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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
gotāf. "cowship", (in dialect) a cow Introd. 35; 97, and on Va1rtt. 6.
gotallajam. an excellent cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. (g/o--) (superl.) Name of a ṛṣi- belonging to the family of aṅgiras- with the patronymic rāhū-gaṇa- (author of ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. (for gaut-) Name of the chief disciple of mahā-vīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. of a lawyer (see gautam/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. of the founder of the nyāya- philosophy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. "the largest ox"and"Name of the founder of nyāya- philosophy " View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. Name of a son of karṇika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. ? (see -dama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamam. plural () the descendants of the ṛṣi- gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotaman. a kind of poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamagauram. equals gaura-gotama-, the white gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamānvayam. Name of śākya-muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamapṛcchāf. "questions of (mahā-vīra-'s pupil) gotama- (put forth in a discussion with pārśva-'s pupil keśin-)", Name of a Jain work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamastomam. Name of an ekāha- sacrifice (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamasvāminm. mahā-vīra-'s pupil gotama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotameśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamīf. varia lectio for gaut- in gaRa gaurādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotamīputram. "son of gotamī-", Name of a king (50 B.C. or A.D.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotaram. (Comparative degree) a better ox View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotarāf. a better cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotaraṇia kind of flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotarpaṇan. anything arranged for the pleasure of cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotīrthan. (gavāṃ t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotīrthakam. with ccheda-, an oblique cut applied to fistula of the rectum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. ( trai-) protection or shelter for cows, cow-pen, cow-shed, stable for cattle, stable (in general), hurdle, enclosure (once m. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. "family enclosed by the hurdle", family, race, lineage, kin etc. (a polysyllabic fem. in ī-shortens this vowel before gotra-in compound [ exempli gratia, 'for example' brāhmaṇigotrā-,"a Brahman woman only by descent or name" ] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. the family name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. name (in general) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. (in grammar) the grandson and his descendants if no older offspring of the same ancestor than this grandson lives (if the son lives the grandson is called yuvan-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. an affix used for forming a patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a tribe, subdivision (in the Brahman caste 49 gotra-s are reckoned and supposed to be sprung from and named after celebrated teachers, as śāṇḍilya-, kaśyapa-, gautama-, bharad-vāja-, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a genus, class, species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a multitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. possession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a field View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. an umbrella or parasol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. knowledge of probabilities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotram. a mountain (a meaning probably derived fr. -bh/id-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotram. a cloud (see -bh/id-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotram. a road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotf. a herd of kine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotf. the earth (see gotreśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhājmfn. belonging to the family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhidmfn. opening the cow-pens of the sky ("splitting the clouds or mountains";said of indra- and bṛhaspati-'s vehicle) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhidm. "splitting the mountains (with his thunderbolt see adri-bh/id-) ", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhidm. " indra-"and"destroyer of families" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhidm. " indra-"and"destroyer of names" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrābhidhāyamind. so as to name one's name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrabhūmif. "family-range", one of the periods in a śrāvaka-'s life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotradevatāf. family deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrādim. a gaṇa- of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrajamfn. born in the same family, relation (in law, nearly ="Gentile" of Roman law, and applied to kindred of the same general family, who are connected by offerings of food and water;hence opposed to bandhu-or cognate kindred not partaking in the offerings to common ancestors) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrakan. family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrakārinmfn. founding a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrakartṛm. the founder of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrākhyāf. family name, patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrakīlāf. (equals acala-k-) the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrakṣāntif. Name of a kiṃnara- virgin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotramind. after a verb denoting repetition and implying a blame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotramañjarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotramayamfn. forming a family (with kṣātra-,"a kṣatriya- family") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotranāmann. the family name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotranirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrāntam. "destruction of families"and"destruction of mountains" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrāntam. (scilicet śabda-) "ending with a gotra- affix", a patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrapaṭam. a genealogical table, pedigree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrapravaradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrarikthan. dual number the family name and the inheritance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrarikthāṃśam. in compound the family name and part of the inheritance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrasthitif. "id."and"standing like a mountain" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotravardhanam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotravatmfn. belonging to a noble family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotravratan. a family rule ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotravṛkṣam. Name of a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotreṇaind. instrumental case with regard to one's family name gaRa prakṛty-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotreśam. "earth-lord", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrikamfn. relating to a family (with karman-,"the consciousness of family descent", one of the 4 pure karman-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrinmfn. belonging to the same family, relation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotritvan. relationship. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotroccāram. "recitation of the family pedigree", Name of a ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotulyam. "resembling an ox", the Gayal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotvan. the being a cow, state of a cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotvan. the nature of an ox View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotvacf. "an ox-hide or cow's hide" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotvagjamfn. made of leather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agotā(a g/o-) f. want of cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agotāf. want of cows, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anekagotram. having more families than one id est two, belonging to two families (or to one as an adopted son). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyagotramfn. of a different family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asagotramf(ā-)n. not belonging to the same family with(genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahugotrajamfn. having many blood relations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇigotf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durgotsavam. Name of a treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durgotsavatattvan. Name of a treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvigotramfn. belonging to two families, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
