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nijaḥ3.3.38MasculineSingularkhalati, duṣcarmā, maheśvaraḥ
56 results for lati
latif. a delicate or slender creeper or small winding tendril (to which the graceful curve of a slim figure is compared) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latif. a string of pearls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alatim. a kind of song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alatif. a soil destitute of creeping plants, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlatiktakaṣāyamfn. astringent (and) bitter (and) sour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlatiktakaṣāyam. astringent (and) sour (and) bitter taste, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amṛtalatif. a creeping plant that gives nectar
anaṅgalatif. Name (also title or epithet) of nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asālatiprakāśam. Name (also title or epithet) of a dictionary (written under asālati-, king of Kashmir). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhulatif. bāhulatā
bhaṇḍīralatif. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūtalatif. a kind of sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūtalatif. Name of a woman, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatif. "arm-creeper" (see -daṇḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikābhīmam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikādarśanīyam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktikalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktilatikāstavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatiktikāf. Boswellia thurifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatif. equals -latā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatif. a kind of magical pill. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanakalatif. idem or 'f. Name of a plant (to which the slender figure of a woman is compared), ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇalatif. the lobe of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatimfn. (gaRa bhīmādi-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or in compound gaRa kaḍārādi-; khal- ) bald-headed, bald etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatim. baldness on (see kulva-, khalliṭa-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. Name of a mountain on Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikan. Name of a forest situated near that mountain on Va1rtt. 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulākulatithif. kulākula
kulākulatithif. See before. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatilakam. the glory of a family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatithif. equals kulā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhurāmlatiktamfn. sweet and subacid and bitter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latif. equals mālatī- (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latif. Name of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latif. of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṇālalatif. a lotus-tendril or stalk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyakalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchalatif. a tail-feather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
platim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
premalatif. the small creeping plant"love" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmapañcadaśīkalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
romalati() f. a winding line of hair above the navel (in women). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāpiṇḍyakalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyalatikāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatif. Cocculus Cordifolius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktikhalatimfn. bald like an oyster, completely bald View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādvamlatiktatubaramfn. sweet and sour, bitter and astringent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādvamlatiktatubaram. sweet and sour and bitter and astringent taste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmākalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantalati() f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamālatirasam. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntakalpalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānalatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvakhalatimfn. bald in youth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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lati लतिका 1 A small creeper; हा कष्टं ललिता लवङ्गलतिका दावाग्निना दह्यते Bv.1.56. -2 A string of pearls.
khalati खलति a. Bald-headed, bald; युवखलतिः.
khalatikaḥ खलतिकः A mountain.
lati नीलति Den. P. 1 To be of a dark-blue colour. -2 To dye blue.
prabalati प्रबलति Den. P. To become strong.
lati मालतिः ती f. 1 A kind of jasmine (with fragrant white flowers); तन्मन्ये क्वचिदङ्ग भृङ्गतरुणेनास्वादिता मालती G. M.; जालकैर्मालतीनाम् Me.1; Ki.1.2. -2 A flower of this jasmine; शिरसि बकुलमालां मालतीभिः समेताम् Ṛs.2.24. -3 A bud, blossom (in general). -4 A virgin, young woman. -5 Night. -6 Moonlight. -Comp. -क्षारकः, तीरजम् borax. -पत्रिका the shell of a nutmeg. -फलम् nutmeg. -माधवम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -माला 1 a garland of jasmine flowers. -2 a kind of metre.
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jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
prayasvant práyas-vant, a. offering oblations, iii. 59, 2 [práy-as enjoyment from prī please].
vāyavyȧ vᾱyav-yȧ, a. relating to the wind, aërial, x. 90, 8 [vāyú].
havirad havir-ád, a. (Tp.) eating the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + ad].
havispā havis-pá̄, a. drinking the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + pā].
havis hav-ís, n. oblation, ii. 33, 5; 35, 12; iii. 59, 5; iv. 50, 6; vi. 54, 4; viii. 48, 12. 13; x. 14, 1. 4. 13. 14; 15, 8. 11. 12; 90, 62; 168, 4 [hu sacrifice].
havya hav-yá, (gdv.) n. what is to be offered, oblation, iii. 59, 1; vii. 63, 5; 86, 2; x. 14, 15; 15, 4 [husacrifice].
