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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
aditif. freedom, security, safety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svācchandyan. (fr. sva-cchanda-) independence, freedom (instrumental case = "by one's own will, voluntarily") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādhīnatāf. subjection to (only) one's self, independence, freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svatantran. self-dependence, independence, self-will, freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svatantratāf. self-dependence, independence, freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varīyasn. free space, freedom, comfort, ease, rest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abādhāf. freedom from pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acāpalyan. freedom from unsteadiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adititvan. the condition of aditi-, or of freedom, unbrokenness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adroghāvitamfn. loving freedom from malice or treachery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adroham. freedom from malice or treachery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agadam. freedom from disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akāmatāf. freedom from desire, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akarmabhogam. enjoyment of freedom from action. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aklamam. freedom from fatigue. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akleśam. freedom from trouble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṛcchramn. freedom from trouble. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣobhan. freedom from agitation, imperturbability. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipsāf. freedom from desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alolupatva([ ]) ([ ]) n. freedom from any desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aloluptva([ ]) n. freedom from any desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alubdhatvan. freedom from covetousness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amoham. (with Buddhists) freedom from ignorance (one of the three roots of virtue), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amokṣam. want of freedom, bondage confinement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anahaṃkāram. non-egotism, absence of self-conceit or of the tendency to regard self as something distinct from the Supreme Spirit, freedom from pride View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaparādhatvan. freedom from fault. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapāyam. freedom from mischief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anasūyāf. freedom from spite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anātapam. freedom from the blaze of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anauddhatyan. freedom from haughtiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anenasyan. freedom from fault, sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anītif. freedom from a calamitous season. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛṇatāf. freedom from debt. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛṇatvan. freedom from debt. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anṛṇyatāf. freedom from debt
anudvegam. freedom from uneasiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśayam. (in philosophy) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apavighnan. freedom from obstruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārogyan. (fr. a-roga-), freedom from disease, health View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aroṣam. freedom from anger, gentleness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atvarāf. freedom from haste. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
badhyatasind. (freedom) from the crowd (varia lectio madhya-t/as-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotisn. light as the type of freedom or bliss or victory (confer, compare , and Latin lux) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokam. (connected with roka-;in the oldest texts loka-is generally preceded by u-,which according to to the = the particle 3. u-;but u-may be a prefixed vowel and ulok/a-,a collateral dialectic form of loka-; according to to others u-loka-is abridged from uru--or ava-loka-), free or open space, room, place, scope, free motion (accusative with kṛ-or -or anu-- -,"to make room grant freedom"; loke-with genitive case"instead of") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokavidmfn. possessing or affording space or freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokavindumfn. possessing or creating or affording space or freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokyamf(ā-)n. granting a free sphere of action, bestowing freedom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktivatmfn. having freedom, freed from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiścintyan. freedom from anxiety, absence of care View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirāmayam. freedom from illness, health, welfare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parīṣṭif. freedom of will View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākāmyan. (fr. -kāma-) freedom of will, wilfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahārogya(?) mfn. possessing freedom from disease, healthy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntatāf. quietness, calmness, freedom from passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuddhif. cleansing, purification, purity (literally and figuratively), holiness, freedom from defilement, purificatory rite (especially a particular śrāddha- performed at the cost of a person who needs purification) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātantryan. (fr. sva-tantra-) the following one's own will, freedom of the will, independence (āt-and ena-,"by one's own will, of one's own free choice, voluntarily, freely") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiguṇyan. (fr. vi-guṇa-) absence of or freedom from qualities, absence of attributes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairāgan. (fr. vi-rāga-) absence of worldly passion, freedom from all desires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairāgyan. freedom from all worldly desires, indifference to worldly objects and to life, asceticism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairāgyaśatakan. "100 verses on freedom from worldly desires", Name of the third century of bhartṛhari-'s moral sentiments and of several other works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairakta() n. (fr. vi-rakta-) freedom from affections or passions, absence of affection, indifference, aversion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairaktya() n. (fr. vi-rakta-) freedom from affections or passions, absence of affection, indifference, aversion. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitṛṣṇyan. freedom from desire, indifference to (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varivoda() mfn. granting space or freedom or relief or repose or comfort. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varivodhā () mfn. granting space or freedom or relief or repose or comfort. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varivovid() mfn. granting space or freedom or relief or repose or comfort. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaśitvan. freedom of will, the being one's own master