evaṃgotramfn. of such a family, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauragotamam. equals gotama-gaura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṃgotramfn. belonging to what family? View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulagotran. dual number family and tribe, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liṅgotpattif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātaṃgotsaṅgam. the back of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛgotran. a mother's family (mfn. belonging to it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛgotranirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgottamam. best of antelopes, a very beautiful deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgottaman. the nakṣatra- mṛga-śiras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgottamāṅgan. "deer-head", the nakṣatra- mṛga-śiras-
nagotsaṅgam. a mountaintop, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmagotran. dual number personal and family name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nānāgotram. belonging to different families View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvāṇayogottaran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padagotran. a family supposed to preside over a particular class of words (see -devatā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pālakagotran. the family or tribe of one's adoptive parents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthaggotramfn. (plural) belonging to different families View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotpattif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagotramfn. being of the same family or kin, related to (genitive case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagotram. a kinsman of the same family (one sprung from a common ancestor or one connected by funeral oblations of food and water) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagotram. a distant kinsman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagotran. a family, race or lineage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanagotran. the family of the śālaṅkāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāligotram. Name of a teacher (varia lectio śāli-hotra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samānagotramfn. being of the same family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṇḍilyagotran. the family of śāṇḍilya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanagotran. the family of śāṭyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgotpādanamfn. producing or having the power to produce horns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgotpādanam. (with or scilicet mantra-) a spell producing horns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgotpādinīf. Name of a yakṣiṇī- (producing horns and changing men into animals) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surabhīgotran. "race of surabhī-", oxen, cattle, kine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇagotran. Name of a kingdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uccairgotran. high family or descent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vargottamam. equals vargāntya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vargottamam. (in astrology)"chief of a class", Name of the Ram and the Bull and the Twins (being the first in a particular grouping of the zodiacal signs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīragotran. a family of heroes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvagotra(viśv/a--) mfn. belonging to all families View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvagotrya(viśv/a--) mfn. (perhaps) bringing all kinsmen together (said of a drum) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yadgotramfn. belonging to which family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāgotrakulakalpamind. according to the usages of a family or race View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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gotamaḥ गोतमः 1 N. of a sage belonging to the family of Aṅgiras, father of Śatānanda and husband of Ahalyā. -2 N. of a sage, the founder of Nyāya philosophy; मुक्तये यः शिलात्वाय शास्त्रमूचे सचेतसाम् । गोतमं तमवेक्ष्यैव N. 17.75.
gotamī गोतमी Ahalyā, wife of गोतम. -Comp. -पुत्रः an epithet of Śatānanda.
agotā अगोता Ved. Want of cows or rays or praise.
agotra अगोत्र a. Without a cause; यत्तदद्रेश्यमग्राह्यमगोत्रम् Muṇḍ. 1.1.6.
sagotra सगोत्र a. Being of the same family or kin, related. -त्रः 1 A kinsman sprung from a common ancestor; तत्रभवतो युष्मत्सगोत्रस्य कण्वस्यापराद्धो$स्मि Ś.7. -2 A kinsman of the same family, one connected by funeral oblations of food and water. -3 A distant kinsman. -तम् Family, race, lineage.
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gotama Gó-tama, m. name of a seer, i. 85, 11 [spv. of go cow].
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gotama m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyâya system of philosophy.
gotra n. cowshed; house=race or family; surname; name; (gr.) grandson or even later descendant (if the earlier genera tions from the common ancestor are extinct); patronymic suffix (gr.).
gotraka n. race; family name; -kar tri, m. founder of a family; -kârin, a. found ing a family; -ga, a. born in the same race; of high lineage; m. blood-relation; -nâman, n. family name; -pravara, m.chief of a fa mily, prime ancestor: -dîpa, m., -nirnaya, m., -mañgarî, f. titles of works; -bhâg, a. be longing to the family; -bhíd, a. bursting open the cowshed; destroying families, name-de stroying; m. ep. of Indra (who releases the cows=rain-clouds from the stronghold of Vritra); -riktha, n. du. surname and heri tage: -½amsa-bhâgin, a. assuming the family surname and coming into one's share of the inheritance; -vrata, n. family law;-sthiti, f. id.; mountain-like stability.
gotrākhyā f. patronymic (gr.); -½anta, 1. m. destruction of families or moun tains; 2. a. having a patronymic suffix; m. patronymic.
gotva n. condition of a cow.
dvigotra a. belonging to two fami lies.
yadgotra a. belonging to which family; -devata, a. having which deity; -dhetos, ab. (=hetos) ad. on which account, wherefore; -bhavishya, a. saying &open;what will be, will be&close;; m. fatalist;N. of a fish.
śṛṅgotpādana a. productive of horns; m. spell producing horns; -½utpâ dinî, f. N. of a Yakshinî producing horns and changing men into animals.
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gotama Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, but never in such a way as to denote personal authorship of any hymn. It seems clear that he was closely connected with the Añgirases, for the Gotamas frequently refer to Añgiras. That he bore the patronymic Rāhūgana is rendered probable by one hymn of the Rigveda, and is assumed in the Satapatha Brāh¬mana, where he appears as the Purohita, or domestic priest, of Māthava Videgha, and as a bearer of Vedic civilization. He is also mentioned in the same Brāhmana as a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and Yājñavalkya, and as the author of a Stoma. He occurs, moreover, in two passages of the Atharvaveda. The Gotamas are mentioned in several passages of the Rigveda, Vāmadeva and Nodhas being specified as sons of Gotama. They include the Vāj aśravases. See also Gautama.
gotamīputra Son of Gotamī,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Bhāradvājī-putra in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Gautamī-putra.
gotra Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the account of the mythic exploits of Indra. Roth interprets the word as cowstall,’ while Geldner thinks ‘ herd ’ is meant. The latter sense seems to explain best the employment which the term shows in the later literature as denoting the £ family or £ clan,’ and which is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the Grhya Sūtras stress is laid on the prohibition of marriage within a Gotra, or with a Sapinda of the mother of the bridegroom—that is to say, roughly, with agnates and cognates. Senart has emphasized this fact as a basis of caste, on the ground that marriage within a curia, phratria, or caste (Varna) was Indo-European, as was marriage outside the circle of agnates and cognates. But there is no evidence at all to prove that this practice was Indo-European, while in India the Satapatha expressly recognizes marriage within the third or fourth degree on either side. According to Sāyana, the Kānvas accepted marriage in the third degree, the Saurāstras only in the fourth, while the scholiast on the Vajrasūcī adds to the Kānvas the Andhras and the Dāksinātyas, and remarks that the Vājasaneyins forbade marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother. All apparently allowed marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, which later was quite excluded. Change of Gotra was quite possible, as in the case of Sunah- śepa and Grtsamada, who, once an Añgirasa, became a Bhārgava.
samānagotra Mean ‘belonging to the same family ’ and ‘ class ’ respectively in the Brāhmaṇas. Samāna-bandhu, ‘ having the same kin,’ is found in the Rigveda.
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gotamā vīrudhaṃ viduḥ AVP.11.2.6b.
gotamena tinīkṛtaḥ SMB.2.7.1c.
got gavām aṅgiraso gṛṇanti RV.6.65.5b.
got rujann aṅgirobhir gṛṇānaḥ RV.4.16.8d; AVś.20.77.8d.
got śikṣan dadhīce mātariśvane RV.10.48.2d.
gotrabhidaṃ govidaṃ vajrabāhum RV.10.103.6a; SV.2.1204a; VS.17.38a; TS.4.6.4.2a; MS.2.10.4a: 136.4; KS.18.5a. See grāmajitaṃ.
agotāṃ nāṣṭrāṃ pāpmānam # KS.38.13c; Apś.16.16.1c.
agotām anapatyatām # AVś.4.17.6b; AVP.5.23.8b. Vulgate with some mss. anapadyatām.
madhuśṛṅgota puṣpakam # AVP.2.32.2b.
gotāyai sahasas putra mā nide # RV.3.16.5c.
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"got" has 87 results.
     
