addition of र्, always become अर् and अार्: cf उरण् रपरः P.I. 1. 51, confer, compare ऋकारस्य गुणवृद्वीं रेफाशिखा अरारावेवेति confer, compare also वृद्धिर्भवति गुणो भवतीति रेफशिरा गुणवृद्धिसंज्ञकोभिनिर्वर्तते; M.Bh. on P.VI. 4.121, VIII.2.42.
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agrathe original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
aniṅgyanot separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; confer, compare संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) V.41; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antarhitaseparated by a dissimilar element; confer, compare यूनि चान्तर्हित अप्राप्तिः P.IV. 1.93 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5. व्यञ्जनान्तर्हितोपि उदात्तपरः अनुदात्तः स्वरितमापद्यते T. Pr.XIV.30; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.9.
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
apāya(1)point of departure, separation; confer, compare ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; confer, compare संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.36.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avagrahavirāmathe interval or pause after the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the members are uttered separately. This interval is equal to two moras according to Tait. Pr. while, it is equal to one mora according to the other Prātiśākhyas.
avyapavṛktaunseparated, undivided, inseparable, mixed; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिः यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva-sutra 4.V.9 whereon Kaiyaṭa remarks व्यपवृक्तं भेदः । अव्यपवृक्तं अभिन्नबुद्धिविषयमेकत्वालम्बनज्ञानग्राह्यं समुदायरूपम् ।
asaṃnikarṣa(1)separatedness as in the case of two distinct words;(2) absence of co-alescence preventing the sandhi; cf R.T. 68,70.
asamāsa(1)absence of a compound. उपसर्गादसमासेपि णोपदेशस्य P. VIII.4.14; (2) an expression conveying the sense of a compound word although standing in the form of separate words: चार्थे द्वन्द्ववचने असमासेपि वार्थसंप्रत्ययादनिष्टं प्राप्नोति । अहरहर्नयमानो गामश्वं पुरुषं पशुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29.
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upamitaan object which is comparedition The word is found in Pāṇinisūtra उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः P.II.1.56, where the Kāśikā paraphrases it by the word उपमेय and illustrates it by the word पुरुष in पुरुषव्याघ्र.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekāntaraseparated or intervened by one single thing, a letter or a word; e. g. अां पचसि देवदत्त, where देवदत्त follows अाम् with one word पचसि intervening; confer, compare आम एकान्तरमामन्त्रितमनन्तिके P.VIII.1.55.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
dvikhaṇḍaa compound expression or word separated into two by avagraha in the Padapatha; the word is misstated as दुखण्ड by some vedic reciters.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
(1)taddhita affix. affix ना as also नाञ् prescribed respectively after वि and नञ् (negative particle न ) in the sense of separation; e. g. विना, नाना ; (2) case ending ना substituted for the inst. instrumental case. singular. affix टा (called also अाङ् in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after words called घि i. e. words ending in इ or उ excepting such as are called नदी.
nāntarīyakaabsolutely necessary; being, in a way, inseparable: confer, compare कश्चिदन्नार्थी शालिकलापं सतुषं सपलालमाहरति नान्तरीयकत्वात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.18 on which Kaiyata observes अन्तरशब्देा विनार्थे । अन्तरे भवमन्तरीयम् । तत्र नञ्समासे कृते पृषोदरादित्वाद्भाष्यकारवचनप्रामाण्याद्वा नलोपाभावः ।
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nirākṛta(1)set aside; answered; the word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; (2) prevailed over by another; confer, compare तदा न रूपं लभते निराकृतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases निराकृत as विस्मृत.
nirbaddhaseparated,dissociated, disconnected; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I.3.
nirvacanainterpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; confer, compare निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1.
niṣedhanegation; prohibition; cf निषेधपञ्चसूत्रीयं स्वरार्था Bhasavrtti on P. II. 2.16; confer, compare निषेधाश्च बलीयांसः Par. Sek. Pari. 112. The word प्रतिषेध is used frequently in this sense in old grammar works such as the Mahabhasya, the word निषेध being comparatively a modern one.
niṣkṛṣṭaseparated; taken out from a thing; existing only in conception or idea; confer, compare इह केचिद्गुणाः शब्देन द्रव्यान्निष्कृष्टा एव प्रत्याय्यन्ते न तु द्रव्यस्योपरञ्जकत्वेन । यथा चन्दनस्य गन्धः इति । Kaiy. on P. II. 2. 8.