vibhayan. freedom from danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virāgārhamfn. qualified for freedom from passion (equals vairaṅgika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viraktif. change of disposition or feeling, alienation of mind, want of interest, freedom of passion, indifference to (locative case genitive case with upari-,or accusative with prati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viraktimatmfn. connected with freedom from worldly attachment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśokatāf. freedom from sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vītaśokatāf. freedom from sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitṛṣṇatāf. freedom from desire, satiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitṛṣṇatvan. freedom from desire, satiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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a अ The first letter of the alphabet; अक्षंराणामकारो$स्मि Bg.10.33. -अः [अवति, अतति सातत्येन तिष्ठतीति वा; अव्-अत् वा, ड Tv.] 1 N. of Viṣṇu, the first of the three sounds constituting the sacred syllable ओम्; अकारो विष्णुरुद्दिष्ट उकारस्तु महेश्वरः । मकारस्तु स्मृतो ब्रह्मा प्रणवस्तु त्रयात्मकः ॥ For more explanations of the three syllables अ, उ, म् see ओम्. -2 N. of Śiva, Brahmā, Vāyu, or Vaiśvānara.-- [अः कृष्णः शंकरो ब्रह्मा शक्रः सोमो$निलो$नलः । सूर्यः प्राणो यमः कालो वसन्तः प्रणवः सुखी ॥ Enm. अः स्याद् ब्रह्मणि विष्ण्वीशकूर्माणङ्करणेषु च। गौरवे$न्तःपुरे हेतौ भूषणे$ङ्घ्रावुमेज्ययोः ॥ Nm. अः शिखायां सिद्धमन्त्रे प्रग्राहे$र्के रथार्वणि । चक्रे कुक्कुटमूर्ध्नीन्दुबिम्बे ब्रह्मेशविष्णुषु ॥ ibid. Thus अः means Kṛiṣṇa, Śiva, Brahmā, Indra, Soma, Vāyu, Agni, the Sun, the life-breath, Yama, Kāla, Vasanta, Praṇava, a happy man, a tortoise, a courtyard, a battle, greatness, a female apartment in a palace, an object or a cause, an ornament, a foot, Umā, sacrifice, a flame, a particularly efficacious mantra, reins, the horse of chariot, a wheel, the head of a cock, the disc of the moon]; ind. 1 A Prefix corresponding to Latin in, Eng. in or un, Gr. a or an, and joined to nouns, adjectives, indeclinables (or rarely even to verbs) as a substitute for the negative particle ऩञ्, and changed to अन् before vowels (except in the word अ-ऋणिन्). The senses of न usually enumerated are six--(a) सादृश्य 'likeness' or 'resemblance', अब्राह्मणः one like a Brāhmaṇa (wearing the sacred thread &c.), but not a Brāhmaṇa; a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya; अनिक्षुः a reed appearing like इक्षु, but not a true इक्षु. (b) अभाव 'absence', 'negation', 'want', 'privation'; अज्ञानम् absence of knowledge, ignorance; अक्रोधः, अनङ्गः, अकण्टकः, अघटः &c. (c) अन्यत्व 'difference' or 'distinction'; अपटः not a cloth, something different from, or other than, a cloth. (d) अल्पता 'smallness', 'diminution', used as a diminutive particle; अनुदरा having a slender waist (कृशोदरी or तनुमध्यमा). (e) अप्राशस्त्य 'badness', 'unfitness', having a depreciative sense; अकालः wrong or improper time; अकार्यम् not fit to be done, improper, unworthy, bad act. (f) विरोध 'opposition', 'contrariety'; अनीतिः the opposite of morality; immorality; असित not white, black; असुर not a god, a demon &c. These senses are put together in the following verse :-- तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ See न also. With verbal derivatives, such as gerunds, infinitives, participles, it has usually the sense of 'not'; अदग्ध्वा not having burnt; अपश्यन् not seeing; so असकृत् not once; अमृषा, अकस्मात् &c. Sometimes in बहुव्रीहि अ does not affect the sense of the second member : अ-पश्चिम that which has no last, i. e. best, topmost; e. g. विपश्चितामपश्चिमः cf. also R.19.1. अनुत्तम having no superior, unsurpassed, most excellent: (for examples see these words). -2 An interjection of (a) Pity (ah !) अ अवद्यं P.I.1.14 Sk. (b) Reproach, censure (fie, shame); अपचसि त्वं जाल्म P.VI.3.73 Vārt. See अकरणि, अजीवनि also. (c) Used in addressing; अ अनन्त. (d) It is also used as a particle of prohibition. -3 The augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the Imperfect, Aorist and Conditional Tenses. N. B.-- The application of this privative prefix is practically unlimited; to give every possible case would almost amount to a dictionary itself. No attempt will, therefore, be made to give every possible combination of this prefix with a following word; only such words as require a special explanation, or such as most frequently occur in literature and enter into compounds with other words, will be given; others will be found self-explaining when the English 'in', 'un', or 'not', is substituted for अ or अन् before the meaning of the second word, or the sense may be expressed by 'less', 'free from', 'devoid or destitute of' &c; अकथ्य unspeakable; अदर्प without pride, or freedom from pride; अप्रगल्भ not bold; अभग unfortunate; अवित्त destitute of wealth &c. In many cases such compounds will be found explained under the second member. Most compounds beginning with अ or अन् are either Tatpuruṣa or Bahuvrīhi (to be determined by the sense) and should be so dissolved.
agada अगद a. [नास्ति गदो रोगो यस्य] 1 Healthy, sound, free from disease, in good health नरो$गदः Ms.8.17. -2 (गद् भाषणे-अच्, न. त.) Not speaking or telling. -3 Free from judicial affliction. -दः [नास्ति गदो रोगो यस्मात्] 1 A medicine, a medicinal drug; इति चिन्ताविषघ्नो$यमगदः किं न पीयते H.Pr.29; विषघ्नैरगदैश्चास्य सर्वद्रव्याणि योजयेत् Ms.7. 218. -2 Health, freedom from disease; औषधान्यगदो विद्या देवी च विविधा स्थितिः । तपसैव प्रसिध्यन्ति तपस्तेषां हि साधनम् ॥ Ms. 11.237. (अगदः गदाभावः नैरुज्यमिति यावत् Kull.) -3 The science of antidotes; one of the 8 parts of medical science. -राजः good medicine; श्रेयस्तनोत्यगदराज इवोपयुक्तः Bhāg.1.47.59.
ajītiḥ अजीतिः f. Prosperity, freedom from decay.
akarman अकर्मन् a. [न. ब] 1 Without work, idle; inefficient. -2 Disqualified for performing the necessary rites, wicked, degraded; अकर्मा दस्युरभि नो Rv.10.22.8. -3 (Gram.) intransitive, generally in this sense अकर्मक. --n. (र्म) [न. त] 1 Absence of work; absence of necessary observances; neglect of essential observances; inaction; अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः Bg.4.17,18. -2 An improper act; crime, sin. -3 Not doing (= अकरणम्), non-performance; प्रतिषेधादकर्म MS.1.8.1. -4 What should not be done; अकर्म वा कृतदूषा स्यात् । MS.12.1.1 (where शबर explains अकर्म by न वा कर्तव्या दार्शिकी वेदिः ।). -5 Non-act, non-activity: अन्यद्धि कर्म भक्षणं प्रतिषिध्यमानम् अन्यद् अकर्म मानसः संकल्पः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.19. -6 Not doing, violation. तदकर्मणि च दोषः MS.6.3.3. (where तदकर्मणि is explained as प्रधानातिक्रमे by शबर); अकर्मणि चाप्रत्यवायात् । MS 6.3.1. -7 A wrong act, an improper act. अकर्म च दारक्रिया या आधानोत्तरकाले । ŚB. on MS.6.8.14; अकर्म चोर्ध्वमाधानात्˚ । MS.6.8.14. -Comp. -अन्वित a. 1 un-engaged, unoccupied, idle. -2 criminal. -कृत् a. free from action; न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् । Bg.3.5 doing an improper act. -भोगः 1 enjoyment of freedom from the fruits of action. -2 renunciation of self-righteousness. -शील a. lazy, indolent.
amuktiḥ अमुक्तिः f. 1 Non-liberation. -2 Want of freedom or liberty.
anapāya अनपाय a. 1 Free from loss or decay. -2 Imperishable, undiminished, undecaying; प्रणमन्त्यनपायमुत्थितम् (चन्द्रम्) Ki.2.11. -यः 1 Imperishable nature, freedom from decay or wear and tear; permanence. -2 N. of Śiva.
anasūya अनसूय यक a. [न. ब.] Free from malice, not envious, not spiteful; श्रद्दधानो$नसूयश्च Ms.4.158; श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः । Bg.18.71. -या [न. त.] 1 Absence of envy, charity of disposition, freedom from spite or illwill; न गुणान् गुणिनो हन्ति स्तौति चान्यगुणानपि । न हसेच्चान्यदो- षांश्च सानसूया प्रकीर्तिता. -2 N. of a friend of Śakuntalā. -3 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa. -4 N. of Atri's wife, the highest type of chastity and wifely devotion. [She was very pious and given to austere devotion by virtue of which she had obtained miraculous powers. Several stories are told o illustrate them. When the earth was devastated by a terrible drought which lasted for 1 years, Anasūyā created water, fruits, roots &c. by means of her ascetic powers and saved many lives. On one occasion when the sage Māṇḍavya was about to be impaled, the wife of a sage happened to touch the stake as she passed by, whereupon Māṇḍavya cursed her that she would become a widow at sunrise. She, however, prevented the sun from rising, and all actions of men being consequently stopped, the gods, sages &c. went to Anasūyā, her friend, who, by the force of her penance, made the sun rise without, at the same time, bringing widowhood on her friend. Another legend is also told in which Anasūyā changed Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa into infants, when, at the instigation of their wives, they attempted to test her chastity, but restored them to their former shapes at the importunities of their humbled consorts. She is also said to have caused the three-streamed Ganges to flow down on the earth near the hermitage of her husband for the ablutions of sages; see R.13.51. In the Rāmāyaṇa she is represented as having been very kind and attentive to Sītā whom she favoured with sound motherly advice on the virtues of chastity, and at the time of her departure gave her an unguent (See R.12.27,14.14) which was to keep her beautiful for ever and to guard her person from the attempts of rapacious beasts, demons &c. She was the mother of the irascible sage Durvāsas]. सा त्वेवमुक्ता वैदेही त्वनसूयानसूयया Rām.2.18.1.
