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"cat" has 1 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√catcatee[paribhāṣaṇe] yācane ca1598
  
"cat" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√चत्catasking, begging, requesting / yācana850/2Cl.1
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Results for cat
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
aṅganamNeuterSingularcatvaram, ajiram
āragvadhaḥ2.4.23MasculineSingularsaṃpākaḥ, caturaṅgulaḥ, ārevataḥ, vyādhighātaḥ, kṛtamālaḥ, rājavṛkṣaḥ, suvarṇakaḥ
brahmā1.1.16-17MasculineSingularprajāpatiḥ, viścasṛṭ, aṇḍajaḥ, kamalodbhavaḥ, satyakaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, pitāmahaḥ, svayaṃbhūḥ, abjayoniḥ, kamalāsanaḥ, vedhāḥ, vidhiḥ, pūrvaḥ, sadānandaḥ, haṃsavāhanaḥ, surajyeṣṭhaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, caturāsanaḥ, druhiṇaḥ, sraṣṭā, vidhātā, nābhijanmā, nidhanaḥ, rajomūrtiḥ, parameṣṭhī, lokeśaḥ, dhātā, virañciḥbramha
caturabdā2.9.69FeminineSingulartrihāyaṇī
caturbhadram2.7.62NeuterSingular
caturvargaḥ2.7.62MasculineSingular
ekahāyanī2.9.69FeminineSingularcaturhāyaṇī
gauḥ2.9.67-72FeminineSingularupasaryā, rohiṇī, bahusūtiḥ, kapilā, navasūtikā, ekahāyanī, droṇakṣīrā, bandhyā, saurabheyī, garbhopaghātinī, arjunī, acaṇḍī, dhavalā, vaṣkayiṇī, dvivarṣā, pīnoghnī, tryabdā, samāṃsamīnā, sandhinī, vaśā, praṣṭhauhī, naicikī, pareṣṭukā, pāṭalā, suvratā, caturabdā, droṇadugdhā, avatokā, usrā, kālyā, aghnyā, sukarā, kṛṣṇā, dhenuḥ, ekābdā, pīvarastanī, trihāyaṇī, māheyī, vehad, śṛṅgiṇī, bālagarbhiṇī, śavalī, cirasūtā, dvihāyanī, sukhasaṃdohyā, caturhāyaṇī, dhenuṣyā, sravadgarbhā, mātā(49)cow
mṛtaḥ2.8.119MasculineSingularpramītaḥ, parāsuḥ, prāptapañcatvaḥ, paretaḥ, pretaḥ, saṃsthitaḥ
mṛtyuḥ2.8.118Ubhaya-lingaSingularantaḥ, ‍‍diṣṭāntaḥ, maraṇam, atyayaḥ, kāladharmaḥ, nāśaḥ, pralayaḥ, pañcatā, nidhanam
paṭaḥ2.10.18MasculineSingularuṣṇaḥ, dakṣaḥ, caturaḥ, ‍‍‍peśalaḥ, sūtthānaḥ
pramāṇam3.3.60NeuterSingularkramaḥ, nimnorvī, prahvaḥ, catuṣpathaḥ
prasūnam3.3.130NeuterSingularcatuṣpathaḥ, saṃniveśaḥ
sañjavanamNeuterSingularcatuḥśālam
śṛṅgāṭakamNeuterSingularcatuṣpatham
sthaṇḍilam2.7.20NeuterSingularcatvaram
svacchandaḥ3.3.200MasculineSingularcaturthaṃyugam
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
upāyacatuṣṭayam2.8.19NeuterSingular
sahāñcatti3.1.33MasculineSingular
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
चत् cl.1. c/atati-,"to hide one's self." See c/atat- and c/atta- ; to go ; P. and A1. to ask, beg (= cad-) : Causal cāt/ayati-, te- (Aorist acīcattam-, acīcate- ),"to cause to hide", scare, frighten away (see niś--, pra--, vi--; see also cātaka-, cātana-, cāttra-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतसृf. plural of cat/ur-, 4 (Nominal verb and accusative c/atasras-[ see Va1rtt. 2 ]; instrumental case catas/ṛbhis-[ see ] ; genitive case sṝṇ/ām- ;or sṝṇām-[Ved. ] ; locative case s/ṛṣu- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतसृf. ([see priya--; confer, compare Hibernian or Irish ceteora.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतसृकाf. plural idem or 'f. ([see priya--; confer, compare Hibernian or Irish ceteora.])' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतत्mfn. (pr.p.) hiding one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतिन्mfn. equals c/atat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतितmfn. class. equals catt/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्स्तनाf. (a cow) having 4 nipples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्तmfn. (Ved. ) hidden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्तmfn. (quotation in) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्तmfn. disappeared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्त cattra-, catya- See cat-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्तरात्रm. "Name of a man" See cāttarātra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्त्रn. varia lectio for cāttra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुmfn. equals turth/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुin compound for t/ur- (before s-followed by a surd dental and -followed by a surd lingual) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतूin compound for t/ur- before r-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःin compound for t/ur- & t/us-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसाधनmfn. yielding 4 ways of attaining an object View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसहस्र(c/at-) n. 4000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसाहस्रकmf(ikā-)n. consisting of 4000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशाखn. "having 4 extremities", the body
चतुःशालmfn. having 4 halls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशालm. a building with 4 halls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशालकn. idem or 'm. a building with 4 halls ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशालिकाf. idem or 'n. idem or 'm. a building with 4 halls ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसमmfn. having 4 symmetric parts of the body (viz. arms, knees, legs, and cheeks Scholiast or Commentator;but see -śākha-and c/atur-aṅga-) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसमn. an unguent of 4 ingredients (sandal, agallochum, saffron;and musk ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसंधिmfn. composed of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशमीf. 4 śamī-s long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसंकरmfn. (a lawsuit) in which 4 matters are mingled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसंस्थmfn. consisting of 4 saṃsthā-s or kinds of soma- oblation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसमुद्रmf(ī-)n. (c/at-) having 4 seas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसमुद्रmf(ī-)n. surrounded by 4 seas (the earth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसनmfn. containing the 4 sons of brahmā- (whose names begin with sana-,viz. sanaka-, sananda-, sanātana-, sanat-kumāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशफ(c/at-) mfn. four-hoofed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसप्ततmfn. the 74th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसप्ततिf. 74 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसप्ततितमmfn. equals ptata- (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसप्तात्मन्mfn. having 4 x 7 (id est ) shapes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशराव(c/at-) mfn. measuring 4 śarāva-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टmfn. the 64th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टmfn. (with śata-,100) + 64 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिf. 64 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिf. the 64 kalā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिf. Name of (consisting of 64 adhyāya-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिmfn. (also applied to chapters of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिकलागमm. a treatise on the 64 kalā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टिकलाशास्त्रn. idem or 'm. a treatise on the 64 kalā-s ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्टितमmfn. the 64th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्ट्यङ्गmfn. having 64 subdivisions (the jyotiḥ-śāstra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःषष्ट्युपचारमानसपूजास्तोत्रस्तोत्रn. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशतn. (c/at-) 104 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशतmf(ā-)n. 400 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशततमmfn. the 104th (chapter of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशतीf. "400 stanzas", Name of a Tantric poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसौवर्णक mfn. having the weight of four suvarṇa-s, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशिखm. "four-tufted", Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशिखण्ड(c/at-) mf(ā-)n. four-tufted (tuṣ-kaparda- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशिलn. 4 stones View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसीत(c/at-) mfn. having 4 furrows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःस्रक्तिmfn. (c/at-) quadrangular (said of the vedi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःस्रक्तिf. (scilicet vedi-) equals uttara-vedi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशृङ्गmfn. (c/at-) four-horned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःशृङ्गm. "four-peaked", Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःश्रोत्र(c/at-) mf(ā-)n. four-eared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःश्रुतिmfn. (in music) having 4 intervals. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःस्तनाSee catu-s-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःस्थानSee catu-s-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःष्टोमSee tu-ṣṭ-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःस्तोत्रSee catu-s-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुःसुवर्णकmfn. having the weight of four suvarṇa-s, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुलmfn. equals sthāpayitṛ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर् tv/āras- m. plural , tv/āri- n. plural , 4 (accusative m. t/uras- instrumental case t/urbhis-[for f. ] genitive case turṇ/ām- ablative t/urbhyas-;class. instrumental case dative case ablative,and locative case also oxyt. ; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' and on ;for f.See c/atasṛ-); [ confer, compare, AEolic ; Gothic fidvor; Latin quatuor; Cambro-Brit. pedwar,pedair; Hibernian or Irish ceatkair; Lithuanian keturi; Slavonic or Slavonian cetyrje.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals t/ur- (see upa--and tri-- vArttika; a--, vi--, su-- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरmf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. ( cat- ) swift, quick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरmf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. dexterous, clever, ingenious, shrewd etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरmf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. charming, agreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरmf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरm. a round pillow (see cāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरm. the fish Cyprinus Rohita View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरm. (scilicet hasta-) a particular position of the hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरn. equals -- gaRa arśa-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरn. an elephant's stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरध्यायीf. "consisting of 4 adhyāya-s", Name of śaunaka-'s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराध्यायीfor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरध्यायिकn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरध्यायिकाf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराध्यायिकfor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराध्यायिकाfor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरगmfn. going quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरग्निवत्mfn. having 4 fires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरहm. a period of 4 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरहm. a soma- sacrifice lasting 4 days (see atri-c-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतूराजीf. (rājan-) "the 4 kings", Name of the luckiest termination of the catur-aṅga- game (by which one king gains the 4 thrones) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरकmf(ikā-)n. clever, skilful
चतुरकm. Name of a jackal (see mahā--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरक्रमm. (in music) a kind of measure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरक्षmf(-)n. four-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरक्षरmfn. (c/at-) consisting of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरक्षरn. a combination of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरक्षरशस्ind. in numbers of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरम्ind. (gaRa śarad-ādi-) see ā--, upa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरम्ind. quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरम्लn. 4 sour substances (viz. amlavetasa-, vṛkṣāmla-, bṛhaj-jambīra-,and nimbaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरंशवत्mfn. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराननm. "four-faced", brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गmfn. (c/at-) having 4 limbs (or extremities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गmfn. (with bala-,an army) comprising (4 parts, viz.) elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गm. Cucumis utilissimus (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गm. Name of a son of roma-- or loma-pāda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गn. (scilicet bala-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गn. a kind of chess (played by 4 parties) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गाf. (scilicet senā-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गबलn. an entire army (comprising elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गबलाधिपत्यn. command of a complete army, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गबलाध्यक्षm. the commander-in-chief of a complete army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गक्रीडाf. playing at chess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गसैन्यn. equals -bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गविनोदm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गिन्mfn. (equals ṅga-;with bala-or vāhinī-,an army) comprising elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गिणीf. (scilicet vāhinī-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गुलn. 4 fingers of the hand (without the thumb) ; 4 fingers broad, 4 inches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गुलm. Cathartocarpus fistula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरङ्गुलपर्यवनद्धmfn. overgrown with that plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरनीक(c/at-) mfn. four-faced (varuṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरन्तmf(ā-)n. bordered on all 4 sides (the earth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरन्ताf. "the earth", in compound caturanteśa teśa- m. "earth-lord", a king (or catur-anteśa- equals -dig-īśa- q.v Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरन्तेशm. caturantā
चतुरनुगानn. Name of a sāman-.