gotraliterally family. The word is used by Panini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; confer, compare अपत्यं पौत्रप्रभृति गोत्रम् P. IV. 1.162. The word गोत्रापत्य is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual अण् , is यञ् ; confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् P. IV. 1.105.
gotrapratyayaaffix in the sense of गोत्र; confer, compare यश्चासौ गोत्रप्रत्ययः प्राप्नोति स एकः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on IV. 1.93.
gotrinda( चक्रवर्तिन् )writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words.
durgottamaa grammarian who wrote a work on genders called लिङ्गानुशासन and also a commentary on it.
ananyanot different, the same: confer, compare एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् that which has got a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 37.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anirdiṣṭārthawhose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
avṛddhaliterallynot beginning with the vowel अा, ऐ or औ; a word which has got no अा or ऐ, or औ as its first vowel, as for example ग्लुचुक, अहिचुम्बक et cetera, and others इरावती, नर्मदा यमुना etc; confer, compare प्राचामवृद्धात् फिन् बहुलम् P.IV.1.160. also अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P.IV. 1.113.
ādyudāttaa word beginning with an acute-accent id est, that is which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; confer, compareP. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.
aāniimp. 1st per.sing affix नि with the augment अा prefixed, which has got its न् changed into ण् by P. VIII.4.16.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itrakṛt affix, added to the roots ऋ, लू, धू et cetera, and others in the sense of instrument confer, compare अर्तिलूधूसूखनसहचर इत्रः P.III. 2.184-6. e. g. अरित्रम् , लवित्रम् खनित्रम् et cetera, and others The words ending in इत्र have got the acute accent on the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.2.144.
upadhālopina word or a noun which has got the penultimate letter omitted; confer, compare अन उपधालेपिनोन्यतरस्याम् P. IV. 1. 28.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ūṣmasaṃdhiname of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 1 1.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
kṛtārthalit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of certain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances confer, compare तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
ḍas(1)affix अस् applied to the word श्वेतवाह and others at the end of a pada i.e when the word श्वेतवाह has got the पदसंज्ञा. exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः इन्द्रः । श्वेतवोभ्याम् confer, compareP.III.2.71 Vārt,1 and 2.
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
tavai(1)krt affix तवै for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature. The affix तवै has a peculiarity of accent, namely that the word ending in तवै has got both the initial and ending vowels accented acute (उदात्त); exempli gratia, for example सोममिन्द्राय पातवै, हर्षसे दातवा उ; confer, compare P.III.4.9; and VI. 1.200; (2) krtya affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example परिघातवै for परिघातव्यम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14.
tulyādhikaraṇahaving got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, confer, compare Kat. II.5.5.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
naṣṭarūpāname given to an anustup verse which has nine, ten and eleven syllables respectively for the first, second and third feet; exempli gratia, for example विपृच्छामि पाक्यान् देवान् Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita.I.120.4; confer, compare R.Pr. XVI. 29. The verse has got 32 syllables, but it has only three feet instead of four.
nicṛtless by one syllable; the word is used as an adjective to the name of a Vedic metre which has got one syllable less than the normal; confer, compare एकद्-व्यूनाधिकः सैव निचृदूनाधिका भुरिक् R.Pr.XVII.1.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirvartyaone of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49.
nyavagrahaalso नीचावग्रह, the vowel at the अवग्रह or end of the first member of a compound word which has got a grave accent; e. g. the vowel ऊ of नू in तनूनप्त्रे; confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्तथाभाव्यः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 120. See ताथाभाव्य.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāraskarādigaṇaor पारस्करप्रभृति, words headed by the word पारस्कर which have got some irregularity, especially the insertion of स् between the constituent words. For details see पारस्करप्रभृतीनि च संज्ञायाम् P. VI. 1.153 and the commentary thereon.
pārārthyaliterally serving the purpose of another like the Paribhāşā and the Adhikāra rules in Grammar which have got no utility as fair as they themselves are concerned, but which are of use in the interpretation of other rules; confer, compare अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते. Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pradhāna(1)the principal thing as opposed to the subordinate one; something which has got an independent purpose of its own and is not meant for another; प्रधानमुपसर्जनमिति च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ M.Bh. on P. I.2.43 V.5; confer, compare also प्रधानाप्रधानयोः प्रधाने कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Par. Sek. Pari. 97; (2) predominant of main importance; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.6, 20, 49 II.2.6 etc; (3) primary as opposed to secondary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादेः प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् । confer, compare also प्रधानकर्मण्याख्येये लादीनाहुर्द्विकर्मणाम् । अप्रधाने दुहादीनाम् M.Bh.on I.4.51
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
matvarthīyaan affix which has got the sense of मतु ( मतुप् ). See the words मतुबर्थिक and मतुबर्थीय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
mahābhāṣyadīpikāa very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
r(1)second letter of the यण् class ( semi-vowels ) which has got the properties नादभागित्व, घोषवत्त्व,' संवृतत्व and अल्पप्राणता i. e. it is a sonant, inaspirate consonant. Regarding its स्थान or place of production, there is a difference of opinion : generally the consonant र् is looked upon as a cerebral or lingual letter (मूर्धन्य); cf ऋटुरषाणां मूर्धा, S.K.also Pāṇini. Siksa; but it is called by some as दन्त्य or दन्तमूलीय: cf रेफस्तु दस्त्ये दन्तमूले वा RT. 8, by others as दन्तमूलीय and and by still others as वर्स्त्य gingival. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya it is described as दन्तमूलीय: cf रो दन्तमूल I. 68, while in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya it is said to be produced by the touch of the middle part of the tip of the tongue just a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the teeth;confer, compare रेफे जिह्वाग्रमध्येन प्रत्यग्दन्तमूलेभ्यः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 41; (2) substitute र् (रेफ ) for the final letter of the word अहन्, as also for the final of अम्रस्, ऊधस्, अवस् and भुवस् optionally with रु, which ( रु) is dropped before vowels, and changed to ओ before अ and soft consonants, while it is changed into visarga before hard consonants and surds.exempli gratia, for example अम्नरेव, अम्र एवः ऊधरेव, ऊधएव: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII, 2-70: (3) the consonants र् (technically) called र् in Panini's grammar ) which is substituted for the consonant स् and for the consonant न् of the word अहन् when the consonant स् or न् stands at the end of a word. This substitute रु, unlike the substitute र् is liable to be changed into visarga, or the consonant य्, or the vowel उ by P. VIII.3.15, 17, VI.1.113, 114.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