havyavāhana havya-vá̄hana, m. carrier of oblations, v. 11, 4 [vá̄hana from vah carry].
havyasūd havya-sú̄d, a. (Tp.) sweetening the oblation, iv. 50, 5 [sūd = svād sweeten].
hotrāvid hotrā-víd, a. (Tp.) knowing oblations, x. 15, 9 [hó-trā, Av. zao-thra; cp. Gk. χύ-τρᾱ ‘pot’].
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lati f. small or slender creeper (arms and slim forms are compared with it); string of pearls.
alati f. a. creeperless (soil).
khalati a. bald; m. baldness.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     KV Abhyankar
"lati" has 118 results.
dhātukalpalatia short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
anānantaryanot a close relation; distance: confer, compare क्वचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्य शास्त्रकृतमनान्तर्ये क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13.
animittaot serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 85. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.39.
anupasarjananot subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; confer, compare अनुपसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
apekṣārelation of dependance; confer, compare अयुक्तैवं बहुनोपेक्षा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.92.
abhedānvayarelation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्नमुत्पलम्.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
upācārachange of Visarga into s (स्); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः. The words उपचार and उपाचरित are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammarians. See उपचार; confer, compare समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम् , आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.12.
ekavibhaktia pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
eva(1)a particle in the sense of regulation (नियम) ; confer, compare एवकारः किमर्थः नियमार्थः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58: (2) . determinant indeclinable; confer, compare एव इत्यवधारणे; confer, compare इष्टतोवधारणार्थस्तर्हि । यथैवं विज्ञायेत । अजादी गुणवचनादेवेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
ṅasicase-ending of the ablative case, changed into अात् after bases ending in अ and into स्मात् after pronouns; confer, compareP.IV.1.2,VII.1.12,15.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
tulyasimilar in articulation; savarna; confer, compare Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 168.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
deśaliterally place; (l) original place of articulation: confer, compare अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्जनस्य, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थान: (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa et cetera, and others परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः Par. Sek. paribhāṣā. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, confer, compare.Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 59.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
niyata(1)regulated in size or number; definitely fixed; the word नियत is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule, which, or a part of which, is shown to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation; confer, compare शेषग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् । शेषनियमार्थम् | प्रकृत्यर्थौ नियतौ प्रत्यया अनियतास्ते शेषेपि प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on I.3.12 Vart. 6; (2) The grave accent; cf उदात्तपूर्वं नियतं... स्वर्यते RPr.III.9.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
pañcamī(1)the fifth case;ending of the fifth or ablative case as prescribed by rules of Pāņini confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी, P. II. 3-7, 10, et cetera, and others (2) the imperative mood; confer, compare Kāt.III.1.18.
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paurvāparya(1)a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8.
prakrama(l)the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; confer, compare प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ confer, compare उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
pradānamode of articulation, the same as करण.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
plutiprolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; confer, compare. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.31. See प्लुत a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bādhasublation, setting aside; , सामान्यशास्त्रस्य विशेषशास्त्रेण बाध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 51.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhyascase-affix of the dative and ablative plural: confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P.IV. 1. 2.
bhyāmcase-affix of the instrumental, dative and ablative dual; confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P. IV. 1. 2.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
rāmakṛṣṇaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on Karaka relations known by the name शाब्दबोधप्रक्रिया.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rāśiusually used in the sense of a collection or a heap or a lunar constellation; the word is often used after the word वर्ण when it means the traditional collection of letters or the alphabet. The words अक्षरराशि, ब्रह्मराशि and अक्षरसमाम्नाय are also used in the same sense.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vighātaimmolation; sacrifice; destruction, as applicable to a word or part of a word or a relation of words confer, compare अनेकाल्त्वस्य तदाश्रयत्वाद् वर्णादेशस्य विधातो न भविष्यति M.Bh. on P. I.1.50 Virt. 15: cf also the famous Paribhasa संनिपातलक्षणो विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Par. Sek. Pari. 85; M.Bh. on P,I.1.24 et cetera, and others
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
vidhibalīyastvathe superior strength of an injunctive rule; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in speaking about the relative strength of rules; cf the term लेापाविधिबलीयस्त्व. M.Bh. on P.VII.2.3.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhaktibalīyastvathe relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; exempli gratia, for example मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