चतुरणुकn. an aggregate of 4 atoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरर्थmf(ā-)n. having 4 meanings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतmfn. the 84th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतिf. 84 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतिसाहस्रmfn. numbering 84000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतितमmfn. the 84th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरशीतियोगाध्यायm. "containing 84 chapters on the yoga-", Name of a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रmf(ā-)n. four-cornered, quadrangular etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रmf(ā-)n. regular () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. a square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. (in astronomy) Name of the 4th and 8th lunar mansions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. (scilicet hasta) a particular position of the hands (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रm. (plural) Name of various ketu-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रn. a particular posture (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरस्रfor -aśra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रकmf(ā-)n. four-cornered, forming a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रकm. a particular posture (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरस्रकfor -aśraka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराश्रमिन्mfn. passing the 4 stages of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुराश्रम्यfor cāt-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरस्रशोभिन्mfn. beautifully symmetrical, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रताf. regularity, harmony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरस्रयानmfn. moving regularly (others"four-wheeled"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रि(c/at-) mfn. quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरश्रीकृto make quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरष्टकmfn. having 4 days called aṣṭakā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरताf. cleverness, skilfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरात्मन्mfn. representing 4 persons, having 4 faces or shapes (viṣṇu-) (keśava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतूरात्रm. n. "lasting 4 days", Name of a ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतूरात्रम्ind. during 4 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरत्वn. idem or 'f. cleverness, skilfulness ' (varia lectio for caṇa--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरवरार्ध्यmfn. at least 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरवत्तn. (ava-do-) "4 times cut off or taken up, consisting of 4 avadāna-s", 4 avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरवत्तिन्mfn. one who offers oblations consisting of 4 avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बाहुmfn. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बाहुmfn. (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बाहुm. Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भद्रmfn. (4 times id est) extremely auspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भद्रn. 4 objects of human wishes (viz. dharma-, kāma-, artha-, bala- ;or the first 3 with mokṣa- ;or kīrti-, āyus-, yaśas-, bala- ;or dharma-, jñāna-, vairāgya-, aiśvarya-, ;or dāna-, jñāna-, śaurya-, bhoga-or vitta- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भद्रतरmfn. (Comparative degree) 4 times happier than (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भद्रिकाf. a kind of medical preparation for curing fever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भागm. the 4th part, quarter etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भागmf(ā-)n. forming the 4th part of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भागीयाf. (scilicet iṣṭakā-) a brick of the 4th part of a man's length View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भृष्टिmfn. (c/at-) four-cornered, quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भृष्टिmfn. four-pointed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुज(in compound) 4 arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजmf(ā-)n. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजmf(ā-)n. quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. viṣṇu- or kṛṣṇa- (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. of the instructor of (the author of a commentator or commentary on ) rāmānanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजm. of the father of śiva-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजभट्टाचार्यm. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भुजमिश्रm. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भूमिकmfn. having 4 floors (a house) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्भूयस्mfn. containing 4 (syllables) more View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बीजn. the 4 kinds of seed (viz. of kālājājī-, candra-śūra-, methikā-, and yavānikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बिलmfn. (c/at-) having 4 openings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्बिलmfn. (said of an udder) and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दैवmfn. for cāt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दलm. "four-leaved", Marsilea quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रmfn. (c/at-) having 4 tusks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रm. a beast of prey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रm. viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रm. Name of an attendant of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रm. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दंष्ट्रm. (also) Name (also title or epithet) of airāvata-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दन्तmfn. "having 4 tusks", indra-'s elephant airāvata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दन्तmfn. Name of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दारिकाf. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशmf(ī-)n. the 14th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशmf(ī-)n. consisting of 14 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशधाind. fourteen-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशगुणmfn. having 14 merits see Scholiast or Commentator and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशगुणनामन्n. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशगुणस्थानn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशकmfn. the 14th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशाक्षरmfn. (c/at-) having 14 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशमmfn. equals śaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशमतविवेकm. "disquisition on the 14 philos. systems", Name of work by śaṃkara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशन्(c/at-), a- plural (locative case ś/asu- ) 14 ; ([ confer, compare Latin quatuordecim; Lithuanian keturo1lika]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशरात्रm. a soma- sacrifice lasting 14 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशर्चn. a hymn consisting of 14 verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशसमद्वन्द्वmfn. having the 14 paired parts of the body symmetric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशस्वपनविचारm. "disquisition on the 14 kinds of sleep"Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशविधmfn. fourteen-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशीf. (scilicet rātri-) the 14th day in a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशीSee ś/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशिक(fr. śī-), a feast on the 14th day of a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दशीशान्तिf. Name of work
चतुर्दत्m(Nominal verb -dan-)fn. four-toothed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाind. in 4 parts, fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाind. ([ confer, compare ; Hibernian or Irish ceathardha]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाto be divided into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाकरणn. dividing into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाकृto divide into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धरm. Name of a family or race. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धारिन्m. Cissus quadrangularis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाशान्तिf. a religious ceremony performed at the time of making the stated offerings to deceased ancestors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धातुmfn. fourfold (a term in music). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्धाविहितmfn. divided into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दिक्कम्ind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दिक्षु(locative case plural) ind. idem or 'ind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दिशम्ind. idem or '(locative case plural) ind. idem or 'ind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दोलm. n. a royal litter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दोस्mfn. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्द्वारmf(ā-)n. having 4 doors or openings (said of the puruṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्द्वारमुखmf(ī-)n. having 4 doors as mouths View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्द्वीपचक्रवर्तिन्m. the sovereign of the 4 dvīpa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गणm. a series of 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गन्धmfn. fragrant on 4 sides (varia lectio -vyaṅga-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गतिmfn. having 4 kinds of going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गतिmfn. "going on 4 feet", a tortoise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गवn. a carriage drawn by 4 oxen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्ग्राम"containing 4 villages", Name of a country. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गृहीतn. taken up or ladled out (as a fluid) 4 times, taking up (any fluid) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गृहीतिन्mfn. one who has taken up (any fluid) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गुणmf(ā-)n. fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्गुणmf(ā-)n. tied with 4 strings (the upper garment) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हनुmfn. (c/at-) having 4 jaws View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हनुm. Name of a dānava- (varia lectio candra-h-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हस्तmfn. four-handed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हायणmf(ī-)n. 4 years old (said of living beings) (also ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हायनmf(ā-)n. (gaRa kṣubhnādi-) = yaṇa- (said of lifeless objects) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हायणीf. a cow of 4 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्हितmfn. useful for 4 (persons) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होतृm. (c/at-) sg. or plural Name of a litany (recited at the new-moon and full-moon sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होतृm. (see -hotra-) Name of kṛṣṇa- (varia lectio for -netṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होत्रm. (see tṛ-) viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होत्रm. varia lectio for anuha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होत्रm. for cāt- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होत्रकfor cāturhotra- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्होतृत्वn. the condition of the caturhotṛ- litany View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्ह्रस्वmfn. having the 4 extremities too short View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरिडस्पदस्तोभm. (see iḍas-pad/e-) Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरिकाf. (equals tuṣka-) a quadrangular courtyard (used for guests) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरिकाf. Name of a woman (in Prakrit) and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरिन्द्रियmfn. having 4 senses (a class of animals) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्जातn. equals cāt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्जातकn. idem or 'n. equals cāt- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्लेखmfn. having 4 lines on the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्महापथn. meeting of 4 great roads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्महाराजm. plural the 4 great kings or guardians of the lowest of the 6 sensuous heavens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्महाराजकायिकm. plural (equals cāt-) "belonging to the attendance of those 4 great kings", Name of a class of deities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्महाराजिकm. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्महाराजिकm. plural equals ja-kāyika- (see cāt-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मासn. a period of 4 months View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मासीf. idem or 'n. a period of 4 months ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मास्यn. (equals cāt-) a cāturmāsya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मेधm. one who has offered 4 sacrifices (aśva--, puruṣa--, sarva--, and pitṛ-medha-) or one who knows the mantra-s required for them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुहूर्तम्ind. during 4 muhūrta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुख(in compound) 4 faces
चतुर्मुखmfn. "four-faced", in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखmfn. four-pointed (an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखm. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखm. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखm. of śiva- (see -tva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखm. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखm. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखरसm. a preparation of great curative power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखतीर्थn. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुखत्वn. (śiva-'s) state of having 4 faces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मूर्तिmfn. "having 4 forms of appearance, four-faced", in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मूर्तिm. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मूर्तिm. of skanda-, ix, 2486 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मूर्तिm. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मूर्तित्वn. the state of being four-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुष्टिm. 4 hands full View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्मुष्टिकn. plural idem or 'm. 4 hands full ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्णवतmfn. (equals nav-) the 94th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्णवतmfn. (with śata-,100) + 94 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्नवतmfn. (equals -ṇav-) the 94th (a chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्नवतिf. 94, in compound caturnavatitama -tama- mfn. the 94th (a chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्नवतितमmfn. caturnavati
चतुर्नेतृmfn. bringing near the 4 objects desired for by men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्निधन(c/at-) mfn. consisting of 4 concluding passages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरोघोत्तीर्णmfn. one who has passed across the 4 floods (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरृचmfn. possessing 4 ṛc- verses id est obtaining the merit suggested by them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरृचn. a hymn consisting of 4 verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरृद्धिपादचरणतलसुप्रतिष्ठितmfn. well-established on the soles of the feet of the supernatural power (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थmf(-)n. (gaRa yājakādi- ) the 4th etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थm. the 4th letter in the first 5 classes of consonants (gh-, jh-, ḍh-, dh-, bh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थm. "4th caste", a śūdra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थn. "constituting the 4th part", a quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थn. (for tuṣṭaya-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') a collection of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थf. (scilicet vibhakti-) the termination of the 4th case, dative case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थf. equals tur-bhāgīyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थ rthaka-, rya- See p.385. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थभाज्mfn. receiving the 4th part (as a tax from one's subjects) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थभक्तक्षपणn. fasting so as to take only every 4th meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकmfn. the 4th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकmfn. returning every 4th day (a fever), quartan, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकm. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकालmfn. equals lika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकालm. "4th meal" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकालम्ind. at the 4th meal-time id est at the evening of every 2nd day (of any one's fasting) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकालेind. idem or 'ind. at the 4th meal-time id est at the evening of every 2nd day (of any one's fasting) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थकालिकmfn. one who takes only every 4th meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थम्ind. the 4th time ([ confer, compare ; Latin quartus Lithuanian ketwirtas; Slavonic or Slavonian cetvertyi; German vierter.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थमन्द्रातिस्वार्यmfn. "to be lengthened in a particular way", said of a kind of recitation of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थांशm. a 4th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थांशmfn. equals śin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थांशिन्mfn. receiving a quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थफलn. the 2nd inequality or equation of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थाश्रमm. the 4th stage of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थस्वरm. having the 4th tone or accent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थस्वरn. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थीf. (scilicet rātri-) the 4th day in a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थीf. (metrically thi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थीf. "the 4th day of a marriage" See rthī-karman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थिfor thī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थीf. of th/a- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थिकाf. a weight of 4 karṣa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थीकर्मन्n. the ceremonies performed on the 4th day of a marriage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थिप्रभृतिmfn. (for thī-- p-) beginning with the fourth night, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्थोदात्ततमmfn. "reciting the 4th as the highest tone (or accent)", said of a particular way of reciting the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरूध्नीf. (aditi-) having 4 udders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरूर्ध्वपद्m. (Nominal verb -pād-) "having 4 feet more (than other animals)", the fabulous animal śarabha- (with 8 legs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरूषणn. the 4 hot spices (black and long pepper, dry ginger, and the root of long pepper; see -jāta-and try-ūṣ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरुष्ट्रn. the 4 substances taken from a camel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरुत्तरmfn. increasing by 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुरुत्तरस्तोमm. with gotamasya- Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वाहिन्m. (scilicet ratha-) a carriage drawn by 4 (horses or oxen) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वैशारद्यविशारदmfn. wise through fourfold knowledge (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वक्त्रmf(ā-)n. four-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वक्त्रm. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वक्त्रm. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वक्त्रm. of an attendant of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्गm. a collection of 4 things (exempli gratia, 'for example' equals bhadra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्गचिन्तामणिm. Name of work by hemādri-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्ण(in compound) the 4 castes; 4 principal colours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्णfour letters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्णादिmfn. a gaṇa- of ( Va1rtt. 1; equals anantādi-of ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्णमयmfn. consisting of the 4 castes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्षशतायुस्mfn. reaching an age of 400 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वर्षिकाf. (scilicet go-) a cow 4 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वय(c/at-) mfn. fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वेदmfn. (gaRa brāhmaṇādi-) containing the 4 veda-s (brahmā-) (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वेदmfn. ( ) equals -vidya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वेदm. plural the 4 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वेदm. a class of manes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वेदिन्mfn. equals -vidya- (in Prakrit). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विभक्तmfn. divided into 4 parts
चतुर्विधmfn. (c/at-) fourfold, of 4 sorts or kinds etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विधाहारमयmfn. made of 4 kinds of food (viz. bhakṣya-, bhojya-, lehya-,and peya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विधम्ind. (am-) in 4 ways () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विधसंशयोद्भेदm. "removal of doubts of 4 kinds", Name of a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विद्यmfn. ( ) familiar with the 4 veda-s (varia lectio cāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विद्याf. gaRa anuśatikādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशmf(ī-)n. the 24th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशmf(ī-)n. (with śata-,100) + 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशmf(ī-)n. consisting of 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशm. (scilicet st/oma-) Name of a stoma- having 24 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशn. (with or without ahan-) Name of an ekāha- (2nd day of the gavām-ayana- sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशn. (sika-with ahan- on ; cāturviṃśaka-,on ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशच्छतn. caturviṃśat