anudvega अनुद्वेग a. Free from anxiety or apprehension. -गः Security or freedom from fear. अदैन्यमनुदीर्णत्वमनुद्वेगो व्यवस्थितिः Mb.12.274.18.
anuśayaḥ अनुशयः [शी-अच्] 1 Repentance, remorse; regret, sorrow; नन्वनुशयस्थानमेतत् Māl.8; कुतस्ते$नुशयः M.3 why should you be sorry; बाष्पं प्रमृज्य विगतानुशयो भवेयम् Ś.7.25; इतो गतस्यानुशयो मा भूदिति V.4; ततः सपत्नापनयस्मरणानुशयस्फुरा Śi.2.14. -2 Intense enmity or anger; शिशुपालो$नुशयं परं गतः Śi.16.2; यस्मिन्नमुक्तानुशया सदैव जागर्ति भुजङ्गी Māl. 6.1. -3 Hatred. -4 Close connection, as with a consequence; close attachment (to any object). अयं त्वन्यो गुणः श्रेष्ठश्च्युतानां स्वर्गतो मुने । शुभानुशययोगेन मनुष्येषूपजायते ॥ Mh.3.261.33. -5 (In Vedānta Phil.) The result or consequence of bad deeds which very closely clings to them and makes the soul enter other bodies after enjoying temporary freedom from recurring births; (स्वर्गार्थकर्मणो भुक्तफलस्य अवशेषः कश्चिदनुशयो नाम भाण्डानुसारि- स्नेहवत्, यथा हि स्नेहभाण्ड विरिच्यमानं सर्वात्मना न विरिच्यते भाण्डा- नुसार्येव कश्चित् स्नेहशेषो$वतिष्ठते तथानुशयो$पि Tv.). -6 Regret in the case of purchases, technically called rescission; क्रीत्वा विक्रीय वा किञ्चिद्यस्येहानुशयो भवेत् Ms. 8.222; see क्रीतानुशय. cf. ......अनुशयो द्वेषे पश्चात्तापानुबन्धयोः and...... अनुशयो दीर्घद्वेषानुतापयोः Nm. -यी A disease of the feet, a sort of boil or abscess on the upper part.
apakṛṣ अपकृष् 1 P., 6 U. 1 (a) To draw back or away, draw off or aside, drag down, drag away, take or carry off, take or draw out, extract; आनायिभिस्ता- मपकृष्टनक्राम् R.16.55 drawn out; दन्ताग्रभिन्नमपकृष्य निरीक्षते च Rs.4.13 pulling off or back. (b) To take or carry away, remove; धैर्यं शोको$पकर्षति Rām.; किं त्वनुष्ठाननित्यत्वं स्वातन्त्र्यमपकर्षति U.1.8, Mv.4.33 prevents or interferes with freedom of action; क्षात्रं तेजो$पकर्षति Mv.1.32 destroys, robs one of. -2 To diminish, decrease, omit; अपकर्षेदेवं यावत्पञ्चदश Suśr. -3 To bend (as a bow); धनुःश्रेष्ठमपकृष्य Mb. -4 To lower or debase, dishonour, detract from, lessen the value of, disparage; पीडयन् भृत्यवर्गं हि आत्मानमपकर्षति Mb. -5. To bring or draw backwards; anticipate (as a word in a sentence) what occurs later on; अग्रिमसूत्रस्थं सर्वत्रग्रहणमिहापकृष्यते P. IV.1.17 Com. -Caus To remove, take away, lessen, diminish, detract from; काव्यस्यात्मभूतं रसमपकर्षयन्तः काव्य- स्यापकर्षकाः (दोषाः) उच्यन्ते S. D.1.
ayakṣma अयक्ष्म a. Ved. 1 Not consumptive, healthy. -2 Causing health; अयक्ष्मा बृहतीरिषः Rv.9.49.1. -क्ष्मम् Healthiness, freedom from disease. -Comp. -करण a. causing health, making healthy and sound; Av.19. 2.5. -तातिः f. health; अयक्ष्मतातिं मह इह धत्तम् Av. 4.25.5.
kāmaḥ कामः [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; oft. used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; Ms.2.94. -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. Kaṭh. Up.1.25. -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम. -5 Desire of carnal gratification, lust; Ms.2.214; न मय्यावेशितधियां कामः कामाय कल्पते Bhāg.1.22.26. -6 The god of love. -7 N. of Pradyumna. -8 N. of Balarāma. -9 A kind of mango tree. -1 The Supreme Being. -मा Desire, wish; उवाच च महासर्पं कामया ब्रूहि पन्नग Mb.3.179.2. -मम् 1 Object of desire. -2 Semen virile. [Kāma is the Cupid of the Hindu mythology the son of Kṛiṣṇa and Rukmiṇī. His wife is Rati. When the gods wanted a commander for their forces in their war with Tāraka, they sought the aid of Kāma in drawing the mind of Śiva towards Pārvatī, whose issue alone could vanquish the demon. Kāma undertook the mission; but Śiva, being offended at the disturbance of his penance, burnt him down with the fire of his third eye. Subsequently he was allowed by Śiva to be born again in the form of Pradyumna at the request of Rati. His intimate friend is Vasanta or the spring; and his son is Aniruddha. He is armed with a bow and arrows--the bow-string being a line of bees, and arrows of flowers of five different plants]. -Comp. -अग्निः 1 a fire of love, violent or ardent love. -2 violent desire, fire of passion. ˚संदीपनम् 1 inflaming fire of love. -2 an aphrodisiac. -अङ्कुशः 1 a fingernail (which plays an important part in erotic acts). -2 the male organ of generation. -अङ्गः the mango tree. -अधिकारः the influence of love or desire. -अधिष्ठित a. overcome by love. -अनलः see कामाग्नि. -अन्ध a. blinded by love or passion. (-न्धः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -अन्धा musk. -अन्निन् a. getting food at will. -अभिकाम a. libidinous, lustful. -अरण्यम् a pleasant grove. -अरिः 1 an epithet of Śiva; ते समेत्य तु कामारिं त्रिपुरारिं त्रिलोचनम् Rām.7.6.3. -2 a mineral substance. -अर्थिन् a. amorous, lustful, lascivious. -अवतारः N. of Pradyumna. -अवशा(सा)यिता f. 1 Self-control. -2 a kind of Yogic power. -अवसायः suppression of passion or desire, stoicism. -अशनम् 1 eating at will. -2 unrestrained enjoyment. -आख्या, -अक्षी N. of Durgā. -आतुर a. love-sick, affected by love; कामातुराणां न भयं न लज्जा Subhāṣ. -आत्मजः an epithet of Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna. -आत्मन् a. lustful, libidinous, enamoured. कामात्मानः स्वर्गफलाः Bg.2.43. Mb.1.119.3-4. Ms.7.27. -आयुधम् 1 arrow of the god of love. -2 membrum virile. (-धः) the mango-tree. -आयुस् m. 1 a vulture. -2 Garuḍa. -आर्त a. love-stricken, affected by love; कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु Me.5. -आश्रमः the hermitage of the god of love; Rām.1. -आसक्त a. overcome with love or desire, impassioned, lustful. -इष्टः the mango tree. -ईप्सु a. striving to obtain a desired object, यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म Bg.18.24. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Kubera; -2 the Supreme soul. -3 a person possessing all wealth. अपास्य कामा- न्कामेशो वसेत्तत्राविचारयन् Mb.12.287.56. -उदकम् 1 voluntary libation of water. -2 a voluntary libation of water to deceased friends exclusive of those who are entitled to it by law; कामोदकं सखिप्रत्तास्वस्रीयश्वशुर- र्त्विजाम् Y.3.4. -उपहत a. affected by or overcome with passion. -कला N. of Rati, the wife of Kāma. -काम, -कामिन् a. following the dictates of love or passion, गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते Bg.9.21; स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी Bg.2.7. -कार a. acting at will, indulging one's desires. (-रः) 1 voluntary action, spontaneous deed; Rām.2.11.18; Ms.11.41,45. -2 desire, influence of desire; अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते Bg.5. 12. -कूटः 1 the paramour of a harlot. -2 harlotry. -कृत् a. 1 acting at will, acting as one likes. -2 granting or fulfilling a desire. (-m.) the Supreme soul. -केलि a. lustful. (-लिः) 1 a paramour. -2 amorous sport. -3 copulation. -क्रीडा 1 dalliance of love, amorous sport. -2 copulation. -ग a. going of one's own accord, able to act or move as one likes. (-गा) 1 an unchaste or libidinous woman; Y.3.6. -2 a female Kokila. -गति a. able to go to any desired place; अध्यास्त कामगति सावरजो विमानम् R.13.76. -गुणः 1 the quality of passion, affection. -2 satiety, perfect enjoyment. -3 an object of sense. -चर, -चार a. moving freely or unrestrained, wandering at will; सर्वेषु लोकेष्वकामचारो भवति Bṛi. Up.7.25.2; नारदः कामचरः Ku.1.5. -चार a. unchecked, unrestrained. (-रः) 1 unrestrained motion. -2 independent or wilful action, wantonness; न कामचारो मयि शङ्कनीयः R.14.62. -3 one's will or pleasure, free will; अव्यपवृक्ते कामचारः Mbh. on Śiva Sūtra 3.4. कामचारानुज्ञा Sk.; Ms.2.22. -4 sensuality. -5 selfishness. -चारिन् a. 1 moving unrestrained; Me.65. -2 libidinous, lustful. -3 self-willed. (-m.) 1 Garuḍa. -2 a sparrow. -ज a. produced by passion or desire; Ms.7.46,47,5. -जः anger; रथो वेदी कामजो युद्धमग्निः Mb.12.24.27. -जननी betel-pepper (नागवेली). -जानः, -निः See कामतालः. -जित् a. conquering love or passion; R.9.33. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Skanda. -2 of Śiva. -तन्त्रम् N. of a work. -तालः the (Indian) cuckoo. -द a. fulfilling a desire, granting a request or desire. (-दः) an epithet of Skanda and of Śiva. -दहनम् a particular festival on the day of full moon in the month फाल्गुन (Mar. होलिकोत्सव). -दा = कामधेनु q. v. -दर्शन a. looking lovely. -दानम् 1 a gift to one's satisfaction. -2 a kind of ceremony among prostitutes; B. P. -दुघ a. 'milking one's desires', granting every desired object; प्रीता कामदुघा हि सा R.1.81,2.63; Māl.3.11. -दुघा, -दुह् f. a fabulous cow yielding all desires; आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् Bg.1.28. स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति Mbh. on P.VI.1.84. -दूती the female cuckoo. -दृश् f. a woman; विमोचितुं कामदृशां विहारक्रीडामृगो यन्निगडो विसर्गः Bhāg.7.6.17. -देव 1 the god of love. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -दोहिन् a. granting desires. -धर्मः amorous behaviour. -धेनुः f. the cow of plenty, a heavenly cow yielding all desires; कलतिवलती कामधेनू; or कलिवली कामधेनू Vyākraṇa Subhāṣita. -ध्वंसिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -पति, -पत्नी f. Rati, wife of Cupid. -पालः N. of Balarāma; also of Śiva. -प्रद a. granting desires. (-दः) 1 a kind of coitus. -2 the Supreme Being. -प्रवेदनम् expressing one's desire, wish or hope; कच्चित् कामप्रवेदने Ak. -प्रश्नः an unrestrained or free question; स ह कामप्रश्नमेव वव्रे Bṛi. Up.4.3.1. -फलः a species of the mango tree. -ला the plantain tree. -भाज् a. partaking of sensual enjoyment; कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि Kaṭh.1.24. -भोगाः (pl.) sensual gratifications; प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु Bg.16.16. -महः a festival of the god of love celebrated on the full-moon day in the month of Chaitra. -मालिन् m. N. of Gaṇeśa. -मूढ, -मोहित a. influenced or infatuated by love; यत्क्रौञ्च- मिथुनादेकमवधीः काममोहितम् U.2.5. -रसः 1 seminal discharge. -2 the spling -रसिक a. lustful, libidinous; क्षणमपि युवा कामरसिकः Bh.3.112. -रूप a. 1 taking any form at will; जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -2 beautiful, pleasing. (-पाः) (pl.) a district lying in the east of Bengal (the western portion of Assam); तमीशः कामरूपाणाम् R.4.83,84. -रूपिन् a. 1 taking any form at will; कामान्नी कामरूपी Tait. Up.3.1.5. -2 beautiful. -m. 1 a pole-cat. -2 a boar. -3 a Vidyādhara. -रेखा, -लेखा a harlot, courtezan. -लता membrum virile. -लोल a. overcome with passion, love-stricken. -वरः a gift chosen at will. -वल्लभः 1 the spring. -2 the moon. -3 the mango tree. (-भा) moonlight. -वश a. influenced by love. (-शः) subjection to love. -वश्य n. subject to love. -वाद a. saying anything at will. -विहन्तृ a. disappointing desires. -वीर्य a. 'showing heroism at will,' an epithet of Garuḍa. -वृक्षम् a. paracitical plant. -वृत्त a. addicted to sensual gratification, licentious, dissipated; विशीलः कामवृत्तो वा गुणैर्वा परिवर्जितः । उपचर्यः स्त्रिया साध्व्या सततं देववत्पतिः ॥ Ms. 5.154. -वृत्ति a. acting according to will, self-willed, independent; न कामवृत्तिर्वचनीयमीक्षते Ku.5.82. (-त्तिः) f. 1 free and unrestrained action. -2 freedom of will. -वृद्धिः f. increase of passion. -वृन्तम् the trumpet flower. -शर 1 a love shaft. -2 the mango tree. -शास्त्रम् the science of love, erotic science. -संयोगः attainment of desired objects. -सखः 1 the spring. -2 the month of Chaitra. -3 the mango tree. -सू a. fulfilling any desire. किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूः R.5.33. -m. N. of Vāsudeva. -f. N. of Rukmiṇi; -सूत्रम् 1 N. of an erotic work by Vātsyāyana. -2 'thread of love', love-incident' औद्धत्यमायोजितकामसूत्रम् Māl.1.4. -हैतुक a. produced by mere desire without any real cause; Bg.16.8.