nihitaseparated with the intervention of a consonant. The word is used in connection with the detached first part of a compound word not followed immediately by a vowel; confer, compare अनिहतं अव्यवहितम् Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 30.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pṛthakseparately as far as hearing is concerned; distinctly separate from another; confer, compare सप्त स्वरा ये यमास्ते पृथग्वा Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 17.
pṛthagyogakaraṇaframing a separate rule for a thing instead of mentioning it along with other things in the same context, which implies some purpose in the mind of the author such as anuvrtti in subsequent rules, option, and so on; confer, compare पृथग्योगकरणमस्य विधेरनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.3.7; confer, compare also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I.3.33, I. 3. 84, I.4.58, III.1.56, IV.1.16, VII. 4.33, VIII.1.52, VIII.1.74.
pratṛṇṇaliterally broken or split up; the separated words of the Samhita of the Vedas i. e. the Padapatha; the recitation of the Padapatha.; confer, compare शौद्धाक्षरोच्चारणं च प्रतृण्णम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 3.
pravigrahaseparate or distinct uterance of several words of a sentence which are joined together by Sandhi rules in a compound ( समास ) or otherwise, with a very short pause ( अवग्रह ) after each word. e. g. उद् उ एति instead of उद्वेति; confer, compare प्रविग्रहेण मृदूवग्रहेण चर्चयेयुः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.10, where Uvvata remarks प्रविग्रहेषु प्रश्लिष्टं विश्लिष्टं कुर्यात् । कालाधिक्येन कुर्यात्। तथा च उद् उ एति इति पठेन्न तु उद्वेति.
pravibhaktamade separate with their Component parts shown clearly: Split up into component parts in such a way that their meaning also is fully stated cf तद्धितसमासे ष्वेकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु च पूर्वे पूर्वे अपरं अपरं प्रविभज्य निर्घ्रूयात् । दण्डयः पुरुषः। दण्डमर्हतीति वा दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा । Nir.II.2.
praśliṣṭanirdeśamention of a thing in a coalescence, which when split up, shows a phonetic element or a letter which could not be known before the components were separated; अनुपसर्जनात् । प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देशोयम् । अनुपसर्जन अ अ अत् इति । M.Bh. on I. 1.27 Vart. 6; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.69.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
bahiraṅgaparibhāṣāthe Paribhasa or the maxim असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे (Par. Sek. Pari. 50) which cites the comparative weakness of the rule or operation which is Bahiranga.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
baॉpa[ BOPP, FRANZ ]a German Sanskrit scholar who has written the famous volumes of "The Comparative Sanskrit Grammar".
bhakti(1)name given to two of the five divisions of a Saman which are प्रस्तावभक्ति, उद्गीथ, प्रतिहार, उपद्रव and निधानभाक्ति; (2) the vowel portion surrounding, or placed after, the consonant र् or ल् which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel ऋ or ऌ respectively forming its important portion, but never separately noticed in it. The vowels ऋ and ऌ are made up of one matra each. It is contended by the grammarians that the consonants र् and ल् forming respectively the portion of ऋ and ऌ, make up halfa-matra, while the remaining half is made up of the भाक्ति of the vowel surrounding the consonant or situated after the consonant. The word which is generally used for this 'bhakti is 'ajbhakti' instead of which the word स्वरभक्ति is found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare यत्तद्रेफात्परं भक्तेस्तेन व्यवहितत्वान्न प्राप्नेति | ...... यच्चात्र रेफात्परं भुक्तेर्न तत् क्वचिदपि व्यपवृक्तं दृश्यते | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 4.1 Vart 2; confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 17; also confer, compare रेफात्स्वरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णी स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा ) Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 13.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yāsuṭaugment यास् prefixed to the parasmaipada case-endings of लिङ् (the potential and the benedictive) which is accented acute; exempli gratia, for example कुर्यात्, क्रियात्.
rapratyāhāmaṇḍanaan anonymous work, comparatively modern, refuting the arguments advanced in the रप्रत्याहारखण्डन by Vaidyanatha Pyagunde.
lekhāone of the varieties or developments of the क्रमपाठ or the artificial recitation of the separate words of the Samhitā.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇānarthavattvathe view that letters do not possess the sense, as individually in every letter no separate sense ; is seen: confer, compare अनर्थकास्तु et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 5, Vart.14 and 15.