चतुर्विंशाक्षरmf(ā-)n. having 24 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशस्तोमmfn. connected with the caturviṃśa- stoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशत्f. 24, only in compound caturviṃśacchata śac-chata- n. 124 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिf. (c/at-) sg. (once plural;also once n. sg. ) etc. (ā caturviṃśates-,"to the 24th year") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिदण्डकस्तवm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिधाind. twenty-fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिगवn. sg. a set of 24 oxen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिकmfn. consisting of 24 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिकृत्वस्ind. 24 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिकृत्वस्ind. (tiṃ k/ṛtvas- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिमmfn. for ti-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिमानn. a sum of 24 (paid in gold), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिमतn. "views of the 24 chief legislators", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिपुराणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिसाहस्रmf(ī-)n. consisting of 24000 (G) i, 4, 147 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिस्मृतिf. equals -mata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतितमmfn. the 24th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतितीर्थंकरपूजाf. "worship of the 24 tīrthaṃkara-s (of the jaina-s)", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशतिविक्रमmf(ā-)n. (c/at-) measuring 24 paces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशत्यहm. sg. 24 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरmf(ā-)n. (c/at-) having 24 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरmfn. having 24 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशत्यवतारचरित्रn. "history of the 24 incarnations", Name of a work by naraharadāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशिकmfn. measuring 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विंशिकmfn. with ahan- See ś/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्विन्शकmfn. consisting of 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वीरmfn. (c/at-) (said of an unguent) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वीरm. Name of a soma- sacrifice lasting 4 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्वृषmfn. having 4 bulls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यङ्गmfn. equals -hrasva- (varia lectio -gandha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यापिन्mfn. relating to 4 (persons) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यवसितयमकn. a kind of yamaka- (in which the four quarters of a stanza are homophonous), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यूहmfn. having 4 kinds of appearance (hari-) (maheśvara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यूहmfn. containing 4 chapters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्व्यूहवादिन्m. "asserting the 4 forms (of puruṣottama-, viz. vāsudeva-, saṃkarṣaṇa-, pradyumna-, aniruddha-)", a vaiṣṇava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्यNom. P. ryati- (1st future ryitā- infinitive mood ryitum-), to wish for 4 Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्यमn. the having 4 tones of utterance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युगn. (gaRa pātrādi-) the 4 yuga-s (or ages of the world) combined (= a mahā-yuga- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युगmf(ā-)n. (c/at-) equals -yukta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युगmf(ā-)n. comprising the 4 yuga-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युज्mfn. put to (as oxen) in a yoke of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युज्mfn. equals -yukta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्युक्तmfn. drawn by 4 (horses or oxen) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्in compound for t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्in compound for t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्ind. (;in compound before hard gutturals and labials tuḥ-or tuṣ-, ) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्in compound for t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चक्रm. Name of a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चक्रm. of a phenomenon in the sky View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चक्रn. Name of a mystical diagram,
चतुश्चलितn. a kind of play or sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चरणmfn. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चरणm. "having 4 feet", a quadruped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 44th (chapter of or ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. (with śat/a-,100) + 44 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. containing 44 and (said of a stoma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशm. (scilicet stoma-) a stoma- consisting of 44 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्चत्वारिंशदक्षरmfn. having 44 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशत्(c/at-) f. 44 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चत्वारिंशिन्mfn. containing 44 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुश्चित्यmfn. supported by 4 stratums View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कmfn. consisting of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कmfn. (with śata-,100) + 4(id est 4 percent.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कm. any sign (as the svastika-) having 4 marks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a set of 4, collection of 4 (or equals aṃśayoḥ kaṭyoś cāntarāla- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. equals -veśman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a quadrangular courtyard (used for receiving guests) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a crossway View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a necklace of 4 strings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a bed-or musquito-curtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कn. a necklace of 4 strings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कलmfn. having 4 marks (on the thumb denoting the proficiency in the 4 veda-s) (varia lectio -kṛṣṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कपर्द(c/at-) mf(ā-)n. having 4 tufts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कारिन्mfn. causing or effecting 4 things View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कर्णmfn. four-eared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कर्णmfn. heard by 4 ears only View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कर्णतयाind. instrumental case so that only 4 ears are present View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कर्णीf. Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कवेश्मन्n. a hall resting on 4 columns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्खण्डmf(ā-)n. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कीf. a (large) four-sided pond View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्किकाf. a set of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्किकाf. equals ṣka-veśman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्किकाf. (in Prakrit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्किन्mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' having a set of 4 (of anything) (see 12706) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्किष्कुmfn. 4 kiṣku-s long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कोणmfn. quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कोणmn. a tetragon, 11, 617. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्क्रमm. a krama- (or method of reading and writing the veda-) consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्कृष्णmfn. having 4 black parts of the, body (varia lectio for -kala-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. (c/at-)(Nominal verb sg. -pād-; plural -pādas-,irreg. -padas- ; locative case -pātsu- ; ablative -pādbhyas- ) f. (-padī-) n. (Nominal verb -pad- 4 times,or -pād- twice) . () quadruped, m. a quadruped, n. quadrupeds (collectively) , animals etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. having made 4 steps View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. divided into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. (in prosody) consisting of 4 pāda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. having 4 staffs (a ladder) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद्mfn. (a judicial procedure) consisting of 4 processes (viz. plea, defence, rejoinder, and sentence) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पाद्See -pad- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पाद्once in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पद(in compound) 4 pāda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदn. sg. or plural , 4 partitions or divisions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदmf(ā-)n. (c/at-), quadruped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदmf(ā-)n. consisting of 4 pāda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदmf(ā-)n. consisting of 4 words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदmf(ā-)n. comprising 4 partitions or divisions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदmf(ā-)n. (in algebra) tetranomial View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदm. a quadruped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदm. (equals pāśava-?) a kind of coitus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदm. (plural) certain zodiacal signs (viz. meṣa-, vṛṣa-, siṃha-, makara-pūr vārdha-, dhanuḥ-parārdha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदm. Name of a shrub View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदn. Name of a particular karaṇa- ic, 5 and 8 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदाf. a metre of 30 + 4 + 4 syllabic instants. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पादmf(ī-)n. (c/at-) quadruped
चतुष्पादmf(ā-)n. consisting of 4 parts
चतुष्पादm. a quadruped
चतुष्पादm. (scilicet adhyāya-) the chapter treating of the 4 parts of medical science
चतुष्पादकmf(ikā-)n. consisting of 4 pāda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पादसमन्वयm. conjunction of the 4 parts of medical science
चतुष्पादसिद्धिf. complete knowledge of the 4 parts of medical science
चतुष्पदीf. "a female quadruped", in compound , catuṣpadīgamana -gamana- n. intercourse with a female quadruped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदीf. of -pad- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पादीf. a number of 4 feet (YV) 31
चतुष्पदीगमनn. catuṣpadī
चतुष्पदीगमनn. intercourse with a female quadruped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पदिकाf. equals -. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पक्ष(c/at-) mf(ā-)n. furnished with 4 posts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चmfn. plural 4 or 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चन्mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चाशmfn. the 54th (chapter of or ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चाशदधिकशतmfn. the 154th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चाशत्f. (c/at-) (sg. or plural ) 54 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पञ्चाशत्तमmfn. the 54th (chapter of edition Bomb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पाणिm. "four-handed", viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पर्णीf. (see -pattrī-),"four-leaved", Oxalis pusilla View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पार्श्वn. the 4 sides (of a square etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पर्वmf(ā-)n. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पर्यायmfn. having 4 reiterations (a stoma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथmn. a place where 4 roads meet, cross-way etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथm. "walking the 4 paths (id est āśrama-s see catur-āśramin-) ", a Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथn. one of the 18 ceremonies performed with kuṇḍa-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथकृताशयm. "having made its abode on a cross-way", a kind of ghost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथनिकेताf. "abiding on a cross-way", Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथरताf. idem or 'f. "abiding on a cross-way", Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- ' , 2645 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पथसद्mfn. dwelling at cross-ways View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पाठीf. a school in which the 4 veda-s are studied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पाटीf. "winding 4 ways (?)", a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पत्त्री equals tur-dala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्फलाf. "four-fruited", Uraria lagopodioides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्प्रस्थानिकmfn. plural divided into 4 sects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पुण्ड्राf. Abelmoschus esculentus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पुटmfn. having 4 folds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्पुत्रmfn. having four sons, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्तालm. (in music) a kind of measure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्तना f. (a cow) having 4 nipples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टयmf(ī-)n. (Nominal verb plural ye- ) fourfold, consisting of 4 etc.; 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टयn. a set of 4, quaternion etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-). ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टयn. a square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टयn. the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 10th signs of the zodiac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टयn. "a collection of sūtra-s consisting of 4 sections" See cāt-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्थानmfn. having a fourfold basis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टोमm. a stoma- consisting of 4 parts (the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th having 4 verses more than the preceding) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुष्टोमmfn. connected with a catuṣṭoma- (an ekāha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्तोत्रmfn. consisting of 4 stotra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिद्व्येकभागmfn. plural receiving 4, 3, 2, and 1 part respectively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशmf(ī-)n. the 34th (prajā-pati-, so called with regard to the other 33 gods) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशmf(ī-)n. (with śat/a-,100) + 34 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशmf(ī-)n. containing 34 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशm. (scilicet st/oma-) a stoma- consisting of 34 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशदक्षरmf(ā-)n. (c/at-) containing 34 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशद्रात्रम्ind. during 34 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशज्जातकज्ञm. "knowing 34 jātaka-s", Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशत्f. (c/at-) 34 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुस्त्रिंशत्सम्मितn. with prajā-pateś- (See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ś/a-), Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वालm. equals c/ātv- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वालm. equals garbha-, or darbha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वरn. rarely m. ([ ]) a quadrangular place, place in which many ways meet, cross-way etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वरn. a levelled spot of ground prepared for a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वर tvāriṃś/a-, etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारकn. a collection of four, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वरतरुm. a tree growing on a cross-way View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वरवासिनीf. (see catuṣpatha-niketā-) Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वरीf. a street, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. (fr. ś/at-) the 40th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. (with śat/a-,100) + 40 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशm. "consisting of 40 (parts)", Name of a stoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशदक्षरmf(ā-)n. consisting of 40 syllables, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशद्रात्रm. a period of 40 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशन्मानmfn. having the weight of 40 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशत्f. (;fr. catv/āri-[n. plural ]and daś/at-,a decad) 40 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशत्f. ([ confer, compare ; Latin quadraginta.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशतिf. equals ś/at- See dvā--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्वारिंशत्पद(ś/at--) mf(ā-)n. having 40 feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चत्यmfn. to be hidden Va1rtt. 1 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अचतुरmfn. destitute of four, having less than four View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अचतुरmfn. not cunning, not dexterous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आचतुरम्ind. ( commentator or commentary) till the fourth generation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आचतुर्यn. (fr. a-catura- ), clumsiness, stupidity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आनन्दचतुर्दशीव्रतn. Name of a religious rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनन्तचतुर्दशीf. the fourteenth lunar day (or full moon) of bhādra-, when ananta- is worshipped. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतिm. wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतिm. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतीf. wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अञ्चतीf. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चत्mfn. (pr.p.) shining View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चत्mfn. praising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चत्m. (an-) Name of a ṛṣi- (son of hiraṇyastūpa-) (commenting on ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आर्चत्कm. (fr. ṛcatka- ), Name of śara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चत्रिmfn. (said of the marut-s) roaring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्चत्र्य(4) mfn. (fr. arcatra-,"praise") to be raised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धचतुर्थmfn. plural (See above 2. ardh/a-tend) three and a half , (jaina- PrakritaddhuTThaSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order adhyuṣṭa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्धद्विचतुरस्कn. a particular posture, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अर्वाक्चत्वारिंशmfn. plural under forty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असश्चत्mf(śc/at-,eight times as adjective (cf. mfn.);or /a-saścantī-,thrice)n. not sticking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असश्चत्mfn. not ceasing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असश्चत्mfn. not drying up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असश्चत्f. plural (a-saśc/atas-) (id est dhārās-) inexhaustible streams View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
असश्चताind. in an inexhaustible manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टचत्वारिंशmfn. the forty-eighth. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशmfn. the forty-eighth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशmfn. consisting of forty-eight verses, Name of a stoma-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशदक्षरmf(ā-)n. consisting of forty-eight syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशदिष्टकmfn. consisting of forty-eight iṣṭakā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशकmfn. lasting forty-eight years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशकmfn. equals -catvāriṃśin- q.v commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टचत्वारिंशत्f. equals aṣṭ/ā-catv- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशत्f. forty-eight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टाचत्वारिंशिन्mfn. performing a vow that lasts forty-eight years commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आत्मचतुर्थmfn. being one's self the fourth one with three others (Name of janārdana- respecting his four heads?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अत्रिचतुरहm. "the four days of atri-", Name of a sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउचथ्यm. a descendant of ucathya-, Name of dīrghatamas- (equals autathya-below ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवचत्नुकm. (?) , Name of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अवस्थाचतुष्टयn. the four periods or states of human life (viz. childhood, youth, manhood, and old age). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अयाचत्mfn. idem or 'mfn. ( yāc-),"one who does not ask or solicit"[a misspelling for a-pācaka- ] ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आयतचतुरस्रmfn. oblong etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आयतचतुरस्रm. an obtain tree, Musa Paradisiaca Lin. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आयतदीर्घचतुरस्रm. equals -caturasra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भागजातिचतुष्टयn. four modes of reduction of fractions etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भूतचतुर्दशीf. the 14th day in the dark half of the month kārttika- (consecrated to yama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चच्चत्पुटm. idem or 'm. (in music) a kind of measure (see cāca-p-.)' (varia lectio cañc-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चम्पकचतुर्दशीf. "the 14th day in the light half of jyaiṣṭha-", Name of a festival. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चञ्चत्कmfn. (fr. pr. p. cat-) leaping, jumping, dangling, vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चञ्चत्पुटm. equals cacc- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चिन्तामणिचतुर्मुखm. Name of a medicine prepared with mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दशचतुष्कn. Name of a sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
देहचतुष्टयव्यवस्थालक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घचतुरश्रmfn. shaped like an oblong square or parallelogram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दीर्घचतुरश्रm. an oblong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दुर्वचत्वn. durvaca
द्वाचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 42nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वाचत्वारिंशत्f. 42. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वाचत्वारिंशतिf. 42. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विचतुरश्रकm. Name of a particular gesture or posture (varia lectio catur-asr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विचत्वारिn. plural two or four View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 42nd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विचत्वारिंशत्f. 42 (see dvā--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विचत्वारिन्शिक wrong reading for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विसमचतुरश्रm. an isosceles quadrangle or triangle, algebra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वित्रिचतुरम्ind. twice or thrice or four times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वित्रिचतुर्भागm. plural 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वित्रिचतुष्पञ्चकmfn. increased by 2, 3, 4 or 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्वित्रिचतुष्पञ्चकmfn. with śata- n. 2, 3, 4 or 5 per cent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the forty-first. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
एकचत्वारिंशत्f. forty-one. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गणेशचतुर्थीf. the fourth day of the light half of the month bhādra- (considered as gaṇeśa-'s birthday) p.431 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गौरीचतुर्थीf. the 4th day in the bright half of month māgha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गूढचतुर्थपादप्रहेलिकाf. a riddle in which the fourth pāda- (of a stanza) is hidden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हरिवंशचतुष्कn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जलचत्वरn. a square tank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ज्ञप्तिचतुर्थmfn. scilicet karman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
काचतिलकn. black salt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कालीचतुर्दशीf. Name (also title or epithet) of a festival (kept on the 14th day of the second half of āśvina-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
करकचतुर्थीf. the fourth day in the dark half of the month āśvina-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्रकचत्वच्m. idem or 'm. "saw-leaved", Pandanus odoratissimus ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कृष्णचतुर्दशीf. the fourteenth day in the dark half of the month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षुरचतुष्टयn. the four things necessary for shaving (viz. kṣura-, nava-kuśa-tṛṇāni-, try-eṇī śalalī-, āpaḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुचतटn. idem or 'm. the female breast.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुचतटाग्रn. "point of the breast", a nipple. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुन्दचतुर्थीf. the fourth day in the light half of the month māgha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लीलाचतुरmfn. sportively charming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मदनचतुर्दशीf. Name of a festival in honour of kāma-deva- on the 14th day in the light half of the month caitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महाचतुरकm. Name of a jackal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महागणपतिकल्पेपञ्चत्रिंशत्पीठिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मलिम्लुचतत्त्वn. Name of work (= mala-māsa-tattva-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मांश्चतुmfn. (prob.) light yellow, dun-coloured ( and maṃścat/u-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मांश्चतुmfn. plural (catvās-) equals aśvāḥ-