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
svairatā स्वैरता त्वम् Wantonness, freedom of will and action, independence; also स्वैरिता in this sense.
virāgaḥ विरागः 1 Change of colour. -2 Change of disposition, disaffection, discontent, dissatisfaction; विरागकारणेषु परि- हृतेषु Mu.1. -3 Aversion, disinclination; Kau. A.3. -4 Indifference to worldly attachments, freedom from passion.
viraktiḥ विरक्तिः f. 1 Change of disposition, dissatisfaction, discontent, disaffection. -2 Estrangement. -3 Indifference, absence of desire, freedom from passion or worldly attachment; Bhāg.1.16.28.
vyāmokaḥ व्यामोकः Release, freedom (from), getting rid of.
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aditi Á-diti, f. name of a goddess, viii. 48, 2 [unbinding, freedom, from 3. dā bind].
uruṣyu uru-ṣyú, a. freedom-giving, viii. 48, 5 [from den. uru-ṣya put in wide space, rescue].
varivas vár-i-vas, n. wide space, vii. 63, 6; prosperity, iv. 50, 9 [breadth, freedom: vṛ cover].
śithira śithirá, a. loose; n. freedom, vii. 71, 5 [Gk. καθαρό-ς ‘free, pure’].
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akāmatā f. freedom from desire or love.
akrodha m. freedom from anger; a. not given to anger; -na, a. id.
apaiśuna n. freedom from detraction.
alobha m. freedom from confusion; lack of cupidity; moderation; a. moderate, contented.
avidveṣa m. freedom from enmity, amity.
aviśaṅka a. unhesitating; fear less; â, f. freedom from hesitation or timidity; -ita, pp. fearless; unhesitating; -in, a. not assuming or supposing.
ātmayājin a. sacrificing oneself; -yoni, m. ep. of Kâma & Vishnu; -rakshana, n. self-protection; -lâbha, m. one's own advantage; attainment of life, birth; -vat, ad. like oneself; a. animate; self-controlled; sensible; personal: w. sruta, n.=knowledge of men: -tâ, f. self-control; -vadha, m., -va dhyâ, f. suicide; -varga, m. one's own party; -vasa, a. depending on oneself; -vasya, a. that one has in one's power; -vikraya, m. selling one's freedom; -vit-tâ, f. self-knowledge; -víd, a. knowing the universal soul; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of the universal soul; -vidhitsâ, f. selfishness; -vivriddhi, f. self-aggrandisement; -vrittânta,m. n. account of oneself; -vritti, f. one's own condition.
kāmakāma a. having all kinds of desires; -kâmin, a. id.; -kâra, a. fulfil ling the wishes of (g.); m. voluntary act; free dom of will: -tas, in., ab., °ree;--, intentional ly; voluntarily; -krita, pp. done intention ally; -ga, a. going anywhere at one's own free will; following one's desires; -gati, a. going anywhere at will; -gama, a. id.; -go, f. cow of plenty; -kara, a. (î) moving at will: -tva, n. abst. n.; -kârá, m. freedom of action; voluntary or intentional action; self-indulg ence: -kâra-vâda-bhaksha, a. acting, speak ing, and eating at will; -kâr-in, a. moving at will: -i-tva, n. freedom of action; -ga, a. produced from love of pleasure; begotten through sensual passion; -tantra, n. T. of a work (book of love); -taru, m. Kâma (as a) tree; -tas, ad. through desire, lust, or love of pleasure; voluntarily; intentionally; -da, a. granting desires: -tva, n. abst. n.; -daminî, f. ironical N. of a lascivious woman (love-con trolling); -dúgha, a. milking=yielding every wish: â, f. cow of plenty; -duh, f. (nm. -dhuk) id.; -deva, m. god of love; -dhenu, f. cow of plenty.
jyotis n. light, radiance; fire; light of the eye; world of light; intelligence; light of life, freedom, joy, victory: pl. heavenly bodies, stars.
nirahaṃkāra a. free from ego ism; -kârin, a. free from consciousness of self; -krita, pp. impersonal; unselfish; un pretentious; -kriti, a. free from egoism; -kriya, a. impersonal; -kriyâ, f. freedom from egoism.
nirmakṣika n. freedom from flies: -m kri, clear the premises (Pr.); -mañkana, n. purification; -mandûka, a. destitute of frogs; -matsara, a. free from envy or jealousy; -matsya, a. fishless: -tâ, f.absence of fish: -m nî, clear of fish; -math ana, n. friction, esp. of tinder-wood; churn ing; -mada, a. not in rut; not proud, humble; -manas-ka, a. destitute of intellect: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -manyu, a. free from wrath.
nīrajas a. free from dust; devoid of passions: -ka, a. id.; -tamasâ, f. freedom from passion and darkness.
naiścintya n. freedom from care.
prākāmya n. perfect freedom of will.
loka m. [orig. probably uloká, which is almost invariably used in RV., and perh. =(a) va-loká: √ ruk] (free) space, room, place (V.); tract, region, country; world, division of the universe (the two worlds=heaven and earth; the three --, = the same and the at mosphere or the lower regions; seven worlds are commonly spoken of); heaven; earth; (sg. & pl.) mankind, folks, people (sts. opp. king); men (pl.: opp. women); community, company (often --°ree; to form collectives); ordin ary life, common usage, worldly affairs (opp. Veda); sight (only --°ree; in kákshur-, seeing with the eye): (urúm) lokám kri, make room for, grant freedom to (d.; V.); ayám lokáh, this world; asaú or páro lokáh, that or the other world; loke, in place of (g.; Br.); in ordin ary life, in popular speech; in the world, on earth; iha loke, here on earth; kritsne loke, in the whole world.
lobhamañjarī f. nickname of a courtesan; -mohita, pp. infatuated by cupidity; -viraha, m. freedom from greed; -½âkrishta, pp. allured by cupidity.
varivas n. (V.) [√ 1. vri; cp. ur-ú] expanse, space; freedom, ease: w. kri, dhâ, or vid, bring comfort or liberty to (d.), clear the path, to (d.).
varīyas cpv. (V.) wider, broader, than (ab.); freer; n. ad. farther, -off; n. wider space, than (ab.); free space, freedom.
vaśitva n. freedom of will, inde pendence; command of (lc.); self-control.