riphita(1)a Visarga in the Padapatha which has originated from र् in the Samhita-patha; (2) a word or pada which has got a रिफित at its end; confer, compare क:, स्व: प्रातः et cetera, and others (which in the Samhitapatha are कर् , स्वर् , प्रातर् et cetera, and others;) confer, compare R.Pr. I.30 to 36 V.Pr.IV. 18.192.
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
vanaspatyādia class of compound words headed by वनस्पति which retain the original accent of the members of the compound, as for example, in the compound word वनस्पति both the words वन and पति have got their initial vowel अ accented acute; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VI.2.140.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vardhamāna(1)a long vowel;(2)name of a famous ]ain grammarian, disciple of Govindasuri, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century A.D.and wrote a metrical work on ganas or groups of words in grammar, named गणरत्नमहोदधि, and also a commentary on it. The work consists of 8 chapters and has got some commentaries besides the well-known one by the author himselfeminine. He also wrote two other works on grammar कातन्त्रविस्तर and क्रियागुप्तक as also a few religious books.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vivṛtatarapossessed of the internal effort viz. विवृत which is specially strengthenedition The diphthongs have got at the time of their production the internal effort विवृत specially strengthened; confer, compare यदत्रवेर्णं, विवृततरं तदन्यस्मादवर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 3,4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 10.
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaumudīṭīkāor सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या a general name given to the large number of commentaries written by members of the line of pupils, and pupils of pupils of Bhattoji. The well-known among the commentaries are प्रौढमनोरमा by the author himself, तत्त्वबोधिनी by ज्ञानेन्द्रसरस्वती, सुबोधिनी by जयकृष्णभट्ट मौनी बालमनोरमा by वासुदेवदीक्षित, and crowning all, the लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेशभट्ट. The प्रौढमनोरमा has got a learned commentary written by हरिदीक्षित called लघुशब्दरत्न or शब्दरत्न, which also has on it commentaries named भावप्रक्राश by बाळंभट्ट and शब्दरत्नदीप by कल्याणमल्ल. The Laghusabdendusekhara has got commentaries reaching about ten in number.
vyavasthitavibhāṣāan option which does not apply universally in all the instances of a rule which prescribes an operation optionally, but applies necessarily in : some cases and does not apply at all in the other cases, the total result being an option regarding the conduct of the rule. The rules अजेर्व्यघञपॊ: P. II. 4.56, लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे III. 2.124 and वामि I. 4.5 are some of the rules which have got an option described as व्यवस्थितविभाषा. The standard instances of व्यवस्थितविभाषा are given in the ancient verse देवत्रातो गलो ग्राहः इतियोगे च सद्विधिः | मिथस्ते न विभाष्यन्ते गवाक्षः संशितव्रतः|| M. Bh, on P, III. 3.156; VII.4.41.
śā(1)conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; confer, compare तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्, as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) taddhita affix. affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशःconfer, compare P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् et cetera, and othersnot preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; exempli gratia, for example उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: confer, compare P.III.1.137-139.
śivasūtraname given to the fourteen small sutras giving the alphabet which Panini took as the basis of his grammar. The Sivasutras have got a well-known explanation in Verse, named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका on which there is a commentary of the type of Bhasya by उपमन्यु. The origin of the Sivasutra given by the writer of the Karika is summed up in the stanza नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद् विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् | Nand. 1.
śīghrataraliterallyover-rapid; an extra quickness of breath (प्राण) which characterizes the utterance of a sibilant which has got one more property viz. ऊष्मत्व in addition to the three properties (बाह्यप्रयत्न ) possessed by the other consonants: confer, compare शीघ्रतरं सोष्मसु प्राणमेके | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 6.
śreṇyādia class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: confer, compare अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59.
saṃsvādaa peculiar phonetic element described along with another one named निगार both of which have got no definite place of utterance in the mouth; confer, compare अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वादानगारौ । पकारनकारयकारा: वा संस्वादे । हकारमकारना. सिक्या वा निगारे I commentary on R.T.11.
samānakartṛkahaving got the same agent: the word is used in connection with actions ( क्रिया ) having the same agent of the activity; confer, compare समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् P. III. 3. 158. समानपद the same word as contrasted with भिन्नपद a compound word which consists of two or more words. confer, compare रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे P. VIII.4.1.
samānādhikaraṇawords which have got the same individual object ( द्रव्य ) referred to by means of their own sense,and which are put in the same case; co-ordinate words; confer, compare तत्पुरुष: समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I. 2.42; confer, compare अधिकरणशब्द: अभिधेयवाची । समानाधिकरण: समानाभिधेयः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I, 2.42.
samānāśrayahaving got the same wording to operate on; the word is used in connection with operations which occur in the same word or wording as contrasted with व्याश्रय;confer, compareसमानाश्रये कार्ये तदसिद्धं स्यात् S. K. on P. VI. 4.22: confer, compare also अत्रेति समानाश्रयप्रतिपत्त्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI,4,22.
sasaṃkhyapossessed of the same number एकवचन, द्विवचन or बहुवचन: confer, compare कृत्स्न: पदार्थाभिधीयेत सद्रव्यः सलिङ्गः ससंख्य: । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2. 24 Vart. 8. सस्थान having got an identical place of utterance; the word is much used in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare सस्थानेन घोषिणां घोर्षिणैव Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 5.
sāvakāśapossessed of scope for its application as contrasted with निरवकाश; a term used in connection with a rule which has got its application to some cases without conflict with any other rule: confer, compare द्वयोर्हि सावकाशयोः समवस्थितयौर्विप्रतिषेधो भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
     Vedabase Search  
31 results
     
