m. a month or the 12th part of the Hindu year (there are 4 kinds of months, viz. the solar, saura-;the natural, sāvana-;the stellar, nākṣatra-,and the lunar, cāndra-;the latter, which is the most usual and consists of 30 tithi-s, being itself of two kinds as reckoned from the new or full moon see;for the names of the monthsSee) etc. (māsam-,for a month; māsam ekam-,for one month; māsena-,in the course of a month; māse-,in a month = after the lapse of a month)
n. a particular beverage (a mixture of yeast, grapes, etc. with the water in which rice and millet have been boiled) on (according to to on "m. the meal of slightly parched barley mixed with sour milk or buttermilk"; according to to "m. rice-gruel") .
P.-sīdati-, to be take one's self to, come near to, approach or advance to, reach, arrive at (accusative) etc. ; to meet, encounter (either in a friendly or hostile manner), attack, assail ; to attain, obtain, meet with, find, recover : Causal-sādayati- (ind.p.-sādya-q.v), to come to, to approach, advance to, arrive at, fall or get into, reach, attain, incur etc. ; meet, encounter (a friend or enemy), attack, assail ; to hit (as an arrow) ; to accrue to (accusative)
P.-sajati-, to fasten or stick together, join or attach to, fix or place on, wrap or suspend round ; to impose, resign or deliver over to (locative case) etc.: Passive voice-sajyate-, or -sajjate-, to cling or adhere closely together, cling or stick to, become attached to
मासः सम् [मा एव अण्] 1 A month, (it may be चान्द्र, सौर, सावन, नाक्षत्र or बार्हस्पत्य); न मासे प्रतिपत्तासे मां चेन्मर्तासि मैथिलि Bk.8.95. -2 The moon (Ved.). -3 The number 'twelve'. -Comp. -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः the planet presiding over a month. -अनुमासिक a. monthly; पिण्डान्वाहार्यकं श्राद्धं कुर्यान्मासानुमासिकम् Ms.3.122. -अन्तः the day of new moon. -अवधिक a. lasting for or occurring in a month. -आहार a. eating only once a month. -उपवासिनी 1 a woman who fasts for a whole month. -2 a procuress, a lascivious or lewd woman (ironically.). -ऋक्षम् the constellation after which a month (like चैत्र, वैशाख) is named; माघे च सितसप्तम्यां मघाराकासमागमे । राकया चानुमत्वा वा मासार्क्षाणि व्युतान्यपि ॥ Bhāg.7.14.22. -कालिक a. monthly, lasting for a month. -चारिक a. practising (any thing) for a month. -जात a. a month old, born a month ago. -ज्ञः a kind of gallinule. -देय a. to be paid in a month.
-पाक a. maturing in a month. -प्रमितः the new-moon. -प्रवेशः the beginning of a month. -भुक्तिः (the sun's) monthly course. -मानः a year. -संचयिक a. having provisions for a month; सद्यः प्रक्षालको वा स्यान्माससंचयिको$पि वा Ms.6.18.
पौर्णमास a. (-सी f.) Relating to the full moon. -सः A ceremony performed on the full-moon day by one who maintains the sacred fire (अग्निहोत्रिन्); दर्शपौर्ण- मासाभ्यां यजेत ŚB. on Ms.6. -सम् A day of full-moon.
पौर्णमासी paurṇamāsī पौर्णमी paurṇamī
पौर्णमासी पौर्णमी A day of full-moon.
समासः 1 Aggregation, union, composition. -2 Composition of words, a compound; (the principal kinds of compounds are four :-- द्वन्द्व, तत्पुरुष, बहुव्रीहि, and अव्ययीभाव q. q. v. v.). -3 Reconciliation, composition of differences. -4 A collection, an assemblage; यद्वविज्ञात- मिवाभूदित्येतासामेव देवतानां समासः Ch. Up.6.4.7. -5 Whole, totality. -6 Contraction, conciseness, brevity; एष समासः । सर्वथा प्रवेष्टव्यं कुन्तिभोजस्य कन्यापुरम् Avimārakam 2; एष समासः, अद्यास्मि महासेनः Pratijñā.2. -7 Euphonic combination (संधि). -8 Completion, end; L. D. B. (समासेन, समासतः means 'in short', 'briefly', 'succinctly'; एषा धर्मस्य वो योनिः समासेन प्रकीर्तिता Ms.2.25;3.2; इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः Bg.13.18; समासतः श्रूयताम् V.2.) -Comp. -अध्याहारः supplying an ellipsis in a compound. -अर्था a part of a stanza proposed to be completed (= समस्या q. v.). -उक्तिः f. a figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa :-- परोक्तिर्भेदकैः श्लिष्टैः समासोक्तिः K. P.1.
m. month: -m, for a month; mâsam ekam, for one month; in. in the course of a month; lc. in a month=after the lapse of a month. (The twelve months of the Indian calendar, which do not exactly cor respond to ours, are Kaitra, Vaisâkha: March --May; Gyaishtha, Âshâdha: May--July; Srâvana, Bhâdra: July--Sept.; Âsvina, Kârt tika: Sept.--Nov.; Mârgasîrsha, Pausha: Nov.--Jan.; Mâgha, Phâlguna: Jan.--March.)
m. month; -kâlika, a. monthly; -traya, n. three months; -dhâ, ad. month-wise; -nâman, n. name of a month; -pravesa, m. commencement of a month; -sás, ad. month-wise; -samkayika, a.hav ing provisions for a month; -½anumâsika, a. occurring every month, monthly; -½anta, m. end of a month; -½âhâra, a. eating only once a month.
m. [putting together: √ 2. as] combination, union (Br., S.); condensa tion, succinct statement; compound (gr.): in. fully, thoroughly (ascertain); in., ab., °ree;--, -tas, concisely, succinctly, briefly; -â-sakti, f. attachment to (lc.): in. with devotion; -â sa&ndot;ga, m. transference (of business) to (lc.); -â-satti, f. nearness, vicinity.
Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
Is mentioned as a beverage in the Yajurveda Samhitās. Its composition is described fully in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra. It seems to have been a mixture of rice and Syāmāka with grass, parched barley, etc.
noun (masculine) a ceremony on the day of full moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full moon personified as son of Dhātṛ and Anumati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (masculine) (in astron.) a particular circle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
(in gram.) composition of words (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a compound word (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
aggregation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
combination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
composition of differences (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conciseness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
condensation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conjunction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
euphonic combination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reconciliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
succinctness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the part of a Śloka given for completion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
throwing or putting together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
totality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
union (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to approach or advance to
to arrive at (acc.)
to be take one's self to
to come near to
to encounter (either in a friendly or hostile manner)
to meet with
to recover Frequency rank 9274/72933
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