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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
agastyaḥMasculineSingularkumbhasambhavaḥ, maitrāvaruṇiagyasta, the sage
agniḥMasculineSingularjvalanaḥ, barhiḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, analaḥ, śikhāvān, hutabhuk, saptārciḥ, citrabhānuḥ, appittam, vaiśvānaraḥ, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedāḥ, śuṣmā, uṣarbudhaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇi, dahanaḥ, damunāḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, vahniḥ, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, tanūnapāt, kṛṣṇavartmā, āśrayāśaḥ, pāvakaḥ, vāyusakhaḥ, hiraṇyaretāḥ, havyavāhanaḥ, śukraḥ, śuciḥ, vītihotraḥfire god
āliḥ3.3.206FeminineSingularśoṇitam, ambhaḥ
aliñjaraḥ2.9.31MasculineSingularmaṇikaḥ
anāhatam2.6.113MasculineSingulartantrakam, navāmbaram, niṣpravāṇi
aṅkuśaḥ2.8.42MasculineSingularsṛṇi
apāmārgaḥMasculineSingularpratyakparṇī, kīśaparṇī, kiṇi, śaikharikaḥ, kharamañjarī, dhāmārgavaḥ, mayūrakaḥ
ayanam2.1.15NeuterSingularpadavī, mārgaḥ, vartanī, saraṇi, panthāḥ, vartma, padyā, sṛtiḥ, adhvā, ekapadī, paddhatiḥ
balabhadraḥ1.1.23-24MasculineSingularbaladevaḥ, balaḥ, saṅkarṣaṇaḥ, tālāṅkaḥ, halāyudhaḥ, revatīramaṇaḥ, pralambaghnaḥ, kālindībhedanaḥ, halī, rauhiṇeyaḥ, kāmapālaḥ, acyutāgrajaḥ, ānakadundubhiḥ, sīrapāṇi, musalī, nīlāmbaraḥ, rāmaḥbalaram
cāṅgerīFeminineSingularcukrikā, dantaśaṭhā, ambaṣṭhā, amlaloṇi
cāraḥ2.8.12MasculineSingularpraṇidhiḥ, apasarpaḥ, caraḥ, spaśaḥ, gūḍhapuruṣaḥ, yathārhavarṇaḥ
carmī2.8.72MasculineSingular‍phalakapāṇi
dayāluḥ3.1.14MasculineSingularkāruṇikaḥ, kṛpāluḥ, sūrataḥ
dṛṣṭāntaḥ3.3.69MasculineSingularśleṣmādiḥ, aśmavikṛtiḥ, rasādiḥ, śabdayoniḥ, raktādiḥ, mahābhūtādiḥ, mahābhūtaguṇāḥ, indriyāṇi
drumotpalaḥ2.2.60MasculineSingularparivyādhaḥ, karṇikāraḥ
gambhārī2.4.35FeminineSingularśrīparṇī, bhadraparṇī, kāśmaryaḥ, sarvatobhadrā, kāśmarī, madhuparṇi
grahaḥ3.3.244MasculineSingularstriyāḥśroṇi
haridrā2.9.41FeminineSingularpītā, vrarṇi, niśākhyā, kāñcanī
īlitaśaḥMasculineSingularvarṇitam, paṇitam, paṇāyim, īḍitam, gīrṇam, praṇum, śastam, abhiṣṭutam, panitam, panāyim, stutam
jayā2.2.66FeminineSingulartarkārī, kaṇi, vaijayantikā, jayantī, jayaḥ, agnimanthaḥ, nādeyī, gaṇikārikā, śrīparṇam
jyāniḥ3.4.9FeminineSingularnirjīrṇi
kāmaḥ3.3.146MasculineSingularnāgaraḥ, vaṇik
karmendriyamNeuterSingularpādaḥ, pāyuḥ, upasthaḥ, vāk, ṇiorgan of action
kaṭiḥ2.6.75FeminineSingularśroṇi, kakudmatī
kiraṇaḥ1.3.33MasculineSingulardhṛṣṇi, aṃśuḥ, karaḥ, ghṛṇi, mayūkhaḥ, dīdhitiḥ, bhānuḥ, gabhasti, usraḥ, marīciḥray
krayikaḥ2.9.80MasculineSingularvaṇijyā
kreyam2.9.82MasculineSingularpaṇitavyam, paṇyam
kṣavaḥ2.9.20MasculineSingularkṣudhābhijananaḥ, rājikā, ‍kṛṣṇi, āsurī
māgadhīFeminineSingulargaṇi, yūthikā, ambaṣṭhā
mārgaśīrṣaḥMasculineSingularsahāḥ, mārgaḥ, āgrahāyaṇikaḥagrahayana
matsyaṇḍī2.9.44FeminineSingularphāṇitam, khaṇḍavikāraḥ
meḍhraḥ2.9.77MasculineSingularkrayavikrayikaḥ, ‍naigamaḥ, ṇijaḥ, vaṇik, ‍paṇyājīvaḥ, āpaṇikaḥ, ‍sārthavāhaḥ
muktā2.9.94FeminineSingularma‍ṇi
nārācī2.10.32MasculineSingulareṣaṇi
nauḥ1.10.10FeminineSingulartaraṇi, tariḥa boat
nīlīFeminineSingulardolā, śrīphalī, grāmīṇā, droṇī, rañjnī, klītakikā, nīlinī, tutthā, madhuparṇi, kālā
pañcaśākhaḥ2.6.82MasculineSingularṇi, śayaḥ
ṇivādā2.10.13MasculineSingular‍pāṇighaḥ
parīkṣakaḥ3.1.5MasculineSingularkāraṇikaḥ
patnī2.6.5FeminineSingularjāyā, ‍dārā, ‍pāṇigṛhītī, dvitīyā, sahadharmiṇī, bhāryā
paurṇamāsīFeminineSingularpūrṇiday of full moon
plavaṃgamaḥ3.3.145MasculineSingularvaṇikpathaḥ, puram, vedaḥ
prāptaḥ3.1.86MasculineSingularpraṇihitam
pratyāsāraḥ2.8.80MasculineSingularvyūhaparṣṇi
pṛśniparṇīFeminineSingularsiṃhapucchī, kalaśiḥ, pṛthakparṇī, dhāvaniḥ, citraparṇī, guhā, aṅghriparṇi, kroṣṭuvinnā
rudhiram2.6.64NeuterSingularkṣatajam, śoṇitam, asṛk, lohitam, asram, raktam
rupyam2.9.92NeuterSingularharinmaṇi, gārutmatam, aśmagarbhaḥ
sahāFeminineSingulartaraṇi, kumārī
saindhavaḥ2.9.42MasculineSingularmaṇimantham, sindhujam, śītaśivam
samīraṇaḥMasculineSingularmaruvakaḥ, prasthapuṣpaḥ, phaṇijjakaḥ, jambīraḥ
saṃkalpaḥMasculineSingularpraṇidhānam, avadhānam, samādhānamdetermination
sāṃyātrikaḥMasculineSingularpotavaṇika voyaging merchant
sāraṅgaḥ3.3.28MasculineSingularvāk, svargaḥ, bhūḥ, dik, paśuḥ, ghṛṇi, vajram, iṣuḥ, jalam, netram
sarasvataḥ3.3.64MasculineSingularṇi, nakṣatraḥ
śāstravit3.1.4MasculineSingularantarvāṇi
sindukaḥ2.2.68MasculineSingularindrāṇi, sinduvāraḥ, indrasurasaḥ, nirguṇḍī
śrāvaṇaḥMasculineSingularśrāvaṇikaḥ, nabhāḥshraavanah
śubhacchā2.9.77MasculineSingularuraṇaḥ, ūrṇāyuḥ, meṣaḥ, vṛṣṇi, eḍakaḥ, uramraḥ
sūraḥ1.3.28-30MasculineSingularsahasrāṃśuḥ, raviḥ, chāyānāthaḥ, jagaccakṣuḥ, pradyotanaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, aryamā, dhāmanidhiḥ, divākaraḥ, braghnaḥ, bhāsvān, haridaśvaḥ, arkaḥ, aruṇaḥ, taraṇi, virocanaḥ, tviṣāṃpatiḥ, haṃsaḥ, savitā, tejasāṃrāśiḥ, karmasākṣī, trayītanuḥ, khadyotaḥ, sūryaḥ, bhagaḥ, dvādaśātmā, abjinīpatiḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, saptāśvaḥ, vikartanaḥ, mihiraḥ, dyumaṇi, citrabhānuḥ, grahapatiḥ, bhānuḥ, tapanaḥ, padmākṣaḥ, tamisrahā, lokabandhuḥ, dinamaṇi, inaḥ, ādityaḥ, aṃśumālī, bhāskaraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vivasvān, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, mārtaṇḍaḥ, pūṣā, mitraḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, aharpatiḥ(53)the sun
śyāmāFeminineSingularpālindī, suṣeṇi, kālā, masūravidalā, ardhacandrā, kālameṣikā
tandrī3.3.184FeminineSingularśroṇi, bhāryā
ṭaṅkaḥ3.3.22MasculineSingularghaṇi, jvālā
tunnaḥMasculineSingularkuṇi, kacchaḥ, kāntalakaḥ, nandivṛkṣaḥ, kuberakaḥ
urṇā3.3.56FeminineSingularvaṇikpathaḥ
varārohā2.6.4FeminineSingularuttamā, varavarṇi, mattakāśinī
vīṇāvādā2.10.13MasculineSingular‍vaiṇikaḥ
vipraśnikā2.6.20FeminineSingularīkṣaṇi, ‍daivajñā
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇi, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
vivāhaḥ2.7.60MasculineSingularpariṇayaḥ, udvāhaḥ, upayāmaḥ, ṇipīḍanam, upayamaḥ
vyūtiḥ2.10.28FeminineSingularṇi
yāvāgū2.9.50FeminineSingularśrāṇā, ‍vilepī, taralā, uṣṇi
maṇitam1.6.21MasculineSingularratikūjitammurmering at cohabitation
vipaṇi2.2.2FeminineSingularpaṇyavīthikā
niśreṇiFeminineSingularadhirohaṇī
śrīparṇi2.4.40FeminineSingularkumudikā, kumbhī, kaṭaryaḥ, kaṭphalaḥ
gaṇi2.6.19FeminineSingularrūpājīvā, vārastrī, veśyā
ṇikayaḥ2.6.22NeuterSingular
kuṇi2.6.48MasculineSingularkukaraḥ
sṛṇi2.6.67FeminineSingularlālā, syandinī
pārśaṣṇi2.6.73MasculineSingular
śroṇiphalakam2.6.75NeuterSingularkaṭaḥ
kaphoṇi2.6.81Ubhaya-lingaSingularkūrparaḥ
veṇi2.6.99FeminineSingularpraveṇī
cūḍāmaṇi2.6.103MasculineSingularśiroratnam
karṇi2.6.104FeminineSingulartālapattram
araṇi2.7.21Ubhaya-lingaSingular
pārṣṇigrāhaḥ2.8.9MasculineSingular
aṇi2.8.57Ubhaya-lingaSingular
kaṇiśam2.9.21NeuterSingularsasyamañjarī
ṇijyam2.9.80NeuterSingularvasnaḥ, avakrayaḥ
ṇivādā2.10.13MasculineSingular‍pāṇighaḥ
vaiṇivikā2.10.13MasculineSingular‍veṇudhmaḥ
ghūrṇitaḥ3.1.31MasculineSingularpracalāyitaḥ
nirṇiktam3.1.55-56MasculineSingularanavaskaram, śodhitam, mṛṣṭam, niḥśodhyam
gaṇitam3.1.64MasculineSingularsaṃkhyātam
guṇitāhataḥ3.1.87MasculineSingularāhataḥ
cūrṇitaḥ3.1.93MasculineSingularavadadhvastaḥ
avagaṇitam3.1.107MasculineSingularavamatam, avajñātam, avamānitam, paribhūtam
gīrṇi3.4.11MasculineSingulargiriḥ
karṇi3.3.15FeminineSingularvalayaḥ, cakraḥ, bhūbhrūnnitambaḥ
gaṇi3.3.22FeminineSingularbāṇaḥ, aliḥ
vipaṇi3.3.58FeminineSingularkamalam
praṇidhiḥ3.3.107MasculineSingularramyaḥ
ṇi3.3.119FeminineSingulardhojihvikā
kaṇi3.5.8FeminineSingular
cūrṇi3.5.9FeminineSingular
ṇikyam3.5.31NeuterSingular
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agasti अगस्ति [विन्ध्याख्यं अगं अस्यति; अस्-क्तिच् शकन्ध्वादि˚, Uṇ.4. 179, or अगं विन्ध्याचलं स्त्यायति _x001F_+स्तभ्नाति, स्त्यै-क; or अगः कुम्भः तत्र स्त्यानः संहतः इत्यगस्त्यः] 1 'Pitcher-born,' N. of a celebrated Ṛiṣi or sage. -2 N. of the star Canopus, of which Agastya is the regent. -3 N. of a plant (बकवृक्ष) Sesbana (or Ӕschynomene) Grandiflora [Mar. रुईमंदार]. [The sage Agastya is a very reputed personage in Hindu mythology. In the Ṛigveda he and Vasiṣṭha are said to be the off-springs of Mitra and Varuṇa, whose seed fell from them at the sight of the lovely nymph Urvaśī at a sacrificial session. Part of the seed fell into a jar and part into water; from the former arose Agastya, who is, therefore, called Kumbhayoni, Kumbhajanman, Ghaṭodbhava, Kalaśayoni &c; from the latter Vasiṣṭha. From his parentage Agastya is also called Maitrāvaruṇi, Aurvaśeya, and, as he was very small when he was born, he is also called Mānya. He is represented to have humbled the Vindhya mountains by making them prostrate themselves before him when they tried to rise higher and higher till they wellnigh occupied the sun's disc and obstructed his path. See Vindhya. (This fable is supposed by some, to typify the progress of the Āryas towards the south in their conquest and civilization of India, the humbling of the mountain standing meta-phorically for the removal of physical obstacles in their way). He is also known by the names of Pītābdhi, Samudra-chuluka &c.; from another fable according to which he drank up the ocean because it had offended him and because he wished to help Indra and the gods in their wars with a class of demons called Kāleyas who had hid themselves in the waters and oppressed the three worlds in various ways. His wife was Lopāmudrā. She was also called Kauṣītakī and Varapradā. She bore him two sons, Dṛḍhāsya and Dṛḍhāsyu. In the Rāmāyaṇa Agastya plays a distinguished part. He dwelt in a hermitage on mount Kunjara to the south of the Vindhya and was chief of the hermits of the south. He kept under control the evil spirits who infested the south and a legend relates how he once ate up a Rākṣasa named Vātāpi, who had assumed the form of a ram, and destroyed by a flash of his eye the Rākṣasa's brother who attempted to avenge him. In the course of his wandering Rāma with his wife and brother came to the hermitge of Agastya who received him with the greatest kindness and became his friend, adviser and protector. He gave Rāma the bow of Viṣṇu and accompanied him to Ayodhyā when he was restored to his kingdom after his exile of 14 years. The superhuman power which the sage possessed, is also represented by another legend, according to which he turned king Nahuṣa into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his proper form. In the south he is usually regarded as the first teacher of science and literature to the primitive Dravidian tribes, and his era is placed by Dr. Caldwell in the 7th or 6th century B.C. The Purāṇas represent Agastya as the son of Pulastya (the sage from whom the Rākṣsas sprang) and Havirbhuvā the daughter of Kardama. Several 'hymn-seers' are mentioned in his family, such as his two sons, Indra-bāhu, Mayobhuva and Mahendra, also others who served to perpetuate the family. The sage is represented as a great philosopher, benevolent and kind-hearted, unsurpassed in the science of archery and to have taken a principal part in the colonization of the south; निर्जितासि मया भद्रे शत्रुहस्तादमर्षिणा । अगस्त्येन दुराधर्षा मुनिना दक्षिणेव _x001F_.दिक् ॥ Rām; अगस्त्याचरितामाशाम् R.4.44; cf. also; अगस्त्यो दक्षिणामाशामाश्रित्य नभसिः स्थितः । वरुणस्यात्मजो योगी विन्ध्यवातापिमर्दनः ॥ and R.6.61; Mv.7.14.] अगस्तितुल्या हि घृताब्धिशोषणे । Udbhaṭa.