gotra among the lines of descent (of various sages)SB 10.90.47
gotra familySB 10.85.37
gotra the hill for the cowsSB 3.2.33
gotra-jaḥ disciple born in your disciplic successionSB 9.1.38-39
gotra-jaḥ disciple born in your disciplic successionSB 9.1.38-39
gotra-jaiḥ of the same familySB 3.7.24
gotra-jaiḥ of the same familySB 3.7.24
gotra-netrayoḥ unto the mountain and Vāsuki, who was used as a ropeSB 8.7.13
gotra-netrayoḥ unto the mountain and Vāsuki, who was used as a ropeSB 8.7.13
gotraḥ a mountainSB 6.12.26
gotraiḥ by their namesSB 10.22.6
gotram a dynastySB 9.21.30
gotram family historySB 4.25.33
gotram family relationshipSB 4.4.23
gotram lineageSB 10.51.30
gotram the Mandara HillSB 2.7.13
gotrāṇām of the familiesSB 5.26.5
gotrāṇām of the mountainsSB 2.6.10
gotrāṇi the family dynastiesSB 9.3.32
gotrasya of the descendantSB 1.19.35
acyuta-gotrataḥ descendants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Vaiṣṇavas)SB 4.21.12
sumantuḥ gotamaḥ asitaḥ Sumantu, Gotama and AsitaSB 10.74.7-9
sumantuḥ gotamaḥ asitaḥ Sumantu, Gotama and AsitaSB 10.74.7-9
kauśika-gotram the dynasty of KauśikaSB 9.16.37
tat-gotram the descendant of AkriyaSB 9.17.11
naṣṭa-gotrāṇām who had no remaining immediate family membersSB 11.31.22
acyuta-gotrataḥ descendants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Vaiṣṇavas)SB 4.21.12
kauśika-gotram the dynasty of KauśikaSB 9.16.37
naṣṭa-gotrāṇām who had no remaining immediate family membersSB 11.31.22
sumantuḥ gotamaḥ asitaḥ Sumantu, Gotama and AsitaSB 10.74.7-9
tat-gotram the descendant of AkriyaSB 9.17.11
     DCS with thanks   
Results for got22 results
     
