विपणिः णी f. 1 A market, market-place, stall; हा हा नश्यति मन्मथस्य विपणिः सौभाग्यपण्याकरः Mk.8.38; Śi.5.24; R.16.41. -2 An article or commodity for sale. -3 Trade, traffic; Ms.1.116. -Comp. -गत a. being on the market. -जीविका subsistence by traffic. -पथः a shop-street.
m. [bargainer], niggard, miser: said esp. of those who are stingy at the sacri fice and of unbelievers who keep their pro perty to themselves (V.); also designation of certain malevolent demons, guardians of trea sure, overcome by the gods and the A&ndot;girases (V., P.); thief, -in the guise of a Purohita (P.).
In the Rigveda appears to denote a person who is rich, but who does not give offerings to the gods, or bestow Daksinās on the priests, and who is therefore an object of intense dislike to the composers of the Samhitā. Hence the gods are asked to attack the Panis, who are also referred to as being defeated with slaughter. The Pani is opposed to the pious sacrificer as a niggard, and is spoken of as a wolf, the symbol of enmity. In some passages the Panis definitely appear as mythological figures, demons who withhold the cows or waters of heaven, and to whom Saramā goes on a mission from Indra. Among the Panis Brbu was apparently important. In one passage of the Rigveda they are described as Beka- nā^as, or ‘usurers’ (?). In another they are called Dasyus, and styled mrdhra-vāc, probably ‘ of hostile speech,’ and grathin, a word of uncertain meaning. Hillebrandt thinks that the latter epithet refers to the continuous flow of a speech which is not understood, and that mrdhra-vāc means * speaking an enemy’s speech,’ though not necessarily with reference to non-Aryans. In two passages the Panis appear as Dāsas, and in one a Pani is mentioned in connexion with wer- geld (Vaira), being apparently regarded as equal to a man merely in the price put on his life, but in other respects as inferior. It is difficult to be certain exactly who a Pani was. Roth thinks that the word is derived from pan, ‘barter,’ and that the Pani is properly the man who will give nothing without return, hence the niggard, who neither worships the gods nor rewards their priests. This view is accepted by Zimmer and by Ludwig. The latter scholar thinks the apparent references to fights with Panis are to be explained by their having been aboriginal traders who went in caravans—as in Arabia and Northern Africa—prepared to fight, if need be, to protect their goods against attacks which the Aryans would naturally deem quite justified. He supports this explanation by the references to the Panis as Dasyus and Dāsas. It is, however, hardly necessary to do more than regard the Panis generally as non-worshippers of the gods favoured by the singers; the term is wide enough to cover either the aborigines or hostile Aryan tribes, as well as demons. Hillebrandt, however, thinks that a real tribe is meant, the Parnians of Strabo, and that they were associated with the Dahae (Dāsa). Moreover, he finds them associated in one passage with the Pārāvatas, whom he identifies with the Iϊαρουήται of Ptolemy, and with Brsaya, whom he connects with Bapσaevτηç of Arrian; he also con¬siders that the frequent mention of the Panis as opponents of Divodāsa shows that the latter was on the Arachosian Haraqaiti (Sarasvatī) fighting against the Parnians and Dahae, as well as other Iranian tribes. But the identification of Pani and the Parnians is needless, especially as the root pan, which is found also in the Greek πέρνημι, shows a satisfactory derivation, while the transfer of Divodāsa to the Haraqaiti is improbable. See also Divodāsa and Bekanāta.
noun (masculine) a bargainer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a market (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thief appearing as a Purohita (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
miser (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of envious demons watching over treasures (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niggard (esp. one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) a merchant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
assize (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dealer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
market-rate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shop-keeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tax on markets or shops (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Sanskrit Dictionary understands and transcodes देवनागर्-ई IAST, Harvard-Kyoto, SLP1, ITRANS. You can type in any of the Sanskrit transliteration systems you are familiar with and we will detect and convert it to IAST for the purpose of searching.
Using the Devanagari and IAST Keyboards
Click the icon to enable a popup keybord and you can toggle between देवनागरी and IAST characters. If you want a system software for typing easily in देवनागरी or IAST you can download our software called SanskritWriter
Wildcard Searches and Exact Matching
To replace many characters us * example śakt* will give all words starting with śakt. To replace an individual character use ? for example śakt?m will give all words that have something in place of the ?. By default our search system looks for words “containing” the search keyword. To do an exact match use “” example “śaktimat” will search for this exact phrase.
Type sandhi: and a phrase to search for the sandhi of the two words example.
sandhi:sam yoga will search for saṃyoga
Type root: and a word to do a root search only for the word. You can also use the √ symbol, this is easily typed by typing \/ in SanskritWriter software.