agniḥ अग्निः [अङ्गति ऊर्ध्वं गच्छति अङ्ग्-नि,नलोपश्च Uṇ.4.5., or fr. अञ्च् 'to go.'] 1 Fire कोप˚, चिन्ता˚, शोक˚, ज्ञान˚, राज˚, &c. -2 The God of fire. -3 Sacrificial fire of three kinds (गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय and दक्षिण); पिता बै गार्हपत्यो$ ग्निर्माताग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः । गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ Ms. 2.232. -4 The fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluid. -5 Bile (नाभेरूर्ध्व हृदयादधस्तादामाशयमाचक्षते तद्गतं सौरं तेजः पित्तम् इत्याचक्षते). -6 Cauterization (अग्नि- कर्मन्). -7 Gold. -8 The number three. शराग्निपरिमाणम् (पञ्चत्रिंशत्) Mb.13.17.26. -9 N. of various plants: (a) चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica; (b) रक्तचित्रक; (c) भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium; (d) निम्बक Citrus Acida. -1 A mystical substitute for the letter र्. In Dvandva comp. as first member with names of deities, and with particular words अग्नि is changed to अग्ना, as ˚विष्णू, ˚मरुतौ, or to अग्नी, ˚पर्जन्यौ, ˚ वरुणौ, ˚षोमौ -11 पिङगला नाडी; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः, (इडा) सहाग्निना (अग्निः पिङ्गला) Mb.14.2.1. -12 Sacrificial altar, अग्निकुण्ड cf. Rām. 1.14.28. -13 Sky. अग्निर्मूर्धा Muṇḍ 2.1.4. [cf. L. ignis.] [Agni is the God of Fire, the Ignis of the Latins and Ogni of the Slavonians. He is one of the most prominent deities of the Ṛigveda. He, as an immortal, has taken up his abode among mortals as their guest; he is the domestic priest, the successful accomplisher and protector of all ceremonies; he is also the religious leader and preceptor of the gods, a swift messenger employed to announce to the immortals the hymns and to convey to them the oblations of their worshippers, and to bring them down from the sky to the place of sacrifice. He is sometimes regarded as the mouth and the tongue through which both gods and men participate in the sacrifices. He is the lord, protector and leader of people, monarch of men, the lord of the house, friendly to mankind, and like a father, mother, brother &c. He is represented as being produced by the attrition of two pieces of fuel which are regarded as husband and wife. Sometimes he is considered to have been brought down from heaven or generated by Indra between two clouds or stones, created by Dyau, or fashioned by the gods collectively. In some passages he is represented as having a triple existence, which may mean his three-fold manifestations as the sun in heaven, lightning in the atmosphere, and as ordinary fire on the earth, although the three appearances are also elsewhere otherwise explained. His epithets are numberless and for the most part descriptive of his physical characteristics : धूमकेतु, हुतभुज्, शुचि, रोहिताश्व, सप्तजिह्व, तोमरधर, घृतान्न, चित्रभानु, ऊर्ध्वशोचिस्, शोचिष्केश, हरिकेश, हिरण्यदन्त, अयोदंष्ट्र &c. In a celebrated passage he is said to have 4 horns, 3 feet, 2 heads, and 7 hands. The highest divine functions are ascribed to Agni. He is said to have spread out the two worlds and _x001F_+ produced them, to have supported heaven, formed the mundane regions and luminaries of heaven, to have begotten Mitra and caused the sun to ascend the sky. He is the head and summit of the sky, the centre of the earth. Earth, Heaven and all beings obey his commands. He knows and sees all worlds or creatures and witnesses all their actions. The worshippers of Agni prosper, they are wealthy and live long. He is the protector of that man who takes care to bring him fuel. He gives him riches and no one can overcome him who sacrifices to this god. He confers, and is the guardian of, immortality. He is like a water-trough in a desert and all blessing issue from him. He is therefore constantly supplicated for all kinds of boons, riches, food, deliverance from enemies and demons, poverty, reproach, childlessness, hunger &c. Agni is also associated with Indra in different hymns and the two gods are said to be twin brothers. Such is the Vedic conception of Agni; but in the course of mythological personifications he appears as the eldest son of Brahmā and is called Abhimānī [Viṣṇu Purāṇa]. His wife was Svāhā; by her, he had 3 sons -Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuchi; and these had forty-five sons; altogether 49 persons who are considered identical with the 49 fires. He is also represented as a son of Aṅgiras, as a king of the Pitṛs or Manes, as a Marut and as a grandson of Śāṇḍila, and also as a star. The Harivaṁśa describes him as clothed in black, having smoke for his standard and head-piece and carrying a flaming javelin. He is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses and the 7 winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied by a ram and sometimes he is represented as riding on that animal. Agni was appointed by Brahamā as the sovereign of the quarter between the south and east, whence the direction is still known as Āgneyī. The Mahābhārata represents Agni as having exhausted his vigour and become dull by devouring many oblations at the several sacrifices made by king Śvetaki, but he recruited his strength by devouring the whole Khāṇḍava forest; for the story see the word खाण्डव]. -Comp. -अ (आ) गारम् -रः, -आलयः, -गृहम् [अग्निकार्याय अगारम् शाक˚ त.] a fire-sanctuary, house or place for keeping the sacred fire; वसंश्चतुर्थो$ग्निरिवाग्न्यगारे R.5.25. रथाग्न्यगारं चापार्चीं शरशक्तिगदे- न्धनम् Mb.11.25.14. -अस्त्रम् fire-missile, a rocket, -आत्मक a. [अग्निरात्मा यस्य] of the nature of fire सोमा- त्मिका स्त्री, ˚कः पुमान्. -आधानम् consecrating the fire; so ˚आहिति. -आधेयः [अग्निराधेयो येन] a Brāhmana who maintains the sacred fire. (-यम्) = ˚आधानम्. -आहितः [अग्निराहितो येन, वा परनिपातः P.II.2.37.] one who maintains the sacred fire; See आहिताग्नि. -इध् m. (अग्नीध्रः) [अग्निम् इन्द्धे स अग्नीध्] the priest who kindles fire (mostly Ved). -इन्धनः [अग्निरिध्यते अनेन] N. of a Mantra. (नम्) kindling the fire; अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्याम् Ms.2.18. -उत्पातः [अग्निना दिव्यानलेन कृतः उत्पातः] a fiery portent, meteor, comet &c. In Bṛ. S.33 it is said to be of five kinds: दिवि भुक्तशुभफलानां पततां रूपाणि यानि तान्युल्काः । धिष्ण्योल्का- शनिविद्युत्तारा इति पञ्चधा भिन्नाः ॥ उल्का पक्षेण फलं तद्वत् धिष्ण्याशनिस्त्रिभिः पक्षैः । विद्युदहोभिः ष़ड्भिस्तद्वत्तारा विपाचयति ॥ Different fruits are said to result from the appearances of these portents, according to the nature of their colour, position &c. -उद्धरणम्, -उद्धारः 1 producing fire by the friction of two araṇis. -2 taking out, before sun-rise, the sacred fire from its cover of ashes previous to a sacrifice. -उपस्थानम् worship of Agni; the Mantra or hymn with which Agni is worshipped (अग्निरुपस्थीयते$नेन) अग्निस्त्रिष्टुभ् उपस्थाने विनियोगः Sandhyā. -एधः [अग्निमेधयति] an incendiary. -कणः; -स्तोकः a spark. -कर्मन् n. [अग्नौ कर्म स. त.] 1 cauterization. -2 action of fire. -3 oblation to Agni, worship of Agni (अग्निहोत्र); so ˚कार्य offering oblations to fire, feeding fire with ghee &c.; निर्वर्तिताग्निकार्यः K.16.; ˚र्यार्धदग्ध 39, Ms.3.69, अग्निकार्यं ततः कुर्यात्सन्ध्ययोरुभयोरपि । Y.1.25. -कला a part (or appearance) of fire; ten varieties are mentioned धूम्रार्चिरुष्मा ज्वलिनी ज्वालिनी विस्फु- लिङ्गिनी । सुश्री: सुरूपा कपिला हव्यकव्यवहे अपि ॥ यादीनां दश- वर्णानां कला धर्मप्रदा अमूः ।). -कारिका [अग्निं करोति आधत्ते करणे कर्तृत्वोपचारात् कर्तरि ण्वुल्] 1 the means of consecrating the sacred fire, the Ṛik called अग्नीध्र which begins with अग्निं दूतं पुरो दधे. 2. = अग्निकार्यम्. -काष्ठम् अग्नेः उद्दीपनं काष्ठं शाक ˚त.] agallochum (अगुरु) -कुक्कुटः [अग्नेः कुक्कुट इव रक्तवर्णस्फुलिङ्गत्वात्] a firebrand, lighted wisp of straw. -कुण्डम [अग्नेराधानार्थं कुण्डम्] an enclosed space for keeping the fire, a fire-vessel. -कुमारः, -तनयः; सुतः 1 N. of Kārttikeya said to be born from fire; Rām.7. See कार्त्तिकेय. -2 a kind of preparation of medicinal drugs. -कृतः Cashew-nut; the plant Anacardium occidentale. [Mar.काजू] -केतुः [अग्नेः केतुरिव] 1 smoke. -2 N. of two Rākṣasas on the side of Rāvaṇa and killed by Rāma. -कोणः -दिक् the south-east corner ruled over by Agni; इन्द्रो वह्निः पितृपतिर्नौर्ऋतो वरुणो मरुत् । कुबेर ईशः पतयः पूर्वादीनां दिशां क्रमात् ॥ -क्रिया [अग्निना निर्वर्तिता क्रिया, शाक. त.] 1 obsequies, funeral ceremonies. -2 branding; भेषजाग्निक्रियासु च Y.3.284. -क्रीडा [तृ. त.] fire-works, illuminations. -गर्भ a. [अग्निर्गर्भे यस्य] pregnant with or containing fire, having fire in the interior; ˚र्भां शमीमिव Ś 4.3. (--र्भः) [अग्निरिव जारको गर्भो यस्य] 1 N. of the plant Agnijāra. -2 the sun stone, name of a crystal supposed to contain and give out fire when touched by the rays of the sun; cf Ś2.7. -3 the sacrificial stick अरणि which when churned, gives out fire. (-र्भा) 1 N. of the Śamī plant as containing fire (the story of how Agni was discovered to exist in the interior of the Śamī plant is told in chap. 35 of अनु- शासनपर्व in Mb.) -2 N. of the earth (अग्नेः सकाशात् गर्भो यस्यां सा; when the Ganges threw the semen of Śiva out on the Meru mountain, whatever on earth &c. was irradiated by its lustre, became gold and the earth was thence called वसुमती) -3 N. of the plant महा- ज्योतिष्मती लता (अग्निरिव गर्भो मध्यभागो यस्याः सा) [Mar. माल- कांगोणी] -ग्रन्थः [अग्निप्रतिपादको ग्रन्थः शाक. त.] the work that treats of the worship of Agni &c. -घृतम् [अग्न्युद्दीपनं घृतं शाक. त.] a kind of medicinal preparation of ghee used to stimulate the digestive power. -चित् m. अग्निं चितवान्; चि-भूतार्थे क्विप् P.III.2.91] one who has kept the sacred fire; यतिभिः सार्धमनग्निमग्निचित् R.8.25; अध्वरे- ष्वग्निचित्वत्सु Bk.5.11. -चयः, -चयनम्, -चित्या. arranging or keeping the sacred fire (अग्न्याधान); चित्याग्निचित्ये च P.III.1.132. -2 (-यः, -यनः) the Mantra used in this operation. -3 a heap of fire -चित्वत् [अग्निचयनम् अस्त्यस्मिन् मतुप्; मस्य वः । तान्तत्वान्न पद- त्वम् Tv.] having अग्निचयन or अग्निचित्. -चूडः A bird having a red tuft. -चर्णम् gunpowder. कार्यासमर्थः कत्यस्ति शस्त्रगोलाग्निचूर्णयुक् Śukranīti 2.93. -ज, -जात a. produced by or from fire, born from fire. (-जः, -जातः) 1 N. of the plant अग्निजार (अग्नये अग्न्युद्दीपनाय जायते सेवनात् प्रभवति). 1 N. of Kārttikeya पराभिनत्क्रौञ्चमिवाद्रिमग्निजः Mb.8.9. 68.3. Viṣṇu. (-जम्, -जातम) gold; so ˚जन्मन्. -जित् m. God; Bhāg.8.14.4. -जिह्व a. 1 having a fiery tongue. -2 one having fire for the tongue, epithet of a God or of Visṇu in the boar incarnation. (-ह्वा) 1 a tongue or flame of fire. -2 one of the 7 tongues of Agni (कराली धूमिनी श्वेता लोहिता नीललोहिता । सुवर्णा पद्मरागा च जिह्वा: सप्त विभावसोः -3 N. of a plant लाङ्गली (अग्नेर्जिह्वेव शिखा यस्याः सा); of another plant (जलपिप्पली) or गजपिप्पली (विषलाङ्गला) (Mar. जल-गज पिंपळी) -ज्वाला 1 the flame or glow of fire. -2 [अग्नेर्ज्वालेव शिखा यस्याः सा] N. of a plant with red blossoms, chiefly used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa (Mar. धायफूल, धायटी). -तप् a. [अग्निना तप्यते; तप्-क्विप्] having the warmth of fire; practising austerities by means of fire. -तपस् a. [अग्निभिः तप्यते] 1 practising very austere penance, standing in the midst of the five fires. -2 glowing, shining or burning like fire (तपतीति तपाः अग्निरिव तपाः) hot as fire -तेजस् a. having the lustre or power of fire. (अग्नेरिव तेजो यस्य). (-स् n.) the lustre of fire. (-स् m.) N. of one of the 7 Ṛiṣis of the 11th Manvantara. -त्रयम् the three fires, See under अग्नि. -द a. [अग्निं दाहार्थं गृहादौ ददाति; दा. -क.] 1 giving or supplying with fire -2 tonic, stomachic, producing appetite, stimulating digestion. -3 incendiary; अग्निदान् भक्तदांश्चैव Ms.9.278; अग्निदानां च ये लोकाः Y.2.74; so ˚दायक, ˚दायिन्. यदग्निदायके पापं यत्पापं गुरुतल्पगे. Rām.2.75.45. -दग्ध a. 1 burnt on the funeral pile; अग्निदग्धाश्च ये जीवा ये$प्यदग्धाः कुले मम Vāyu. P. -2 burnt with fire. -3 burnt at once without having fire put into the mouth, being destitute of issue (?); (pl.) a class of Manes or Pitṛis who, when alive, kept up the household flame and presented oblations to fire. -दमनी [अग्निर्दम्यते$नया; दम्-णिच् करणे ल्युट] a narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini. [Mar. रिंगणी] -दातृ [अग्निं विधानेन ददाति] one who performs the last (funeral) ceremonies of a man; यश्चाग्निदाता प्रेतस्य पिण्डं दद्यात्स एव हि. -दीपन a. [अग्निं दीपयति] stimulating digestion, stomachic, tonic. -दीप्त a. [तृ. त्त.] glowing, set on fire, blazing (-प्ता) [अग्निर्जठरानलो दीप्तः सेवनात् यस्याः सा] N. of a plant ज्योतिष्मती लता (Mar. मालकांगोणी), which is said to stimulate digestion. -दीप्तिः f. active state of digestion. -दूत a. अग्निर्दूत इव यस्मिन् यस्य वा] having Agni for a messenger, said of the sacrifice or the deity invoked; यमं ह यज्ञो गच्छत्यग्निदूतो अरंकृतः Rv.1.14.13. -दूषितः a. branded. -देवः [अग्नि- रेव देवः] Agni; a worshipper of Agni. -देवा [अग्निर्देवो यस्याः] the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades (कृत्तिका). -द्वारम् the door on the south-east of a building; पूर्व- द्वारमथैशाने चाग्निद्वारं तु दक्षिणे । Māna.9.294-95. -धानम् [अग्निर्धियते$स्मिन्] the place or receptacle for keeping the sacred fire, the house of अग्निहोतृ; पदं कृणुते अग्निधाने Rv. 1.165.3. -धारणम् maintaining the sacred fire; व्रतिनां ˚णम् K. 55. -नयनम् = ˚प्रणयनम्. -निर्यासः [अग्नेर्ज- ठरानलस्येव दीपको निर्यासो यस्य] N. of the plant अग्निजार. -नेत्र a. [अग्निर्नेता यस्य] having Agni for the leader or conveyer of oblations, an epithet of a god in general. -पदम् 1 the word Agni. -2 fire-place. -3 N. of a plant. -परिक्रि-ष्क्रि-या care of the sacred fire, worship of fire, offering oblations; गृहार्थो$ग्निपरिष्क्रिया Ms.2.67. -परिच्छदः the whole sacrificial apparatus; गृह्यं चाग्निपरिच्छदम् Ms.6. 4. -परिधानम् enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen. -परीक्षा [तृ. त.] ordeal by fire. -पर्वतः [अग्निसाधनं पर्वतः] a volcano; महता ज्वलता नित्यमग्निमेवाग्नि- पर्वतः Rām.5.35.43. -पुच्छः [अग्नेः अग्न्याधानस्थानस्य पुच्छ इव]. tail or back part of the sacrificial place; the extinction of fire. -पुराणम् [अग्निना प्रोक्तं पुराणम्] one of the 18 Purāṇas ascribed to Vyāsa. It derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni to the sage Vasiṣṭha for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahman. Its stanzas are said to be 145. Its contents are varied. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of Kings and the art of war, a chapter on law, some chapters on Medicine and some treatises on Rhetoric, Prosody, Grammar, Yoga, Brahmavidyā &c. &c. -प्रणयनम् bringing out the sacrificial fire and consecrating it according to the proper ritual. -प्रणिधिः Incendiary. Dk.2.8. -प्रतिष्ठा consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire. -प्रवेशः; -शनम [स. त.] entering the fire, self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pile of her husband. -प्रस्कन्दनम् violation of the duties of a sacrificer (अग्निहोमाकरण); ˚परस्त्वं चाप्येवं भविष्यसि Mb.1.84.26. -प्रस्तरः [अग्निं प्रस्तृणाति अग्नेः प्रस्तरो वा] a flint, a stone producing fire. -बाहुः [अग्ने- र्बाहुरिव दीर्घशिखत्वात्] 1 smoke. -2 N. of a son of the first Manu; Hariv. N. of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā. V. P. -बीजम् 1 the seed of Agni; (fig.) gold (रुद्रतेजः समुद्भूतं हेमबीजं विभावसोः) -2 N. of the letter र्. -भम [अग्नि- रिव भाति; भा-क.] 1 'shining like fire,' gold. -2 N. of the constellation कृत्तिका. -भु n. [अग्नेर्भवति; भू-क्विप् ह्रस्वान्तः] 1 water. -2 gold. -भू a. [अग्नेर्भवतिः भू-क्विप्] produced from fire. (भूः) 1 'fire-born,' N. of Kārttikeya. -2 N. of a teacher (काश्यप) who was taught by Agni. -3 (arith.) six. -भूति a. produced from fire. (-तिः) [अग्निरिव भूतिरैश्वर्यं यस्य] N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthaṅkara. (-तिः) f. the lustre or might of fire. -भ्राजस् a. Ved. [अग्निरिव भ्राजते; भ्राज्-असुन्] shining like fire. अग्निभ्राजसो विद्युतः Ṛv.5.54.11. -मणिः [अग्नेरुत्थापको मणिः शाक. त.] the sunstone. -मथ् m. [अग्निं मथ्नाति निष्पादयति; मन्थ्-क्विप्- नलोपः] 1 the sacrificer who churns the fuel-stick. -2 the Mantra used in this operation, on the अरणि itself. -मन्थः, -न्थनम्, producing fire by friction; or the Mantra used in this operation. (-न्थः) [अग्निर्मथ्यते अनेन मन्थ्-करणे घञ्] N. of a tree गणिकारिका (Mar. नरवेल) Premna Spinosa (तत्काष्ठयोर्घर्षणे हि आशु वह्निरुत्पद्यते), -मान्द्यम् slowness of digestion, loss of appetite, dyspepsia. -मारुतिः अग्निश्च मरुच्च तयोरपत्यं इञ् ततो वृद्धिः इत् च; द्विपदवृद्धौ पृषो. पूर्वपदस्य ह्रस्वः Tv.] N. of the sage Agastya. -मित्रः N. of a king of the Śunga dynasty, son of Puṣypamitra who must have flourished before 15 B. C. -the usually accepted date of Patañjali-as the latter mentions पुष्यमित्र by name. -मुखः a. having Agni at the head. (-खः) [अग्निर्मुखमिव यस्य] 1 a deity, god, (for the gods receive oblations through Agni who is, therefore, said to be their mouth; अग्निमुखा वै देवाः; अग्निर्मुखं प्रथमं देवतानाम् &c; or अग्निर्मुखे अग्रे येषाम्, for fire is said to have been created before all other gods.) -2 [अग्निर्मुखं प्रधानमुपास्यो यस्य] one who maintains the sacred fire (अग्निहोतृद्विज) -3 a Brāhmaṇa in general (अग्निर्दाहकत्वात् शापाग्निर्मुखे यस्य for Brāhmaṇas are said to be वाग्वज्राः). -4 N. of two plants चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica and भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium अग्निरिव स्पर्शात् दुःखदायकं मुखमग्रम् यस्य, तन्निर्यासस्पर्शेन हि देहे क्षतोत्पत्तेस्थयोस्तथात्वम्) -5 a sort of powder or चूर्ण prescribed as a tonic by चक्रदत्त -6 'fire-mouthed, sharp-biting, an epithet of a bug. Pt. 1. (-खी) अग्निरिव मुखमग्रं यस्याः; गौरादि-ङीष्] 1 N. of a plant भल्लातक (Mar. बिबवा, भिलावा) and लाङ्गलिका (विषलाङ्गला). -2 N. of the Gāyatri Mantra (अग्निरेव मुखं मुखत्वेन कल्पितं यस्याः सा, or अग्नेरिव मुखं प्रजापतिमुखं उत्पत्ति- द्वारं यस्याः, अग्निना समं प्रजापतिमुखजातत्वात्; कदाचिदपि नो विद्वान् गायत्रीमुदके जपेत् । गायत्र्याग्निमुखी यस्मात्तस्मादुत्थाय तां जपेत् ॥ गोभिल). -3 a kitchen [पाकशाला अग्निरिव उत्तप्तं मुखं यस्याः सा]. -मूढ a. [तृ. त.] Ved. made insane or stupefied by lightning or fire. -यन्त्रम् A gun अग्नियन्त्रधरैश्चक्रधरैश्च पुरुषैर्वृतः Śivabhārata 12.17. -यानम् An aeroplane. व्योमयानं विमानं स्यात् अग्नियानं तदेव हि । अगस्त्यसंहिता. -योगः See पञ्चाग्निसाधन. अग्नियोगवहो ग्रीष्मे विधिदृष्टेन कर्मणा । चीर्त्वा द्वादशवर्षाणि राजा भवति पार्थिवः ॥ Mb.13.14,2.43. -योजनम् causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up. -रक्षणम् 1 con-secrating or preserving the sacred (domestic) fire or अग्निहोत्र. -2 [अग्निः रक्ष्यते अनेन अत्र वा] a Mantra securing for Agni protection from evil spirits &c. -3 the house of an अग्निहोतृ. -रजः, -रजस् m. [अग्निरिव रज्यते दीप्यते; रञ्ज्-असुन् नलोपः] 1 a scarlet insect by name इन्द्रगोप. -2 (अग्नेः रजः) the might or power of Agni. -3 gold. Mb.3. 16.86.7 -रहस्यम् mystery of (worshipping &c.) Agni; N. of the tenth book of Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. -राशिः a heap of fire, burning pile. -रुहा [अग्निरिव रोहति रुह्-क] N. of the plant मांसादनी or मांसरोहिणी (तदङ्कुरस्य वह्नितुल्य- वर्णतया उत्पन्नत्वात्तथात्वं तस्याः). -रूप a. [अग्नेरिव रूपं वर्णो यस्य] fire-shaped; of the nature of fire. -रूपम् the nature of fire. -रेतस् n. the seed of Agni; (hence) gold. -रोहिणी [अग्निरिव रोहति; रुह्-णिनि] a hard inflammatory swelling in the armpit. -लोकः the world a Agni, which is situated below the summit of Meru; in the Purāṇas it is said to be in the अन्तरिक्ष, while in the Kāśī Khaṇḍa it is said to be to the south of इन्द्रपुरी; एतस्या दक्षिणे भागे येयं पूर्दृश्यते शुभा । इमामर्चिष्मतीं पश्य वीतिहोत्रपुरीं शुभाम् ॥ -वधूः Svāhā, the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Agni -वर्चस् a. [अग्नेर्वर्च इव वर्चो यस्य] glowing or bright like fire. (n.) the lustre of Agni. (-m.) N. of a teacher of the Purāṇas. -वर्ण a. [अग्नेरिव वर्णो यस्य] of the colour of fire; hot; fiery; सुरां पीत्वा द्विजो मोहादग्निवर्णां सुरां पिबेत् Ms.11.9; गोमूत्रमग्निवर्णं वा पिबेदुदकमेव वा 91. (र्णः) 1 N. of a prince, son of Sudarśana. -2 N. of a King of the solar race, See R.19.1. the colour of fire. (-र्णा) a strong liquor. -वर्धक a. stimulating digestion, tonic. (-कः) 1 a tonic. -2 regimen, diet (पथ्याहार). -वल्लभः [अग्नेर्वल्लभः सुखेन दाह्यत्वात्] 1 the Śāla tree, Shorea Robusta. -2 the resinous juice of it. -वासस् a. [अग्निरिव शुद्धं वासो यस्य] having a red (pure like Agni) garment. (n.) a pure garment. -वाह a. [अग्निं वाहयति अनुमापयति वा] 1 smoke. -2 a goat. -वाहनम् a goat (छाग). -विद् m. 1 one who knows the mystery about Agni. -2 an अग्निहोत्रिन् q. v. -विमोचनम् ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire. -विसर्पः pain from an inflamed tumour, inflammation. -विहरणम्, -विहारः 1 taking the sacrificial fire from आग्नीध्र to the उत्तरवेदि. -2 offering oblations to fire; प्रत्यासन्ना ˚वेला K.348. -वीर्यम् 1 power or might of Agni. -2 gold. -वेतालः Name of Vetāla (connected with the story of Vikra-māditya). -वेशः [अग्नेर्वेश इव] N. of an ancient medical authority (चरक). -वेश्मन् m. the fourteenth day of the karma-ṃāsa; Sūryaprajñapti. -वेश्यः 1 N. of a teacher, Mbh. -2 Name of the 22nd muhūrta; Sūryapraj-ñapti. धौम्य cf. Mb 14.64.8. -शरणम्, -शाला-लम् a fire-sanctuary; ˚मार्गमादेशय Ś.5; a house or place for keeping the sacred fire; ˚रक्षणाय स्थापितो$हम् V.3. -शर्मन् a. [अग्निरिव शृणाति तीव्रकोपत्वात् शॄ-मनिन्] very passionate. (-m.) N. of a sage. -शिख a. [अग्नेरिव अग्निरिव वा शिखा यस्य] fiery, fire-crested; दहतु ˚खैः सायकैः Rām. (-खः) 1 a lamp. -2 a rocket, fiery arrow. -3 an arrow in general. -4 safflower plant. -5 saffron. -6 जाङ्गलीवृक्ष. (-खम्) 1 saffron. -2 gold. (-खा) 1 a flame; शरैरग्निशिखोपमैः Mb. -2 N. of two plants लाङ्गली (Mar. वागचबका or कळलावी) Gloriosa Superba; of other plants (also Mar. कळलावी) Meni-spermum Cordifolium. -शुश्रूषा careful service or worship of fire. -शेखर a. fire-crested. (-रः) N. of the कुसुम्भ, कुङ्कुम and जाङ्गली trees (-रम्) gold, -शौच a. [अग्नेरिव शौचं यस्य] bright as fire; purified by fire K.252. -श्री a. [अग्नेरिव श्रीर्यस्य] glowing like fire; lighted by Agni -ष्टुत्, -ष्टुभ, -ष्टोम &c. see ˚ स्तुत्, ˚स्तुभ् &c. -ष्ठम् 1 kitchen; अग्निष्ठेष्वग्निशालासु Rām.6.1.16. -2 a fire-pan. -संयोगाः explosives. Kau. A.2.3. -ष्वात्तः see स्वात्तः -संस्कारः 1 consecration of fire. -2 hallowing or con-secrating by means of fire; burning on the funeral pile; यथार्हं ˚रं मालवाय दत्वा Dk.169; नास्य कार्यो$ग्निसंस्कारः Ms.5.69, पितरीवाग्निसंस्कारात्परा ववृतिरे क्रियाः । R.12.56. -सखः; -सहायः 1 the wind. -2 the wild pigeon (smoke-coloured). -3 smoke. -सम्भव a. [प. ब.] sprung or produced from fire. (-वः) 1 wild safflower. -2 lymph, result of digestion. (-वम्) gold. -साक्षिक [अग्निः साक्षी यत्र, कप्] a. or adv. keeping fire for a witness, in the presence of fire; पञ्चबाण˚ M.4.12. ˚मर्यादो भर्ता हि शरणं स्त्रियाः H.1.v. l, R.11.48. -सारम् [अग्नौ सारं यस्य अत्यन्तानलोत्तापनेपि सारांशादहनात् Tv.] रसाञ्जन, a sort of medical preparation for the eyes. (-रः -रम्) power or essence of fire. -सुतः Kārttikeya; त्वामद्य निहनिष्यामि क्रौञ्चमग्निसुतो यथा । Mb.7.156.93. -सूत्रम् a thread of fire. -2 a girdle of sacrificial grass (मौञ्जीमेखला) put upon a young Brāhmaṇa at the time of investiture. -सूनुः (See -सुतः), (सेनानीरग्निभूर्गुहः । Amar.); देव्यङ्कसंविष्ट- मिवाग्निसूनुम् । Bu. ch.1.67. -स्तम्भः 1 stopping the burning power of Agni. -2 N. of a Mantra used in this operation. -3 N. of a medicine so used. -स्तुत् m. (अग्निष्टुत्) [अग्निः स्तूयते$त्र; स्तु-आधारे क्विप् षत्वम्] the first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; N. of a portion of that sacrifice which extends over one day; यजेत वाश्वमेधेन स्वर्जिता गोसवेन वा । अभिजिद्विश्वजिद्भ्यां वा त्रिवृता- ग्निष्टुतापि वा ॥ Ms.11.74. -स्तुभ् (˚ष्टुभ्) m. [अग्निः स्तुभ्यते$त्र; स्तुभ्-क्विप् षत्वम्] 1 = अग्निष्टोम. -2 N. of a son of the sixth Manu. -रतोमः (˚ष्टोमः) [अग्नेः स्तोमः स्तुतिसाधनं यत्र] 1 N. of a protracted ceremony or sacrificeial rite extending over several days in spring and forming an essential part of the ज्योतिष्टोम. -2 a Mantra or Kalpa with reference to this sacrifice; ˚मे भवो मन्त्रः ˚मः; ˚मस्य व्याख्यानम्, कल्पः ˚मः P.IV.3.66. Vārt. -3 N. of the son of the sixth Manu. -4 a species of the Soma plant; ˚सामन् a part of the Sāma Veda chanted at the conclusion of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice. -सावर्णिः Name of Manu. -स्थ a. (ष्ठ) [अग्नौ स्थातुमर्हति; स्था-क षत्वम्] placed in, over, or near the fire. (ष्ठः) an iron frying-pan; in the अश्वमेध sacrifice the 11th Yūpa which of all the 21 is nearest the fire. -स्वात्तः (written both as ˚स्वात्त and ˚ष्वात्त) (pl.) [अग्नितः i. e. श्राद्धीयविप्रकर- रूपानलात् सुष्ठु आत्तं ग्रहणं येषां ते] N. of a class of Pitṛs or Manes who, when living on earth, maintained the sacred or domestic fires, but who did not perform the Agniṣṭoma and other sacrifices. They are regarded as Manes of Gods and Brāhmaṇas and also as descendants of Marīchi; Ms.3.195. अग्निष्वात्ताः पितर एह गच्छत Tsy.2.5.12.2. (मनुष्यजन्मन्यग्निष्टोमादियागमकृत्वा स्मार्तकर्मनिष्ठाः सन्तो मृत्वा च पितृत्वं गताः इति सायणः). -हुत्, -होतृ Ved. sacrificing to Agni, having Agni for a priest; Rv.1.66.8. -होत्रम् [अग्नये हूयते$त्र, हु-त्र, च. त.] 1 an oblation to Agni (chiefly of milk, oil and sour gruel.). -2 maintenance of the sacred fire and offering oblation to it; (अग्नये होत्रं होमो$स्मिन् कर्मणीति अग्निहोत्रमिति कर्मनाम); or the sacred fire itself; तपोवनाग्निहोत्रधूमलेखासु K.26. होता स्यात् ˚त्रस्य Ms.11.36. ˚त्रमुपासते 42; स्त्रीं दाहयेत् ˚त्रेण Ms.5.167,6.4, दाहयित्वाग्निहोत्रेण स्त्रियं वृत्तवतीम् Y.1.89. The time of throwing oblations into the fire is, as ordained by the sun himself, evening (अग्नये सायं जुहुयात् सूर्याय प्रातर्जुहुयात्). Agnihotra is of two kinds; नित्य of constant obligation (यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति) and काम्य occasional or optional (उपसद्भिश्चरित्वा मासमेकमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति). (-त्र) a. Ved. 1 destined for, connected with, Agnihotra. -2 sacrificing to Agni. ˚न्यायः The rule according to which the नित्यकर्मन्s (which are to be performed यावज्जीवम्) are performed at their stipulated or scheduled time only, during one's life time. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर at Ms.6. 2.23-26. in connection with अग्निहोत्र and other कर्मन्s. ˚हवनी (णी) a ladle used in sacrificial libations, or अग्निहोत्रहविर्ग्रहणी ऋक् Tv.; See हविर्ग्रहणी; ˚हुत् offering the अग्निहोत्र; ˚आहुतिः invocation or oblation connected with अग्निहोत्र. -होत्रिन् a. [अग्निहोत्र-मत्वर्थे इनि] 1 one who practises the Agnihotra, or consecrates and maintains the sacred fire. -2 one who has prepared the sacrificial place. -होत्री Sacrificial cow; तामग्निहोत्रीमृषयो जगृहु- र्ब्रह्मवादिनः Bhāg.8.8.2.
ajādiḥ अजादिः a gaṇa of pāṇini (IV.1.4.).
adhiyogaḥ अधियोगः [अधिको योगः] An auspicious conjunction of stars for departure, expedition &c. (ज्योतिषप्रसिद्धो यात्रिक- शुभयोगः); योगे क्षेममथाधियोगगमने क्षेमं रिपूणां वधः Muhūrta- chintāmaṇi.
adhyāya अध्याय a. [इ-घञ् P.III.3.21] (At the end of comp.) A reader, student, one who studies; वेदाध्यायः a student of the Vedas; so मन्त्र˚ -यः 1 Reading, learning, study, especially of the Vedas; प्रशान्ताध्यायसत्कथा (नगरी) Rām. -2 Proper time for reading or for a lesson; ˚ज्ञाः प्रचक्षते Ms.4.12, see अनध्याय also. -3 A lesson, lecture; अधीयते$स्मिन् अध्यायः P.III.3.122; so स्वाध्यायो$ध्येतव्यः. -4 A chapter, a large division of a work, such as of the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, Manu-smṛiti, Pāṇini's Sūtras &c. The following are some of the names used by Sanskrit writers to denote chapters or divisions of works :--सर्गो वर्गः परिच्छेदोद्घाताध्यायाङ्क- संग्रहाः । उच्छ्वासः परिवर्तश्च पटलः काण्डमाननम् । स्थानं प्रकरणं चैव पर्वोल्लासाह्निकानि च । स्कन्धांशौ तु पुराणादौ प्रायशः परिकीर्तितौ ॥
adhvaryuḥ अध्वर्युः [अध्वरमधीते Nir.; अध्वर-क्यच्-युच् ततो$न्त्याकार- लोपः Tv.] 1 Any officiating priest, technically distinguished from होतृ, उद्रातृ and ब्रह्मन्. His duty was "to measure the ground, build the altar, prepare sacrificial vessels, to fetch wood and water, to light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it," and while doing this to repeat the Yajurveda; होता प्रथमं शंसति तमध्वर्युः प्रोत्साहयति Sk. See अच्छावाक also. -2 The Yajurveda itself. -pl. Adherents of that Veda. -Comp. -काण्डम् N. of a book of mantras or prayers intended for Adhvaryu priest. -कृतुः Sacrificial act performed by the Adhvaryu (Pāṇini II.4.4.) -वेदः Yajurveda.
anadyatana अनद्यतन a. (-नी f.) [न. त.] Not pertaining to this or the current day; a term used by Pāṇini to denote the sense of the Imperfect or the Periphrastic future P.III.2.III,III.3.15; ˚भूते लङ्-अपचत्; ˚ने भविष्यति लुट्-पक्ता; परोक्षानद्यतने लिट्-पपाच. -नः Not the current day; अतीतायाः रात्रेः पश्चार्धेन आगामिन्या रात्रेः पूर्वार्धेन सहितो दिवसो$- द्यतनः Sk., तद्भिन्नः कालः.
aniruddha अनिरुद्ध a. Unobstructed, free, uncontrolled, self-willed, unruly, ungovernable. -द्धः 1 A spy, secret emissary. -2 N. of a son of Pradyumna. [Aniruddha was the son of Kāma and grandson of Kṛiṣṇa. Uṣā, the daughter of a demon named Bāṇa, fell in love with him and had him brought by magic influence to her apartments in her father's city of Śoṇitapura. Bāṇa sent some guards to seize him, but the brave youth slew his assailants with only an iron club. At last, however, he was secured by means of magic powers. On discovering where Aniruddha had been carried, Kṛiṣṇa, Balarāma and Kāma went to rescue him and a great battle was fought. Bāṇa, though aided by Śiva and Skanda, was vanquished, but his life was spared at the intercession of Śiva, and Aniruddha was carried home to Dvārakā with Uṣā as his wife. He had also another wife Rochanā, grand-daughter of king Rukmin of Vidarbha, who bore him a son named Vajra.]. -3 Also N. of Viṣṇu; and of Śiva; of an Arhat, a contemporary of Buddha. (अनिरुद्धो हि लोकेषु महानात्मेति कथ्यते Mb.12.34.3. -द्धम् A cord or rope (for fastening cattle). -Comp. -पथम् [न निरुद्धः पन्था यत्र ब.] 1 unobstructed path. -2 the sky, atmosphere (तत्र कस्यापि गतिरोधनाभावात्). -भाविनी Aniruddha's wife Uṣā.
anutsūtra अनुत्सूत्र a. Not deviating from the Sūtra (of Pāṇini or of morality); not anomalous or irregular; ˚पदन्यासा सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112.
anudātta अनुदात्त a. Grave (accent); not elevated or raised (not pronounced with the Udātta accent); उच्चैरुदात्तः नीचैरनुदात्तः; accentless, having the neutral, general tone; उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः uttered with the grave accent (as a vowel); प्रयत्नप्रेरितो वायुर्यदोर्ध्वभागे प्रति- हतो$चं निष्पादयति स उदात्तः; एवमधोनिष्पन्नो$च् अनुदात्तः; ताल्वा- दिषु सभागेषु स्थानेषु नीचभागे निष्पन्नो$च् अनुदात्तः; ˚त्तं पदमेकवर्जम् Sk. (The term अनुदात्त is used by Pāṇini for the grave accent which immediately precedes the Udātta, and also for the general accentless tone neither high nor low, termed एकश्रुति, the one monotonous intonation belonging to the generality of syllables in a word). -त्तः The grave accent. -Comp. -आदिः a nominal base of which the first syllable is अनुदात्त. -इत् a verbal root having for its अनुबन्ध the grave accent (denoting that it takes the Ātm. terminations only). -उदयम् a syllable followed (immediately) by the grave accent. -तर a. more than अनुदात्त; still lower or graver accent, i. e. that which immediately precedes a syllable having the उदात्त or स्वरित accent and is thus more depressed than the ordinary अनुदात्त accent.
anyatara अन्यतर a. (declined like a pronoun) One of the two (persons or things), either of the two (with gen.); तयोर्मुनिकुमारयोरन्यतरः K.151; सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरद् भजन्ते M.1.2. the one or the other; अन्यतरा युवयोरागच्छतु Ś.3; Ms.2.111;9.171; other, different; अन्यतर-अन्यतर the one-the other; अन्यतरस्याम् (loc. of ˚रा) either way, in both ways, optionally; frequently used by Pāṇini in his Sūtras in the sense of वा or विभाषा; हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम्, आत्मनेपदेष्वन्यतरस्याम् &c. &c.