मांश्चत्वmfn. (prob.) yellowish (m/āṃścatva- ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मतचतुष्टयपरिक्षाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मिश्रचतुर्भुजm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मुकुन्दचतुर्दशn. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नगरचतुष्पथm. or n. meeting of 4 ways in a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 49th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवचत्वारिंशत्f. 49. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीचताf. lowness (literally and figuratively), baseness, inferiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीचतयायाto stoop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीचत्वn. lowness, social inferiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीचत्वn. lowering of tone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निश्चत्Caus. -cātayate-, to scare or drive away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निश्चत्वारिंशmfn. plural more than forty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नृसिंहचतुच्दशीf. the 14th day in the light half of the month vaiśākha- (a festival) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचत्mf(ntī-)n. cooking, roasting etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतmfn. cooked, boiled etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतm. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतm. Name of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतn. cooked food (equals pakti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचत2. plural imperative of pac-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाचतmfn. (fr. pacaṭ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतभृज्जताf. (2. plural imperative of pac-and bhṛjj-) continual baking and roasting gaRa mayūra-vyaṃsakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचतिकल्पम्ind. (?) Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचत्पुटm. Hibiscus Phoeniceus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचत्रn. a cooking-vessel, boiler, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पचत्यmfn. cooked, dressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचतुर m. () a slanderer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचतुरm. a goat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचतुरm. a sand-bank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचतुरm. hail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचतुरm. Ficus Religiosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पदचतुरूर्ध्वn. a kind of metre (in which every pada- is 4 syllables longer than the preceding) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचत्वरm. () a slanderer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचत्वरm. a goat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचत्वरm. a sand-bank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचत्वरm. hail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादचत्वरm. Ficus Religiosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पांसुचत्वरn. hail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 49th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चचत्वारिंशत्(p/a-) f. 45 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्mfn. consisting of five View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चताf. five foldness, fivefold state or amount View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चताf. an aggregate or a collection of 5 things (especially) the 5 elements, viz. earth, air, fire, water and akāśa- ether, and dissolution into them id est death (-tām-with gam-, -etc., to die, with upa--,to kill) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतक्षn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतक्षीf. a collection of 5 carpenters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतन्मात्रn. sg. the 5 subtle rudiments of the 5 elements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतन्त्रn. Name of the well-known collection of moral stories and fables in 5 books from which the hitopadeśa- is partly taken (also -ka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतन्त्रn. of a poem by dharma-paṇḍita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतन्त्रकाव्यदर्पणm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतपmfn. equals -tapas- mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतपस्n. (in the beginning of a compound) the 5 fires (to which an ascetic who practices self-mortification exposes himself. viz. one fire towards each of the 4 quarters, and the sun overhead) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतपस्mfn. sitting between the 5 fires (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतपोन्वितmfn. idem or 'mfn. sitting between the 5 fires (see )' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतारmfn. five-starred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतत्त्वn. the 5 elements collectively (see tattva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतत्त्वn. (in the tantra-s) the 5 essentials (equals pañca-makāra- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतत्त्वप्रकाशm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतत्त्वात्मकस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतयmf(ī-)n. fivefold, having five parts or limbs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतयmf(ī-)n. Yog. (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चथmfn. (confer, compare ) the fifth [ confer, compare Zend pukhdha; Greek ; Latin quinctus,quintusforpinctus; Lithuanian pe4nktas; Gothic fimfta; German fünfte; Anglo-Saxon fifta; English fifth.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चथुm. time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चथुm. the Koil or Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतिक्तn. 5 bitter things (viz. nimba-, amṛtā-, vṛṣa-, paṭola-,and ṇidigdhikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतिक्तघृतn. a particular mixture, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतीथीf. any five principal places of pilgrimage (especially viśrānti- saukara-, naimiṣa-, prayāga-, and puṣkara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतीथीf. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चतीथीf. bathing on the day of the equinox (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिकmfn. (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिंशmf(ī-)n. the 35th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिंशmf(ī-)n. + 35 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिंशतिf. 35 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिंशिकmfn. having the length of 35, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिन्शच्छ्लोकीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिन्शत्(p/a-), 35 chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्रिन्शत्पीठिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्वn. fivefoldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्वn. the 5 elements View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्वn. dissolution, death (pañca-tvaṃ- gata- mfn.dead ; see pañcatvatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पञ्चत्वताf. pañcatva
परश्चत्वारिंशmfn. plural more than forty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिचतुर्दशand san- (Nominal verb accusative śa- instrumental case śais-), fully fourteen, more than fourteen
पाषाणचतुर्दशीf. the 14th day in the light half of the month mārgaśīrṣa- (on which a festival of gaurī- is celebrated, when cakes made of rice and shaped like large pebbles are eaten) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पिशाचताf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पिशाचत्वn. the state or condition of a piśāca-, demoniacal nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रचत् Causal A1. -cātayate-, to drive or scare away, remove, destroy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रचताind. secretly, in secret View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रचता according to to others,"away, off". View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रपञ्चचतुरmfn. skilful in assuming different forms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रपञ्चतस्ind. prapañca
प्रपञ्चत्वn. equals maraṇa-, death, sāṃkhya-s. (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्राप्तपञ्चत्वmfn. "arrived at (dissolution into) 5 elements", dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रत्येकबुद्धचतुष्टयn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रियचतुरmfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रामचन्द्रचतुःसूत्रीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सचथm. companionship, assistance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सचथ्यmfn. helpful, kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सचथ्यn. assistance, help View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदान्वचतनmfn. scaring them away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
साधनचतुष्टयn. (in philosophy) four kinds of proof. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सालोक्यादिचतुष्टयn. the four (stages of beatitude), viz. salokya- etc. (the others beings sāmīpya-, sārūpya-,and sāyujya-;See also rṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुरश्रmf(ā-)n. (or -asra-) having four equal angles, square etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुरश्रmn. a rectangular tetragon, square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुरश्रm. an equilateral tetragon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुरश्रीind. (with kṛ-) to transform into a square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुर्भुजmfn. having four equal sides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुर्भुजm. or n. (?) a square or rhombus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचतुष्कोणmfn. having four equal angles (distinguished from sama-catur-aśra-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
समचत्वारिंशदन्तताf. the having 40 even teeth (one of the 32 signs of perfection in a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकष्टचतुर्थीकथाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकष्टचतुर्थीव्रतकथाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकष्टहरचतुर्थीव्रतn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकष्टहरचतुर्थीव्रतकालनिर्णयm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकटचतुर्थीf. Name of the fourth day in the dark half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संकटहरचतुर्थीव्रतn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संश्चत्m. (prob. fr. cat-) a juggler, rogue (= kuhaka-) (varia lectio saṃ-śvat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
संश्चत्n. deceit, trick, illusion, juggling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सञ्चत्m. a cheat, juggler (equals pratāraka-) (prob. wrong reading for saṃścat- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तचत्वारिंशmfn. the 47th, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सप्तचत्वारिंशत्(t/a--) f. 47 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारचतुर्विंशतिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वफलत्यागचतुर्दशीf. Name of a particular 14th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सर्वफलत्यागचतुर्दशीव्रतn. a particular religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सश्चत्m. a pursuer, enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शस्त्रहतचतुर्दशीf. Name of a particular fourteenth day sacred to the memory of fallen warriors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सातत्यचतुष्कटीकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्चत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 46th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्चत्वारिंशकmfn. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. the 46th (chapter of and )' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षट्चत्वारिंशत्f. 46 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शौचतस्n. by way of purification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शौचत्वn. purity (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शौनकीयचतुराध्यायिकाf. " śaunaka-'s treatise in four chapters", Name of the atharva-- veda- prātiśākhya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सिञ्चताf. long pepper (varia lectio siñcitā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवचतुःश्लोकीव्याख्याf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवचतुर्दशीf. the 14th day of the dark half of the month māgha- kept as a festival in honour of skanda- (= śiva-rātri- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवचतुर्दशीव्रतn. a fast and other observances on that day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शोशुचत्mfn. (fr. Intensive of śuc-) shining very brightly, very splendid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रावणशुक्लचतुर्थीf. the fourth and third day in the light half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्रीरङ्गराजचतुष्टयn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्थानचतुर्विधश्लोकm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुचतुरmfn. (according to to native authorities fr. catur-) very clever or skilful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वपचताf. the condition of a member of the above low caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
श्वपचत्वn. the condition of a member of the above low caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्विष्टकृच्चतुर्थmf(ā-)n. having agni- sviṣṭa-kṛt- as fourth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिलचतुर्थीf. the 4th day of the dark half of māgha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिरश्चता(śc/a--) ind. transversely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिरश्चथा(sc/a--) ind. aside, secretly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रयश्चत्वारिंशmfn. the 43rd (chapter of ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रयश्चत्वारिंशत्f. 43 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिचतुरmfn. ( vArttika) 3 or 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिचतुर्दशmfn. dual number the 13th and 14th, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिचत्वारिंशmf(ī-)n. the 43rd (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
त्रिचत्वारिंशत्f. 43 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उचथn. (fr. vac-), verse, praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उचथ्यmfn. deserving praise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उचथ्यm. Name of an āṅgirasa- (author of some hymns of the ṛg-- veda-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चताf. height, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चताf. the apex of the orbit of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चतालn. music and dancing at feasts, drinking parties, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चतरताf. surplus, excess, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चतरुm. the cocoa-nut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चतरुm. any lofty tree. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चत्वn. height, superiority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उच्चत्वn. the apex of the orbit of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उमाचतुर्थीf. the fourth day in the light half of the month jyaiṣṭha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचतुरmfn. (plural) almost four, nearly four on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपचतुरम्ind. nearly four, Sch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उपायचतुष्टयn. the above four expedients against an enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वचत्रn. spaech, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैकुण्ठचतुर्दशीf. the 14th day of the light half of the month kārttika- (sacred to viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चथm. (only ) deceit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चथm. a deceiver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चथm. the Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चथm. time. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वञ्चति(?) m. fire (see añcati-) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरदचतुर्थीf. Name of the 4th day in the light half of the month māgha- (prob. wrong reading for varadā-caturthī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वरदस्चतुर्थीf. See varada-c- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वारिचत्वरm. a piece of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वारिचत्वरm. Pistia Stratiotes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वायुवलनपञ्चतरंगिणीमाहात्म्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विचतुरmfn. containing various quarters (or half-verses) (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विलक्षणचतुर्दशकn. Name of work
विनायकचतुर्थीf. the fourth day of the festival in honour of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनायकचतुर्थीव्रतn.Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विनायकस्नपनचतुर्थीf. the fourth day of the gaṇeśa- festival (when his image is bathed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विरिञ्चताf. viriñca
विषमचतुरश्रm. an unequal four-sided figure, trapezium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विषमचतुर्भुजm. an unequal four-sided figure, trapezium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विषमचतुष्कोणm. an unequal four-sided figure, trapezium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विवाहचतुर्थिकn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विवाहचतुर्थीकर्मन्n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विवाहचतुष्टयn. a quadruple marriage, the marrying of four wives View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विवरणचतुःसूत्रीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यवचतुर्थीf. a sort of game played on the 4th day in the light half of the month vaiśākha- (when people throw barley-meal over one another) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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cat चत् 1 U. (चतति-ते) 1 To ask, beg, request. -2 To go. -Caus. (चातयति-ते) 1 To cause to hide. -2 To scare, terrify.
catita चतित a. (Ved. चत्त) Hidden; made to disappear.
catula चतुल a. Depositing, placing.
catur चतुर् num. a. [चत्-उरन् Uṇ.5.58] (always in pl.; m. चत्वारः; f. चतस्रः; n. चत्वारि) Four; चत्वारो वयमृत्विजः Ve.1.25; चतस्रो$वस्था बाल्यं कौमारं यौवनं वार्धकं चेति; चत्वारि शृङ्गा त्रयो अस्य पादाः &c.; शेषान् मासान् गमय चतुरो लोचने मील- यित्वा Me.11. -ind. Four times. [cf. Zend chathru; Gr. tessares; L. quatuor.] [In Comp. the र् of चतुर् is changed to a Visarga (which in some cases becomes श्, ष् or स्, or remains unchanged) before words beginning with hard consonants.] -Comp. -अंशः a fourth part. -अङ्ग a. having 4 members, quadripartite. (-ङ्म्) 1 a complete army consisting of elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry; चतुरङ्गसमायुक्तं मया सह च तं नय Rām.1.2. 1; एको हि खञ्जनवरो नलिनीदलस्थो दृष्टः करोति चतुरङ्गबलाधिपत्यम् Ś. Til.4; चतुरङ्गबलो राजा जगतीं वशमानयेत् । अहं पञ्चाङ्गबलवाना- काशं वशमानये ॥ Subhāṣ. -2 a sort of chess. -अङ्गिकः A kind of horse, having four curls on the forehead; यस्य ललाटे भ्रमरचतुष्टयं स चतुरङ्किको नाम । Śālihotra of Bhoj.25. -अङ्गिन् a. having four parts. (-नी) a complete army, see चतुरङ्ग. -अङ्गुलम् 1 the four fingers of the hand. -2 four fingers broad. -अन्त a. bordered on all sides; भूत्वा चिराय चतुरन्तमहीसपत्नी Ś.4.19. -अन्ता the earth. -अशीत a. eighty-fourth. -अशीति a. or f. eighty four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. (for अश्रि-स्रि) 1 four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11. -2 symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः Ku.1.32. (-श्रः, स्रः) 1 a square. -2 a quardrangular figure. -3 (in astr.) N. of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions. -अहन् a period of four days. -आत्मन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -आननः, -मुखः an epithet of Brahmā; इतरतापशतानि यथेच्छया वितर तानि सहे चतुरानन Udb. -आश्रमम् the four orders or stages of the religious life of a Brāhmaṇa. -उत्तर a. increased by four. -उषणम् the four hot spices, i. e. black pepper, long pepper, dry ginger, and the root of long pepper. -कर्ण (चतुष्कर्ण) a. heard by two persons only; Pt.1.99. -ष्काष्ठम् ind. In four directions. चतुष्काष्ठं क्षिपन् वृक्षान् ... Bk.9.62. -कोण (चतुष्कोण) a. square, quadrangular. (-णः) a square, tetragon, any quadrilateral figure. -गतिः 1 the Supreme Soul. -2 a tortoise. -गवः a carriage drawn by four oxen. -गुण a. four times, four-fold, quadruple. -चत्वारिंशत् (चतुश्च- त्वारिंशत्) a. forty-four; ˚रिंश, ˚रिंशत्तम forty-fourth. -चित्यः A pedestal, a raised square; चतुश्चित्यश्च तस्यासी- दष्टादशकरात्मकः Mb.14.88.32. -णवत (चतुर्नवत) a. ninety-fourth, or with ninety-four added; चतुर्णवतं शतम् 'one hundred and ninety four'. -दन्तः an epithet of Airāvata, the elephant of Indra. -दश a. fourteenth. -दशन् a. fourteen. ˚रत्नानि (pl.) the fourteen 'jewels' churned out of the ocean; (their names are contained in the following popular Maṅgalāṣṭaka :-- लक्ष्मीः कौस्तुभपारिजातकसुरा धन्वन्तरिश्चन्द्रमा गावः कामदुघाः सुरेश्वरगजो रम्भादिदेवाङ्गनाः । अश्वः सप्तमुखो विषं हरिधनुः शङ्खो$मृतं चाम्बुधे रत्नानीह चतुर्दश प्रतिदिनं कुर्युः सदा मङ्गलम् ॥). ˚विद्या (pl.) the fourteen lores; (they are:-- षडङ्गमिश्रिता वेदा धर्मशास्त्रं पुराणकम् । मीमांसा तर्कमपि च एता विद्याश्चतुर्दश ॥). -दशी the fourteenth day of a lunar fortnight. -दिशम् the four quarters taken collectively. -दिशम् ind. towards the four quarters, on all sides. -दोलः, -लम् a royal litter. -द्वारम् 1 a house with four entrances on four sides. -2 four doors taken collectively. -नवति a. or f. ninety-four. -पञ्च a. (चतुपञ्च or चतुष्पञ्च) four or five. -पञ्चाशत् f. (चतुःपञ्चाशत् or चतुष्पञ्चाशत्) fifty-four. -पथः (चतुःपथः or चतुष्पथः) (-थम् also) a place where four roads meet, a crossway; Ms.4.39,9,264. (-थः) a Brāhmaṇa. -पद or -पद् a. (चतुष्पद) 1 having four feet; यथा चतुष्पत्सु च केसरी वरः Rām.4.11.93. -2 consisting of four limbs. (-दः) a quadruped. (-दी) a stanza of four lines; पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा Chand. M.1. -पाटी A river. L. D. B. -पाठी (चतुष्पाठी) a school for Brāhmaṇas in which the four Vedas are taught and repeated. -पाणिः (चतुष्पाणिः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पाद्-द (चतुष्पद्-द) a. 1. quadruped. -2 consisting of four members or parts. (-m.) 1 a quadruped. -2 (in law) a judicial procedure (trial of suits) consisting of four processes; i. e. plea, defence, rejoinder, and judgment. -3 The science of archery consisting of ग्रहण, धारण, प्रयोग and प्रतिकारः; यो$स्त्रं चतुष्पात् पुनरेव चक्रे । द्रोणः प्रसन्नो$भिवाद्यस्त्वया$सौ Mb.5.3.12-13; प्रतिपेदे चतुष्पादं धनुर्वेदं नृपात्मजः ibid 192.61. -पार्श्वम् the four sides of a square. -बाहुः an epithet of Viṣṇu. (-हु n.) a square. -भद्रम् the aggregate of the four ends of human life (पुरुषार्थ); i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम and मोक्ष. -भागः the fourth part, a quarter. -भावः N. of Viṣṇu. -भुज a. 1 quadrangular. -2 having four arms; Bg.11.46. (-जः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu; R.16.3. -2 a quadrangular figure. -3 square. (-जम्) a square. -मासम् a period of four months; (reckoned from the 11th day in the bright half of आषाढ to the 11th day in the bright half of कार्तिक). -मुख having four faces. (-खः) an epithet of Brahmā; त्वत्तः सर्वं चतु- र्मुखात् R.1.22. (-खम्) 1. four faces; Ku.2.17. -2 a house with four entrances. -मण्डलम् a four-fold arrangement (of troops &c.) -मेधः One who has offered four sacrifices, namely अश्वमेध, पुरुषमेध, सर्वमेध, and पितृमेध. -युगम् the aggregate of the four Yugas or ages of the world. -युज् a. Consisting of four; चतुर्युजो रथाः सर्वे Mb.5.155.13. -रात्रम् (चतूरात्रम्) an aggregate of four nights. -वक्त्रः an epithet of Brahmā. -वर्गः the four ends of human life taken collectively (पुरुषार्थ); i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम and मोक्षः; चतुर्वर्गफलं ज्ञानं कालावस्थाश्चतुर्युगाः R.1.22. -वर्णः 1. the four classes or castes of the Hindus; i. e. ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र; चतुर्वर्णमयो लोकः R.1.22. -2 four principal colours. -वर्षिका a cow four years old. -विंश a. 1 twenty fourth. -2 having twenty-four added; as चतुर्विंशं शतम् (124). -विंशति a. or f. twenty-four. -विंशतिक a. consisting of twenty-four. -विद्य a. one who has studied the four Vedas. -विद्या the four Vedas. -विध a. of four sorts or kinds, four-fold. -वेद a. familiar with the four Vedas. (-दः) the Supreme Soul. -व्यूङः N. of Viṣṇu. (-हम्) medical science. a. having four kinds of appearance; hence ˚वादिन् 'asserting the four forms of पुरुषोत्तम viz. वासुदेव, संकर्षण, प्रद्युम्न and अनिरुद्ध.' -शालम् (चतुःशालम्, चतुश्शालम्, चतुःशाली, चतुश्शाली) a square of four buildings, a quadrangle enclosed by four buildings; अलं चतु शालमिमं प्रवेश्य Mk.3.7; देवीनां चतुःशालमिदम् Pratimā 6. -षष्टि a. or f. 1 sixty-four. -2 N. for the Ṛigveda consisting 64 Adhyāyas. ˚कलाः (pl.) the sixty-four arts. -सनः N. of Viṣṇu having four embodiments of सनक, सनन्दन, सनत्कुमार and सनातन; आदौ सनात् स्वतपसः स चतुःसनो$भूत् Bhāg.2.7.5. -सप्तति a. or f. seventy-four. -समम् an unguent of four things, sandal, agallochum, saffron and musk; L. D. B. -सीमा the boundaries on all four sides. -हायन, -ण a. four years old; (the f. of this word ends in आ if it refers to an inanimate object, and in ई if it refers to an animal). -होत्रकम् the four priests taken collectively.