viṣayaviṣayibhāvarelation between the object and thc subject; confer, compare प्रतिलक्ष्यं लक्षणभेदादस्ति विषयविषयिभावः Kaiyaṭa on P. VI. 4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vyadhikaraṇacharacterized by different case-relations or case-affixes; possessed of different case-affixes; क: प्रसङ्गो यद् व्यधिकरणानां समासः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.67.
vyapekṣāmutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: confer, compare तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII.3 44.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on the six case-relations written by a scholar of grammar named श्रीमणिकण्ठ.
ṣaṭkārakabālabodhinīa short work in verses on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Prabhudasa who has added his own commentary to it.
ṣaṭkārakalakṣaṇaa small work in verses on the six case-relations ascribed to Amarasimha, but very likely the author was Amaracandra a Jain grammarian of the fifteenth century. The work is also named षट्कारकविवरण.
ṣaṭkārakavicāraan anonymous small treatise on the six case-relations in verse-form with a commentary.
ṣaṭkārakavivecanaa small treatise on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Bhavananda who held the title Siddhāntavagisa.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣaṣṭyarthasense of the genitive case, which is 'a relation in general. See षष्ठी a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ṣoḍaśakārikāan anonymous work consisting of only 16 stanzas discussing the denotation of words and that of the case-relations with a commentary by the author himselfeminine.
saṃgrahaname of a very vast work on grammar attributed to an ancient grammarian Vyadi who is supposed to have been a relative of Panini; confer, compare सेग्रहेस्तमुपागते Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya confer, compare also संग्रहप्रतिकञ्चुके: confer, compare संग्रहो नाम लक्षश्लोकात्मको त्याडिकृतो ग्रन्थः । Some quotations only are found from the Samgraha in grammar works, but the work is lost long ago.
saṃnipāta(1)a contact or relation of two things. cf संनिपातो द्वयोः संबन्धः । Pari. Sek. Pari. 85; (2) coming together; cf न लक्ष्यते विकृति: संनिपाते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.123 Vart 5.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃnipātalakṣaṇaan operation which is characterized by the relationship between two words or two phonetic elements. See संनिपातपरिभाषा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
saṃpradānaa karaka relation or a relation between a noun and the verbal activity with which it is connected, of the type of the donation and the donee; the word is technically used in connection with the bearer of such a relation confer, compare कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स संप्रदानम् P. I.4.32.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃbandhiśibdarelative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4,
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
saṃskṛtamañjarīa short handbook on declension and case-relations written by a grammarian named Sadhusundara, who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samuccayaaccumulation which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च and which means the anticipation of an allied another by the express mention of one, in which sense the Dvandva compound prescribed by the rule चार्थे द्वन्द्वः does not take place; confer, compare समुच्चय: | प्लक्षश्च इत्युक्ते गम्यत एतन्न्यग्रोधश्चेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart. 15.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sṛkkanthe place of the articulation or production of the sound व्.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
sthānyādeśābhāvathe relation between the original and the substitute which is described as of two kinds (1) supposed and actual; confer, compareअानुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्योदशभावस्य न त्याग: Pari.Sek. Pari.
spṛṣṭaname of one of the four internal efforts when the instrument ( करण) of articulation fully touches the sthana or the place of the production of sound in the mouth. See the word स्पर्श a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: तत्र स्पृष्टं| प्रयतनं स्पर्शानाम् S.K. on P. VI1I.2.1 ; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.1.9.
smātcase-ending स्मात् substituted for the ablative singular. case-affix ङसि placed after pronouns; confer, compare ङसिङयोः स्मात्स्मिनौ P. VII. 1. 15, 16.
svasvāmisaṃbangharelationship of the possessor and the possessed; one of the general meanings of the type of relation, expressed by the genitive case;cf अधिरीश्वरे। ईश्वरः स्वामी। स च स्वमपेक्षते तदर्थं स्वस्वामिसंबन्धः क्रमेप्रवचनीयसंञो भवति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.4.97.
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11 results
lati noun (feminine) a delicate or slender creeper or small winding tendril (to which the graceful curve of a slim figure is compared) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a string of pearls (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14406/72933
khalati noun (masculine) baldness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21176/72933
khalati adjective bald (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bald-headed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27760/72933
bhāṇḍīralati noun (feminine) Rubia Munjista
Frequency rank 60650/72933
maṇḍūkalati noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 61219/72933
lati noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 62130/72933
mudrikālati noun (feminine) name of a woman
Frequency rank 25075/72933
romalati noun (feminine) a winding line of hair above the navel (in women) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 63846/72933
vidrumalati noun (feminine) a kind of perfume
Frequency rank 65649/72933
somalati noun (feminine) Cocculus Cordifolius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71504/72933
sphulati noun (masculine) [gramm.] the root sphul
Frequency rank 41257/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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naming ; appellation ; one of the tantrayukti