vitasti f. [√ tan] span (as measure of length=12 a&ndot;gulas or about nine inches); -tâna, a. (rare) [√ tan] empty (in a-, not empty); dejected; m. n. expansion, exten sion, extent; quantity, mass; high degree; variety; performance; development; sacri fice; canopy, awning; m. (separation of) the sacred fires: -ka, n. awning, canopy (esp. --°ree;); quantity, -vat, a. provided with a canopy; -tânâ-ya,den. represent a canopy; -tânî-bhû, id.; -tâmasa, a. light, bright; -timira, a. id.; -tîrna, pp. √ trî; -tusha, a. unhusked; -tushta, pp. dissatisfied, dis pleased; -tritîyá, a. intermittent on the third day (fever; AV.1); n.third (Br. S.); -tripta-ka, a. sated (in a-, not yet sated with; g.); -trishna, a. free from thirst; having no desire: -tâ, f. freedom from de sire, satisfaction, contentment; -trishnâ, f. id.; -tolâ, f. N. of a river.
vibhaṅga m. contraction (of the brows); furrow; interruption, stoppage, frus tration; deception; wave; -bhaganîya, fp. to be distributed; -bhaya, n. freedom from danger; a. exposed to no danger; -bhava, a. rich (E., rare); m. omnipresence (rare); development (rare); might, power, majesty, greatness, exalted position (ord. mg.); wealth, property; luxury: -tas, according to rank (dr.); according to one'specuniary circum stances, -mati, m. N. of a princess, -vat, a. wealthy; -bhavin, a. id.; -bh&asharp;, a. shin ing (V.); f. splendour, beauty (C.): -kara, m. (light-maker), sun; king; -bhâgá, m. V.: distribution, apportionment; C.: parti tion of inheritance; division; share, in (--°ree;); portion, constituent part; numerator of a fraction; separation, distinction, difference: in. separately, singly, in detail: -rekhâ, f. boundary line between (g.), -vat-tâ, f. separation, distinction, -sas, ad. part by part, in parts, singly; according to (--°ree;).
virakta pp. (√ rañg) estranged etc.: -prakriti, a. whose principal officers are dis affected, -bhâva, a. disaffected; -rakti, f. indifference, to (lc., upari w. g., prati w. ac.); freedom from worldlyattachment: -mat, a. indifferent, to (lc.); accompanied with free dom from worldly attachment; -rakanâ, f. disposition, embellishment: alakânâm --, neatly arranged locks; -rakayitavya, fp. to be made or formed; -rakita, pp. cs. √ rak: â, f. N.; (ví)-raga, a. free from dust, clean, pure (also fig.); free from passion; -ragas, a. id.; m. N.; -ragas-ka, a. dustless; -ragas karana, n. freeing from dust, cleansing; -ragî kri, free from dust, cleanse; -rañka, -rañki, -rañkya, m. ep. of Brahman; -rata, pp. (√ ram) ceased etc.: -tva, n. cessation; -rata-prasa&ndot;ga, a. having ceased from en gaging in (lc.); -rati, f. cessation; end; desistence or abstention from, renunciation of (ab., lc., --°ree;); -ratha, a. deprived of one's car; -rathî-kri, deprive any one of his chariot; -rathî-bhû, be deprived of one's car; -rapsá, a. (&isharp;) exuberant (RV.); m. abundance (RV.); -rapsín,a. exuberant, vigorous (V.); -rama, m. cessation, abate ment; sunset; abstention from (--°ree;); -rama- na, n. cessation; abstention from (--°ree;).
viśoka a. free from sorrow; re moving sorrow; m. N. of the charioteer of Bhîma; N. of a Dânava: -tâ, f. freedom from sorrow; -sodha, incorr. for -sodha, pp. √ sah; -sodhana, cs. (√ sudh)a. (î) cleans ing; washing off; n. purification (also in the ritual sense); -sodh-in, a. cleansing: (-i)-tva, n. clearing, freeing from obstruction; -sodh ya, fp. to be subtracted from (ab.); -sosha, m. dryness; -soshana, a.drying; healing (wounds, --°ree;); n. desiccation, drying up; -sosh in, a. drying up, withering; making dry.
vītacinta a. free from anxiety about (lc.); -darpa, a. humbled; (á)-prish- tha, a. smooth-backed (courser; V.); -bhaya, a. free from fear, intrepid; -bhî, a. id.; -bhî ti, a. id.; m. N. of an Asura; -râga, a. exempt from passion or worldly desires; free from desire for (lc.): -bhaya-krodha, a. free from passions, fear, and anger; (á)-vâra, a. having a smooth tail (steed; RV.1); -visha, a. free from impurities, clear (water); -vyatireka, a. not separated or isolated; -vrîda, a. shame less; -sa&ndot;kam, ad. fearlessly; -soka, a. free from sorrow: -tâ, f. freedom from sorrow; -samdeha, a. subject to no doubt; -sûtra, n. sacred cord; (á)-havya, a. whose offerings are acceptable (RV.); m. N.
vaitṛṣṇya n. [vitrishna] quench ing of thirst; freedom from desire, indiffer ence to (--°ree;).
śānta pp. v. √ 2. sam; m. N.: -ketas, a. composed, calm; -gvara, a. having one's grief assuaged; -tâ, f. quietism, freedom from passion; -tva, n. id.; -manas, a. composed.
svatantra n. (self-authority), inde pendence, freedom; a. free, independent, un controlled: w. pada, n. independent word: -tâ, f. independence, freedom; originality; -tantraya, den. subject to one'swill; (á) tavas, a. V.: self-strong, inherently powerful; valiant; -tas, ad. of oneself, of one's own ac cord; by nature; out of one's own estate: svato &zip; msât, from one's own share, raksher apakâram svatah parato vâ,guard your self and others against transgression; -tâ, f. ownership: -m pasyati, believes that every thing belongs to or is meant for him, râga svatam upapadyate, accrues to the king; -tvá, n. proprietary right to (lc.; C.); inde pendence (V.).
svavaśa a. having control of oneself, independent, free: -tâ, f. independence, freedom.
svācchandya n. [sva-kkhanda] independence, freedom: ab. voluntarily.
svādhīna a. dependent on oneself, independent, free; being in one's own power or control, being at one's own dispo sal: -tâ, f. freedom, independence; -patika, -bhartrika, a. having her husband under her control.
svātantrya n. [sva-tantra] inde pendence, freedom of will: in. independently, by oneself.