apara अपर a. (treated as a pronoun in some senses) 1 Having nothing higher or superior, unrivalled. matchless; without rival or second (नास्ति परो यस्मात्); स्त्रीरत्नसृष्टिर- परा प्रतिभाति सा मे Ś.2.1; cf. अनुत्तम, अनुत्तर. -2 [न पृणाति संतोषयति पृ अच्] (a) Another, other (used as adj. or subst.). वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरो$पराणि Bg.2.22. (b) More, additional; कृतदारो$परान् दारान् Ms.11.5. (c) Second, another Pt.4.37; स्वं केशवो$पर इवाक्रमितुं प्रवृत्तः Mk.5.2 like another (rival) Keśava. (d) Different; other; अन्ये कृतयुगे धर्मास्त्रेतायां द्वापरे$परे Ms. 1.85; Ks.26.235; Pt.4.6 (with gen.). (e) Ordinary, of the middle sort (मध्यम); परितप्तो$प्यपरः सुसंवृतिः Śi. 16.23. -3 Belonging to another, not one's own (opp. स्व); यदि स्वाश्चापराश्चैव विन्देरन् योषितो द्विजाः Ms.9.85 of another caste. -4 Hinder, posterior, latter, later, (in time space) (opp. पूर्व); the last; पूर्वां सन्ध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत्स्वकाले चापरां चिरम् Ms.4.93; रात्रेरपरः कालः Nir.; oft. used as first member of a genitive Tatpuruṣa comp. meaning 'the hind part,' 'latter part or half'; ˚पक्षः the latter half of a month; ˚हेमन्तः latter half of a winter; ˚कायः hind part of the body &c.; ˚वर्षा, ˚शरद् latter part of the rains, autumn &c. -5 Following, the next. -6 Western; पयसि प्रतित्सुरपराम्बुनिधेः Śi.9.1. पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य Ku. 1.1; Mu.4.21 -7 Inferior, lower (निकृष्टः); अपरेयमि- तस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् Bg.7.5. -8 (In Nyāya) Non-extensive, not covering too much, one of the two kinds of सामान्य, see Bhāṣā P.8. (परं = अधिकवृत्ति higher अपरम् = न्यूनवृत्ति lower or अधिकदेशवृत्तित्वं परं, अल्पदेशवृत्तित्वं अपरम् Muktā.) -9 Distant; opposite. When अपर is used in the singular as a correlative to एक the one, former, it means the other, the latter; एको ययौ चैत्ररथप्रदेशान् सौराज्य- रम्यानपरो विदर्भान् R.5.6; when used in pl. it means 'others', 'and others', and the words generally used as its correlatives are एके, केचित्-काश्चित् &c., अपरे, अन्ये; केचिद् रक्तपटीकृताश्च जटिलाः कापालिकाश्चापरे Pt.4.34; एके समूहुर्बलरेणुसंहतिं शिरोभिराज्ञामपरे महीभृतः Śi.12.45 some-others; शाखिनः केचिदध्यष्ठुर्न्यमाङ्क्षुरपरे$म्बुधौ । अन्ये त्वलङ्घिषुः शैलान् गुहास्त्वन्ये न्यलेषत ॥ केचिदासिषत स्तब्धा भयात्केचिदघूर्णिषुः । उदतारिषुरम्भोधिं वानराः सेतुनापरे Bk. 15.31.33. -रः 1 the hind foot of an elephant; बद्धापराणि परितो निगडान्यलावीत् Śi.5.48 (Malli. चरमपादाग्राणि). -2 An enemy (न पृणाति सन्तोषयति). -रा 1 Western direction, the west अपरां च दिशं प्राप्तो वालिना समभिद्रुतः Rām.4.46.18. -2 The hind part of an elephant. -3 Sacred learning, learning the four Vedas with the 6 Aṅgas. -4 The womb; the outer skin of the embryo. -5 Suppressed menstruation in pregnancy. -री Ved. The future, future times; उतापरीभ्यो मघवा विजिग्ये Rv.1.32.13. -रम् 1 The future, any thing to be done in future (कार्य); तदेतद्ब्रह्मापूर्वमपरमनन्तम् Bṛi. Ār. Up. (नास्ति अपरं कार्यं यस्य). -2 The hind quarter of an elephant. -रम् adv. Again, moreover, in future, for the future; अपरं च moreover; अपरेण behind, west of, to the west of (with gen. or acc.). [cf. Goth. afar; Germ. aber, as in aberglauben]. -Comp. -अग्नि (अग्नी dual) 1 the southern and western fires (दक्षिण and गार्हपत्य). -2 the last fire i. e. used at the funeral ceremony (˚ग्निः). -अङ्गम् one of the 8 divisions of गुणीभूतव्यङ्ग्य (the second kind of काव्य) mentioned in K. P.5. In this the व्यङ्ग्य or suggested sense is subordinate to something else; अगूढमपरस्याङ्गम्; अपरस्य रसादेर्वाच्यस्य वा (वाक्यार्थीभूतस्य) अङ्गं रसादि अनुरणनरूपं वा; e. g. अयं स रसनोत्कर्षी पीनस्तनविमर्दनः । नाभ्यूरुजघनस्पर्शी नीवीविस्रंसनः करः ॥ where शृङ्गार is subordinate to करुण. -अन्त a. living at the western borders. (-न्तः) 1 the western border or extremity, the extreme end or term. the western shore. -2 (pl.) the country or inhabitants of the western borders near the Sahya mountain; अपरान्तजयोद्यतैः (अनीकैः) R.4.53 Western people. दशार्णाश्चापरान्ताश्च द्विपानां मध्यमा मताः Kau.A.1.2. -3 the kings of this country. -4 death, Pātañjala Yogadarśana 3.22. ˚ज्ञानम् anticipation of one's end. -5 the hind foot of an elephant; मृदुचलदपरान्तोदीरितान्दूनिनादम् Śi.11.7;18.32. -6 Islander, inhabitant of an island (द्वीपवासिन्) कोट्यापरान्ताः सामुद्रा रत्नान्युपहरन्तु ते Rām.2.82.8. -अन्तकः 1. = ˚अन्तः pl. -2 N. of a song; अपरान्तकमुल्लोप्यं मद्रकं प्रकरीं तथा । औवेणकं सरोबिन्दुमुत्तरं गीतकानि च ॥ Y3.113; ˚अन्तिका N. of a metre consisting of 64 mātrās. -अपराः, -रे, -राणि another and another, several, various. -अपरम् ind. Further and further (उत्तरोत्तरम्); अहं हि वचनं त्वत्तः शुश्रूषुरपरापरम् Mb.5.136.14. -अर्धम् the latter or second half. -अह्न [fr.अहन् changed to अह्न P.II. 4.29, V.4.88.] the latter part of the day, the afternoon, closing or last watch of the day; Ms.3.278; अपराह्णशीतलतरेण शनैरनिलेन Śi.9.4; ˚तन, ˚ह्णेतन belonging to this time; ˚कृतं P.II.1.45. -इतरा the east. -कान्य- कुब्ज a. situated in or belonging to the western part of Kānyakubja. -कालः later period. -गात्रम् a minor limb (hand, foot etc.); कोपप्रसादापरगात्रहस्तः (सुप्तः क्षितौ) रावणगन्धहस्ती) Rām.6.19.1. -गोदानम् (also गोडनि or गोडानि) N. of a country to the west of Mahāmeru (according to Buddhistic ideas). -ज a. born later or at the end of the world. (-जः) the destroying fire. -जनः an inhaditant of the west, the western people. -दक्षिणम् ind. in the south-west (belonging to the तिष्ठद्गु class). -पक्षः 1 the second or dark half of the month. -2 the other or opposite side; a defendant (in law). -पञ्चालाः the western Pañchālas. -पर a. one and the other, several, various; अपरपराः सार्थाः गच्छन्ति P.VI.1.144. Sk. several caravans go; (अपरे च परे च सकृदेव गच्छन्ति). -पाणिनीयाः the pupils of Pāṇini living in the west. -प्रणेय a. easily led or influenced by others, docile, tractable. -भावः 1 being another or different, difference. -2 succession, continuation. -रात्रः [अपरं रात्रेः] the latter or closing part of night, the last watch of night (P.V.4.87); उत्थायापररात्रान्ते प्रयताः सुसमाहिताः Bhāg.8.4.24. ˚कृतम् P.II.1.45. -लोकः the other world, the next world. Paradise. -वक्त्रा, -क्त्रम् N. of a metre. -वैराग्यम् a kind of Vairāgya mentioned by Patañjali (दुष्टानुश्राविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्ञं वैराग्यम्). -सक्थम् the hind thigh. -स्वस्तिकम् the western point in the horizon. -हैमन a. belonging to the latter helf of winter (P.VII.3.11).
apāṇinīya अपाणिनीय a. 1 Not taught by Pāṇini in his works (as a rule &c.). -2 (पाणिनीयं अष्टाध्यायीरूपं ग्रन्थं यो नाधीते) One who does not (properly) study Pāṇini's grammar; i. e. a superficial scholar, smatterer of Sanskrit.
araṇi अरणिः m., f. -णी f. [ऋ-अनि Uṇ.2.11; अरणिः अग्नेर्योनिः] A piece of wood (of the Śamī tree) used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition, the fire-producing wooden stick; प्रयच्छन्ति फलं भूमिररणीव हुताशनम् Pt.1.216. -णी (dual) The two pieces of wood used in kindling the sacred fire. धरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदाः Kaṭha. 4.8. -णिः 1 The sun. -2 fire. -3 Flint. -4 N. of several fire-producing plants, particularly अग्निमन्थ. -णिः f. 1 A path, way. -2 Ved. Stinginess. -3 Discomfort; निररर्णि सविता साविषक् Av.1.18.2. -Comp. केतुः = अग्निमन्थ Premna Intergrifolia. -सुतः N. of Śuka, a celebrated sage (born from the seed of Vyāsa fallen upon an Araṇi at the sight of the nymph Ghṛitāchī); पितुः पादावगृह्णादरणीसुतः Mb.12.327.31. -2 Fire, agni; चितिं कृत्वा प्रवेक्ष्यामि समिद्धमरणीसुतम् Rām.5.13.39.
araṇimat अरणिमत् a. Related to the two Araṇis; to be produced by them.
aruṇa अरुण a. (-णा, -णि f.) [ऋ-उनन्; cf. Uṇ.3.6] 1 Reddish brown, tawny, red, ruddy (of the colour of the morning as opposed to the darkness of night); प्रत्याख्यातविशेषकं कुरबकं श्यामावदातारुणम् M.3.5; नयनान्यरुणानि घूर्णयन् Ku.4.12. -2 Perplexed, embarrassed. -3 Dumb. -णः 1 Red colour, the colour of the dawn or morning twilight. -2 The dawn personified as the charioteer of the Sun; आविष्कृतारुणपुरःसर एकतो$र्कः Ś.4. 2,7.4; विभावरी यद्यरुणाय कल्पते Ku.5.44; R.5.71. [Aruṇa is represented as the elder brother of Garuḍa, being the son of Vinatā by Kaśyapa. Vinatā prematurely hatched the egg and the child was born without thighs, and hence he is called Anūru 'thighless', or Vipāda 'footless'. He cursed his mother that since she had brought him forth before the due season she would be a slave to her rival Kadrū; but at her earnest entreaties, he modified the curse and said that her next son would deliver her from bondage. Aruṇa now holds the office of the charioteer of the Sun. His wife was Śyenī, who bore him two sons Saṁpāti and Jaṭāyu.] -3 The Sun; रागेण बालारुणकोमलेन Ku.3.3, 5.8; संसृज्यते सरसिजैररुणांशुभिन्नैः; R.5.69; S.1.31. अरुण- कररुचायते$न्तरीक्षे Bu. Ch.5.87. -4 A kind of leprosy with red spots and insensibility of the skin. -5 A little poisonous creature Bhāg.8.1.1. -6 N. of a plant पुंनाग; also a synonym of अर्क q. v. -7 Molasses (गुड). -8 N. of a peak of the Himālaya situated to the west of Kailāsa. -9 N. of one of the 12 Ādityas, the one presiding over Maghā. -1 N. of a sage; उद्दालको$रुणात् Bṛi. Up.6.5.3. -णा 1 N. of several plants; (a) अतिविषा (Mar. अतिविख); (b) Madder (मञ्जिष्ठा); (c) त्रिवृत् commonly called Teori; (d) a black kind of the same (श्यामाका); (e) bitter apple (इन्द्रवारुणी); (f) the Gunja plant that yields the red and black berry (गुंज) used as a weight by jewellers &c. (g) मुण्डतिक्ता cf. अरुणः कपिले कुष्ठे सन्ध्यारागे$र्कसारथौ । अव्यक्तरागे निःशब्दे द्रव्ये त्रिषु निरूपितः । स्त्रियामतिविषाश्यामामञ्जिष्ठात्रिवृतासु च । Nm. -2 N. of a river. -णी 1 A red cow (Nir.). -2 The early dawn. -णम् 1 Red colour; दिविस्पृश्यात्यरुणानि कृण्वन् Rv.1.168.1. -2 Gold; अम्भो अरुणं रजतम् Av.13.4.51. -3 Saffron. -Comp. -अग्रजः N. of Garuḍa, (अरुणः अग्रजो यस्य). -अनुजः, -अवरजः N. of Garuḍa, younger brother of Aruṇa. -अर्चिस् m. the sun. -अश्व a. having red horses, epithet of the Maruts. -आत्मजः 1 son of Aruṇa, N. of Jaṭāyu. -2 N. of Saturn, Sāvarṇi Manu, Karṇa, Sugrīva, Yama and the two Aśvins. (-जा) N. of Yamunā and Tāpti. -ईक्षण a. red-eyed. -उदकम् N. of a lake. (-का) N. of a river. -उदयः break of day, dawn; चतस्रो घटिकाः प्रातररुणोदय उच्यते. -उपलः a ruby. -कमलम् a red lotus. -केतु- ब्राह्मणम् Name of the Brāhmaṇa of अरुणाः केतवाः Ait. Anukr. -चूडः A cock. -ज्योतिस् m. N. of Śiva. -दूर्वा reddish fennel. -पराशराः Name of the followers of a Vedic शाखा; अरुणपराशरा नाम शाखिनः ŚB. on MS. 7.1.8. -प्रिय a. 'beloved of red flowers and lotuses', N. of the sun. (-या) 1 the Sun's wife. -2 shadow. -प्सु a. [अरुणं प्सु रूपं यस्य] Ved. of reddish shape or colour. -बभ्रु a. reddish-yellow. -युज a. furnished with red rays of light, epithet of the dawn. -लोचन a. red-eyed. (-नः) a pigeon. -सारथिः 'having Aruṇa for his charioteer', the Sun. अरुणित aruṇita अरुणीकृत aruṇīkṛta अरुणित अरुणीकृत a. Reddened, dyed red, impurpled; स्तनाङ्गरागारुणिताच्च कन्दुकात् Ku.5.11.
arka अर्क a. [अर्च्-घञ्-कुत्वम् Uṇ.3.4.]. Fit to be worshipped (अर्चनीय). -र्कः 1 A ray of light, a flash of lightning (Ved.). -2 The sun; आविष्कृतारुणपुरःसर एकतो$र्कः Ś.4.2. -3 Fire. य एवमेतदर्कस्यार्कत्वं वेद Bṛi. Up. 1.2.1. -4 A crystal; पुष्पार्ककेतकाभाश्च Rām.2.94.6. -5 Copper. -6 Sunday. -7 Membrum virile. एवा ते शेपः सहसायमर्को$ङ्गेनाङ्गं संसमकं कृणोतु Av.6.72.1. -8 N. of the sun-plant, Calatropis Gigantea (Mar. रुई), a small tree with medicinal sap and rind; अर्कस्योपरि शिथिलं च्युतमिव नवमल्लिकाकुसुमम् Ś.2.9; यमाश्रित्य न विश्रामं क्षुधार्ता यान्ति सेवकाः । सो$र्कवन्नृपतिस्त्याज्यः सदापुष्पफलो$पि सन् Pt.1.51. अर्के चेन्मधु विन्देत ŚB. on MS. -9 N. of Indra. -1 A sort of religious ceremony. -11 Praise, hymn; praising, extolling, song of praise. -12 A singer (Ved. in these two senses). -13 A learned man. -14 An elder brother. -15 Food (अर्कम् also). -16 N. of Viṣṇu. -17 A kind of decoction. -18 The seventh day of a month. -19 The उत्तरा- फल्गुनी asterism. -2 The number 12. -21 The sunstone (सूर्यकान्त); मसारगल्वर्कमयैर्विभङ्गैर्विभूषितं हेमनिबद्धचक्रम् Mb.12.46.33. cf. अर्को$र्कपर्णे स्फटिके ताम्रे सूर्ये दिवस्पतौ । ज्येष्ठभ्रातरि शुक्ले$र्कपादपे च पुमान् भवेत् ॥ Nm. -Comp. -अंशः, -कला a digit or 12th part of the sun's disc. -अश्मन् m. -उपलः 1 the sun-stone, heliotrope, girasol. -2 a sort of crystal or ruby. -आह्वः the swallow wort. -इन्दुसंगमः the time of conjunction of the sun and moon (दर्श or अमावास्या). -कान्तः A class of eleven storeyed buildings; Māna.29.25-34. -कान्ता 1 N. of a plant commonly called हुड्हुडिया. -2 sun's wife. -3 sun's shadow. -कुण्डतीर्थम् N. of a Tīrtha; Skanda P. -क्षेत्रम् 1 the field of the sun; the sign Leo, presided over by the sun. -2 N. of a holy place in Orissa. -ग्रहः The eclipse of the sun; Bṛi. S. -ग्रीवः N. of the Sāman. -चन्दनः a kind of red sandal (रक्तचन्दन). -चिकित्सा Arka's work on medical science. -जः epithet of Karṇa, Yama, Sugrīva. (-जौ) the two Aśvins regarded as the physicians of Heaven. -तनयः 'a son of the sun', an epithet of Karṇa, Yama, Manu Vaivasvata, Manu Sāvarṇi and Saturn; see अरुणात्मज. (-या) N. of the rivers Yamunā and Tāpti. -त्विष् f. light of the sun. -दिनम्, -वासरः Sunday. -दुग्धम् milky sap or exudation of Arka. -नन्दनः, -पुत्रः, -सुतः, -सूनुः N. of Saturn, Karṇa or Yama. -नयन a. one whose eyes are difficult to be gazed at. (-नः) an epithet of Virat Puruṣa. -नामन् m. the red arka tree. -पत्रः, -पर्णः N. of the plant अर्क. (-त्रा) a kind of birthwort (सुनन्दा, अर्कमूला) with wedge-shaped leaves. (-त्रम्, -र्णम्) the leaf of the अर्क plant. -पादपः N. of a plant (निम्ब); another tree (आकन्द). -पुष्पम् a flower of arka -पुष्पाद्यम् N. of a Sāman. (-ष्पी), -पुष्पिका N. of a plant (कुटुम्बिनी) -पुष्पोत्तरम् N. of a Sāman. -प्रकाश a. Bright like the sun; Mb. -प्रिया N. of a plant (जव). -बन्धुः, -बान्धवः 1 N. of Buddha Śākyamuni, meaning सूर्यवंश्यः, cf. शुद्धोदनो नाम नृपो$र्कबन्धुः Bu. Ch.9.9. -2 a lotus (the sun-lotus). -भम् 1 an asterism influenced by the sun. -2 the sign Leo. -3 उत्तराफल्गुनीनक्षत्र. -भक्ता = ˚कान्ता q. v. -मण्डलम् disc of the sun. -मूलः, -ला = ˚पत्रा; विलिखति वसुधामर्कमूलस्य हेतोः Bh.2.1. -रेतोजः Revanta, the son of Sūrya. -लपणम् Saltpetre. -वर्षः a solar year. -वल्लभः 1 N. of a plant (बन्धूक; Mar. दुपारी). -2 a lotus. -विवाहः marriage with the arka plant (enjoined to be performed before a man marries a third wife, who thus becomes his fourth); चतुर्थादिविवाहार्थं तृतीयो$र्कं समुद्वहेत् Kāśyapa. -वेधः N. of a tree (तालीशपत्र). -व्रतः, -तम् 1 a vow performed on माघशुक्लसप्तमी. -2 the law or manner of the sun; when a king exacts taxes from his subjects only to add to their material comforts and happiness, just as the sun draws up water during 8 months of the year, only to give it back increased a thousandfold, he is said to follow अर्कव्रत, अष्टौ मासान् यथादित्यस्तोयं हरति रश्मिभिः । तथा हरेत्करं राष्ट्रान्नित्यमर्कव्रतं हि तत् ॥ Ms.9.35; cf. R.1.18 (the point of comparison may also be the imperceptible way in which the sun absorbs water, see Pt.1.221). -शोकः Ved. brilliancy of rays. -सातिः f. 1 finding of rays. -2 poetical inspiration; finding out hymns; रपत् कविरिन्द्रार्कसातौ Rv.1. 174.7. -सोदरः 'brother of the sun', an epithet of Airāvata. -हिता = ˚कान्ता q. v.
arjuna अर्जुन a. [अर्ज्-उनन् णिलुक् च Uṇ.3.58] (-ना, -नी f.). 1 White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च Rv.6.9.1; पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् Śi.1.6. -2 Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना Av.4.37.5. -नः 1 The white colour. -2 A peacock. -3 A sort of cutaneous disease. -4 A tree (Mar. अर्जुनसादडा), with useful rind; Mb.3.64.3. -5 N. of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (पृथिव्यां चतुरन्तायां वर्णो मे दुर्लभः समः । करोमि कर्म शुद्धं च तेन मामर्जनं विदुः). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṁvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛiṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛiṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharata-khaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛiṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛiṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu- on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. अर्जनः फाल्गुनो जिष्णुः किरीटी श्वेतवाहनः । बीभत्सुर्विजयः कृष्णः सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः ॥ -6 N. of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See कार्तवीर्य. -7 N. of a country Bṛi. S.14. 25. -8 The only son of his mother. -9 N. of Indra. -1 N. of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. अईन). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree. -नी 1 A procuress, bawd. -2 A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा Mb.13.73.42. -3 A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु˚ Av.2.24.7. -4 N. of Uṣhā, wife of Aniruddha. -5 N. of a river commonly called करतोया. -6 (न्यौ, -न्यः dual and pl.) N. of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावो$र्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते Rv.1.85.13. -नम् 1 Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् Av.5.28.5. -2 Gold. -3 Slight inflammation of the white of the eye. -4 Grass. -न (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् ...Nm. -Comp. -अभ्रम N. of a medicament. -ईश्वरतीर्थम् N. of a holy place. Siva P. -उपमः the teak tree; also शाकद्रुम and महापत्राख्यवृक्ष. -काण्ड a. having a white stem or appendage. बभ्रोरर्जनकाण्डस्य यवस्य ते Av.2.8.3. -च्छवि a. white, of a white colour. -ध्वजः 'white-bannered', N. of Hanūmat. -पाकी N. of a plant and its fruits. -बदरः The fibre of the Arjuna plant; अर्जुन- बदरा मेखलाः क्रियन्ताभू । ŚB. on MS.9.4.25 -मिश्रः Name of a commentator on the Mb. -सखिः (L.) Kriṣṇa. -सिंहः N. of a prince (Inscriptions).
