m.Name of a celebrated Avatar of the god viṣṇu-, or sometimes identified with viṣṇu- himself ([ ]) as distinct from his ten Avata1rsAvatars or incarnations (in the earlier legends he appears as a great hero and teacher[ ];in the more recent he is deified, and is often represented as a young and amorous shepherd with flowing hair and a flute in his hand;the following are a few particulars of his birth and history as related in and in the purāṇa-s etc.: vasu-deva-, who was a descendant of yadu- and yayāti-, had two wives, rohiṇī- and devakī-;the latter had eight sons of whom the eighth was kṛṣṇa-; kaṃsa-, king of mathurā- and cousin of devakī-, was informed by a prediction that one of these sons would kill him;he therefore kept vasu-deva- and his wife in confinement, and slew their first six children;the seventh was balarāma- who was saved by being abstracted from the womb of devakī- and transferred to that of rohiṇī-;the eighth was kṛṣṇa- who was born with black skin and a peculiar mark on his breast;his father vasu-deva- managed to escape from mathurā- with the child, and favoured by the gods found a herdsman named nanda- whose wife yaśo-dā- had just been delivered of a son which vasu-deva- conveyed to devakī- after substituting his own in its place. nanda- with his wife yaśo-dā- took the infant kṛṣṇa- and settled first in gokula- or vraja-, and afterwards in vṛndāvana-, where kṛṣṇa- and bala-rāma- grew up together, roaming in the woods and joining in the sports of the herdsmen's sons; kṛṣṇa- as a youth contested the sovereignty of indra-, and was victorious over that god, who descended from heaven to praise kṛṣṇa-, and made him lord over the cattle[ ]; kṛṣṇa- is described as sporting constantly with the gopī-s or shepherdesses[ ]of whom a thousand became his wives, though only eight are specified, rādhā- being the favourite[ ]; kṛṣṇa- built and fortified a city called dvārakā- in Gujarat, and thither transported the inhabitants of mathurā- after killing kaṃsa-; kṛṣṇa- had various wives besides the gopī-s, and by rukmiṇī- had a son pradyumna- who is usually identified with kāma-deva-;with Jains, kṛṣṇa- is one of the nine black vasu-deva-s;with Buddhists he is the chief of the black demons, who are the enemies of buddha- and the white demons)
कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives,
but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
n. black; dark; w. paksha, dark half of the month (from full to new moon); m. (kríshna) black antelope; N. of a god (in carnation of Vishnu): du. Krishna and Ar guna; â, f. kind of leech; N. of several plants; ep. of Draupadî, and of Durgâ; n. blackness, darkness.
Appears as the name of a seer in one hymn of the Rigveda. Tradition assigns to him or to Viśvaka, son of Krsna (Kārsni), the authorship of the following hymn. The word Krsniya may be a patronymic formed from the same name in two other hymns of the Rigveda, where the Aśvins are said to have restored Visnāpū to Viśvaka Krsniya. In that case Krsna would seem to be the grandfather of Visnāpū. This Krsna may be identical with Krsna Angirasa mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmana.
noun (masculine) a kind of animal feeding on carrion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of venomous frog (maṇḍūka)
a kind of venomous insect
antelope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fourth or Kaliyuga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indian cuckoo or Kokila (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Arjuna
name of a celebrated Avatār of god Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a chief of the Andhras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a hell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain in the west of lake Mānasa
name of a poet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śuka
name of an adopted son of Asamañjas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Havirdhāna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Hārita (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Dāmodara and uncle of Malhaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Hīrabhaṭṭa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Madana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the son of Vāruṇendra and father of Lakṣmaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vyāsa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
the dark half of the lunar month from full to new moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (neuter) a kind of demon or spirit of darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
antimony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black Agallochum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black pepper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black spots in the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blackness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blue vitriol (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
darkness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
iron (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the black part of the eye (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sauvīra Frequency rank 6774/72933
adjective black (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dark (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dark-blue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
evil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wicked (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
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