gotama noun (masculine) name of a lawyer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Karṇika (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Ṛṣi belonging to the family of Aṅgiras with the patr. Rāhūgaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the chief disciple of Mahāvīra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the founder of the Nyāya phil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the descendants of the ṣi Gotama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23899/72933
gotra noun (masculine neuter) (in Gr.) the grandson and his descendants if no older offspring of the same ancestor than this grandson lives (if the son lives the grandson is called yuvan) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a field (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a forest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a genus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a road (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tribe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an affix used for forming a patr. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an umbrella or parasol (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
class (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cloud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cow-pen (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cow-shed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hurdle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
increase (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
knowledge of probabilities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lineage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name (in general) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
protection or shelter for cows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
race (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
species (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stable (in general) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stable for cattle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subdivision (in the Brāhman caste 49 Gotras are reckoned and supposed to be sprung from and named after celebrated teachers) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the family name (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2324/72933
gotrabhid noun (masculine) name of Indra
Frequency rank 34703/72933
gotradveṣin noun (masculine) a kind of bird
Frequency rank 51521/72933
gotraka noun (neuter) family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16745/72933
gotravant adjective
Frequency rank 51522/72933
gotravṛkṣa noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 51523/72933
gotrin adjective belonging to the same family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51520/72933
got noun (feminine) a herd of kine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21228/72933
gotuṇḍanakra noun (masculine) a kind of animal
Frequency rank 51519/72933
gotīrtha noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] a kind of incision; gotīrthaka
Frequency rank 34701/72933
gotīrthaka noun (masculine) an oblique cut applied to fistula of the rectum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34702/72933
agot noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 41662/72933
agotra noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 22811/72933
agotracaraṇa adjective
Frequency rank 26102/72933
atulyagotrīya noun (masculine) name of Carakasaṃhitā, Śār. 2
Frequency rank 31601/72933
asagotra adjective not belonging to the same family with (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17632/72933
kiṃgotra adjective belonging to what family? (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27538/72933
ratnabhāgottara noun (masculine) name of an alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 63345/72933
sagotra noun (masculine) a distant kinsman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kinsman of the same family (one sprung from a common ancestor or one connected by funeral oblations of food and water) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30672/72933
sagotra adjective being of the same family or kin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
related to (gen. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11112/72933
saṃvegotpatti noun (feminine) name of Buddhacarita 3
Frequency rank 70115/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