arthaḥ अर्थः [In some of its senses from अर्थ्; in others from ऋ-थन् Uṇ.2.4; अर्थते ह्यसौ अर्थिभिः Nir.] 1 Object, purpose, end and aim; wish, desire; ज्ञातार्थो ज्ञातसंबन्धः श्रोतुं श्रोता प्रवर्तते, सिद्ध˚, ˚परिपन्थी Mu.5; ˚वशात् 5.8; स्मर्तव्यो$स्मि सत्यर्थे Dk.117 if it be necessary; Y.2.46; M.4.6; oft. used in this sense as the last member of compounds and translated by 'for', 'intended for', 'for the sake of', 'on account of', 'on behalf of', and used like an adj. to qualify nouns; अर्थेन तु नित्य- समासो विशेष्यनिघ्रता च Vārt.; सन्तानार्थाय विधये R.1.34; तां देवतापित्रतिथिक्रियार्थाम् (धेनुम्) 2.16; द्विजार्था यवागूः Sk.; यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणो$न्यत्र Bg.3.9. It mostly occurs in this sense as अर्थम्, अर्थे or अर्थाय and has an adverbial force; (a) किमर्थम् for what purpose, why; यदर्थम् for whom or which; वेलोपलक्षणार्थम् Ś.4; तद्दर्शनादभूच्छम्भोर्भूयान्दारार्थ- मादरः Ku.6.13; (b) परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् H.1.41; गवार्थे ब्राह्मणार्थे च Pt.1.42; मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः Bg.1.9; (c) सुखार्थाय Pt.4.18; प्रत्याख्याता मया तत्र नलस्यार्थाय देवताः Nala.13.19; ऋतुपर्णस्य चार्थाय 23.9. -2 Cause, motive, reason, ground, means; अलुप्तश्च मुनेः क्रियार्थः R. 2.55 means or cause; अतो$र्थात् Ms.2.213. -3 Meaning, sense, signification, import; अर्थ is of 3 kinds:-- वाच्य or expressed, लक्ष्य or indicated (secondary), and व्यङ्ग्य or suggested; तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ K. P.1; अर्थो वाच्यश्च लक्ष्यश्च व्यङ्ग्यश्चेति त्रिधा मतः S. D.2; वागर्थाविव R.1.1; अवेक्ष्य धातोर्गमनार्थमर्थवित् 3.21. -4 A thing, object, substance; लक्ष्मणो$र्थं ततः श्रुत्वा Rām.7.46.18; अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव Ś.4.22; that which can be perceived by the senses, an object of sense; इन्द्रिय˚ H.1.146; Ku.7.71; R.2.51; न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुः Nir.; इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः Kaṭh. (the objects of sense are five : रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द); शब्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः Bhāg.11.22.16. -5 (a) An affair, business, matter, work; प्राक् प्रतिपन्नो$यमर्थो$- ङ्गराजाय Ve.3; अर्थो$यमर्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18; अर्थो$र्था- नुबन्धी Dk.67; सङ्गीतार्थः Me.66 business of singing i. e. musical concert (apparatus of singing); सन्देशार्थाः Me. 5 matters of message, i. e. messages; (b) Interest, object; स्वार्थसाधनतत्परः Ms.4.196; द्वयमेवार्थसाधनम् R.1. 19;2.21; दुरापे$र्थे 1.72; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121; माल- विकायां न मे कश्चिदर्थः M.3 I have no interest in M. (c) Subject-matter, contents (as of letters &c.); त्वामव- गतार्थं करिष्यति Mu.1 will acquaint you with the matter; उत्तरो$यं लेखार्थः ibid.; तेन हि अस्य गृहीतार्था भवामि V.2 if so I should know its contents; ननु परिगृहीतार्थो$- स्मि कृतो भवता V.5; तया भवतो$विनयमन्तरेण परिगृहीतार्था कृता देवी M.4 made acquainted with; त्वया गृहीतार्थया अत्रभवती कथं न वारिता 3; अगृहीतार्थे आवाम् Ś.6; इति पौरान् गृहीतार्थान् कृत्वा ibid. -6 Wealth, riches, property, money (said to be of 3 kinds : शुक्ल honestly got; शबल got by more or less doubtful means, and कृष्ण dishonestly got;) त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् R.1.7; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः Pt.1.163; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखम् ibid.; सस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि1.3; तेषामर्थे नियुञ्जीत शूरान् दक्षान् कुलोद्गतान् Ms.7.62. -7 Attainment of riches or worldly prosperity, regarded as one of the four ends of human existence, the other three being धर्म, काम and मोक्ष; with अर्थ and काम, धर्म forms the well-known triad; cf. Ku.5.38; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. -8 (a) Use, advantage, profit, good; तथा हि सर्वे तस्यासन् परार्थैकफला गुणाः R.1.29 for the good of others; अर्थान- र्थावुभौ बुद्ध्वा Ms.8.24 good and evil; क्षेत्रिणामर्थः 9.52; यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः सांप्लुतोदके Bg.2.46; also व्यर्थ, निरर्थक q. v. (b) Use, want, need, concern, with instr.; को$र्थः पुत्रेण जातेन Pt.1 what is the use of a son being born; कश्च तेनार्थः Dk.59; को$र्थस्तिरश्चां गुणैः Pt.2.33 what do brutes care for merits; Bh.2.48; योग्येनार्थः कस्य न स्याज्ज- नेन Ś.18.66; नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन Bg.3.18; यदि प्राणैरिहार्थो वो निवर्तध्वम् Rām. को नु मे जीवितेनार्थः Nala.12. 65. -9 Asking, begging; request, suit, petition. -1 Action, plaint (in law); अर्थ विरागाः पश्यन्ति Rām.2.1. 58; असाक्षिकेषु त्वर्थेषु Ms.8.19. -11 The actual state, fact of the matter; as in यथार्थ, अर्थतः, ˚तत्वविद्, यदर्थेन विनामुष्य पुंस आत्मविपर्ययः Bhāg.3.7.1. -12 Manner, kind, sort. -13 Prevention, warding off; मशकार्थो धूमः; prohibition, abolition (this meaning may also be derived from 1 above). -14 Price (perhaps an incorrect form for अर्घ). -15 Fruit, result (फलम्). तस्य नानुभवेदर्थं यस्य हेतोः स रोपितः Rām.6.128.7; Mb.12.175.5. -16 N. of a son of धर्म. -17 The second place from the लग्न (in astr.). -18 N. of Viṣṇu. -19 The category called अपूर्व (in पूर्वमीमांसा); अर्थ इति अपूर्वं ब्रूमः । ŚB. on MS.7.1.2. -2 Force (of a statement or an expression); अर्थाच्च सामर्थ्याच्च क्रमो विधीयते । ŚB. on MS.5.1.2. [अर्थात् = by implication]. -21 The need, purpose, sense; व्यवधानादर्थो बलीयान् । ŚB. on MS.6.4.23. -22 Capacity, power; अर्थाद्वा कल्पनैकदेशत्वात् । Ms.1.4.3 (where Śabara paraphrases अर्थात् by सामर्थ्यात् and states the rule: आख्यातानामर्थं ब्रुवतां शक्तिः सहकारिणी ।), cf. अर्थो$भिधेयरैवस्तुप्रयोजननिवृत्तिषु । मोक्षकारणयोश्च...... Nm. -Comp. -अतिदेशः Extension (of gender, number &e.) to the objects (as against words), i. e. to treat a single object as though it were many, a female as though it were male. (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक 1.2.58.3;6.3.34.7). -अधिकारः charge of money, office of treasurer ˚रे न नियोक्तव्यौ H.2. -अधिकारिन् m. a treasurer, one charged with financial duties, finance minister. -अनुपपत्तिः f. The difficulty of accounting for or explaining satisfactorily a particular meaning; incongruity of a particular meaning (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक 4.3.42.2). -अनुयायिन् a. Following the rules (शास्त्र); तत्त्रिकालहितं वाक्यं धर्म्यमर्थानुयायि च Rām.5.51.21. -अन्वेषणम् inquiry after a matter. -अन्तरम् 1 another or different meaning. -2 another cause or motive; अर्थो$यम- र्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18. -3 A new matter or circumstance, new affair. -4 opposite or antithetical meaning, difference of meaning. ˚न्यासः a figure of speech in which a general proposition is adduced to support a particular instance, or a particular instance, to support a general proposition; it is an inference from particular to general and vice versa; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः । (1) हनूमानब्धिमतरद् दुष्करं किं महात्मनाम् ॥ (2) गुणवद्वस्तुसंसर्गाद्याति नीचो$पि गौरवम् । पुष्पमालानुषङ्गेण सूत्रं शिरसि धार्यते Kuval.; cf. also K. P.1 and S. D.79. (Instances of this figure abound in Sanskrit literature, especially in the works of Kālidāsa, Māgha and Bhāravi). -अन्वित a. 1 rich, wealthy. -2 significant. -अभिधान a. 1 That whose name is connected with the purpose to be served by it; अर्थाभिधानं प्रयोजनसम्बद्धमभिधानं यस्य, यथा पुरोडाश- कपालमिति पुरोडाशार्थं कपालं पुरोडाशकपालम् । ŚB. on MS.4.1. 26. -2 Expression or denotation of the desired meaning (वार्त्तिक 3.1.2.5.). -अर्थिन् a. one who longs for or strives to get wealth or gain any object. अर्थार्थी जीवलोको$यम् । आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी Bg.7.16. -अलंकरः a figure of speech determined by and dependent on the sense, and not on sound (opp. शब्दालंकार). अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र mentions (verse 29) fourteen types of अर्थालंकारs as follows:- उपमारूपकोत्प्रेक्षाः समासोक्तिरपह्नुतिः । समाहितं स्वभावश्च विरोधः सारदीपकौ ॥ सहोक्तिरन्यदेशत्वं विशेषोक्तिर्विभावना । एवं स्युरर्थालकारा- श्चतुर्दश न चापरे ॥ -आगमः 1 acquisition of wealth, income; ˚गमाय स्यात् Pt.1. cf. also अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च H. -2 collection of property. -3 conveying of sense; S. D.737. -आपत्तिः f. [अर्थस्य अनुक्तार्थस्य आपत्तिः सिद्धिः] 1 an inference from circumstances, presumption, implication, one of the five sources of knowledge or modes of proof, according to the Mīmāṁsakas. It is 'deduction of a matter from that which could not else be'; it is 'assumption of a thing, not itself perceived but necessarily implied by another which is seen, heard, or proved'; it is an inference used to account for an apparent inconsistency; as in the familiar instance पीनो देवदत्तो दिवा न भुङ्क्ते the apparent inconsistency between 'fatness' and 'not eating by day' is accounted for by the inference of his 'eating by night'. पीनत्वविशि- ष्टस्य देवदत्तस्य रात्रिभोजित्वरूपार्थस्य शब्दानुक्तस्यापि आपत्तिः. It is defined by Śabara as दृष्टः श्रुतो वार्थो$न्यथा नोपपद्यते इत्यर्थ- कल्पना । यथा जीवति देवदत्ते गृहाभावदर्शनेन बहिर्भावस्यादृष्टस्य कल्पना ॥ Ms.1.1.5. It may be seen from the words दृष्टः and श्रुतः in the above definition, that Śabara has suggested two varieties of अर्थापत्ति viz. दृष्टार्थापत्ति and श्रुता- र्थापत्ति. The illustration given by him, however, is of दृष्टार्थापत्ति only. The former i. e. दृष्टार्थापत्ति consists in the presumption of some अदृष्ट अर्थ to account for some दृष्ट अर्थ (or अर्थs) which otherwise becomes inexplicable. The latter, on the other hand, consists in the presumption of some अर्थ through अश्रुत शब्द to account for some श्रुत अर्थ (i. e. some statement). This peculiarity of श्रुतार्थापत्ति is clearly stated in the following couplet; यत्र त्वपरिपूर्णस्य वाक्यस्यान्वयसिद्धये । शब्दो$ध्याह्रियते तत्र श्रुतार्थापत्ति- रिष्यते ॥ Mānameyodaya p.129 (ed. by K. Raja, Adyar, 1933). Strictly speaking it is no separate mode of proof; it is only a case of अनुमान and can be proved by a व्यतिरेकव्याप्ति; cf. Tarka. K.17 and S. D.46. -2 a figure of speech (according to some rhetoricians) in which a relevant assertion suggests an inference not actually connected with the the subject in hand, or vice versa; it corresponds to what is popularly called कैमुतिकन्याय or दण्डापूपन्याय; e. g. हारो$यं हरिणाक्षीणां लुण्ठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः Amaru.1; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43.; S. D. thus defines the figure:- दण्डापूपिकन्यायार्थागमो$र्थापत्तिरिष्यते. -उत्पत्तिः f. acquisition of wealth; so ˚उपार्जनम्. -उपक्षेपकः an introductory scene (in dramas); अर्थोपक्षेपकाः पञ्च S. D.38. They are विष्कम्भ, चूलिका, अङ्कास्य, अङ्कावतार, प्रवेशक. -उपमा a simile dependent on sense and not on sound; see under उपमा. -उपार्जनम् Acquiring wealth. -उष्मन् m. the glow or warmth of wealth; अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव Bh.2.4. -ओघः, -राशिः treasure, hoard of money. -कर (-री f.), -कृत a. 1 bringing in wealth, enriching; अर्थकरी च विद्या H. Pr.3. -2 useful, advantageous. -कर्मन् n. 1 a principal action (opp. गुणकर्मन्). -2 (as opposed to प्रतिपत्तिकर्मन्), A fruitful act (as opposed to mere disposal or प्रतिपत्ति); अर्थकर्म वा कर्तृ- संयोगात् स्रग्वत् । MS.4.2.17. -काम a. desirous of wealth. (-˚मौ dual), wealth and (sensual) desire or pleasure; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. ह्रत्वार्थकामास्तु गुरूनिहैव Bg.2.5. -कार्ष्यम् Poverty. निर्बन्धसंजातरुषार्थकार्घ्यमचिन्तयित्वा गुरुणाहमुक्तः R.5.21. -काशिन् a. Only apparently of utility (not really). -किल्बिषिन् a. dishonest in money-matters. -कृच्छ्रम् 1 a difficult matter. -2 pecuniary difficulty; व्यसनं वार्थकृच्छ्रे वा Rām.4.7.9; Mb.3.2.19; cf. also Kau. A.1.15 न मुह्येदर्थकृच्छ्रेषु Nīti. -कृत्यम् doing or execution of a business; अभ्युपेतार्थकृत्याः Me.4. -कोविद a. Expert in a matter, experienced. उवाच रामो धर्मात्मा पुनरप्यर्थकोविदः Rām.6.4.8. -क्रमः due order or sequence of purpose. -क्रिया (a) An implied act, an act which is to be performed as a matter of course (as opposed to शब्दोक्तक्रिया); असति शब्दोक्ते अर्थक्रिया भवति ŚB. on MS.12.1.12. (b) A purposeful action. (see अर्थकर्मन्). -गत a. 1 based on the sense (as a दोष). -2 devoid of sense. -गतिः understanding the sense. -गुणाः cf. भाविकत्वं सुशब्दत्वं पर्यायोक्तिः सुधर्मिता । चत्वारो$र्थगुणाः प्रोक्ताः परे त्वत्रैव संगताः ॥ अलंकारशेखर 21. -गृहम् A treasury. Hariv. -गौरवम् depth of meaning; भारवेरर्थगौरवम् Udb., Ki.2.27. -घ्न a. (घ्नी f.) extravagant, wasteful, prodigal; सुरापी व्याधिता धूर्ता वन्ध्यार्थघ्न्य- प्रियंवदा Y.1.73; व्याधिता वाधिवेत्तव्या हिंस्रार्थघ्नी च सर्वदा Ms.9.8. -चित्रम् 'variety in sense', a pun, Kāvya-prakāśa. -चिन्तक a. 1 thinking of profit. -2 having charge of affairs; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121. -चिन्ता, -चिन्तनम् charge or administration of (royal) affairs; मन्त्री स्यादर्थचिन्तायाम् S. D. -जात a. 1 full of meaning. -2 wealthy (जातधन). (-तम्) 1 a collection of things. -2 large amount of wealth, considerable property; Dk.63, Ś.6; ददाति च नित्यमर्थजातम् Mk.2.7. -3 all matters; कवय इव महीपाश्चिन्तयन्त्यर्थजातम् Śi.11.6. -4 its own meaning; वहन्द्वयीं यद्यफले$र्थजाते Ki.3.48. -ज्ञ a. knowing the sense or purpose; अर्थज्ञ इत्सकलं भद्रमश्नुते Nir. -तत्त्वम् 1 the real truth, the fact of the matter; यो$र्थतत्त्वमविज्ञाय क्रोधस्यैव वशं गतः H.4.94. -2 the real nature or cause of anything. -द a. 1 yielding wealth; Dk.41. -2 advantageous, productive of good, useful. -3 liberal, munificent Ms.2.19. -4 favourable, compliant. (-दः) N. of Kubera. -दर्शकः 'one who sees law-suits'; a judge. -दर्शनम् perception of objects; कुरुते दीप इवार्थदर्शनम् Ki.2.33; Dk.155. -दूषणम् 1 extravagance, waste; H.3.18; Ms.7.48. -2 unjust seizure of property or withholding what is due. -3 finding fault with the meaning. -4 spoiling of another's property. -दृश् f. Consideration of truth; क्षेमं त्रिलोकगुरुरर्थदृशं च यच्छन् Bhāg.1.86.21. -दृष्टिः Seeing profit; Bhāg. -दोषः a literary fault or blemish with regard to the sense, one of the four doṣas or blemishes of literary composition, the other three being परदोष, पदांशदोष, वाक्यदोष; for definitions &c. see K. P.7. अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र who mentions eight types of doṣas as follows: अष्टार्थदोषाः विरस, -ग्राम्य, -व्याहत, -खिन्नताः । -हीना, -धिका, सदृक्साम्यं देशादीनां विरोधि च ॥ 17 -द्वयविधानम् Injunction of two ideas or senses; विधाने चार्थद्वयविधानं दोषः ŚB. on MS.1.8.7. -नित्य a. = अर्थ- प्रधान Nir. -निबन्धन a. dependent on wealth. -निश्चयः determination, decision. -प्रतिः 1 'the lord of riches', a a king; किंचिद् विहस्यार्थपतिं बभाषे R.2.46;1.59;9.3;18.1; Pt.1.74. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -पदम् N. of the Vārt. on Pāṇini; ससूत्रवृत्त्यर्थपदं महार्थं ससंग्रहं सिद्ध्यति वै कपीन्द्रः Rām.7.36.45. -पर, -लुब्ध a. 1 intent on gaining wealth, greedy of wealth, covetous. -2 niggardly, parsimonious; हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या Bh.2.47; Pt.1.425. -प्रकृतिः f. the leading source or occasion of the grand object in a drama; (the number of these 'sources' is five :-- बीजं बिन्दुः पताका च प्रकरी कार्यमेव च । अर्थप्रकृतयः पञ्च ज्ञात्वा योज्या यथाविधि S. D.317.) -प्रयोगः 1 usury. -2 administration of the affairs (of a state) -प्राप्त a. derived or understood from the sense included as a matter of course, implied; परिसमाप्तिः शब्दार्थः । परिसमाप्त्यामर्थप्राप्तत्वादारम्भस्य । ŚB. on MS.6.2.13. -˚त्वम् Inplication. -बन्धः 1 arrangement of words, composition, text; stanza, verse; संचिन्त्य गीतक्षममर्थबन्धम् Ś.7.5; ललितार्थबन्धम् V.2.14 put or expressed in elegant words. -2. connection (of the soul) with the objects of sense. -बुद्धि a. selfish. -बोधः indication of the (real) import. -भाज् a. entitled to a share in the division of property. -भावनम् Deliberation over a subject (Pātañjala Yogadarśana 1.28). -भृत् a. receiving high wages (as a servant). -भेदः distinction or difference of meaning; अर्थभेदेन शब्दभेदः. -मात्रम्, -त्रा 1 property, wealth; Pt.2. -2 the whole sense or object. -युक्त a. significant, full of यस्यार्थयुक्तं meaning; गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति Ku.1.13. -लक्षण a. As determined by the purpose or need (as opposed to शब्दलक्षण); लोके कर्मार्थलक्षणम् Ms.11.1.26. -लाभः acquisition of wealth. -लोभः avarice. -वशः power in the form of discrimination and knowledge. अर्थवशात् सप्तरूपविनिवृत्ताम् Sāvk.65. -वादः 1 declaration of any purpose. -2 affirmation, declaratory assertion, an explanatory remark, exegesis; speech or assertion having a certain object; a sentence. (It usually recommends a विधि or precept by stating the good arising from its proper observance, and the evils arising from its omission, and also by adducing historical instances in its support; स्तुतिर्निन्दा परकृतिः पुराकल्प इत्यर्थवादः Gaut. Sūt.; said by Laugākṣi to be of 3 kinds :- गुणवादो विरोधे स्यादनु वादो$वधारिते । भूतार्थवादस्तद्धानादर्थ- वादस्त्रिधा मतः; the last kind includes many varieties.) -3 one of the six means of finding out the tātparya (real aim and object) of any work. -4 praise, eulogy; अर्थवाद एषः । दोषं तु मे कंचित्कथय U.1. -विकरणम् = अर्थ- विक्रिया change of meaning. -विकल्पः 1 deviation from truth, perversion of fact. -2 prevarication; also ˚वैकल्प्यम् -विज्ञानम् comprehending the sense, one of the six exercises of the understanding (धीगुण). -विद् a. sensible, wise, sagacious. भुङ्क्ते तदपि तच्चान्यो मधुहेवार्थविन्मधु Bhāg.11.18.15. विवक्षतामर्थविदस्तत्क्षणप्रतिसंहृताम् Śi. -विद्या knowledge of practical life; Mb.7. -विपत्तिः Failing of an aim; समीक्ष्यतां चार्थविपत्तिमार्गताम् Rām.2.19.4. -विभावक a. money-giver; विप्रेभ्यो$र्थविभावकः Mb.3.33. 84. -विप्रकर्षः difficulty in the comprehension of the sense. -विशेषणम् a reprehensive repetition of something uttered by another; S. D.49. -वृद्धिः f. accumulation of wealth. -व्ययः expenditure; ˚ज्ञ a. conversant with money-matters. -शब्दौ Word and sense. -शालिन् a. Wealthy. -शास्त्रम् 1 the science of wealth (political economy). -2 science of polity, political science, politics; अर्थशास्त्रविशारदं सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायम् Rām.2.1.14. Dk.12; इह खलु अर्थशास्त्रकारास्त्रिविधां सिद्धिमुपवर्णयन्ति Mu.3; ˚व्यवहारिन् one dealing with politics, a politician; Mu.5. -3 science giving precepts on general conduct, the science of practical life; Pt.1. -शौचम् purity or honesty in money-matters; सर्वेषां चैव शौचानामर्थशौचं परं स्मृतं Ms. 5.16. -श्री Great wealth. -संस्थानम् 1 accumulation of wealth. -2 treasury. -संग्रहः, -संचयः accumulation or acquisition of wealth, treasure, property. कोशेनाश्रयणी- यत्वमिति तस्यार्थसंग्रहः R.17.6. कुदेशमासाद्य कुतो$र्थसंचयः H. -संग्रहः a book on Mīmāṁsā by Laugākṣi Bhāskara. -सतत्त्वम् truth; किं पुनरत्रार्थसतत्त्वम् । देवा ज्ञातुमर्हन्ति MBh. or P.VIII.3.72. -समाजः aggregate of causes. -समाहारः 1 treasure. -2 acquisition of wealth. -संपद् f. accomplishment of a desired object; उपेत्य संघर्ष- मिवार्थसंपदः Ki.1.15. -संपादनम् Carrying out of an affair; Ms.7.168. -संबन्धः connection of the sense with the word or sentence. -संबन्धिन् a. Concerned or interested in an affair; Ms.8.64. -साधक a. 1 accomplishing any object. -2 bringing any matter to a conclusion. -सारः considerable wealth; Pt.2.42. -सिद्ध a. understood from the very context (though not expressed in words), inferable from the connection of words. -सिद्धिः f. fulfilment of a desired object, success. द्वारमिवार्थसिद्धेः R.2.21. -हानिः Loss of wealth -हारिन् a. stealing money Ks. -हर a. inheriting wealth. -हीन a. 1 deprived of wealth, poor. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical. -3 failing.