catura चतुर a. [चत्-उरच्] 1 Clever, skilful, ingenious, sharp-witted; सर्वात्मना रतिकथाचतुरेव दूती Mu.3.9; Amaru.15.44; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69;18.15. -2 Quick, swift. -3 Charming, beautiful, lovely, agreeable; न पुनरेति गतं चतुरं वयः R.9.47; Ku.1.47; 3.5;5.49. -रः 1 A round pillow. -2 Crooked gait. -3 An elephant's stable. -रम् 1 Cleverness, ingenuity. -2 An elephant's stable.
caturdhā चतुर्धा ibid. In four ways, fourfold.
caturtha चतुर्थ a. (र्थी f.) चतुर्णां पूरणः डट् युक् च] The fourth. -र्थः The fourth letter of any class. -र्थम् A quarter, a fourth part. -अंश a. receiving a fourth part. (-शः) a quarter or fourth part. -आश्रमः the fourth stage of a Brāhmaṇa's religious life, Saṁnyāsa. -फलम् the second inequality or equation of a planet. -भक्त a. eating the fourth meal. -भाज् a. receiving a fourth part of every source of income from the subjects, as a king; (this is allowed only in times of financial embarrassments, the usual share being a sixth.)
caturthaka चतुर्थक a. The fourth. -कः A fever that returns or is repeated every four days, a quartan. -र्थिका A weight equal to four Karṣas.
caturthī चतुर्थी 1 The fourth day of a lunar fortnight. -2 The dative case (in gram.). -Comp. -कर्मन् n. the ceremonies to be performed on the fourth night of the marriage.
catuṣka चतुष्क a. [चतुरवयवं चत्वारो$वयवा यस्य वा कन्] 1 Consisting of four. -2 Increased by four; द्विकं त्रिकं चतुष्कं च पञ्चकं च शतं समम् Ms.8.142 (i. e. 12, 13, 14, or 15, or interest at the rate of 2 to 5 percent). -ष्कम् 1 The number 'four'. -2 A collection of four. -3 cross-way -4 A quadrangular courtyard. -5 A hall resting on (four) pillars, a hall or saloon in general; Ku.5.68, 7.9. -6 A necklace of four strings. -7 A stand or a seat with four feet (Mar. चौरंग); चतुष्कैर्मञ्चकैश्चापि ... Śiva. B.22.62. -ष्की 1 A large four sided pond. -2 A mosquito curtain.
catuṣkikā चतुष्किका The number 'four'
catuṣṭaya चतुष्टय a. (-यी f.) [चत्वारो$वयवा विधा अस्य तयप्] Four-fold, consisting of four; पुराणस्य कवेस्तस्य चतुर्मुख- समीरिता । प्रवृत्तिरासीच्छब्दानां चरितार्था चतुष्टयी ॥ Ku.2.17. -यम् A group or collection of four; एकैकमप्यनर्थाय किमु यत्र चतुष्टयम् H. Pr.11; Ku.7.62; मासचतुष्टयस्य भोजनम् H.1. -2 A square. -3 The first, fourth, seventh, and tenth signs of the zodiac. -4 The centre of a circle.
catvālaḥ चत्वालः 1 A hole in the ground prepared for an oblation or for the sacrificial fire. -2 Kuśa grass. -3 Womb.
catvaram चत्वरम् [चत्-ष्वरच् Uṇ.2.121] 1 A quadrangular place or courtyard. -2 A place where many roads meet; स खलु श्रेष्ठिचत्वरे निवसति Mk.2. -3 A levelled spot of ground prepared for a sacrifice. -4 A collection of four chariots.
catvāriṃśat चत्वारिंशत् f. Forty.
acatura अचतुर a. [अविद्यमानानि चत्वारि यस्य -निपातः] P.V.4. 77.] 1 Destitute of four. -2 (न. त.) Not skilful.
catiḥ अञ्चतिः [अञ्च्-गतौ कर्तरि अति.] 1 Wind. -2 Fire. -3 One who goes.
arcatri अर्चत्रि a. Ved. [अर्च वेदे बाहु˚ अत्रि] Adorable, venerable (Sāy.); roaring aloud, singing loudly. अर्चत्रयो नयो न वीरा Rv.6.66.1.
arcatrya अर्चत्र्य a. Ved. to be praised or worshipped. अर्चत्र्यो मघवा नृभ्य उक्थैः Rv.6.24.1.
ucatham उचथम् [उच्यते स्तूयते$नेन वच्-कथन्] Praise, verse (स्तोत्रम्).
ucathya उचथ्य a. [उवथ-यत्] Deserving praise; उचथ्ये वपुषि यः स्वराळुत वायो घृतस्नाः Rv.8.45.28.
uccatā उच्चता त्वम् Height, superiority.
upacatura उपचतुर a. (P.V.4.77 Vārt.1) About four.
cañcatka चञ्चत्क a. 1 Leaping, jumping. -2 Moving, trembliing, shaking.
pacata पचत a. 1 Cooked, dressed. -2 Ripe, developed, mature. -तः 1 Fire. -2 The sun. -3 N. of Indra. -तम् Cooked food. -Comp. -भृज्जता continual baking and roasting; cf. खादतमोदता.
pañcathuḥ पञ्चथुः 1 Time. -2 The (Indian) cuckoo.
pañcat पञ्चत् f. A pentad, an aggregate of five.
pañcataya पञ्चतय a. Fivefold.
pañcatā पञ्चता त्वम् 1 Five-fold state. -2 A collection of five. -3 The five elements taken collectively. -4 the body; त्रित्वे हुत्वाथ पञ्चत्वं तच्चैकत्वे$जुहोन्मुनिः Bhāg.1.15.42. -5 Death, dissolution; -पञ्चतां, -त्वम् गम्, -या &c. means 'to be resolved into the five elements of which the body consists', 'to die or perish'; -पञ्चतां, -त्वं नी 'to kill or destroy'; पञ्चभिर्निर्मिते देहे पञ्चत्वं च पुनर्गते । स्वां स्वां योनिमनु- प्राप्ते तत्र का परिवेदना ॥ Ratn.3.3; शब्दादिभिः पञ्चभिरेव पञ्च पञ्चत्वमापुः स्वगुणेन बद्धाः Vivekachūdāmaṇi.
pañcathuḥ पञ्चथुः 1 Time. -2 The Indian cuckoo.
paricaturdaśan परिचतुर्दशन् a. Fully fourteen; more than fourteen; भृत्याः परिचतुर्दश Mb.3.1.11; so also परिदश; क्वचित् परिदशान् मासान् Rām.3.11.24.
vañcatiḥ वञ्चतिः Fire.
vañcathaḥ वञ्चथः [वञ्च्-अथः Uṇ.3.112] 1 Cheating, roguery, deceit, trickery. -2 A cheat, rogue, swindler. -3 The cuckoo. -4 Death.
saṃścat संश्चत् n. Trick, jugglery, illusion. -m.. A juggler.
sañcat सञ्चत् m. 1 A cheat, rogue, juggler. -2 Cheating, deceit.
siñcatā सिञ्चता सिञ्चिता Long pepper.
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cat cat hide (intr.), I. P. cátati; cs. cātáya drive away, ii. 33, 2.
caturakṣa catur-akṣá, a. (Bv.) four-eyed, x. 14, 10. 11 [akṣá = ákṣi eye].
catuṣpād catuṣ-pá̄d, a. (Bv.) four-footed, iv. 51, 5 [catúr four, Lat. quattuor, Go. fidwōr].
catvāriṃśa catvāriṃśá, ord., f. í̄, fortieth, ii. 12, 11.
asaścat a-saścát, a. (Bv.) inexhaustible, i. 160, 2 [having no second, saścát: sac follow].
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cat only pr. pt. kátat and pp. kattá, hide (int.); cs. kâtáya, drive away. pra, vi, cs. Â. id.
catuḥsaṃdhi a. composed of four parts; (kátuh)-samudra, a. (î) bounded by four seas; (kátuh)-sahasra, n. four thousand.
catuḥṣaṣṭi f. sixty-four: -ta ma, a. sixty-fourth, y-a&ndot;ga, a. having sixty-four parts; -shtomá, m. stoma of four parts each increasing by four verses; a. connected with a fourfold stoma.
catuḥśata n. one hundred and four; four hundred; -sapha, a. four-hoofed; -sâla, a. containing rooms on all four sides; m. building with square court in the middle: -ka, i-kâ, f. court with four rooms (one on each side); -srotra, a. four-eared.
catur num. m. n. pl. four.
catura a. quick, swift; dexterous, clever, ingenious, crafty; charming; n. clever ness: -ka, a. (ikâ) dexterous, clever; m. N. of a jackal; f. N. of a woman.
caturakṣa a. (&isharp;) four-eyed.
caturakṣara a. having four syl lables; n. aggregate of four syllables.
caturaṅga a. having four members: -m balam, n. complete army (consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots); â, f. army consisting of these four arms; n. id.; chess: -bala½adhipatya, n. command of a complete army.
caturaṅgin a. consisting of four parts.
caturanīka a. four-faced; -anta, a. bounded on all four sides (by the sea): â, f. earth; -asra, a. square; regular, harmoni ous: -tâ, f. harmony, -sobhin, a. harmoni ously beautiful; -asri, a. square; -ahá, m. period of four days; -âtman, a. having four forms or faces; -ânana, a. four-faced, ep. of Brahman; -uttará, a. increasing by four.
caturatā f. cleverness, craftiness, shrewdness.
caturbāhu a. four-armed; -bila, a. having four apertures; -bhâgá, m. fourth, quarter; -bhuga, a. four-armed, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -bhûmika, a. four-storied; -mâsî, f. period of four months; -mukha, a. four-faced; ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva: -samîrita, pp. uttered by the four mouths; -muhûrtam, ac. for four muhûrtas; -mûrti, a. having four forms or faces; -yuga, n. the four ages; a. comprising the four ages; -vak tra, a. four-faced; ep. of an attendant of Durgâ; -varga, m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kâma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha):-kintâmani, m. T. of a work; -varna-maya, a. consisting of the four castes; -varsha-sata½âyus, a. attaining an age of 400 years; -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-fourth; consisting of twenty-four; m. N. of a stoma in which three verses are chanted eight times; n. the day on which it is employed; -vimsat, f. twenty-four; (kátur)-vimsati, f. sg. and (rarely) pl. id.: -kritvas, ad. twenty-four times, -tama, a. twenty-fourth, y-aha, m. sg. twenty-four days; -vimsika, n.=katur-vimsa, m.; -vidha, a. fourfold: -m, ad.; -vîra, m. kind of Soma rite lasting four days; -veda, m. pl. the four Vedas; a. containing or fami liar with the four Vedas; -vedin, a. versed in the four Vedas; (kátur)-hanu, a. four-jawed.
caturdaśa a. (î) fourteenth; con sisting of fourteen; î, f. fourteenth day of a fortnight: -dasa-dh&asharp;, ad. fourteenfold; -dasán (or ká-), num. fourteen; -dasama, a. fourteenth; -dasarká, a. hvg. fourteen verses; -dârikâ, f. N. of the fifth lambaka in the Kathâsaritsâgara; -dikkam, ad. to the four quarters; -disam, ad. id.; -dvâra-mukha, a. (î) having four gates as mouths; -dhâ, ad. in four parts; fourfold.
caturguṇa a. fourfold.
caturtha a. (&isharp;) fourth: -m, ad. the fourth time; n. fourth part; î, f. fourth day in a fortnight; fourth wedding day.
caturthakāla m. fourth meal time: -m, lc.=on the evening of the second day; -kâlika, a. eating the fourth meal only; -bhâg, a. receiving a fourth part as tribute.
caturthāṃśa m. fourth part; a. receiving a fourth; -½amsin, a. id.
caturthīkarman n. ceremony of the fourth wedding day.
catus ad. four times.
catcatvāriṃśa a. (î), forty fourth; kátus-katvârimsat, f. forty-four.
catuṣka a. consisting of four; in creased by four (-sata, n. 104=4 per cent); m. N.; n. tetrad, set of four things; kind of hall resting on four columns; square recep tion room; -karna, a. heard by four ears only: -tâ, f. in. in confidence.
catuṣkikā f. tetrad; hall rest ing on four pillars.
catuṣpad kátush-pad, -˚pād a. (f. -pad î) four-footed; consisting of four parts or padas; f. having taken four steps; m. n. quad ruped; -pada, a. four-footed; having four pâdas; m. quadruped; -pâda, a.(î) four-footed; m. quadruped; -puta, a. having four folds.
catuṣpañca pl. four or five; -pañkâsat, f. fifty-four; -pathá, m. n. place where four roads meet.
catustriṃśa a. (î) thirty-fourth; containing thirty-four; (kátus)-trimsat, f. thirty-four; -tri-dvi½eka-bhâga, a. receiving four, three, two, or one part.
catuṣx{093c}ṭaya a. (î) of four kinds, con sisting of four; tetrad; set of four.
catvār str. st. of katur, m. n. pl. four.
catvara m. n. square, courtyard.
catvāriṃśa a. (&isharp;) fortieth; -sat, f. forty; -sati, f. id.; -san-mâna, n. having a weight of forty.
aticatura a. extremely swift.
amuñcat pr. pt. not abandoning or giving up.
asaścat pr. pt. (or -át), not ceas ing, not drying up: f. -antî (or -át-î).
ucathya a. praiseworthy.
ucatha n. hymn of praise.
grahaṇacatura a. expert in seizing; -dvaya, n. eclipse of sun and (or) moon; -sambhava, a. arising from the taking away (of, g.); -½anta, a. done with learning; -½antika, a. id.
dvācatvāriṃśat f. forty-two: -i, f. id.; -trimsá, a. (î) thirty-second; -trim sat, f. thirty-two.
dvatricaturam ad. twice, thrice or four times; -tri-katush-pañkaka, a. increased by two, three, four, or five; with satam, n.=two, three, four, or five per cent.
samacaturaśra a. having four equal corners, square; -kitta, a. having a calm mind (-tva, n. equanimity); -ketas, a. id.; -gâtîya, a. homogeneous.