varṇaukadeśaa part or a portion of a combined letter id est, that isसंयुक्तस्वर or संयुक्तव्यञ्जन. The diphthongs or संयुक्तस्वरs are divisible into two Svaras, for instance ऐ into अा and ए, औ into अा and ओ. Similarly double consonants like क्कू, च्च्, क्म्, क्त् et cetera, and others are also divisible. Regarding the point raised whether the individual parts can be looked upon as separate letters for undergoing or causing a grammatical operation,the decision of the grammarians is that they cannot be looked upon as separate, when they are completely mixed as the dipthongs; confer, compareनाक्यपवृक्तस्यावयवस्य तद्वधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 Vart. 6.
vigṛhītashown by separating the combined elements, for instance, the two or more words in a compound or, the base or affix from a word which is a combination of the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix (प्रत्ययः); confer, compare तदेव सूत्रं विगृहीतं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on I.1. Ahnika 1, Vart. 11, 14; also confer, compare अवारपाराद् विगृहीतादपि P. IV.2. 93 Vart.1.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
viccheda(1)breach or break (in the Samhitapatha); utterance of words separately by breaking their coalescence: confer, compare पदविच्छेद: असंहितः V. Pr.I.156; (2) doubling of a consonant technically called यम ; confer, compare अन्त:पदे अपञ्चमः पञ्चमेषु विच्छेदम् V.Pr. IV.163.
viniyogaemployment separately of different persons or things for different purposes; confer, compare अहेति विनियोगे च P.VIII. 1.61;confer, compare also अह विनियोगे । विनियेागो नाम द्वयोः पुरुषयोंरेकस्मिन्कर्मणि एकस्य पुरुषस्य संबन्धः अन्यस्मिन्कर्मणि अपरस्य V.Pr.VI.21.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
vilambitaa kind of tone where the interval between the utterance of two letters as also the time required for the utterance of a letter is comparatively longer than in the other two kinds, viz. द्रुत and मध्य; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णाः त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायाम्,ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलम्बितायाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.70: confer, compare also द्रुतविलम्बितयोश्चानुपदेशात् P. I.1.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
vivṛttaseparated, disjoined; the word is used in connection with the separated elements of a euphonic combination; the words विक्लिष्ट, अनेकीभूत and पृथग्भूत are used in thesame sense.
vivṛtti(1)separation of the two vowels which were euphonically combined into one; the hiatus or position of two vowels near each other; confer, compare विवृत्तिः स्वरयोरसंधिः; (2) the interval between two vowels placed near each other; confer, compare स्वरयोरनन्तरयोरन्तरं विवृत्तिः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.119; confer, compare also संहितायां यत्स्वरयोरन्तरं तद्विवृत्तिसंज्ञं स्यात् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.I. This interval is one mātrā according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya, while it is only half-a-mātrā according to the Ṛktantra and the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13; Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 3५. See विराम.
viśleṣaseparation of vowels that are in coalescence: showing separately the two vowels that are combined together in the Saṁhitā Text.The term is contrasted with प्रश्लेष which is the same as एकादेश in the terminology of Pāṇini.
vaiyādhikaraṇyaIit. possession of separate residences, as contrasted with सामानाधिकरण्य: absence of apposition; use in different cases, non-agreement in case.
vyañjanasaṃdhia junction or coalescence of two consonants as distinguished from स्वरसंधि. In Panini's system of grammar the name हृल्संधि is given to व्यञ्जनसंधि and the Siddhantakaumudi has given a separate section for it.
vyatiriktadistinct from, separate from, confer, compare कर्मादिभ्येान्य: प्रातिपदिकार्थव्यतिरिक्तः स्वस्वामिसंबन्धादिःशेष: | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 3. 50.
vyatireka(1)surplus, excess; (2) separate presence; (3) contrary thing: confer, compare तत्र फलव्यतिरेकोपि स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 1.
vyapavarga(1)division of a single thing into its constituent elements; confer, compare स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यपवर्ग: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2.36, VII.3.44 Vart. 3; (2) distinct comprehension as possessed of a specific quality: cf न हि गौरित्युक्ते व्यपवर्गौ गम्यते शुक्ला नीला कपिला कपॊतेति। M.Bh, on P. I.2.64 Vart 37 ; (3) separation into parts, confer, compare कश्चिदेकेनैव प्रहारेण व्यपवर्गे करोति, M.Bh.on V.I.119 Vart 5; (4) distinct notion as a separate unit after the things have been combined confer, compare एकादेशे कृते व्यपवर्गाभावः संबुद्धिलोपो न प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.69 Vart 3; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.1.80.