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āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
upasti Denotes both in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda a ‘dependent,’ just as later in the Epic the subordination of the Vaiśya to the two superior castes is expressed by the verb upa-sthā, ‘stand under,’ support.’ The word also appears, with the same sense, in the form of Sti, but only in the Rigveda. The exact nature of the dependence connoted by the term is quite uncertain. Zimmer conjectures that the *dependents ’ were the members of defeated Aryan tribes who became clients of the king, as among the Greeks, Romans, and Germans, the term possibly including persons who had lost their freedom through dicing. The evidence of the Athar¬vaveda shows that among the Upastis were included the chariot-makers (ratha-kāra), the smiths (taksan), and the charioteers (sūta), and troop-leaders (grāma-nī), while the Rigveda passages negative the possibility of the subjects ’ (s&‘) being the whole people. It is therefore fair to assume that they were the clients proper of the king, not servile, but attached in a special relation to him as opposed to the ordinary population. They may well have included among them not only the classes suggested by Zimmer, but also higher elements, such as refugees from other clans, as well as ambitious men who sought advancement in the royal service. Indeed, the Sūta and the Grāmanī were, as such, officers of the king’s house¬holdkingmakers, not themselves kings, as they are described in the Atharvaveda. The use of the word in the Taittirīya Samhitā, the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and the Kāthaka, is purely metaphorical, as well as in the one passage of the Rigveda in which it occurs. In the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda,Vaiśya, Sūdra, and Arya are referred to as Upastis, perhaps in the general sense of ‘subject.’
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
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Results for freedom
     
abhayam freedomSB 2.1.5
abhayam freedom from all fearsSB 1.17.17
abhayam freedom from fearSB 10.63.50
abhayam freedom from the fearful condition of material existenceCC Madhya 22.110
adrohaḥ freedom from envyBG 16.1-3
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
ajara-amaratā freedom from old age and deathSB 12.10.36
ajara-amaratā freedom from old age and deathSB 12.10.36
akāmāya for freedom from desireSB 10.60.50
akarma freedom from fruitive resultsSB 8.1.14
akartṛtvāt by freedom from proprietorshipSB 3.27.1
aklamam freedom from troubleSB 10.78.30
akrodhaḥ freedom from angerBG 16.1-3
akutaḥ-bhayam complete freedom from fearSB 10.70.35
akutaḥ-bhayam complete freedom from fearSB 10.70.35
aloluptvam freedom from greedBG 16.1-3
anāmayarn freedom from diseaseSB 10.39.4
anamīvam freedom from unhappinessSB 10.39.4
apavargaḥ freedomSB 10.60.43
apavargaḥ freedom from all unhappinessSB 11.19.2
apramādāya for (showing your) freedom from bewildermentSB 10.51.59
apunaḥ-bhavam freedom from birth and deathSB 11.20.34
apunaḥ-bhavam freedom from birth and deathSB 11.20.34
apunaḥ-bhavam freedom from rebirthSB 10.16.37
apunaḥ-bhavam freedom from rebirthSB 10.16.37
SB 12.6.38
apunaḥ-bhavam freedom from rebirthSB 12.6.38
ārjavam simplicity (freedom from mental duplicity)SB 7.11.8-12
asammohaḥ freedom from doubtBG 10.4-5
asvatantratvam there is no freedom from dependence on the modes of natureSB 11.10.33
avikāritvam freedom from all distractionSB 3.26.22
avirodhena by freedom from obstructionNBS 18
avismṛtiḥ freedom from forgetfulnessMM 3
dhairyam freedom from disturbanceSB 1.16.26-30
kaivalyam freedomSB 3.27.19
kaivalyam freedom from material contaminationSB 4.20.10
kṣemam freedom from illusionSB 11.20.37
mumukṣayā seeking freedomSB 3.19.28
nairāśyam freedom from material desiresSB 11.8.44
naiṣkarmyam freedom from all material workSB 12.13.18
naiṣkarmyam freedom from fruitive reactionsSB 11.3.41
naiṣkarmyam freedom from reactionBG 3.4
nirvaira-ādibhiḥ by practice of freedom from animosity, etc.SB 3.14.46
nirvaira-ādibhiḥ by practice of freedom from animosity, etc.SB 3.14.46
no bhavet bandhaḥ freedom from all material bondageSB 10.10.41
no bhavet bandhaḥ freedom from all material bondageSB 10.10.41
no bhavet bandhaḥ freedom from all material bondageSB 10.10.41
śāpa-muktaye for freedom from the curseSB 7.1.45
śāpa-muktaye for freedom from the curseSB 7.1.45
sarva-bandha-nāśa freedom from all kinds of bondageCC Adi 10.29
sarva-bandha-nāśa freedom from all kinds of bondageCC Adi 10.29
sarva-bandha-nāśa freedom from all kinds of bondageCC Adi 10.29
svacchande in full freedomCC Antya 3.126
svacchande with full freedomCC Antya 6.218
uparama freedom from false egoSB 5.19.9
vidheya-ātmā one who follows regulated freedomBG 2.64
vidheya-ātmā one who follows regulated freedomBG 2.64
vimocana freedomCC Adi 12.91
vimucyeta gets freedomSB 1.1.14
nirvaira-ādibhiḥ by practice of freedom from animosity, etc.SB 3.14.46
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
akāmāya for freedom from desireSB 10.60.50
akartṛtvāt by freedom from proprietorshipSB 3.27.1
akutaḥ-bhayam complete freedom from fearSB 10.70.35
apramādāya for (showing your) freedom from bewildermentSB 10.51.59
ārjavam simplicity (freedom from mental duplicity)SB 7.11.8-12
asvatantratvam there is no freedom from dependence on the modes of natureSB 11.10.33
vidheya-ātmā one who follows regulated freedomBG 2.64
avirodhena by freedom from obstructionNBS 18
akutaḥ-bhayam complete freedom from fearSB 10.70.35
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
śāpa-muktaye for freedom from the curseSB 7.1.45
mumukṣayā seeking freedomSB 3.19.28
nirvaira-ādibhiḥ by practice of freedom from animosity, etc.SB 3.14.46
śāpa-muktaye for freedom from the curseSB 7.1.45
svacchande in full freedomCC Antya 3.126
svacchande with full freedomCC Antya 6.218
agha-marṣa-uda that which offers freedom from all reactions to sinSB 3.5.41
vidheya-ātmā one who follows regulated freedomBG 2.64
vimucyeta gets freedomSB 1.1.14
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Results for freedom
     
acāpalya noun (neuter) freedom from unsteadiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31434/72933
aditi noun (feminine) a cow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
boundlessness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
creative power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
immensity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inexhaustible abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the most ancient of the Indian goddesses ("Infinity" or the "Eternal and Infinite Expanse") (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
safety (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
security (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speech (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unimpaired condition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3932/72933
adroha noun (masculine) freedom from malice or treachery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8911/72933
agada noun (masculine neuter) a medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
antidote (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Costus Speciosus drug (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from disease (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3628/72933
akleśa noun (masculine) freedom from trouble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13899/72933
akṛcchra noun (masculine neuter) absence of difficulty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from trouble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17447/72933
akṣobha noun (masculine) freedom from agitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imperturbability (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the post to which an elephant is tied (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41616/72933
aloluptva noun (neuter) freedom from any desire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45049/72933
amokṣa noun (masculine) bondage confinement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
non liberation (from mundane existence) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44673/72933
anahaṃkāra noun (masculine) absence of self-conceit or of the tendency to regard self as something distinct from the Supreme spirit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from pride (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
non-egotism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20538/72933
anapāya noun (masculine) (in phil.) the state of not being abridged or deprived of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from mischief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26272/72933
anasūyā noun (feminine) absence of ill-will or envy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from spite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Dakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Atri
Frequency rank 4754/72933
anudvega noun (masculine) freedom from uneasiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18791/72933
anuśaya noun (masculine) (in phil.) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ancient or intense enmity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
close attachment to any object (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
close connection as with a consequence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hatred (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regret (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
repentance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9758/72933
anātapa noun (masculine) freedom from the blaze of the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20542/72933
anīti noun (feminine) freedom from a calamitous season (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43032/72933
anṛṇatā noun (feminine) freedom from debt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26381/72933
apavighna noun (neuter) freedom from obstruction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43721/72933
aroṣa noun (masculine) freedom from anger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gentleness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32536/72933
atvarā noun (feminine) freedom from haste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31625/72933
jyotis noun (neuter) jyotiṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre of 32 short and 16 long syllables (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mystical name for the letter r (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
brightness (of the sky) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
celestial world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
eye-light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flash of lightning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light as the divine principle of life or source of intelligence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light as the type of freedom or bliss or victory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonlight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of certain formularies containing the word jyotis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several Ekāhas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
planets and stars (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
science of the movements of the heavenly bodies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun and moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the eye (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the heavenly bodies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the light of heaven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1031/72933
lokya adjective actual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bestowing freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conducive to the attainment of a better world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
customary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diffused over the world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
every-day (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
granting a free sphere of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heavenly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
real (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
right (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
usual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
world-wide (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13735/72933
nirabhimānitva noun (neuter) freedom from pride lack of conceit
Frequency rank 56089/72933
nirāmaya noun (masculine) a boar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a hog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from illness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
health (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
welfare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wild goat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21582/72933
prākāmya noun (neuter) freedom of will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a siddhi: irresistible will or fiat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wilfulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10725/72933
svatantra noun (neuter) freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
independence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one's own army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one's own system or school (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-dependence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20383/72933
svācchandya noun (neuter) freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
independence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22739/72933
svātantrya noun (neuter) freedom of the will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
independence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the following one's own will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3697/72933
vaiguṇya noun (neuter) absence of attributes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
absence of or freedom from qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
badness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contrariety of properties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defectiveness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difference of qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diversity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
faultiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imperfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unskilfulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8191/72933
vairāgya noun (masculine neuter) asceticism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
aversion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change or loss of colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distaste for or loathing of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from all worldly desires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
growing pale (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to worldly objects and to life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2630/72933
vaitṛṣṇya noun (neuter) freedom from desire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quenching of thirst (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13787/72933
vaśitva noun (neuter) bewitching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fascinating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom of will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mastery of one's self (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
power or dominion over (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-command (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subduing by magical means (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the being one's own master (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the supernatural power of subduing to one's own will; one of the aiśvaryas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9696/72933
virakti noun (feminine) alienation of mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change of disposition or feeling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom of passion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to worldly objects (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of interest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weanedness from the world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12663/72933
ārogya noun (neuter) a particular ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from disease (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
health (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2111/72933
śuddhi noun (feminine) (in arithm.) leaving no remainder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accuracy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accurate knowledge regarding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acquittal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
certainty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cleansing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearing off or paying off (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
correction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
correctness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discharge (of a debt etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exculpation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from defilement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
genuineness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
holiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
innocence (established by ordeal or trial) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
justification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
making true (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dākṣāyaṇī as worshipped at Kapālamocana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purificatory rite (esp. a particular Śrāddha performed at the cost of a person who needs purification) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purity (lit. and fig.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quittance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rendering secure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
retaliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
setting free or securing (from any danger) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subtraction of a quantity or a quantity to be subtracted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
truth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
verification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 774/72933
akṛcchra noun (masculine neuter) absence of difficulty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from trouble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17447/72933
agada noun (masculine neuter) a medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
antidote (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Costus Speciosus drug (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from disease (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3628/72933
aditi noun (feminine) a cow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
boundlessness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
creative power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
immensity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inexhaustible abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the most ancient of the Indian goddesses ("Infinity" or the "Eternal and Infinite Expanse") (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
safety (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
security (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speech (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unimpaired condition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3932/72933
anapāya noun (masculine) (in phil.) the state of not being abridged or deprived of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from mischief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26272/72933
anasūyā noun (feminine) absence of ill-will or envy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from spite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Dakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Atri
Frequency rank 4754/72933
anahaṃkāra noun (masculine) absence of self-conceit or of the tendency to regard self as something distinct from the Supreme spirit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from pride (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
non-egotism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20538/72933
anuśaya noun (masculine) (in phil.) the consequence or result of an act (which clings to it and causes the soul after enjoying the temporary freedom from transmigration to enter other bodies) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ancient or intense enmity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
close attachment to any object (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
close connection as with a consequence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hatred (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regret (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
repentance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9758/72933
amokṣa noun (masculine) bondage confinement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
non liberation (from mundane existence) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44673/72933
ārogya noun (neuter) a particular ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from disease (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
health (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2111/72933
jyotis noun (neuter) jyotiṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre of 32 short and 16 long syllables (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mystical name for the letter r (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
brightness (of the sky) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
celestial world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
eye-light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flash of lightning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light as the divine principle of life or source of intelligence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light as the type of freedom or bliss or victory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonlight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of certain formularies containing the word jyotis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several Ekāhas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
planets and stars (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
science of the movements of the heavenly bodies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun and moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the eye (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the heavenly bodies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the light of heaven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1031/72933
nirāmaya noun (masculine) a boar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a hog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from illness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
health (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
welfare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wild goat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21582/72933
lokya adjective actual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bestowing freedom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conducive to the attainment of a better world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
customary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diffused over the world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
every-day (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
granting a free sphere of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heavenly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
real (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
right (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
usual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
world-wide (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13735/72933
vaśitva noun (neuter) bewitching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fascinating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom of will (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mastery of one's self (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
power or dominion over (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
self-command (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subduing by magical means (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the being one's own master (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the supernatural power of subduing to one's own will; one of the aiśvaryas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9696/72933
virakti noun (feminine) alienation of mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change of disposition or feeling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom of passion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to worldly objects (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of interest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weanedness from the world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12663/72933
vaiguṇya noun (neuter) absence of attributes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
absence of or freedom from qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
badness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contrariety of properties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defectiveness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difference of qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diversity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
faultiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imperfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unskilfulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8191/72933
vairāgya noun (masculine neuter) asceticism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
aversion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change or loss of colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
distaste for or loathing of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from all worldly desires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
growing pale (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifference to worldly objects and to life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2630/72933
śuddhi noun (feminine) (in arithm.) leaving no remainder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accuracy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accurate knowledge regarding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acquittal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
certainty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cleansing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearing off or paying off (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
correction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
correctness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discharge (of a debt etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exculpation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
freedom from defilement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
genuineness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
holiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
innocence (established by ordeal or trial) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
justification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
making true (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dākṣāyaṇī as worshipped at Kapālamocana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purificatory rite (esp. a particular Śrāddha performed at the cost of a person who needs purification) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purity (lit. and fig.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quittance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rendering secure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
retaliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
setting free or securing (from any danger) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subtraction of a quantity or a quantity to be subtracted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
truth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
verification (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 774/72933








Parse Time: 1.196s Search Word: freedom Input Encoding: IAST: freedom