ātreya आत्रेय a. (-यी f.) [अत्रेरपत्यं ढक्] P.IV.1.122 Belonging to, descended or sprung from, Atri. -यः 1 A descendant of Atri. -2 The head of the descendants of Atri. -3 A priest closely related to the Sadasya. -4 An epithet of Śiva. -5 An essential humor or juice of the body, lymph. -यी 1 A female descendant of Atri; गोत्रप्रशंसार्थ- मात्रेय्या अवधसंकीर्तनम् । न चापन्नसत्त्वा आत्रेयी । गोत्रं ह्येतत् । ŚB. on MS.6.1.9. -2 The wife of Atri. -3 A woman in her courses (रजस्वला); Ms.11.87; Y.3.251. -4 Any woman of the Brāhmaṇical order. -5 N. of a river in the north of Bengal, also called Tista. -6 A pregnant woman; Mb.12.165.54; आत्रेयीमापन्नगर्भामाहुः । अत्र कुक्षौ अस्या विद्यत इत्यात्रेयी । ŚB. on MS.6.1.7.
ādi आदि a. 1 First, primary, primitive; निदानं त्वादिकारणम् Ak. -2 Chief, first, principal, pre-eminent; oft. at the end of comp. in this sense; see below. -3 First in time existing before. -दीः 1 Beginning, commencement (opp. अन्त); अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् Ms.1.8; Bg.3.41; अनादि &c.; जगदादिरनादिस्त्वम् Ku.2.9; oft. at the end of comp. and translated by 'beginning with', 'et cætera', 'and others', 'and so on' (of the same nature or kind), 'such like'; इन्द्रादयो देवाः the gods Indra and others (इन्द्रः आदिर्येषां ते); एवमादि this and the like; भ्वादयो धातवः भू and others, or words beginning with भू, are called roots; oft. used by Pāṇini to denote classes or groups of grammatical words; अदादि, दिवादि, स्वादि &c. -2 First part of portion. -3 A firstling, first-fruits. -4 Prime cause. -5 Nearness. -6 One of the seven parts of Sāma; अथ सप्तविधस्य वाचि सप्तविधं सामोपासीत यत्किंच वाचो हुमिति स हिंकारो यत्प्रेति स प्रस्तावो यदेति स आदिः Ch. Up.2.8.1. -Comp. -अन्त a. 1 having beginning and end. -2 first and last. (-तम्) beginning and end. -˚यमकम् N. of a figure in poetry. cf. Bk.1.21. ˚वत् having beginning and end, finite. ˚अन्तर्वर्तिन् a. having a beginning, end and middle; being all-in-all. -उदात्त a. having the acute accent on the first syllable. -उपान्तम् ind. from first to last. -करः, -कर्तृ, -कृत् m. the creator, an epithet of Brahmā or Viṣnu; गरीयसे ब्रह्मणो$प्यादिकर्त्रे Bg.11.37; विशेषणे द्वे य इहादिकर्तुर्वदेदधीती स हि कैयटीयः Śab. Kau. -कर्मन् n. the beginning of an action. -कविः 'the first poet', an epithet of Brahmā and of Vālmīki; the former is so called because he first produced and promulgated the Vedas; (तेने ब्रह्म हृदा य आदिकवये मुह्यन्ति यत्सूरयः Bhāg.1.1.1.) and the latter, because he was the first to show to others 'the path of poets'; when he beheld one of a pair of Krauñcha birds being killed by a fowler, he cursed the wretch, and his grief unconsciously took the form of a verse (श्लोकत्वमापद्यत यस्य शोकः); he was subsequently told by Brahmā to compose the life of Rāma, and he thus gave to the world the first poem in Sanskrit, the Rāmāyaṇa; cf. U.2. Viṣkambhaka. -काण्डम् the first book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कारणम् the first or primary cause (of the universe), which, according to the Vedāntins, is Brahman; while, according to the Naiyāyikas and particalarly the Vaiśeṣikas, atoms are the first or material cause of the universe, and not God. -2 analysis. -3 algebra. -काव्यम् the first poem; i. e. the Rāmāyaṇa; see आदिकवि. -केशवः N. of Viṣṇu. -जिनः N. of Ṛiṣabha, the first तीर्थंकर. -तालः a sort of musical time or ताल; एक एव लघुर्यत्र आदितालः स कथ्यते. -दीपकम् N. of a figure in rhetoric (the verb standing at the beginning of the sentence). cf. Bk.1.23. -देवः 1 the first or Supreme God; पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यं आदिदेव- मजं विभुम् Bg.1.12,11.38. -2 Nārāyaṇa or Viṣṇu. -3 Śiva. -4 Brahmā; Mb.12.188.2. -5 the sun. -दैत्यः an epithet of Hiraṇyakaśipu. -नाथः N. of Ādibuddha. -पर्वन् n. 'the first section or chapter', N. of the first book of the Mahābhārata. -पुराणम् the first Purāṇa, N. of the Brahma-Purāṇa. N. of a Jaina religious book. -पु (पू) रुषः 1 the first or primeval being, the lord of the creation. -2 Viṣṇu, Kṛiṣṇa, or Nārāyaṇa; ते च प्रापुरुदन्वन्तं बुबुधे चादिपूरुषः R.1.6; तमर्घ्यमर्घ्यादिकयादिपूरुषः Śi.1.14. -बलम् generative power; first vigour. -बुद्ध a. perceived in the beginning. (-द्धः) the primitive Buddha. -भव, -भूत a. produced at first. (-वः, -तः) 1 'the first-born', primeval being, an epithet of Brahmā; इत्युक्त्वादिभवो देवः Bhāg.7.3.22. -2 also N. of Viṣṇu; रसातलादादि. भवेन पुंसा R.13.8. -3 an elder brother. (-तम्) minute five elements (पञ्चमहाभूतानि); नष्टे लोके द्विपरार्धावसाने महा- भूतेष्वादिभूतं गतेषु Bhāg.1.3.25. -मूलम् first foundation, primeval cause. -योगाचार्यः 'the first teacher of devotion', an epithet of Śiva. -रसः the first of he 8 Rasas, i. e. शृङ्गार or love. -राजः the first king पृथु; an epithet of Manu. -रूपम् Symptom (of disease). -वंशः primeval race, primitive family. -वराहः 'the first boar', an epithet of Visṇu, alluding to his third or boar-incarnation. -विद्वस् m. the first learned man; कपिल. -विपुला f. N. of an Āryā metre. -वृक्षः N. of a plant (Mar. आपटा). -शक्तिः f. 1 the power of माया or illusion. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -शरीरम् 1. the primitive body. -2 ignorance. -3 the subtle body. -सर्गः the first creation.
ābhāsu आभासु (स्व) र a. Splendid, bright, shining. -रः 1 A collective name of 64 demigods. -2 N. of an attendant Gaṇa. -3 N. of a particular set of 12 subjects; आत्मा ज्ञाता दमो दान्तः शान्तिर्ज्ञानं शमस्तपः । कामः क्रोधो मदो मोहो द्वादशाभास्वरा इमे ॥ (तारानाथ तर्कवाचस्पतिकोश.) आभिचरणिक ābhicaraṇika आभिचार ābhicāra आभिचारिक ābhicārika आभिचरणिक आभिचार आभिचारिक a. (-की f.) [अभिचरण-चर-ठञ्] 1 Magical. -2 Imprecatory, maledictory; तमाभिचारदहनमायान्तं द्वारकौकसः Bhāg.1.66.35. -कम् A spell or incantation, magic.
ābhīya आभीय a. Contained in rules or Sūtras of Pāṇinī from VI.4.22 to VI.4.129.
āraṇeya आरणेय a. (-यी f.) [अरणि-ठक्] Relating to or sprung from Araṇi q. v. -यः N. of Śuka. -यम् or ˚पर्वन् Title of the last section of the third book of the Mahābhārata.
āhikaḥ आहिकः [अहिरिव, कन्, स्वार्थे अण्] 1 The descending node (केतु). -2 An epithet of Pāṇini.
iti इति ind. 1 this particle is most generally used to report the very words spoken or supposed to be spoken by some one, as represented by quotation marks in English. The speech reported may be (1) a single word used merely to express what the form of the word is, when it is used as it is (शब्दस्वरूपद्योतक); कूजन्तं रामरामेति मधुरं मधुराक्षरम् Rāmarakṣā. अत एव गवित्याह Bhartṛi.; (2) or a substantive, which must be put in the nominative case when its meaning is to be indicated (प्रतिपदिकार्थद्योतक); चयस्त्विषामित्यवधारितं पुरा ... क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1.3.; अवैमि चैनामनघेति R.14.4; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुः R.1.12; sometimes with acc. कैवर्तमिति यं प्राहुः Ms.1.34.; Bg.6.2; (3) or a whole sentence when इति is merely used at the end of that sentence; (वाक्यार्थद्योतक); ज्ञास्यसि कियद् भुजो मे रक्षति भौंर्वीकिणाङ्क इति Ś.1.13; तयोर्मुनिकुमारयोरन्यतरः कथयति अक्षमालामुपयचितुमागतो- स्मीति K.151. -2 Besides this general sense इति has the following senses:-(a) Cause, as expressed by 'because', 'since', 'on the ground that', in English; वैदेशिको$स्मीति पृच्छामि U.; पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वम् M.1.2, oft. with किम् q. v. (b) Purpose or motive, as expressed by 'that', 'in order that' शरीरस्य विनाशो मा भूदिति मयेदमु- त्क्षिप्य समानीतम् K.32; R.1.37. (c) Thus, to mark the conclusion (opp. अथ); इति प्रथमो$ङ्कः thus or here ends the first Act. (d) It is often used to include under one head a number of separate objects grouped together; पृथिव्यापस्तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दिगात्मा मन इति द्रव्याणि T. S. (e) So, thus, in this manner; इत्युक्तवन्तं परिरभ्य दोर्भ्याम् Ki.11.8. (f) Of this nature or description; गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्तीति जातिः. (g) As follows, to the following effect; रामाभिधानो हरिरित्युवाच R.13.1. (h) As for, in the capacity of, as regards, showing capacity or relation; पितेति स पूज्यः, अध्यापक इति निन्द्यः, शीघ्रमिति सुकरं, निभृतमिति चिन्तनीयं भवेत् Ś.3. (i) It is often used with the name of an author to form an Avyayibhāva comp. इतिपाणिनि thus according to Pāṇini. (j) Illustration (usually with आदि); इन्दुरिन्दुरिव श्रीमानित्यादौ तदनन्वयः Chandr.; गौः शुश्चलो डित्थ इत्यादौ K. P.2. (k) A quotation or an opinion accepted; इति पाणिनिः, इत्यापिशलिः, इत्यमरः, विश्वः &c. (l) It is often used by commentators after quoting a rule in the sense of 'according to such a rule'; शकि लिङ् च (P.III.3.172) इति शक्यार्थे लिङ् Malli. Other senses mentioned are:- (m) Manifestation. (n) Order. (o) Arrangement. (p) Identity. (q) Proximity. (r) Visibility. (s) Excess or superiority. (t) Requiring. (इति स्वरूपे सान्निध्ये विवक्षानियमे मते । हेतौ प्रकार- प्रत्यक्षप्रकाशेप्यवधारणे, एकमर्थे समाप्तौ च ॥ Hem.). -Comp. -अर्थः sum and substance, meaning in short (often) used by commentators). -अर्थम् ind. for this purpose, hence. -आदि a. having such a thing or things at the beginning, so forth, et cætera (&c.). इत्यादिप्रचुराः पुरातन- कथाः सर्वेभ्य एवं श्रुताः Udb. -उक्तम् information, report. -कथ a. 1 not fit to be believed, untrustworthy. -2 wicked, lost. (-था) a meaningless or nonsensical talk. -कर्तव्य, -करणीय, -कार्य, -कृत्य a. proper or necessary to be done according to certain rules. (-कर्तव्यम्, -णीयम्) duty, obligation; श्रूयतामितिकर्तव्यं सर्वानेव ब्रवीमि वः Rām.2.68.5. एवं सर्वं विधायेदमितिकर्तव्यमात्मनः Ms.7.14 2. संसिद्धावितिकरणीयसंनिबद्धैरालापैः Ki.7.17. ˚ता, -कार्यता, -कृत्यता any proper or necessary duty, obligation; स मुहूर्तमिव घ्यात्वा विनिश्चित्येतिकृत्यताम् Mb.3.36.4. इति- कर्तव्यतामूढः wholly at a loss what to do, embarrassed, perplexed. -पाणिनि ind. Thus according to Pāṇini's very words. -मात्र a. of such extent or quality. -वृत्तम् 1 occurrence, event. -2 a tale, story.
itihāsaḥ इतिहासः [fr. इति-ह-आस (3rd. pers. sing. Perf. of अस् to be); so it has been] (1 History (legendary or traditional); धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामुपदेशसमन्वितम् पूर्ववृत्तं कथा- युक्तमितिहासं प्रचक्षते; Mb. cf. also आर्यादिबहुव्याख्यानं देवर्षि- चरिताश्रयम् । इतिहासमिति प्रोक्तं भविष्याद्भुतधर्मयुक् ॥ -2 Heroic history (such as the Mahābhārata). -3 Historical evidence, tradition (which is recognized as a proof by the Paurāṇikas). -Comp. -निबन्धनम् legendary composition or narrative; Ś3. -पुराणम् history and legendary stories; इतिहासपुराणानि पञ्चमो वेद उच्यते । -वादः historical story, legend; Māl.3.3.
uṇādiḥ उणादिः A class of terminations beginning with उण्. m. pl. The class of कृत् affixes which begin with उण्. -Comp. -सूत्राणि The सूत्रs (Pāṇini iii. 3,I.4.75) treating of the उणादि affixes. ˚वृत्ति f. a commentary on the उणादि Sūtras.
utsūtra उत्सूत्र a. [उत्क्रान्तः सूत्रम्] 1 Unstrung, loose, detached (from the string); ˚मणिभिः Śi.8.53. -2 Irregular. -3 Deviating from the rule (सूत्र) of Pāṇini; यो ह्युत्सूत्रं कथयेन्नादो गृह्येत Mbh. on P.I.1.1. अनुत्सूत्रपदन्यासा सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112.
upasaṃkhyānam उपसंख्यानम् 1 Addition. -2 Supplementary addition, further or additional enumeration (a term technically applied to the Vārtikas. of Kātyāyana which are intended to supply omissions in Pāṇini's Sūtras and generally to supplement them); e. g. जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्था- नामुपसंख्यानम्; cf. इष्टि. -3 (In gram.) A substitute in form or sense.
upasargaḥ उपसर्गः 1 Sickness, disease, change occasioned by a disease; also a disease superinduced on another; क्षीणं हन्युश्चोपसर्गाः प्रभूताः Suśr. -2 Misfortune, trouble, calamity, injury, harm; प्रशमिताशेषोपसर्गाः प्रजाः Ratn.1.1; सोपसर्गं वो नक्षत्रम् M.4. sorrow; आपेदे उपसर्गस्तं तमः सूर्यमिवासुरम् Rām.2.63.2. -3 Portent, natural phenomenon foreboding evil. -4 An eclipse. -5 An indication or symptom of death. -6 Addition. -7 Possession by an evil spirit. -8 A preposition prefixed to roots; निपाताश्चादयो ज्ञेयाः प्रादयस्तूपसर्गकाः । द्योतकत्वात् क्रियायोगे लोकादवगता इमे ॥ उपसर्गास्तु विज्ञेयाः क्रियायोगेन विंशतिः । विवेचयन्ति ते ह्यर्थं नामाख्यातविभक्तिषु ॥ बृहद्देवता; आख्यातमुपगृह्यार्थविशेषमिमे तस्यैव सृजन्तीत्युपसर्गाः । Durga under Nirukta 1.3. उपेत्य नामाख्यातयोरर्थस्य विशेषं सृजन्त्युत्पादयन्ती- त्युपसर्गाः । Skanda. The नाट्यशास्त्र defines उपसर्ग thus: प्रातिपदिकार्थयुक्तं धात्वर्थमुपसृजन्ति ये स्वार्थैः । उपसर्गा उपदिष्टास्तस्मात् संस्कारशास्त्रे$स्मिन् ॥ A poetaster has framed the following समस्यापूरण stanza with the rule उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (Pāṇini I.4.59); उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे पाणिनेरपि संमयम् । निष्क्रियो$पि तवारातिः सोपसर्गः सदा कथम् ॥ Upasargas are 2 in number:- प्र, परा, अप, सम्, अनु, अव, निस् or निर्, दुस् or दुर्, वि, आ (ङ्), नि, अधि, अपि, अति, सु, उत्, अभि, प्रति, परि, उप; or 22 if निस्-निर् and दुस्-दुर् be taken as separate words. There are two theories as to the character of these prepositions. According to one theory roots have various meanings in themselves (अनेकार्था हि धातवः); when prepositions are prefixed to them they simply bring to light those meanings already existent but hidden in them, but they do not express them, being meaningless themselves; cf. Śi.1.15:- सन्तमेव चिरमप्रकृतत्वादप्रकाशितमदिद्युतदङ्गे । विभ्रमं मधुमदः प्रमदानां धातुलीनमुपसर्ग इवार्थम् ॥ According to the other theory prepositions express their own independent meanings; they modify, intensify, and sometimes entirely alter, the senses of roots; cf. Sk.:- उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते । प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् ॥ cf. also धात्वर्थं बाधते कश्चित्कश्चित्तमनुवर्तते । तमेव विशिनष्टयन्य उपसर्गगतिस्त्रिधा ॥ (The latter theory appears to be more correct. For a fuller exposition see Nirukta). -9 An obstacle; ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः । योगसूत्रs 3.39.
upeḍakīy उपेडकीय् Den. P. (उप-एडक) To behave as a sheep towards; Kāśikā on Pāṇini VI.1.94.