atulya

incomparable, unequal; atulyagotrīya incomparable; genetically different.

krimiprādurbhāva

appearance of maggots.

maṇdukaparṇi

Plant gotu kola, Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort.

     Wordnet Search "got" has 23 results.
     

got

kulam, vaṃśaḥ, anvayaḥ, anvavāyaḥ, kuṭumbaḥ, jātiḥ, gotram, pravaram   

ekasmāt puruṣād utpannaḥ janasamuhaḥ।

śreṣṭhe kule jāte api śreṣṭhatvaṃ karmaṇā eva labhyate। /yasmin kule tvamutpannaḥ gajastatra na hanyate।

got

meghaḥ, abhramam, vārivāhaḥ, stanayitnuḥ, balābakaḥ, dhārādharaḥ, jaladharaḥ, taḍitvān, vāridaḥ, ambubhṛt, ghanaḥ, jīmūtaḥ, mudiraḥ, jalamuk, dhūmayoniḥ, abhram, payodharaḥ, ambhodharaḥ, vyomadhūmaḥ, ghanāghanaḥ, vāyudāruḥ, nabhaścaraḥ, kandharaḥ, kandhaḥ, nīradaḥ, gaganadhvajaḥ, vārisuk, vārmuk, vanasuk, abdaḥ, parjanyaḥ, nabhogajaḥ, madayitnuḥ, kadaḥ, kandaḥ, gaveḍuḥ, gadāmaraḥ, khatamālaḥ, vātarathaḥ, śnetanīlaḥ, nāgaḥ, jalakaraṅkaḥ, pecakaḥ, bhekaḥ, darduraḥ, ambudaḥ, toyadaḥ, ambuvābaḥ, pāthodaḥ, gadāmbaraḥ, gāḍavaḥ, vārimasiḥ, adriḥ, grāvā, gotraḥ, balaḥ, aśnaḥ, purubhojāḥ, valiśānaḥ, aśmā, parvataḥ, giriḥ, vrajaḥ, caruḥ, varāhaḥ, śambaraḥ, rauhiṇaḥ, raivataḥ, phaligaḥ, uparaḥ, upalaḥ, camasaḥ, arhiḥ, dṛtiḥ, odanaḥ, vṛṣandhiḥ, vṛtraḥ, asuraḥ, kośaḥ   

pṛthvīstha-jalam yad sūryasya ātapena bāṣparupaṃ bhūtvā ākāśe tiṣṭhati jalaṃ siñcati ca।

kālidāsena meghaḥ dūtaḥ asti iti kalpanā kṛtā

got

parvataḥ, mahīdhraḥ, śikharī, kṣmābhṛt, abāryaḥ, dharaḥ, adriḥ, gotraḥ, giriḥ, grāvā, acalaḥ, śailaḥ, śiloccayaḥ, sthāvaraḥ, sānumān, pṛthuśekharaḥ, dharaṇīkīlakaḥ, kuṭṭāraḥ, jīmūtaḥdhātubhṛt, bhūdharaḥ, sthiraḥ, kulīraḥ, kaṭakī, śṛṅgī, nirjharī, agaḥ, nagaḥ, dantī, dharaṇīdhraḥ, bhūbhṛt, kṣitibhṛt, avanīdharaḥ, kudharaḥ, dharādharaḥ, prasthavān, vṛkṣavān   

bhūmeḥ atyunnatabhāgaḥ ।

kṛṣṇā himālayanāmnaḥ parvatasya śikhare gatā ।

got

indraḥ, devarājaḥ, jayantaḥ, ṛṣabhaḥ, mīḍhvān, marutvān, maghavā, viḍojā, pākaśāsanaḥ, vṛddhaśravāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, puruhūtaḥ, purandaraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, śakraḥ, śatamanyuḥ, divaspatiḥ, sutrāmā, gotrabhit, vajrī, vāsavaḥ, vṛtrahā, vṛṣā, vāstospatiḥ, surapatiḥ, balārātiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, jambhabhedī, harihayaḥ, svārāṭ, namucisūdanaḥ, saṃkrandanaḥ, duścyavanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, meghavāhanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, sahastrākṣaḥ, ṛbhukṣā, mahendraḥ, kośikaḥ, pūtakratuḥ, viśvambharaḥ, hariḥ, purudaṃśā, śatadhṛtiḥ, pṛtanāṣāḍ, ahidviṣaḥ, vajrapāṇiḥ, devarājaḥ, parvatāriḥ, paryaṇyaḥ, devatādhipaḥ, nākanāthaḥ, pūrvadikkapatiḥ, pulomāriḥ, arhaḥ, pracīnavarhiḥ, tapastakṣaḥ, biḍaujāḥ, arkaḥ, ulūkaḥ, kaviḥ, kauśikaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