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catuṣpad ‘Quadruped,’ is a regular name for animals from the Rigveda onwards, being frequently contrasted with Dvipad, * biped.’ Catus-pāda, as an adjective applying to pasavafr, ‘ animals,’ is also found.
pacata Like Pakti, denotes ‘cooked food* in the Rigveda and later.
śara arcatka ('Descendant of Ṛcatka') is the name of a Ṛṣi in the rigveda. It is very doubtful, however, whether Ārcatka is really a patronymic.
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catasra āpo yajñasya trayo 'kṣarāḥ AVś.13.3.6b.
catasra āśāḥ pra carantv agnaye TS.5.7.8.2a (bis); TB.2.8.8.10a; Apś.16.25.2.
catasra īṃ ghṛtaduhaḥ sacante RV.9.89.5a.
catasra uta guṅguvaḥ AVP.15.18.10b.
catasra ūrjaṃ duduhe payāṃsi RV.8.100.10c; TB.2.4.6.11c; N.11.28c.
catasraś cakḷpe diśaḥ AVP.12.10.9d.
catasraś ca me catvāriṃśac ca me (AVP. omits me) AVś.5.15.4a; AVP.8.5.4a.
catasraś ca me 'ṣṭau ca me VS.18.25; TS.4.7.11.2; KS.18.12; śB.9.3.3.6. See next.
catasraś cāṣṭau ca MS.3.4.2 (ter): 46.6,8,14; KS.21.11 (ter). See prec.
catasraś cāṣṭau cāṣṭācatvāriṃśataḥ MS.2.11.6: 143.14; Mś.6.2.5.26. See aṣṭau ca me 'ṣṭā-.
catasras te khala sraktīḥ AVP.8.11.1a.
catasro gṛhapatnyāḥ AVś.3.24.6b; AVP.5.30.8b.
catasro divaḥ (AVP. diśaḥ) pradiśaḥ AVś.1.11.2a; AVP.1.5.2a.
catasro diśaḥ pradiśo ha pañca AVP.1.102.3a.
catasro diśaś catasro 'kuśalīḥ (KS. catasra upadiśaḥ) MS.1.11.10: 172.3; KS.14.4.
catasro diśaś catasro 'vāntaradiśā ahaś ca rātriś ca kṛṣiś ca vṛṣṭiś ca tviṣiś cāpatitiś (read cāpacitiś) cāpaś cauṣadhayaś cork ca sūnṛtā ca devānāṃ patnayaḥ TA.3.9.2. Cf. ahaś ca rātriś.
catasro devīr ajarāḥ śraviṣṭhāḥ TB.3.1.2.6b.
catasro nābho nihitā avo divaḥ RV.9.74.6c.
catasro nāvo jaṭhalasya juṣṭāḥ RV.1.182.6c.
catasro bhūmyā uta AVś.1.11.2b; AVP.1.5.2b.
catasro vā parāvataḥ VS.18.32b; TS.4.7.12.1b; MS.2.12.1b: 144.6; KS.18.13b.
cati rocati rocanā AVP.15.21.6d.
catto itaś cattāmutaḥ RV.10.155.2a. Cf. BṛhD.8.60.
catuḥsahasraṃ gavyasya paśvaḥ RV.5.30.15a.
catuḥsamudraṃ dharuṇaṃ rayīṇām RV.10.47.2b; MS.4.14.8b: 227.11.
catuḥṣaṣṭyai svāhā KSA.2.5.
catuḥśataṃ bahudhā hūyate yat GB.1.5.23d.
catuḥśikhaṇḍā yuvatiḥ supeśāḥ (KS. supatnī) KS.31.14a; TB.1.2.1.27a; 3.7.6.4a,5a; 7.14a; Apś.4.5.1a; 6.2a; 11.5.3a. See catuṣkapardā.
catuḥśikhaṇḍe yuvatī kanīne Apś.7.5.1a.
catuḥsraktir nābhir ṛtasya (VS.śB. ṛtasya saprathāḥ; MS. catuḥsraktir ṛtasya nābhiḥ) VS.38.20; MS.4.9.10: 131.5; śB.14.3.1.17; TA.4.11.4; 5.9.6; Apś.15.14.5. P: catuḥsraktiḥ Kś.26.7.14; Mś.4.4.18.
catuḥśṛṅgo 'vamīd gaura etat RV.4.58.2d; AVP.8.13.2d; VS.17.90d; MS.1.6.2d: 87.16; KS.40.7d; TA.10.10.2d; Apś.5.17.4d; MahānU.9.13d.
catuḥśrotrā caturhanuḥ AVś.5.19.7b; AVP.9.18.10b.
catum agniṃ (read caturagniṃ ?) ca saṃprati TA.1.8.5b.
catur namo aṣṭakṛtvo bhavāya AVś.11.2.9a.
caturaḥ kumbhāṃś caturdhā dadāmi (AVP. dadāti) AVś.4.34.7a; AVP.6.22.6a.
caturakṣau pathirakṣī (AVś. pathiṣadī) nṛcakṣasau (AVśṭA. nṛcakṣasā) RV.10.14.11b; AVś.18.2.12b; TA.6.3.1b.
caturakṣau śabalau sādhunā pathā RV.10.14.10b; AVś.18.2.11b; TA.6.3.1b.
caturantā bhaved dattā ViDh.87.9c.
caturaś cid dadamānāt RV.1.41.9a; N.3.16a.
caturaśītyai svāhā KSA.2.5.
catūrātraḥ pañcarātraḥ AVś.11.7.11a.
caturbhiḥ śudhyate bhūmiḥ ṣB.5.10c; AdB.10c.
caturbhiḥ sākaṃ navatiṃ ca nāmabhiḥ RV.1.155.6a.
caturbhiḥ saindhavair yuktaiḥ śB.11.5.5.12a.
caturbhṛṣṭiṃ śīrṣabhidyāya vidvān AVś.10.5.50b.
caturbhyaḥ śatebhyaḥ svāhā TS.7.2.19.1; KSA.2.9.
caturbhyaḥ svāhā TS.7.2.11.1; 13.1; 15.1; KSA.2.1,3,5.
caturbhyo amṛtebhyaḥ AVś.1.31.1b; AVP.1.22.1b; TB.2.5.3.3a; 3.7.5.8b; Aś.2.10.18b; Apś.4.11.1b.
caturdaṃṣṭrāṃ chyāvadataḥ AVś.11.9.17a.
caturdaśa dvaitavanaḥ śB.13.5.4.9a.
caturdaśabhyaḥ svāhā TS.7.2.11.1; 13.1.
caturdaśāḥ pañcadaśeṣu śrayadhvam TB.3.11.2.2.
caturdaśānye mahimāno asya RV.10.114.7a.
caturdaśarcebhyaḥ svāhā AVś.19.23.11.
caturdhā reto abhavad vaśāyāḥ AVś.10.10.29a.
caturdhā hy etasyāḥ pañca-pañcākṣarāṇi; ... etasyāḥ ṣaḍ-ṣaḍ akṣarāṇi; ... etasyāḥ sapta-saptākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā aṣṭā-aṣṭā akṣarāṇi; ... etasyā nava-navākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā daśa-daśākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā ekādaśaikādaśākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā dvādaśa-dvādaśākṣarāṇi MS.1.11.10: 172.12--19; KS.14.4 (with tasyāḥ etc., for etasyāḥ etc. of MS., and only as far as ... tasyā nava-navākṣarāṇi).
caturdhaitān sam abharaḥ AVP.8.19.2a.
caturhotāra āpriyaḥ AVś.11.7.19a.
caturhotāraṃ pradiśo 'nukḷptam TA.3.11.2c.
caturhotāro yatra saṃpadaṃ gachanti devaiḥ TA.3.11.2c.
caturhotṝṇām ātmānaṃ kavayo nicikyuḥ TA.3.11.3d (bis).
caturjālaṃ brahmakośaṃ yaṃ mṛtyur nāvapaśyati taṃ prapadye TA.2.19.1.
caturmukhaṃ tarpayāmi BDh.2.5.9.5.
caturmukhāya vidmahe MahānU.3.18. See tac catur-.
caturnavatiś ca padāny asya GB.1.5.23b. See sapta śatāni pañcāśataṃ.
caturthāḥ pañcameṣu śrayadhvam TB.3.11.2.1.
caturtho nāpy ucyate AVś.13.4.16b.
caturthyā rātryā caturthyā samidhā AVP.9.20.4.
caturvidhaiḥ sthito mantraiḥ GB.2.2.5c.
caturviṃśa (MS. -śaḥ; KS. -śas) stomaḥ VS.14.25; TS.4.3.9.2; MS.2.8.5: 109.15; KS.17.4; śB.8.4.2.7.
caturviṃśāḥ pañcaviṃśeṣu śrayadhvam TB.3.11.2.3.
caturviṃśatiś ca me 'ṣṭāviṃśatiś ca me VS.18.25.
caturviṃśatyai svāhā KSA.2.5.
caturvīraṃ nairṛtebhyaś caturbhyaḥ AVś.19.45.5c; AVP.15.4.5c.
caturvīraṃ parvatīyaṃ yad āñjanam AVś.19.45.3c; AVP.15.4.3c.
caturvīraṃ badhyata āñjanaṃ te AVś.19.45.4a; AVP.15.4.4a.
caturyugas trikaśaḥ saptaraśmiḥ RV.2.18.1b.
catus te namaḥ TA.4.28.1.
catcatvāriṃśa (MS. -śaḥ; KS. -śas) stomaḥ VS.14.26; 15.3; TS.4.3.9.2; 12.1; 5.3.5.1; MS.2.8.5: 110.3; KS.17.4,6; 21.2 (bis); śB.8.4.2.11; 5.1.11; Apś.17.3.2.
catcatvāriṃśac ca me 'ṣṭācatvāriṃśac ca me (VS. me yajñena kalpantām) VS.18.25; TS.4.7.11.2.
catcatvāriṃśī stomaḥ MS.2.8.7: 111.8; 3.2.10: 31.12; Mś.6.2.2.1.
catuṣkapardā yuvatiḥ supeśāḥ RV.10.114.3a. See catuḥśikhaṇḍā.
catuṣpāc cakre dvipadām abhisvare AVś.13.3.25c. See catuṣpād eti.
catuṣpāc chandaś catuṣpadaś ca paśūn AVP.9.20.4.
catuṣpād ava TS.4.3.4.3; TB.3.7.5.9; Apś.4.11.1. See catuṣpāt pāhi.
catuṣpād eti dvipadām abhisvare RV.10.117.8c. See catuṣpāc cakre.
catuṣpād bhūtvā bhogyaḥ AVś.10.8.21c.
catuṣpāda uta ye dvipādaḥ KS.30.8b; Mś.1.8.3.3b. See under catuṣpadām uta.
catuṣpādaḥ prakīrtitāḥ ViDh.86.15b.
catuṣpadāṃ dvipadāṃ yac ca dhānyam AVś.19.31.5b; AVP.10.5.5b.
catuṣpadām uta yo (TS. ca) dvipadām AVś.2.34.1b; TS.3.1.4.2b. See next, and catuṣpāda uta.
catuṣpadām uta vā ye dvipādaḥ AVP.3.32.2b; 5.22.4b. See under prec.
catuṣpade ca paśave RV.3.62.14b.
catuṣpade dvipade 'sya mṛḍa AVś.11.2.28d.
catuṣpade naryāya dvipāde RV.1.121.3d.
catuṣpadīm anv emi (AVś. aitad) vratena RV.10.13.3b; AVś.18.3.40b.
catuṣpado dvipada ā veśayeha AVś.13.1.2d; AVP.7.6.10d; Kauś.43.13d.
catuṣpādo dvipado yanti yāmam AVś.10.2.6d.
catuṣpakṣam iva chadiḥ AVś.3.7.3b; AVP.3.2.3b.
catuṣpāt pāhi VS.14.8; MS.2.8.2: 107.16; KS.17.1; śB.8.2.3.6. See catuṣpād ava.
catuṣpāt sakalo yajñaḥ GB.2.2.5a.
catuṣpāt spṛtam VS.14.25; TS.4.3.9.2; MS.2.8.5: 109.14; KS.17.4; śB.8.4.2.7.
catuṣṭayaṃ yujyate saṃhitāntam AVś.10.2.3a.
catuṣṭoma (MS. -maḥ; KS. -mas) stomaḥ VS.14.25; TS.4.3.9.2; MS.2.8.5: 110.2; KS.17.4; śB.8.4.2.10.
catuṣṭomam adadhād etc. see catuṣṭomo etc.
catuṣṭomo abhavad (MS.KS. catuṣṭomam adadhād) yā turīyā TS.4.3.11.2a; MS.2.13.10a: 160.7; KS.39.10a. See agnīṣomāv adadhur.
catustriṃśad vājino devabandhoḥ RV.1.162.18a; VS.25.41a; TS.4.6.9.3a; KSA.6.5a; śB.13.5.1.18. P: catustriṃśat śś.16.3.24.
catustriṃśat tantavo ye vi tatnire VS.8.61a. See trayastriṃśat.
catustriṃśatā purudhā vi caṣṭe RV.10.55.3c.
catvāra īṃ bibhrati kṣemayantaḥ RV.5.47.4a.
catvāra ekam abhi karma devāḥ TB.3.1.2.9a.
catvāra sthana devāḥ AVś.1.31.2b; AVP.1.22.2b.
catvāraś catvāriṃśac ca AVś.19.47.4c; AVP.6.20.4c.