ṛc ऋच् f. [ऋच्यते स्तूयते$नया, ऋच् करणे क्विप्] 1 A hymn (in general). -2 A single verse, stanza, or text; a verse of the Ṛigveda (opp. यजुस् and सामन्); त्रेधा विहिता वागृचो यजूंषि सामानि Śat. Br. -3 The collective body of the Ṛigveda (pl.), ऋचः सामानि जज्ञिरे Rv.1.9.9. ऋक्साम यजुरेव च Bg.9.17. -4 Splendour (for रुच्). -5 Praise. -6 worship. -Comp. -अयनम् [ऋचामयनम्] N. of a book; ऋक्पारायण, ˚आदि N. of a collection of words in Pāṇini. -आवानम् the time for reciting the Vedas. -गाथा N. of a certain song consisting of riklike stanzas; ऋग्गाथा पाणिका दक्षविहिता ब्रह्मगीतिका Y.3.114. -तन्त्रम्, -व्याकरणम् N. of the Pariśiṣtas of the Sāma Veda. -ब्राह्मणम् The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. -भाज् a. partaking of a Ṛik. (as a deity who is addressed with it). -विधानम् the performance of certain rites, by reciting verses of the Ṛigveda. -वेदः the oldest of the four Vedas, and the most ancient sacred book of the Hindus. [The Ṛigveda is said to have been produced from fire; cf. M.1.23. This Veda is divided, according to one arrangement, into 8 Aṣṭakas, each of which is divided into as many Adhyāyas; according to another arrangement into 1 Maṇḍalas, which are again subdivided into 1 Anuvākas, and comprises 1 sūktas. The total number of verses or Ṛiks is above 1]. -संहिता the arranged collection of the hymns of Ṛigveda. -साम (˚मे dual) the verses Ṛik and Sāman. ˚शृङ्गः N. of Viṣṇu.
lṛ लृ ind. 1 The earth. -2 A mountain. -3 The mother of the gods. -4 The female nature. -5 A mystical letter. (N. B. - No Sanskrit word begins with लृ or लॄ, except some of the technical names of Pāṇini for tenses and moods; e. g. लृङ् and लृट्). cf. also लृर्म्लेच्छो$
aitihyam ऐतिह्यम् Traditional instruction, legendary account; ऐतिह्यमनुमानं च प्रत्यक्षमपि चागमम् Rām.; किलेत्यैतिह्यो (ऐतिह्य is regarded as one of the Pramāṇas or proofs by the Paurāṇika as and reckoned along with प्रत्यक्ष अनुमान &c.; see अनुभव). प्रत्यक्षं ह्येतयोर्मूलं कृतान्तैतिह्ययोरपि Mb.12. 218.27; श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं चतुष्टयम् । प्रमाणेप्वनवस्थाना- द्रिकल्पात्स विरज्यते ॥ Bhāg.11.19.17.2. Tradition -a figure of speech; Kuval.123.
aurjityam और्जित्यम् [ऊर्जित-ष्यञ्] Greatness; कैलासोद्धारसार- त्रिभुवनविजयौर्जित्यनिष्णातदोष्णः Mv.2.16. और्ण aurṇa और्णक aurṇaka और्णिक aurṇika और्ण और्णक और्णिक a. (-र्णी, -की f.) [ऊर्णा-अञ्, घुञ् वा] Woollen. राङ्कवाणि तथौर्णानि ...... । Śiva. B.3.21. -Comp. -स्थानिकः An officer in charge of woollen articles; EI,XXIII,P.159.
kakud ककुद् f. 1 A summit, peak. -2 Chief, head; see ककुद below; अग्निर्मूर्धा दिवः ककुत् Rv.8.44.16. -3 The hump on the shoulders of the Indian bull; ककुद्दोषणीं याचते महादेवः Mbh. on VI.1.63. ककुदे वृषस्य कृतबाहुम् Ki.12.2; R.4.22. -4 A horn. -5 An ensign or symbol of royalty (as the छत्र, चामर &c.); 'ककुद्धत्ककुदं श्रेष्ठे वृषाङ्के राजलक्ष्मणि' इति विश्वः; नृपतिककुदं दत्त्वा यूने सितातपवारणम् R.3.7. -6 Any projecting corner; Bhāg.5.25.7. -7 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma. According to Pāṇini V.4.146-147 ककुद् is the form to be substituted for ककुद in adj. or Bah. comps.; e. g. त्रिककुद्. -Comp. -स्थः [ककुदि तिष्ठतीति] an epithet of Purañjaya, son of Śaśāda, a king of the solar race, and a descendant of Ikṣvāku; इक्ष्वाकुवंश्यः ककुदं नृपाणां ककुत्स्थ इत्याहितलक्षणो$भूत R.6.71. [Mythology relates that, when in their war with the demons, the gods were often worsted, they, headed by Indra, went to the powerful king Purañjaya, and requested him to be their friend in battle. The latter consented to do so, provided Indra carried him on his shoulders. Indra accordingly assumed the form of a bull, and Purañjaya, seated on its hump, completely vanquished the demons. Purañjaya is, therefore, called Kakutstha 'standing on a hump'].
kaṅkaḥ कङ्कः 1 A heron; Mb.11.16.7. -2 A variety of mango. -3 N. of Yama. -4 A Kṣatriya. -5 A Vṛiṣṇi. -6 A false or pretended Brāhmaṇa. -7 Name assumed by Yudhiṣṭhira in the palace of Virāṭa. -8 One of the 18 divisions of the continent. -9 N. of a people (pl.); cf. कङ्कस्तरङ्गे गुप्ते च गृध्ने काके युधिष्ठिरे । कूले मधुरिपौ कोके पिके वैवस्वते$प्यथ ॥ Nm. -ङ्का 1 A sort of sandal. -2 Scent of the lotus. -Comp. -त्रोटः, -टिः a kind of fish. -पत्र a. furnished with the feathers of a heron. (-त्रः) an arrow furnished with a heron's feathers; नखप्रभाभूषितकङ्कपत्रे R.2.31; U.4.2; Mv.1.18. (-त्रम्) a heron's feather fixed on an arrow. -पत्रिन् m. = कङ्कपत्रः. -माला 1 a kind of musical instrument. -2 beating time by the clapping of hands. -मुख, -वदन a. shaped like a heron's mouth. (-खः, -खम्), -वदनम् a pair of tongs; शल्यानि व्यपनीयकङ्कवदनैरुन्मोचिते कङ्कटे Ve.5.1. -वासस् m. An arrow (कङ्कपत्र); असंपातं करिष्यन्ति पतन्तः कङ्कवाससः Rām.5.21.26. -शायः a dog (sleeping like a heron).
kareṇuḥ करेणुः [कृ-एणु Uṇ.2.1; के मस्तके रेणुरस्य Tv.] An elephant in general; करेणुरारोहयते निषादिनम् Śi.12.5,5.48 -2 The Karṇikāra tree. -णुः, -णूः f. 1 A female elephant; स घर्मतप्तः करिभिः करेणुभिः Bhāg.8.2.23; ददौ रसात्पङ्कजरेणुगन्धि गजाय गण्डूषजलं करेणुः Ku.3.37; R.16,16. -2 N. of the mother of Pālakāpya. -3 N. of a medicinal plant. -Comp. -भूः, -सुतः N. of Pālakāpya the founder of the science of elephants.
karṇikāraḥ कर्णिकारः 1 N. of a tree; Cassia fistula. The golden yellow flower of this tree has its petals bending inwards so that the flower looks like a saucer. Its stamens and style are longer than the petals and looks like so many wicks juttling out of an oil lamp. cf. Vikra.3.3. निर्भिद्योपरि कर्णिकारमुकुलान्यालीयते षट्पदः V.2.23; Ṛs.6.6, 2. -2 The pericarp of a lotus. -रम् A flower of the Karṇikāra tree. (This flower, though it has an excellent colour, has no smell and hence it is not liked; cf. Ku.3.28. :-- वर्णप्रकर्षे सति कर्णिकारं दुनोति निर्गन्धतया स्म चेतः । प्रायेण सामग्र्यविधौ गुणानां पराङ्मुखी विश्वसृजः प्रवृत्तिः ॥). -Comp. -प्रियः An epithet of Śiva.
kātyāyanaḥ कात्यायनः 1 N. of a celebrated writer on grammar who wrote Vārtikas to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini; न स्म पुराद्यतन इति ब्रुवता कात्यायनेनेह Mbh. on P. III.2.118; Rām.2.67.3. -2 N. of a sage who is a writer on civil and religious law; Y.1.4. -Comp. सूत्रम् the Śrauta sūtras of Kātyāyana.
kāmaḥ कामः [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; oft. used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; Ms.2.94. -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. Kaṭh. Up.1.25. -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम. -5 Desire of carnal gratification, lust; Ms.2.214; न मय्यावेशितधियां कामः कामाय कल्पते Bhāg.1.22.26. -6 The god of love. -7 N. of Pradyumna. -8 N. of Balarāma. -9 A kind of mango tree. -1 The Supreme Being. -मा Desire, wish; उवाच च महासर्पं कामया ब्रूहि पन्नग Mb.3.179.2. -मम् 1 Object of desire. -2 Semen virile. [Kāma is the Cupid of the Hindu mythology the son of Kṛiṣṇa and Rukmiṇī. His wife is Rati. When the gods wanted a commander for their forces in their war with Tāraka, they sought the aid of Kāma in drawing the mind of Śiva towards Pārvatī, whose issue alone could vanquish the demon. Kāma undertook the mission; but Śiva, being offended at the disturbance of his penance, burnt him down with the fire of his third eye. Subsequently he was allowed by Śiva to be born again in the form of Pradyumna at the request of Rati. His intimate friend is Vasanta or the spring; and his son is Aniruddha. He is armed with a bow and arrows--the bow-string being a line of bees, and arrows of flowers of five different plants]. -Comp. -अग्निः 1 a fire of love, violent or ardent love. -2 violent desire, fire of passion. ˚संदीपनम् 1 inflaming fire of love. -2 an aphrodisiac. -अङ्कुशः 1 a fingernail (which plays an important part in erotic acts). -2 the male organ of generation. -अङ्गः the mango tree. -अधिकारः the influence of love or desire. -अधिष्ठित a. overcome by love. -अनलः see कामाग्नि. -अन्ध a. blinded by love or passion. (-न्धः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -अन्धा musk. -अन्निन् a. getting food at will. -अभिकाम a. libidinous, lustful. -अरण्यम् a pleasant grove. -अरिः 1 an epithet of Śiva; ते समेत्य तु कामारिं त्रिपुरारिं त्रिलोचनम् Rām.7.6.3. -2 a mineral substance. -अर्थिन् a. amorous, lustful, lascivious. -अवतारः N. of Pradyumna. -अवशा(सा)यिता f. 1 Self-control. -2 a kind of Yogic power. -अवसायः suppression of passion or desire, stoicism. -अशनम् 1 eating at will. -2 unrestrained enjoyment. -आख्या, -अक्षी N. of Durgā. -आतुर a. love-sick, affected by love; कामातुराणां न भयं न लज्जा Subhāṣ. -आत्मजः an epithet of Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna. -आत्मन् a. lustful, libidinous, enamoured. कामात्मानः स्वर्गफलाः Bg.2.43. Mb.1.119.3-4. Ms.7.27. -आयुधम् 1 arrow of the god of love. -2 membrum virile. (-धः) the mango-tree. -आयुस् m. 1 a vulture. -2 Garuḍa. -आर्त a. love-stricken, affected by love; कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु Me.5. -आश्रमः the hermitage of the god of love; Rām.1. -आसक्त a. overcome with love or desire, impassioned, lustful. -इष्टः the mango tree. -ईप्सु a. striving to obtain a desired object, यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म Bg.18.24. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Kubera; -2 the Supreme soul. -3 a person possessing all wealth. अपास्य कामा- न्कामेशो वसेत्तत्राविचारयन् Mb.12.287.56. -उदकम् 1 voluntary libation of water. -2 a voluntary libation of water to deceased friends exclusive of those who are entitled to it by law; कामोदकं सखिप्रत्तास्वस्रीयश्वशुर- र्त्विजाम् Y.3.4. -उपहत a. affected by or overcome with passion. -कला N. of Rati, the wife of Kāma. -काम, -कामिन् a. following the dictates of love or passion, गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते Bg.9.21; स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी Bg.2.7. -कार a. acting at will, indulging one's desires. (-रः) 1 voluntary action, spontaneous deed; Rām.2.11.18; Ms.11.41,45. -2 desire, influence of desire; अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते Bg.5. 12. -कूटः 1 the paramour of a harlot. -2 harlotry. -कृत् a. 1 acting at will, acting as one likes. -2 granting or fulfilling a desire. (-m.) the Supreme soul. -केलि a. lustful. (-लिः) 1 a paramour. -2 amorous sport. -3 copulation. -क्रीडा 1 dalliance of love, amorous sport. -2 copulation. -ग a. going of one's own accord, able to act or move as one likes. (-गा) 1 an unchaste or libidinous woman; Y.3.6. -2 a female Kokila. -गति a. able to go to any desired place; अध्यास्त कामगति सावरजो विमानम् R.13.76. -गुणः 1 the quality of passion, affection. -2 satiety, perfect enjoyment. -3 an object of sense. -चर, -चार a. moving freely or unrestrained, wandering at will; सर्वेषु लोकेष्वकामचारो भवति Bṛi. Up.7.25.2; नारदः कामचरः Ku.1.5. -चार a. unchecked, unrestrained. (-रः) 1 unrestrained motion. -2 independent or wilful action, wantonness; न कामचारो मयि शङ्कनीयः R.14.62. -3 one's will or pleasure, free will; अव्यपवृक्ते कामचारः Mbh. on Śiva Sūtra 3.4. कामचारानुज्ञा Sk.; Ms.2.22. -4 sensuality. -5 selfishness. -चारिन् a. 1 moving unrestrained; Me.65. -2 libidinous, lustful. -3 self-willed. (-m.) 1 Garuḍa. -2 a sparrow. -ज a. produced by passion or desire; Ms.7.46,47,5. -जः anger; रथो वेदी कामजो युद्धमग्निः Mb.12.24.27. -जननी betel-pepper (नागवेली). -जानः, -निः See कामतालः. -जित् a. conquering love or passion; R.9.33. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Skanda. -2 of Śiva. -तन्त्रम् N. of a work. -तालः the (Indian) cuckoo. -द a. fulfilling a desire, granting a request or desire. (-दः) an epithet of Skanda and of Śiva. -दहनम् a particular festival on the day of full moon in the month फाल्गुन (Mar. होलिकोत्सव). -दा = कामधेनु q. v. -दर्शन a. looking lovely. -दानम् 1 a gift to one's satisfaction. -2 a kind of ceremony among prostitutes; B. P. -दुघ a. 'milking one's desires', granting every desired object; प्रीता कामदुघा हि सा R.1.81,2.63; Māl.3.11. -दुघा, -दुह् f. a fabulous cow yielding all desires; आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् Bg.1.28. स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति Mbh. on P.VI.1.84. -दूती the female cuckoo. -दृश् f. a woman; विमोचितुं कामदृशां विहारक्रीडामृगो यन्निगडो विसर्गः Bhāg.7.6.17. -देव 1 the god of love. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -दोहिन् a. granting desires. -धर्मः amorous behaviour. -धेनुः f. the cow of plenty, a heavenly cow yielding all desires; कलतिवलती कामधेनू; or कलिवली कामधेनू Vyākraṇa Subhāṣita. -ध्वंसिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -पति, -पत्नी f. Rati, wife of Cupid. -पालः N. of Balarāma; also of Śiva. -प्रद a. granting desires. (-दः) 1 a kind of coitus. -2 the Supreme Being. -प्रवेदनम् expressing one's desire, wish or hope; कच्चित् कामप्रवेदने Ak. -प्रश्नः an unrestrained or free question; स ह कामप्रश्नमेव वव्रे Bṛi. Up.4.3.1. -फलः a species of the mango tree. -ला the plantain tree. -भाज् a. partaking of sensual enjoyment; कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि Kaṭh.1.24. -भोगाः (pl.) sensual gratifications; प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु Bg.16.16. -महः a festival of the god of love celebrated on the full-moon day in the month of Chaitra. -मालिन् m. N. of Gaṇeśa. -मूढ, -मोहित a. influenced or infatuated by love; यत्क्रौञ्च- मिथुनादेकमवधीः काममोहितम् U.2.5. -रसः 1 seminal discharge. -2 the spling -रसिक a. lustful, libidinous; क्षणमपि युवा कामरसिकः Bh.3.112. -रूप a. 1 taking any form at will; जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -2 beautiful, pleasing. (-पाः) (pl.) a district lying in the east of Bengal (the western portion of Assam); तमीशः कामरूपाणाम् R.4.83,84. -रूपिन् a. 1 taking any form at will; कामान्नी कामरूपी Tait. Up.3.1.5. -2 beautiful. -m. 1 a pole-cat. -2 a boar. -3 a Vidyādhara. -रेखा, -लेखा a harlot, courtezan. -लता membrum virile. -लोल a. overcome with passion, love-stricken. -वरः a gift chosen at will. -वल्लभः 1 the spring. -2 the moon. -3 the mango tree. (-भा) moonlight. -वश a. influenced by love. (-शः) subjection to love. -वश्य n. subject to love. -वाद a. saying anything at will. -विहन्तृ a. disappointing desires. -वीर्य a. 'showing heroism at will,' an epithet of Garuḍa. -वृक्षम् a. paracitical plant. -वृत्त a. addicted to sensual gratification, licentious, dissipated; विशीलः कामवृत्तो वा गुणैर्वा परिवर्जितः । उपचर्यः स्त्रिया साध्व्या सततं देववत्पतिः ॥ Ms. 5.154. -वृत्ति a. acting according to will, self-willed, independent; न कामवृत्तिर्वचनीयमीक्षते Ku.5.82. (-त्तिः) f. 1 free and unrestrained action. -2 freedom of will. -वृद्धिः f. increase of passion. -वृन्तम् the trumpet flower. -शर 1 a love shaft. -2 the mango tree. -शास्त्रम् the science of love, erotic science. -संयोगः attainment of desired objects. -सखः 1 the spring. -2 the month of Chaitra. -3 the mango tree. -सू a. fulfilling any desire. किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूः R.5.33. -m. N. of Vāsudeva. -f. N. of Rukmiṇi; -सूत्रम् 1 N. of an erotic work by Vātsyāyana. -2 'thread of love', love-incident' औद्धत्यमायोजितकामसूत्रम् Māl.1.4. -हैतुक a. produced by mere desire without any real cause; Bg.16.8.