flatulence; bloated; abdominal distension; in flation; a condition in abdomen .


Plant migraine tree; Premna integrifolia; Premna latifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis too are considered as agnimantha.


medicine made in distillation process using ajāmoda; it is indicated in diseases ofdigestive system.


1. happiness; 2. star Delta Scorpio in the constellation Scorpio.


1. sun; 2. purple calatropis; madar tree; Calotropis procera, C. gigantea. 3. distillate; a liquid medicinal preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs with volatile constituents, soaked in water using the distillation apparatus ex: ajāmodārka.


star Betelgeuse, also known as Alpha Orionis in the constellation Orion.


star Alpha Hydrae in the constellation Hydra.


1. a binary star Beta Arietis in Aries constellation; first of the 27 stars in celestial sphere; 2. name of a month.


1. act of pressing down; 2. sternutatory; nasal medicine; insufflations of drugs in thin paste form through the nasal passages.


relating to or coming from sheep, ex: wool, sheepskin, meat et Century


formulation of medicines; pharmaceutical practices of ayurveda.


a compilation of pharmaceutical preparations authored by Govindadās (18th Century ).


second star in the path of moon corresponding to 35, 39, and 41 Arietis in Aries constellation.


accumulation; heap (of humors).


star Spica in the constellation Virgo.


1. relating to Cyavana; 2. causing to fall; 3. expulsion.


Plant Anogeissus latifolia; axle wood.


1. ingestion; intake of food; promoting digestion; 2. Plant root of crape jasmine. 3. stimulation (in science of mercury).


slow cumulative poisoing.


1. hand; 2. a linear measurement equal to 45.72 centimetres; 3. star Delta Corvi in the southern constellation of Corvus.


drug having heart-stimulating activity; congenial to heart.


roasting; oxidizing metals; amalgamation of mercury; assimilation; digestion of metals by mercury.


a Hindu ceremony to welcome the newborn into the world, by stimulating senses by ghee, honey et Century and chanting oracles.


star Antares in the constellation Scorpio.


white spot, Pleides constellation, the cutters; third star in the path of moon; Eta Tauri or Alcyone in the constellation Taurus.


duration of an action, rise and falls of humors in the body: accumulation (sancaya), aggravation (prakopa), flow (prasara), translocation (sthānasamsraya), manifestation (vyaktībhāva), becoming chronic and incurable (bheda).


1. bee; 2. Plant mahua, butter tree, Madhuca indica, M. longifolia; Bassia latifolia; 3. bees wax.


1. lunar month corresponding to February; 2. a bright star Regulus in Leo constellation.


relating to Indra; the whole range of hills extending from Orissa upto Tamilnadu on the east coast.


sexual intercourse, copulation.


thick precipitate of spirituous liquid, liquor used for distillation.


root; a star Lambda Scorpio in the constellation Scorpio.


Plant marsh orchid, Dactylorhiza latifolia.


errhine, tonic treatment of the head; inhalation therapy


process of digestion, regulating agni.


distant (para), ulterior (apara), planning (yukti), categories (sankhya), combination (samyoya), disjunction (vibhāga), isolation (pṛthakkarana), measurement (parimāṇa), refining (samskāra), usage (abhyāsa).


joints, articulations.


animal, beast; paśukāya bestial body; person with traits of beast like bad thinking, sluggish activity, dreams of copulation and denying everything.


1. star(s) Delta and Alpha Leonis in the constellation Leo; 2. a lunar month in Hindu calendar.


cease to exist, annihilation.


Plant calumpang nut tree, charoli, almondette, Buchanania lanzen, B. latifolia.


star(s) Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini.


star Delta Sagittari in the constellation Sagittarius.


1. star Delta Cancri in the constellation Gemini; 2. a lunar month in Hindu calendar.


Plant nut of Buchanania latifolia; fruit of Mimusops kauki; Butea frondosa; Manilkara hexandra.


belonging to or relating to rajas.


emptying of the lungs by exhalation, emission of breath.


cathartic, purgative, exhalation.


coagulation of mercury; mercury with water and saindhavalavaṇa kept for three days.