vyapavṛktadistinctly separated as two or more consonants joined together in a conjunct consonant, as contrasted with the two vowels in a diphthong which cannot be called व्यपवृक्त; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्यावयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3.4 Vart. 9. confer, compare also वर्णैकदेशा: के वर्णग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते | ये व्यपवृक्ता अपि वर्णा भवन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3,4 Vart. ll .
vyavacchinna(1)separated; detached from a specific thing by the loss of connection with it; confer, compare एवमेतास्मिन्नुभयतो व्यवाच्छिन्ने यदि स्वार्थे जहाति जहातु नाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2; (2) characterized or possessed of an intervention by similar things confer, compare तद्वा अनेकेन निपातनेन व्यवच्छिन्नं न शक्यमनुवर्तयितुमिति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3.83; cf also P. VI. 4.2.
vyavadhāna(I)intervention; the word is used in connection with the intervention or occurrence of letters or phonetic units between the cause ( निमित्त ) of an operation and the operatee (विधिभाक् ); cf लोपे कृते नास्ति व्यवधानम् | स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यवधानमेव | The word is used also in the sense of intervention in , general, which separates the two connected things; व्यवधानं च भवति वाक्ये राज्ञ ऋद्धस्य पुरुषः; the word व्यवाय is used in the same sense; confer, compare अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेपि; (2) an inserted letter or phonetic element; confer, compare व्यवधानः अन्त्यविकारे T, Pr. 185, 186.
vyavaheitahaving an intervention by a dissimilar thing; separated by something coming between; confer, compare संयोगसंज्ञा व्यवहितानां मा भूत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.8. Vart, 5.
vyavāyaintervention, separation by insertion; separation by means of the insertion of a phonetic element. See व्य्वधान a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. confer, compare अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेपि P. VIII. 4.2: अडभ्यासव्यवायेपि P. VI. 1.26: confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपर: Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190; संयेागानां स्वरभक्त्या व्यवायः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 25.
vyastaseparated into its constituent elements; separated by a new insertion; a recital of the Vedic text by separating a coalesced vowel, which is looked upon as a fault of recital.
vyāyataseparated; one out of the two | conjoined consonants separated by inserting a vowel in between; confer, compare व्यस्यन्त्यन्तर्महतोs व्यायतं तं दीर्घायु: सूर्यो रुशदीर्त ऊर्जम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 19, where Uvvata gives the explanation-दीर्घात्परं अव्यायतं अपृथग्भूतं रफेण सक्तमित्यर्थः एवंभूतं व्यस्यन्ति पृथक्कुर्वन्ति | यथा | दीरिघायु: ! सूरिय: | रुशदीरिते | ऊरजम्. Rk Samhita I. 85. 39, X. 158. 1, IX. 91.3 and IX. 63. 2. व्यावर्तन reversing the order of words and going back from a subsequent word to the previous one, as in the Krama,.Jata and other artificial recitals of Veda.
vyāsa(1)showing separately; separate expression as contrasted with समास; (2) fault of pronunciation of the type of unnecessarily extending the place of origin as also the instrument of the production of sound; confer, compare स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो सो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
saṃpṛktacompletely mixed in such a way that one of the two or more letters mixed together can neither be distinguished as different, nor can be separated; confer, compare तद्यथा । क्षीरोदके संपृक्ते आमिश्रीभूतत्वान्न ज्ञायते कियत् क्षीरं कियदुदकम् । एवमिहापि न ज्ञायते कियदुदात्तं कियदनुदात्तम् l M.Bh. on P.I. 2.32.
saṃbuddhi(1)a term used in Panini's grammar for the case-affix of the vocative singular; confer, compare एकवचनं संबुद्धिः P. II. 3, 49; the vocative is, however, not looked upon as a separate case, but the designation संबोधन is given to the nominative case, having the sense of संबोधनः (2) the word is also used in the general sense of संबोधन i. e. addressing or calling: confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्धौः किमिदं पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धेर्ग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्वि: (II. 3.49) आहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्वि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33.
saṃyogaconnection in general; the word is used as a technical term in the grammar of Panini, in the sense of two or more consonants coming closely together unseparated by any vowel: confer, compareहलोनन्तराः संयोगः cf P. I. 1.7; cf also अनन्तरं संयोगः