catvāri te asuryāṇi nāma RV.10.54.4a.
catvāri māyobhavāya (JG. mayo-; MG. rāyaspoṣāya) TB.3.7.7.11; Apś.10.22.12; SMB.1.2.9; ApMB.1.3.10 (ApG.2.4.16); PG.1.8.1; HG.1.21.1; MG.1.11.18; JG.1.21; VārG.14.23. See under āyobhavyāya.
catvāri vāk parimitā padāni RV.1.164.45a; AVś.9.10.27a; śB.4.1.3.17a; TB.2.8.8.5a; Aś.3.8.1; JUB.1.7.3a; 40.1a; N.13.9a.
catvāri śṛṅgā (GB. śṛṅgās) trayo asya pādāḥ RV.4.58.3a; AVP.8.13.3a; VS.17.91a; MS.1.6.2a: 87.17; KS.40.7a; GB.1.2.16a (PraṇavaU.); TA.10.10.2a; MahānU.10.1a; Apś.5.17.4a; N.13.7a. P: catvāri śṛṅgā GB.1.2.16; 2.2.6; Vait.29.19. Occurs also in śaunakaU. (Shavank in the Oupnekhat).
catvāri sahasrā triṃśaṃ cāyutāni JB.2.72a. See aṣṭau śatāny ayutāni.
catvāriṃśac ca me catuścatvāriṃśac ca me VS.18.25.
catvāriṃśad daśarathasya śoṇāḥ RV.1.126.4a.
catvāriṃśate svāhā TS.7.2.17.1; 18.1; KSA.2.1,3,5,6,7,8.
catvāriṃśyāṃ śarady anvavindat RV.2.12.11b; AVś.20.34.11b; AVP.12.15.1b.
catvāro 'gre pra vahanti yuktāḥ JB.3.338a.
catvāro mama catasras tasya yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ ca vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ śB.1.5.4.15. P: catvāro mama catasras tasya Apś.4.9.8.
catvāro mā paijavanasya dānāḥ RV.7.18.23a.
catvāro mā maśarśārasya śiśvaḥ RV.1.122.15a.
catvāry anyā bhuvanāni nirṇije RV.9.70.1c; SV.1.560c; 2.773c.
catvāry ayutā dadat RV.8.2.41b.
anuvañcate svāhā # TS.7.4.22.1; KSA.5.1.
amuñcataṃ vartikām aṃhaso niḥ # RV.1.118.8c.
arocata diviyonir vibhāvā # RV.10.88.7b.
arcata pra ca gāyata # RV.6.45.4b.
arcata prārcata (SV. prārcata naraḥ) # RV.8.69.8a; AVś.20.92.5a; SV.1.362a; AB.4.4.4; Aś.6.2.9.
arcatrayo dhunayo na vīrāḥ # RV.6.66.10c; MS.4.14.11c: 233.1.
arcatryo maghavā nṛbhya ukthaiḥ # RV.6.24.1c.
avocat svāṃ tanvam indram eva # RV.10.120.9b; AVś.5.2.9b; 20.107.12b; AVP.6.1.9b.
aṣṭācatvāriṃśate svāhā # KSA.2.3,5.
asaścataḥ śatadhārā abhiśriyaḥ # RV.9.86.27a.
asaścatā maghavadbhyo hi bhūtam # RV.7.67.9a.
asaścateva samanā sabardhuk # RV.10.69.8b.
ucathye vapuṣi yaḥ svarāṭ # RV.8.46.28a.
udvañcate svāhā # TS.7.4.22.1; KSA.5.1.
ekacatvāriṃśate svāhā # KSA.2.2,4.
ekonacatvāriṃśate svāhā # KSA.2.1,2,4. See ekān na ca-.
tiraścatā pārśvān nir gamāṇi # RV.4.18.2b.
navacatvāriṃśate svāhā # TS.7.2.11.1; 12.1; 14.1; KSA.2.1,2,4.
pacatā paktīr avase kṛṇudhvam it # RV.7.32.8c; SV.1.285c.
pacate vāhutām amā # AVP.12.9.1b. Cf. amā ca pacate.
pacato na vi yoṣataḥ # AVP.8.19.10d. See dadāto na etc.
pañcacatvāriṃśate svāhā # KSA.2.6.
pañcatriṃśate svāhā # KSA.2.6.
parivañcate svāhā # TS.7.4.22.1; KSA.5.1.
pṛñcatīḥ payasā payaḥ # MS.4.1.3c: 5.9; Mś.1.1.3.32c. See next.
pṛñcatīr madhunā (AVś.20.48.2b, varcasā) payaḥ # RV.1.23.16c; AVś.1.4.1c; 20.48.2b; AVP.1.2.1c; AB.2.20.20; Kś.4.2.32c; śG.1.28.8c. See prec.
prāmuñcataṃ drāpim iva cyavānāt # RV.1.116.10b.
māṃścatur nāma vṛkṣakaḥ # AVP.13.3.7c.
māṃścatva indo sarasi pra dhanva # RV.9.97.52b; SV.1.541b; 2.454b; JB.3.164b.
māṃścatve vā pṛśane vā vadhatre # RV.9.97.54b; SV.2.456b.
muñcatāṃhaso-aṃhasaḥ # AVś.1.31.2d; AVP.1.22.2d.
muñcatu pary aṃhasaḥ # AVP.2.24.4d. See muñcatainaṃ, muñca naḥ, and muñcantu pary.
muñcatu yajñaṃ (Apś. yajño) yajñapatim aṃhasaḥ svāhā # MS.4.8.9: 118.9; Apś.9.10.15. See under muñcemaṃ.
muñcatainaṃ pary aṃhasaḥ # AVP.4.24.9b. See under muñcatu pary.
cataḥ pratigṛhṇataḥ # BDh.2.2.4.26b.
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caturthaa term used by ancient grammarians for the fourth consonants which are sonant aspirates, termed झष् by Panini; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 2. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 18, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1 54. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 176.
caturthīsamāsathe tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; confer, compare वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.36.
caturmātraconsisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; confer, compare आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 3.4.
dvicata syllable consisting of two consonants; confer, compare Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 245.
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
agamakatvanon-communicativeness, inability to communicate adequately the intended meaning. confer, compare सविशेषणानां वृत्तिस्तर्हि कस्मान्न भवति । अगमकत्वात् M. Bh on II.1.1: confer, compare also अगमक: निर्देशः अनिर्देशः।
atadanubandhakanot having the same mute significatory letter, but having one or two additional ones, confer, compare तदनुबन्धकग्रहणे नातदनुबन्धकस्य ग्रहणम् (Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 84.)
atikramapassing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, confer, compare अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiprasaṅgaover-application of a definition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
anatidiṣṭanot resulting from any extended application or अतिदेश, confer, compare प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.
ananubanghakawithout any mute significatory letter attached; अननुबन्धकपरिभाषा is the short name given to the maxim-'अननुबन्धकग्रहणे न सानुबन्धकस्य ग्रह णम्' See M.Bh. on I.3.1: V.2.9. There is a reading in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. निरनुबन्धकग्रहणे for अननुबन्धकग्रहणे, in which case the परिभाषा is called निरनुबन्धकपरिभाषा. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 81.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
antafinal, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been droppedition confer, compare अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
anyārtha(1)having another purpose or signification: confer, compare अन्यार्थं प्रकृतं अन्यार्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on l.1.23; (2) another sense which is different from what is expressed confer, compare अन्यार्थो बहुव्रीहिः Cān. II.2.46.
aprayoginnot-found in actual use among the people although mentioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. confer, compare अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on III.8.31.
aprasaṅganon-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; confer, compare अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthanirdeśamention or specification of sense. confer, compare अवश्यमुत्तरार्थमर्थनिर्देशः कर्तव्यः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). IV.1.92.
alākṣaṇika(1)not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: confer, compareनिपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदलाक्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.
avakāśaoccasion; possibility of application; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avighātārthameant for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.
avidhinon-application, non-prescription (अविधान); confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तौ अविधिर्निष्ठितस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.I.30; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 92.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
aviśeṣaabsence of specification; confer, compare गामादाग्रहणेष्वविशेषः M.Bh.I.1.20 Vārt 1; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 106.
avyavasthāabsence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the application of a rule: confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.60 V. 5.
avyāptiinsufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over application; confer, compareसर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यतिव्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.1.32.
aṣṭamaa term used by ancient grammarians for the vocative case.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ācāryasaṃpadnecessary qualification to teach the Veda with all its pāṭhas having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrās and the like. confer, compare पदक्रमविभागज्ञो वर्णक्रमविचक्षणः स्वरमात्राविशेषज्ञो गच्छेदाचार्यसंपदम् R. Prāt.I.8.
āditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter अा signifying the nonapplication of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-passive voice. participle. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः similarly खिन्न, भिन्न et cetera, and others confer, compare आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.
ādiṣṭa(1)prescribed for substitution; specified for an operation : confer, compare सिद्धे तु आदिष्टस्य युड्वचनात् M.Bh. on VI.1. 155; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.I58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.3.28 Vār. 5; confer, compare also आदिष्टाच्चैवाचः पूर्वः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; अादिष्टा इमे वर्णाः.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādyudāttaa word beginning with an acute-accent id est, that is which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; confer, compareP. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.
aāpatti(1)production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's commentary thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 9. (2) modification; confer, compare अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result.
abhyāsachanges prescribed in connection with the अभ्यास or reduplicative syllable; confer, compare अभ्यासविकार अाभ्यासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.6.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
aāmantryaa word in the vocative case; literally a word possessed of the sense of invocation; confer, compare अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; confer, compare also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.1.25.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itkāryaa grammatical operation caused by इत् i. e. by a mute letter which is purely indicatory; confer, compare एवं तर्हि इत्कार्याभावादत्र इत्संज्ञा न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.3.2. See इत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
itthaṃbhūtalakṣaṇacharacterization; indication by a mark: e. g. जटाभिस्तापसः confer, compare इत्थंभूतलक्षणे च ( तृतीया ) P. II.3.21.
iditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter इ; e. g the roots नदि, विदि and the like, in whose case the augment नुम् ( न् ) is affixed to the last vowel; cf इदितो नुम् धातोः P. VII.1.58.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
īpa technical term in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for सप्तमी (the locative case).
irmute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); confer, compare also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); confer, compare P.III.1.57.
irita root ending with mute indicatary ending इर्. See इर्.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īdit(a root)possessed of long ई as a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibiting the addition of the augment इ to the past participle. terminations त and तवत् ; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, दीप्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.2.14.
īyaṅ'afix ईय added to the root ऋत्, ङ् showing the application of the Ātmanepada affixes; e. g. ऋतीयते confer, compare P. III.1.29
ugitacharacterized by the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or लृ; see उक्.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
uditcharacterized by short उ as a mute indicatory vowel, by virtue of which the word कु, for instance, signifies along with क् its cognate consonants ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ् also; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.I.69. Roots marked with उ as mute get the augment इ optionally added before the kṛt affix क्त्वा; e gशमित्वा and शान्त्वा from the root शम् ( शमु ) by virtue of the rule उदितो वा P.VII.2.56.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upadeśivadbhāvaoccurrence in the original statement before the application of any affixes et cetera, and others, confer, compare एवमप्युपदेशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.56, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 23.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargadyotyatāthe view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connectedition For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona.
upādhicondition, limitation, determinant, qualification: exempli gratia, for example न हि उपाधेरुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; confer, compare also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.
ubhayagatiboth the alternatives; both the senses; double signification; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति P.I.1.23,Vārt 4,Pari. Śek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senses-the ordinary one ( अकृत्रिम } and the technical one ( कृत्रिम)--exempli gratia, for example the meanings ( i ) numeral, and ( ii ) words बहु, गण et cetera, and others of the word संख्या.
ūkaugment ऊ added to the अभ्यास or the reduplicative syllable of the root पठ् which is doubled before the affix क which is used instead of घ ( घञर्थे कः ); exempli gratia, for example पाटूपटः.
ūditmarked with the mute indicatory letter ऊ; confer, compare स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा । prescribing the addition of the augment इ optionally in the case of ऊदित् roots P. VII.2.44.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ṛditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the prevention of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् et cetera, and others confer, compare नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.
lṛdit(roots)marked with the mute indicatory letter लृ, which take the substitute अ (अङ्) for च्लि, the Vikaraṇa of the aorist; e. g. अपतत्, अशकत् confer, compare पुषादिद्ताद्य्-लृदितः परस्मैपदेषु P.III.1.55.
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
editmarked by the mute indicatory letter ए. Roots marked with indicatory ए do not allow वृद्धि for their vowel in the aorist: exempli gratia, for example अरगीत्, अलगीत्; confer, compare P.VII.2.5.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
oditmarked with the indicatory letter ओ; roots marked with the mute letter ओ have the Niṣṭhā affix त or तवत् changed to न or नवत्; exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, लग्नवान् दीनः, दीनवान् et cetera, and others confer, compare ओदितश्र P VIII.2.45; confer, compare also स्वादय ओदितः इत्युक्तम् । सूनः सूनवान्; दूनः दूनवान् Si. Kau. on P. VIII.2.45.
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kāryakālaparibhāṣāone of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the application of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 3.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
ṅicase-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, feminine. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;confer, compare P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
jñāpakasiddharealized from the ज्ञापक wording; the conclusion drawn from an indicatory. word in the form of Paribhāșās and the like. Such conclusions are not said to be universally valid; confer, compare ज्ञापकसिद्धं न सर्वत्र Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari, 110.7.
jñāpyamānaindicated or suggested: confer, compare उत्पातेन ज्ञाप्यमाने ( चतुर्थी वाच्या )। वाताय कपिला विद्युत् et cetera, and others M.Bh. on ΙΙ. 3.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
the first consonant of the lingual class ( टवर्ग ) possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When prefixed or affixed to an affix as an indicatory letter, it signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ); confer, compare P. IV. 1.15, When added to the conjugational affixes ( लकार ) it shows that in the Atmanepada the vowel of the last syllable is changed to ए. confer, compare P. III. 4.79. When added to an augment ( अागम ), it shows that the augment marked with it is to be prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. नुट्, तुट् et cetera, and others; cf P. I. 1.46.
ḍarakrt affix अर added to the root खन् in the sense of 'instrument' or 'location' exempli gratia, for example आखरः, confer, compare P.III.3. 125 Vartika.