1. sixth layer of skin, dermis; 2. diphtheria, inflammation of throat; 3. women with red face. 4. star Aldebaran in the constellation Taurus.


one thousand formulations; a text of Kerala tradition explaining more than 1000 poly herbal formulations. There are several versions of the text.


treatise, compilation, compendium.


accumulation, cumulative.


joint, articulation; fornices of the eye; sandhimukta dislocation of the joint or bone.


star Lambda Aquarii in the constellation Aquarius.


nasal instillation inducing nasal discharge.


ejaculation (of semen)


modulation of medicated oil.


palate, tālukanṭaka inflammation of uvula, tālupāka palatitis or ulceration of palate, tālupuppuṭa indolent swelling on the palate; tāluśoṣa constitutional disease of cleft palate


one of tantrayuktis, enunciation, motive, stipulation, statement in brief.


accumulation, increase, prosperity, elevation, excess.


central neurogenic hypoventilation; long expiration and short inspiration.


star Gamma Pegasi in the constellation of Pegasus.


star Sigma Sagittari in the constellation Sagittarius.


a text written by Agaram Puttaswamy in the 19th Century on human medicine and it is a translation of Vaidyajīvana of Lolambarāja.


author of Sāroccaya, a contemporary to Cakrapāṇidatta, a close relative of Niscalakara.


expanding, blooming, dilating.


star Alpha Librae in the constellation Libra.

     Wordnet Search "lati" has 11 results.


mañjiṣṭhā, vikasā, jiṅgī, samaṅgā, kālameṣikā, maṇḍūkaparṇī, bhaṇḍīrī, bhaṇḍī, yojanavallī, kālameṣī, kālī, jiṅgiḥ, bhaṇḍirī, bhaṇḍiḥ, hariṇī, raktā, gaurī, yojanāvallikā, vaprā, rohiṇī, citralatā, citrā, citrāṅgī, jananī, vijayā, mañjūṣā, raktayaṣṭikā, kṣatriṇī, rāgāḍhyā, kālabhāṇḍikā, aruṇā, jvarahantrī, chatrā, nāgakumārikā, bhaṇḍīralatikā, rāgāṅgī, vastrabhūṣaṇā   

latāprakāraḥ yasyāḥ puṣpāṇi pītāni tathā ca laghūni santi।

mañjiṣṭhāyāḥ daṇḍāt tathā ca sūlāt raktaḥ varṇaḥ prāpyate।


khalvāṭatvam, khalatiḥ, mauṇḍyam, muṇḍatā, akeśatvam, indraluptiḥ, indraluptakam, surendralupti, candrikā   

śirasi keśasya abhāvaḥ।

khalvāṭatvāt tasya āyuḥ adhikā bhāti।


mālā, latikā, daṇḍikā, hārāvalī   

kaṇṭhe dhāritā ekā śṛṅkhalā।

mālāyāḥ madhyabhāgaḥ patrasamānaṃ vartate।


kuladharaḥ, kuladhārakaḥ, kuladīpaḥ, kulatilakaḥ, kulapradīpaḥ   

yaḥ kulaṃ vaṃśaṃ vā trāti tat pariśodhayati vā।

kuladharasya pratīkṣāyāṃ vṛddhe netre stabdhe।


tindukaḥ, atimuktakaḥ, āluḥ, āluka, kākatinduḥ, kākatindukaḥ, kākenduḥ, kālatindukaḥ, kālapīlukaḥ, kupīluḥ, kulakaḥ, kenduḥ, kendukaḥ, gālavaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ, āyurvede asya guṇāḥ - pittapramehasraśleṣmanāśitvam।

tindukasya pakvaphalaḥ madhuram asti।


tindukīya-varṇaḥ, atimuktaka-varṇaḥ, ālularṇaḥ, ālukavarṇaḥ, kākatinduvarṇaḥ, kākatindukavarṇaḥ, kākenduvarṇaḥ, kālatindukavarṇaḥ, kālapīlukavarṇaḥ, kupīluvarṇaḥ, kulakavarṇaḥ, kenduvarṇaḥ, kendukavarṇaḥ, gālavavarṇaḥ   

tindukasya varṇa iva varṇaḥ।

asya paṭasya tindukīyavarṇaḥ asti।



laghvī latā।

vṛkṣeṣu latikā lambate।



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

platiḥ ṛgvede nirdiṣṭaḥ



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

playogaḥ sāyaṇācāryeṇa nirdiṣṭaḥ



ekaḥ parvataḥ ।

khalatikasya ullekhaḥ patañjalinā kṛtaḥ



ekaḥ parvataḥ ।

khalatikasya ullekhaḥ patañjalinā kṛtaḥ

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