sā devatā yā svargasya adhipatiḥ iti manyate।

vedeṣu indrasya sūktāni santi।

got

gotram, santatiḥ, jananam, kulam, abhijanaḥ, santānaḥ   

kasyacit pūrvajasya kulaguroḥ vā nāmni ādhāritā bhāratīyānāṃ vaṃśānāṃ sā viśiṣṭā saṃjñā yā tasmin vaṃśe janmanaḥ eva prāpyate।

kaśyapamuneḥ nāmnā kaśyapaḥ iti gotram asti।

got

sambandhaḥ, sambandhitā, bāndhavatā, bandhubhāvaḥ, āpyam, gotritvam, jñātibhāvaḥ   

vivāhādīnāṃ nimittena manuṣyāṇāṃ paraspareṣu vartamānaḥ bhāvaḥ athavā ekasmin kule jātānāṃ manuṣyāṇām paraspareṣu vartamānaḥ bhāvaḥ।

madhurimayā bhavataḥ kaḥ sambandhaḥ।

got

gaṅgot   

gaḍhavālaprānte himālayaparvate vartamānaṃ sthānaṃ yasmāt gaṅgā prabhavati।

gaṅgotrī iti pavitraṃ sthānam asti।

got

durgotsavaḥ   

aśvinamāse nirvartyamānaḥ navarātryutsavaḥ yasmin durgāpūjanaṃ kriyate।

kolakatānagare durgotsavaṃ sotsāham nirvartayanti।

got

anyagotraja   

anyagotre jātaḥ।

asmākaṃ samāje vivāhaḥ sarvadā anyagotrajena saha eva bhavati।

got

gotrapravartakaḥ   

yasya nāmnā kasyāpi gotrasya utpattiḥ jātā।

vaimyaḥ ekaḥ gotrapravartakaḥ ṛṣiḥ āsīt।

got

gotrapravartakaḥ   

kasyāpi gotraviśeṣasya saṃsthāpakaḥ athavā yasya nāmni kimapi gotram ārabdham।

bhavataḥ gotrapravartakaḥ kaḥ।

got

sagotra, got   

yayoḥ yoṣāṃ vā gotraṃ samānam।

sagotrāṇāṃ vivāhaḥ naiva bhavitum arhati।

got

sagotraḥ, gotrī, samānagotrīyaḥ   

yasya gotraṃ samānaṃ saḥ janaḥ।

asmin samutsave rāmasya sarve sagotrāḥ upasthitāḥ।

got

rajogotraḥ   

vasiṣṭhasya ekaḥ putraḥ।

rajogotrasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

got

pṛthivī, bhūḥ, bhūmiḥ, acalā, anantā, rasā, viśvambharā, sthirā, dharā, dharitrī, dharaṇī, kṣauṇī, jyā, kāśyapī, kṣitiḥ, sarvasahā, vasumatī, vasudhā, urvī, vasundharā, gotrā, kuḥ, pṛthvī, kṣmā, avaniḥ, medinī, mahī, dharaṇī, kṣoṇiḥ, kṣauṇiḥ, kṣamā, avanī, mahiḥ, ratnagarbhā, sāgarāmbarā, abdhimekhalā, bhūtadhātrī, ratnāvatī, dehinī, pārā, vipulā, madhyamalokavartmā, dhāraṇī, gandhavatī, mahākāntā, khaṇḍanī, girikarṇikā, dhārayitrī, dhātrī, acalakīlā, gauḥ, abdhidvīpā, iḍā, iḍikā, ilā, ilikā, irā, ādimā, īlā, varā, ādyā, jagatī, pṛthuḥ, bhuvanamātā, niścalā, śyāmā   

martyādyadhiṣṭhānabhūtā।

pṛthivī pañcamam bhūtam

got

gothajātiḥ   

vanyajātiviśeṣaḥ yā varṣaśatasya ārambhe yūropakhaṇḍe āsīt।

gothajāteḥ mūlasthānaviṣaye janeṣu viśeṣajñānaṃ na vartate।

got

gothikabhāṣā   

jarmenikabhāṣāparivārāntargatā bhāṣā।

idānīntane kāle gothikabhāṣā na bhāṣyate।

got

gothikalipī   

lipīviśeṣaḥ।

gothikalipī pañcadaśataḥ aṣṭādaśavarṣaśataparyantaṃ pracalitā āsīt।

got

gotraja   

gotre jātaḥ।

saḥ kaśyapamuneḥ gotrajaḥ asti।

got

durgotsavaḥ   

ekaḥ granthaḥ ।

durgotsavaḥ kośe parigaṇitaḥ

got

śāligotraḥ   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

śāligotrasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

got

gotravardhanaḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

gotravardhanasya varṇanaṃ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

got

gotravṛkṣaḥ, dhanvanavṛkṣaḥ   

ekaḥ vṛkṣaḥ ।

gotravṛkṣasya varṇanaṃ bhāvaprakāśe vartate









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