ḍvita root marked with the mute syllable डु (at the beginning) to Signify the application of the krt affix त्रि which is invariably followed by the addition of म ( मप् ), in the sense of 'achieved by' e. g. पक्त्रिमम् ; कृत्रिमम्: confer, compare P. III. 3.88 ; and IV. 4.20.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
ḍhaktaddhita affix. affix एय causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ढक् is added in the sense of अपत्य (descendant) (I) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words ending in the vowel इ, excepting इ of the taddhita affix. afix इञ्, to words of the class headed by शुभ्र, to words मण्डूक, विकर्ण, कुषीतक, भ्रू , .कुलटा and to words headed by कल्याणी which get इन substituted for its !ast vowel; exempli gratia, for example सौपर्णेयः, दात्तेयः शौभ्रेय, माण्डूकेयः, , वैकर्णेयः, कौषीतकेयः, भ्रौवेयः,.कौलटेयः, काल्याणिनेयः etc: cf Kas on P. IV.I. 1 19-127; (2) to the words पितृष्वसृ and मातृष्वसृ with the vowel ऋ elided and to the word . दुष्कुल, पितृष्वसेय:, मातृष्वसेयः, दौष्कुलेयः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.133, 134, 142: (3) to the word कलि in the sense of Sama, to the word अग्नि in the sense of 'dedicated to a deity' ( सास्य देवता ) as also to the words नदी, मही, वाराणसी, श्रावस्ती and others in the Saisika senses; e. g. कालेयं साम, आग्नेयः, नादेयम् महियम् et cetera, and others cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.8, 33, 97: (4) to the words तूदी, धुर् , कपि, ज्ञाति, व्रीहि and शालि in the specified senses; confer, compare P. IV. 3.94, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127, V. 2.2.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇyatkrtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the circurmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any consonant to form the pot. passive voice.participle: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्यपान्यम् confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) taddhita affix. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मासिकः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.84.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
titan affix to which the mute indicatory letter त् is added signifying the circumflex accent of that affix; e. g. the affixes यत्, ण्यत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VI. 1.185.
tujādiroots such as the root तुज् and the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syllable lengthened as seen mostly in Vedic Literature: e. g. तूतुजानः, मामहानः, दाधार et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.7.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
trātaddhita affix. affix त्रा in the sense of something donated, as also to the words देव, मनुष्य, पुरुष, पुरु and मर्त्य ending in the accusative or the locative case; e. g. व्राह्मणत्रा करोति, देवत्रा वसतिः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.55,56. ’There is avagraha before the taddhita affix. affix त्रा. देवत्रेति देवSत्रा्; confer, compare V.Pr. V.9.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural Parasmaipada,substituted for the ल् of the ten lakara affixes; (2) substitute ( थल् ) for the 2nd pers singular. personal ending सिप् in. the perfect tense: (3) unadi affix ( थक् ) added to the roots पा, तॄ, तुद् et cetera, and others e. g. पीथः, तीर्थः, et cetera, and others; cf unadi sutra II. 7; (4) unadi affix ( क्थन् ) | added to the roots हन्, कुष् ,नी et cetera, and others; e. g, हथः, कुष्टं, नीथः et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra II. 2: (5) unadi affix (थन्) added to the roots उष्, कुष्, गा and ऋ, e. g. ओष्ठः, कोष्ठम् et cetera, and others cf unadi sutra_II. 4; (6) a technical term for the term अभ्यस्त or the reduplicated wording of Panini ( confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dānīmtaddhita affix. affix called विभक्ति, applied to तद् and इदम् in the sense of the locative case exempli gratia, for example तदानीम्, इदानीम्; confer, compare P. V.3.18, 19.
dṛṣṭānuvidhitaking place of an operation, or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use. See दृष्ट.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dviḥdoubled; the term is used in connection with reduplication in the Katantra and Haima grammars confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.1, Kat.III 8. 10.
dvitīyadvirvacanathe reduplication of a root beginning with a vowel prescribed by the rule अजादेर्द्वितीयस्य P. VI. 1.2.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvirbhāvarepetition, reduplication. See द्वित्व.
dvisdouble reduplicated; the word is frequently used in connection with doubling of consonants or words in the PratiSakhya Literature as also in the Katantra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1, XV. 5, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 101, R, T. 264; confer, compare also Kat. III. 8.10, Sak. IV. 1.43; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV. 1.1.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhvani(1)sound; confer, compare ध्वनिं कुर्वन्नेवमुच्यतेशब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika 1; confer, compare also Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. I. 77; confer, compare also स्फोटः शब्दः, ध्वनिः शब्दगुणः, M.Bh. on I. 1.70 Vart. 5. ध्वनि or sound is said to be the indicator (सूचक्र or व्यञ्जक) of स्फोट the eternal sound.
dhvanitasuggested, as opposed to उक्त expressed; the word is found frequently used in the Paribhasendusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made, but indicated in the Mahabhasya.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
nikaugment नि as seen in the reduplicated syllable कनि of the aorist form कनिक्रदत् of the root क्रन्द्; confer, compare क्रन्देर्लुङि च्लेरङादेशो द्विर्वचनमभ्यासस्य चुत्वाभावो निगागमश्च निपात्यते । अक्रन्दीदिति भाषायाम्; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.4.65.
nitan affix possessed of the mute indicatory letter न्, the word characterized by which has the acute accent on the vowel of the first syllable; e. g. गार्ग्यः, वात्स्यः, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI.1.197.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātadyotakatvathe view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns,pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mahabhasya and was prominently given in the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari which was followed by almost all later grammarians. See निपात.
nipātānarthakatvathe view prominently expressed by the Varttikakara that nipatas do not possess any sense, which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that they do possess sense which, of course, is indicated and not expressedition See निपात.
nimittasaptamīlocative case, used in the sense of a cause as prescribed by निमित्तात्कर्मसंयोगे, P. II.3 36 Vart. 6 and illustrated by the usually quoted verse चर्मणि द्वीपिनं हन्ति दन्तयोर्हन्ति कुञ्जरम् । केशेषु चमरीं हन्ति सीम्नि पुष्कलको हत: M.Bh.on II.3.36 Vart. 6, also confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.57.
niyatasvara(1)an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; confer, compare M.Bh. on I.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; confer, compare नियतस्वरोदये R.Pr.XI.25; (3) name of a Samdhi when a visarga is changed into रेफ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf ह्रस्वस्याकामनियता उभाविमौ R.Pr. IV.9; confer, compare also P. VIII.3.14 and VI.3.111.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niranubandhakapossessed of no mute indicatory letter; not possessed of any mute indicatory letter; confer, compare क्वपुनरयं (आकारः) सानुबन्धकः क्व निरनुबन्धकः । M.Bh. on I. 1.14.
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
nirūḍhalakṣaṇāpotentiality of implicaion which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e. g. रथो गच्छति.
nivṛtti(1)cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. confer, compare also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; confer, compare न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन; प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनुबन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 3 et cetera, and others; confer, compare also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः.
nīkaugment नी affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots फण्, वञ्च् , स्रंस,ध्वंस्, भ्रंस् कस्, पत्, पद् and स्कन्द् in the intensive; e. g. अापनीफणत्, वनीवच्यते et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 4.65 and 84.
nukaugment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, confer, compare P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
nairdeśikamatter of communication; statement made for communication. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.explains the word as निर्देशः बोधः प्रयोजनमस्य नैर्देशिकः । confer, compare एते खल्वपि नैर्देशिकानां वार्ततरका भवन्ति ये सर्वनाम्ना निर्देशाः क्रियन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.67.
nyāyasiddhaestablished by a maxim; with full justification; confer, compare न्यायसिद्धमेवैतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on V.1.19.The word is used as opposed to ज्ञापकसिद्ध by Nāgesa; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 1.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padavāda or padavādipakṣaview that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. confer, compare Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
paratvanyāyaapplication of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; confer, compare परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,
parasaptamīa locative case in the sense of 'what follows', as contrasted with विषयसप्तमी, अधिकरणसप्तमी and the like; confer, compare लुकीति नैषा परसप्तमी शक्या विज्ञातुं न हि लुका पौर्वापर्यमस्ति । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी M.Bh. on P.I.2. 49.
parāṅgavadbhāvabehaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by Panini in connection with a word followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked upon as a part for purposes of accent, e. g. कुण्डेनाटन् , मद्राणां राजन् et cetera, and others Here the words अटन् and राजन् , being in the vocative case, are अाद्युदात्त, id est, that is अ ( at the beginning of अटन्) and अा (in राजन्) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in कुण्डेनाटन् and मद्राणां राजन् become अनुदात्त or grave; confer, compare सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2.
parādisasvaraa consonant belonging to the succeeding vowel in sylllabication; confer, compare R.Pr.I.15.
parisamāptiapplication of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; confer, compareप्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; confer, compare वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII. 3.80.
parjanyavallakṣaṇapravṛttithe application of a grammatical rule or operation like the rains which occur on dry land as also on the sea surface: confer, compare कृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रं पर्जन्यवत् । तद्यथा । पर्जन्यो यावदूनं पूर्णे च सर्वमभिवर्षति । M.Bh. on P.I. 1.29 ; VI. 1.127: cf also यथा पर्जन्यः यावदूनं पूर्णे वाभिवर्षति एवं लक्षणमपि दीर्घस्य दीर्घत्वम् । चिचीषति, बुभूषति। Vyaadi. Pari. 58, confer, compare कृतकारि शास्त्रं मेघवत् न चाकृतकारि दहनवत् Puruso. Pari. 86.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
punarvacanause of the same word or expression, which, if noticed in the writing of the Sūtrakāra, is indicative of something in the mind of the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अणः पुनर्वचनमपवादविषये अनिवृत्त्यर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of P III. 3. 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1; cf also पुनर्वचनमनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् । Kāś. on P. I. 41"
pūraṇaan ordinal numeral; literally the word means completion of a particular number ( संख्या ); confer, compare येन संख्या संख्यानं पूर्यते संपद्यते स तस्याः पूरणः । एकादंशानां पूरणः एकादशः । Kas, on P.V. 2.48. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of which the particular number ( संख्या ) referring to an object, is shown as complete; confer, compare यस्मिन्नुपसंजाते अन्या संख्या संपद्यते स प्रत्ययार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.48. These Purana pratyayas are given in P. V. 2. 48-58, confer, compare पूरणं नामार्थः । तमाह Xतीयशव्दः । अतः पूरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.3. The word also means 'an ordinal number'; confer, compare पूरणगुणसुहितार्थसदव्ययतव्यसमानाधिकरणेन P.II.2.11.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvāntasasvarabelonging to the previous vowel in syllabication; e. g. a consonant at the end of a word or the first in a consonant group ( संयोग ).
prakṛtibhāvaphonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; confer, compareईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125
pratinirdiśyamānapredicate, as opposed to the subject; confer, compare उद्देश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानघौरेक्यमापादयत्सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तैल्लिङ्गभाक् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Pradipa.
pratiṣiddhaa rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented from application by a specific negation of it by another rule or operation laid down to prohibit it. Generally the prohibited rule does not apply again; confer, compare सकृद्रतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्वाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Par, Sek.Pari. 40; confer, compareनोत्सहते प्रतिषिद्धा सती बाधितुम् । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.43. The word प्रातिषिद्ध which is generally used in ancient works appears to be an earlier word as compared with निषिद्ध which is used by later grammarians.
pratyākhyānavādinone who advocates the rejection of something, an opponent, an objector; cf प्रत्याख्यानवादी अाह-नास्त्यत्र विशेष इति Kaiy. on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.4.22 Vart. 15.
pratyudāharaṇacounter instance. In order to explain the wording of a grammatical rule clearly, it is customary to give along with the instances of the rule (where the rule has been effectively employed), a few words which would have resulted into other faulty words by the application of the particular rule in case that rule had not been stated or a word or more of it had been omitted; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐच् इति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
pradeśaliterally district; sphere of application, place of the application of a rule. The word is frequently used in this sense in the Kasika Vritti; confer, compare प्रत्ययप्रदेशाः प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणमित्येवमादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.1.1 . confer, compare also अनुदात्तप्रदेशाः अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ इत्यादयः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.30. The word प्रदेश is also used in the sense of the place of use or utility; confer, compare संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः किं तु प्रदेशवाक्येन सहैव । ... कार्यज्ञानं च प्रदेशदेश एव Par. Sek. Pari. 3.
prapañcaamplification, further explanation,clarification. The expression पूर्वस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः or तस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः is very frequently used in the Kasika vrtti; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.33,37,41, 58, II.4.28, III.2.6I et cetera, and others
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
pravṛtti(l)application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति; cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्येदेवः (2) working; function; confer, compare नान्तरेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.7.
pravṛttinimittacause of the application of a word which is shown by the word when the affix त्च or ता is added to it: confer, compare तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ । शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.119. There are given four such causes जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा ।
pravṛttibhedadifference regarding the cause of application; confer, compare पूर्वमिति वर्तमाने पुनः पूर्वग्रहणं प्रवृत्तिभेदेन नियमप्रतिपत्त्यर्थम्; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.2:174.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prākṛta(1)original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः. commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 28: confer, compare एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 23; confer, compare also तहीन् ... पशूंस्तकारपरः ( नकारः ) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI. 14; (2) natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; confer, compare तस्मात् प्राकृतमेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.5, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prāptiapplication of a rule, arrival at a particular form; incidence, occurrence of a particular rule;confer, compare अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.43.
prāptijñaa person who knows only the application of a rule and the realization from it of the form that can be arrived at, as opposed to one who knows the form that is desired or current; cf प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियः न त्विष्टिज्ञः इष्यते एतदूपमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4. 56 Vart. l ; confer, compare also किरतिं चर्करीतान्तं पचतीत्यत्र यो नयेत् । प्रातिज्ञं तमहं मन्ये प्रारब्धस्तेन संग्रहः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 4.92.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
phaṇādia class of seven roots headed by the root फण्, which belong to the first conjugation and which have optionally their vowel अ changed into ए and the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास) dropped, in the forms of the perfect tense before the affix इथ and weak affixes; e. g. फेणतु:, फेणु:, फेणिथ फफणतुः, पफणुः, पफणिथ et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VI.4.:125.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
bodhyaa technical term for the vocative case in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
bhāṣitapuṃskaa word or a noun-base which has the same sense in the masculine gender as in the neuter gender: generally words of quality or adjectives like शुचि, मधु et cetera, and others fall in this category;cf तृतीयादिषु भाषितपुंस्कं पुंवद्गालवस्य P. VII. 1. 74; confer, compare also भाषितः पुमान् यस्मिन्नर्थे प्रवृत्तिानिमित्ते स भाषितपुंस्कशब्देनोच्यते । तद्योगादभिधेयमपि यन्नपुसकं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | तस्य प्रतिपादकं यच्छब्दरूपं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | Kāś. on VII.1.74.
bhāskaraśāstrīsurnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhraṣṭāvasaraliterally a person or a thing of which the proper occasion has passed; the word is used in connection with the application of a rule even though the proper time of its application is gone, on the analogy of a man who is paid his Dakṣiṇā although the proper time has gone ( भ्रष्टावसरन्यायेन दक्षिणा दीयते); confer, compare न च पुनर्लुक्शास्त्रं प्रवर्तते भ्रष्टावसरत्वात् Kāś. on P. VII.2.101.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mīyataddhita affix. affix मीय along with म ( मण्) applied to the word मध्य in the sense of a case-affix ( locative case-affix) exempli gratia, for example मध्यमीय ; cf मण्मीयौ च प्रत्ययौ वक्तव्यौ Kaas. on P. IV.3.60.
yathāśrutārthagrāhinon