kāśikā काशिका 1 The city of Benares. -2 N. of a commentary on Pāṇiṇi's Sūtras (called काशिकावृत्ति). -Comp. -प्रियः N. of Dhanvantarī.
kikhiḥ किखिः A monkey, an ape. -f. A jackal; fox. किङ्कणी kiṅkaṇī किङ्किणिका kiṅkiṇikā किङ्किणी kiṅkiṇī किङ्कणीका kiṅkaṇīkā किङ्कणी किङ्किणिका किङ्किणी किङ्कणीका A small bell or tinkling ornament; क्वणत्कनककिङ्किणीझणझणा- यितस्यन्दनैः U.5.5;6.1; Śi.9.74; Ku.7.49. -2 N. of an acid sort of grape.
kinnara किन्नर See under किम्. 1 किम् ind. Used for कु only at the beginning of comp. to convey the senses of 'badness', 'deterioration', 'defect', 'blame' or 'censure'; e. g. किंसखा a bad friend; किन्नरः a bad or deformed man &c.; see comp. below. -Comp. -ज a. born somewhere (not in a noble family) मन्ये किंजमहं घ्नन्तं त्वामक्षत्रियजे रणे Bk.6.133. -दासः a bad slave, or servant. -नरः a bad or deformed man; a mythical being with a human figure and the head of a horse (अश्वमुख); चयोदाहरणं बाह्वोर्गापयामास किन्नरान् R.4.78; उद्गास्य- तामिच्छति किन्नराणां तानप्रदायित्वमिवोपगन्तुम् Ku.1.8. ˚ईशः, ˚ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Kubera. -2 a kind of musical instrument. (-री f.) 1 a female Kinnara; Me.58. -2 a kind of lute. -पुरुषः 'a low or despicable man', a mythical being with a human head and the form of a horse; Ku.1.14; किंपुरुषाणां हनुमान् Bhāg.11.16.29. ˚ईश्वरः an epithet of Kubera. -प्रभुः a bad master or king; हितान्न यः संशृणुते स किंप्रभुः Ki.1.5. -राजन् a. having a bad king. (-m.) a bad king. -विवक्षा Slandering; Rām.5. -सखि m. (nom. sing. किंसखा) a bad friend; स किंसखा साधु न शास्ति यो$धिपम् Ki.1.5. 2 किम् pron. a. (nom. sing. कः m., का f., किम् n.) 1 Who, what, which used interrogatively); प्रजासु कः केन पथा प्रयातीत्यशेषतो वेदितुमस्ति शक्तिः Ś.6.26; करुणाविमुखेन मृत्युना हरता त्वां वद किं न मे हृतम् R.8.67; का खल्वनेन प्रार्थ्यमानात्मना विकत्थते V.2; कः को$त्र भोः. कः कौ के कं कौ कान् हसति च हसतो हसन्ति हरणाक्ष्यः Udb. The pronoun is often used to imply 'power or authority to do a thing'; i. e. के आवां परित्रातुं दुष्यन्तमाक्रन्द Ś.1; 'who are we &c.', i. e. what power have we &c.; नृपसद्मनि नाम के वयम् Bh.3.27; who are we, i. e. what position have we &c. Sometimes किम् means 'long' as applied to time especially in combination with खलु or अपि or इव; का खलु वेला पत्रभवत्याः प्राप्तायाः Ve.1; 'what a time' i. e. a long time has elapsed, &c.; so को$पि कालस्तस्या आगत्य गतायाः Ratn 3; or क इव कालः Māl.3. -2 The neuter (किम्) is frequently used with instr. of nouns in the sense of 'what is the use of'; किं स्वामिचेष्टानिरूपणेन H.1; लोभश्चेदगुणेन किम् &c. Bh.2.55; किं तया दृष्ट्या Ś.3; किं कुलेनोपदिष्टेन शीलमेवात्र कारणम् Mk.9.7. अपि, चित्, चन, चिदपि or स्वित् are often added to किम् to give it an indefinite sense; विवेश कश्चिज्जटिलस्तपोवनम् Ku.5.3. a certain ascetic; दमघोषसुतेन कश्चन प्रतिशिष्टः प्रतिभानवानथ Śi.16.1; कश्चित्कान्ताविरहगुरुणा स्वाधिकारात्प्रमत्तः Me.1. &c.; का$पि तत एवागतवती Māl.1; a certain lady; कस्या$पि को$पिति निवेदितं च 1.33; किमपि, किमपि ... जल्पतोरक्रमेण U.1.27; कस्मिंश्चिदपि महाभागधेयजन्मनि मन्मथ- विकारमुपलक्षितवानस्मि Māl.1; किमपि, किंचित् 'a little', वस्तु- सिद्धिर्विचारेण न किंचित् कर्मकोटिभिः Vivekachūdamaṇi; 'somewhat' Y.2.116; U.6.35. किमपि also means 'indeseribable'; see अपि. इव is sometimes added to किम् in the sense of 'possibly', 'I should like to know'; (mostly adding force and elegance to the period); विना सीतादेव्या किमिव हि न दुःखं रघुपतेः U.6.3; किमिच हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम् Ś.1.2; see इव also. -ind. 1 A particle of interrogation; जातिमात्रेण किं कश्चिद्धन्यते पूज्यते क्वचित् H.1.55 'is any one killed or worshipped' &c.; ततः किम् what then. -2 A particle meaning 'why', 'wherefore'; किमकारणमेव दर्शनं बिलपन्त्यै रतये न दीयते Ku.4.7. -3 Whether (its correlatives in the sense of 'or' being किं, उत, उताहो, आहोस्वित्, वा, किंवा, अथवा; see these words). -Comp. -अपि ind. 1 to some extent, somewhat, to a considerable extent. -2 inexpressibly, indescribably (as to quality, quantity, nature &c.). -3 very much, by far; किमपि कमनीयं वपुरिदम् Ś.3; किमपि भीषणम्, किमपि करालम् &c. -अर्थ a. having what motive or aim; किमर्थोयं यत्नः. -अर्थम् ind. why, wherefore. -आख्य a. having what name; किमाख्यस्य राजर्षेः सा पत्नी. Ś.7. -इति ind. why, indeed, why to be sure, for what purpose (emphasizing the question); तत्किमित्युदासते भरताः Māl.1; किमित्यपास्याभरणानि यौवने धृतं त्वया वार्धकशोभि वल्कलम् Ku.5.44. -उ, -उत 1 whether-or (showing doubt or uncertainty); किमु विष- विसर्पः किमु मदः U.1.35; Amaru.12. -2 why (indeed) कं च ते परमं कामं करोमि किमु हर्षितः Rām.1.18.52. प्रियसुहृ- त्सार्थः किमु त्यज्यते. -3 how much more, how much less; यौवनं धनसंपत्तिः प्रभुत्वमविवेकिता । एकैकम यनर्थाय किमु यत्र चतुष्टयम् ॥ .II Pr.11; सर्वाविनयानामेकैकमप्येषामायतनं किमुत समवायः K.13; R.14.35; Ku.7.65. -कथिका f. A doubt or hesitation; यत्र कर्मणि क्रियमाणे किंकथिका न भवति तत्कर्तव्यम् । यत्र तु हृदयं न तुष्यति तद्वर्जनीयम् ॥ Medhātithi's gloss on Ms.4.161. -करः a servant, slave; अवेहि मां किंकरमष्टमूर्तेः R.2.35. (-रा) a female servant. (-री) the wife of a servant. -कर्तव्यता, -कार्यता any situation in which one asks oneself what should be done; यथा किंकार्यतामूढा वयस्यास्तस्य जज्ञिरे Ks.1.11. किंकर्तव्यतामूढः 'being at a loss or perplexed what to do'. -कारण a. having what reason or cause, -किल ind. what a pity (expressing displeasure or dissatisfaction न संभावयामि न मर्षयामि तत्रभवान् किंकिल वृषलं याजयिष्यति Kāshika on P.III.3.146. -कृते ind. what for ? कामस्य किंकृते पुष्पकार्मुकारोपणग्रहः Ks.71.79. -क्षण a. one who says 'what is a moment', a lazy fellow who does not value moments; H.2.89. -गोत्र a. belonging to what family; किंगोत्रो नु सोम्यासि Ch. Up.4.4.4. -च ind. moreover, and again, further. -चन ind. to a certain degree, a little; -चित् ind. to a certain degree, somewhat, a little; किंचिदुत्क्रान्तशैशवौ R.15.33, 2.46,12.21. ˚ज्ञ a. 'knowing little', a smatterer. ˚कर a. doing something useful. ˚कालः sometime, a little time. ˚प्राण a. having a little life. ˚मात्र a. only a little. -छन्दस् a. conversant with which Veda. -स्तनुः a species of spider. -तर्हि ind. how then, but, however. -तु ind. but, yet, however, nevertheless; अवैमि चैनामनघेति किंतु लोकापवादो बलवान्मतो मे R.14.43,1.65. -तुघ्नः one of the eleven periods called Karaṇa. -दवः an inferior god, demi-god; किंदेवाः किन्नराः नागाः किम्पुरुषादयः Bhāg.11.14.6. -देवत a. having what deity. -नामधेय, -नामन् a. having what name. -निमित्त a. having what cause or reason, for what purpose. -निमित्तम् ind. why, wherefore, -नु ind. 1 whether; किं नु मे मरणं श्रेयो परित्यागो जनस्य वा Nala.1.1. -2 much more, much less; अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते Bg.1.35. -3 what indeed; किं नु मे राज्येनार्थः -4 but, however; किं नु चित्तं मनुष्याणामनित्यमिति मे मतम् Rām.2.4.27. -नु खलु ind. 1 how possibly, how is it that, why indeed, why to be sure; किं नु खलु गीतार्थमाकर्ण्य इष्टजनविरहा- दृते$पि बलवदुत्कण्ठितो$स्मि Ś.5. -2 may it be that; किं नु खलु यथा वयमस्यामेवमियमप्यस्मान् प्रति स्यात् Ś.1. -पच, -पचान a. miserly, niggardly. -पराक्रम a. of what power or energy. -पाक a. not mature, ignorant, stupid. -कः a. medical plant, Strychnos nux vomica (Mar. कुचला); न लुब्धो बुध्यते दोषान्किंपाकमिव भक्षयन् Rām.2.66.6. -पुनर् ind. how much more, how much less; स्वयं रोपितेषु तरुषूत्पद्यते स्नेहः किं पुनरङ्गसंभवेष्वपत्येषु K.291; Me.3.17; Ve.3. -पुरुषः an inferior man, Bhāg.11.14.6. -प्रकारम् ind. in what manner. -प्रभाव a. possessing what power. -भूत a. of what sort of nature. -रूप a. of what form or shape. -वदन्ति, -न्ती f. rumour, report; स किंवदन्तीं वदतां पुरोगः (पप्रच्छ) R.14.31. मत्संबन्धात्कश्मला किंवदन्ती U.1.42; U.1.4. -वराटकः an extravagant man. -वा ind. 1 a particle of interrogation; किं वा शकुन्तलेत्यस्य मातुराख्या Ś.7. -2 or (corr. of किं 'whether'); राजपुत्रि सुप्ता किं वा जागर्षि Pt.1; तत्किं मारयामि किं वा विषं प्रयच्छामि किं वा पशुधर्मेण व्यापादयामि ibid.; Ś. Til.7. -विद a. knowing what. -व्यापार a. following what occupation. -शील a. of what habits, -स्वित् ind. whether, how; अद्रेः शृङ्गं हरति पवनः किंस्विदित्युन्मुखीभिः Me.14.
kīśa कीश a. Naked. -शः 1 An ape, monkey; विकर्षन्तः कीशबालानारोहन्तश्च तैर्द्रुमान् Bhāg.1.12.9. -2 The sun. -3 A bird. कीशपर्णः kīśaparṇḥ पर्णिन् parṇin कीशपर्णः पर्णिन् The plant अपामार्ग.
kukubhā कुकुभा N. of a Rāgiṇi.
kṛpālu कृपालु a. [कृपां लाति ला-आदाने मि˚ डु] Merciful, compassionate, kind; गुरो कृपालो कृपया वहैनम् Maṇiratna-mālā.
kṛṣṇa कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
kvaṇ क्वण् 1 P. (क्वणति, क्वणित) 1 To sound (indistinctly), jingle, tinkle; इति घोषयतीव डिण्डिमः करिणो हस्तिपकाहतः क्वणन् H.2.86; क्वणन्मणिनूपुरौ Amaru.31. (v.l. रणन्) Ṛs..3.24; Me.37. -2 To hum warble (as bees &c); sing indistinctly; किंचित्क्वणत्किंनरमध्युवास Ku.1.54; U.3.24; Bk.6.84. -3 To blow (flute); वेणुं क्वणन्तम् (कृष्णम्) Bhāg.1.15.42. क्वणः kvaṇḥ क्वणनम् kvaṇanam क्वणितम् kvaṇitam क्वाणः kvāṇḥ क्वणः क्वणनम् क्वणितम् क्वाणः 1 A sound in general. -2 The sound of any musical instrument. -नः A small earthen pot or boiler.
gaṇi गणिका [गणः समूहो$स्त्यस्याः भर्तृत्वेन गण्-ठञ्] 1 A harlot, courtezan; गुणानुरक्ता गणिका च यस्य वसन्तशोभेव वसन्तसेना Mk.1.6; गणिका नाम पादुकान्तरप्रविष्टेव लेष्टुका दुःखेन पुनर्निरा- क्रियते Mk.5; निरकाशयद्रविमपेतवसुं वियदालयादपरदिग्गाणिका Śi. 9.1. -2 A female elephant; कच्चिन्न गणिकाश्वानां कुञ्जराणां च तृप्यसि Rām.2.1.5. -3 A kind of flower. -4 A kind of jasmine. -Comp. -अन्नम् food coming from a courtezan; गणान्नं गणिकान्नं च जुगुप्सितम् Ms.4.29,219; Y.1.16-61. गणिकारिका gaṇikārikā गणेरुका gaṇērukā गणिकारिका गणेरुका N. of a plant (Mar. नरवेल).
gaṇeruḥ गणेरुः The Karṇikāra tree. -f. 1 A harlot. -2 A female elephant.
go गो m. f. (Nom. गौः) [गच्छत्यनेन, गम् करणे डो Tv.] 1 Cattle, kine (pl.) -2 Anything coming from a cow; such as milk, flesh, leather &c. -3 The stars; वि रश्मिभिः ससृजे सूर्यो गाः Rv.7.36.1. -4 The sky. -5 The thunderbolt of Indra; Ki.8.1. -6 A ray of light; नान्यस्तप्ता विद्यते गोषु देव Mb.1.232.11; बालो$यं गिरिशिखरेषु चारयन् गाः त्रैलोक्यं तिमिरभरेण दुष्टमेतत् (रविः नैर्मल्यं नयति) । Rām. Ch. 7.6. -7 A diamond. -8 Heaven. -9 An arrow. -f. 1 A cow; जुगोप गोरूपधरामिवोर्वीम् R.2.3; क्षीरिण्यः सन्तु गावः Mk.1.6. -2 The earth; दुदोह गां स यज्ञाय R.1.26; गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य 5.26;11.36; Bg.15.13; सेको$- नुगृह्णातु गाम् Mu.3.2; Me.3; cf. also the quotation for (-6). -3 Speech, words; कुलानि समुपेतानि गोभिः पुरुषतो$- र्थतः Mb.5.28; रघोरुदारामपि गां निशम्य R.5.12;2.59; Ki.4.2. -4 The goddess of speech, Sarasvatī. -5 A mother. -6 A quarter of the compass. -7 Water; सायं भेजे दिशं पश्चाद्गविष्ठो गां गतस्तदा Bhāg.1.1.36; also pl.; Bhāg.11.7.5. -8 The eye; गोकर्णा सुमुखी कृतेन इषुणा गोपुत्रसंप्रेषिता Mb.8.9.42. -9 A region of the sky. -m. A bull, an ox; असंजातकिणस्कन्धः सुखं स्वपिति गौर्गडिः K. P.1; Ms.4.72; cf. चरद्गव. -2 The hair of the body. -3 An organ of sense; अदान्तगोभिर्विशतां तमिस्रं पुनः पुनश्चर्वितचर्वणानाम् Bhāg..7.5.3. -4 The sign Taurus of the zodiac; Bṛi. S.49. -5 The sun. -6 The number 'nine' (in math.). -7 The moon. -8 A singer. -9 A billion. -1 A cow-sacrifice -11 A house; cf. गौर्वज्रं गौः प्रभा भूमिर्वाणी तोयं त्रिविष्टपम् । धेनुर्बस्तो वृषो दिग्गौर्नेत्रं लज्जा गुरू रमा ॥ इन्द्रियं श्रीरुमा ... Enm. -Comp. -कण्टकः, -कम् 1 a road or spot trodden down by oxen and thus made impassable. -2 the cow's hoof. -3 the print of a cow's hoof. -कर्ण a. having cow's ears. (-र्णः) 1 a cow's ear; गोकर्णसदृशौ कृत्वा करावाबद्धसारणौ Ks.6.57. -2 a mule. -3 a snake; Mb.8.9.42. -4 a span (from the tip of the thumb to that of the ring-finger); गोकर्णशिथिल- श्चरन् Mb.2.68.75; तालः स्मृतो मध्यमया गोकर्णश्चाप्यनामया Brahmāṇḍa P. -5 N. of a place of pilgrimage in the south, sacred to Śiva. श्रितगोकर्णनिकेतमीश्वरम् R.8.33. -6 a kind of deer. -7 a kind of arrow; Mb.8.9.42. -किराटा -किराटिका the Sārikā bird. -किलः, -कीलः 1 a plough -2 a pestle. -कुलम् 1 a herd of kine; वृष्टिव्याकुलगोकुलावनरसादुद्धृत्य गोवर्धनम् Gīt.4; गोकुलस्य तृषा- र्तस्य Mb. -2 a cow-house. -3 N. of a village (where Kṛiṣṇa was brought up). -कुलिक a. 1 one who does not help a cow in the mud. -2 squint-eyed. -कुलोद्भवा an epithet of Durgā. -कृतम् cow-dung. -क्षीरम् cow's milk. -क्षुरम्, -रकम् a cow's hoof. -खरः a beast (पशु); यत्तीर्थबुद्धिः सलिले न कर्हिचिज्जनेष्वभिज्ञेषु स एव गोखरः Bhāg.1.84.13. -खा a nail. -गृष्टिः a young cow which has had only one calf. -गोयुगम् a pair of oxen. -गोष्ठम् a cow-pen, cattle-shed. -ग्रन्थिः 1 dried cowdung. -2 a cow-house. -ग्रहः capture of cattle (गवालम्भ); Mb.12.265.2. -ग्रासः the ceremony of offering a morsel (of grass) to a cow when performing an expiatory rite. -घातः, -घातकः, -घातिन् m. a cow-killer. -घृतम् 1 rain-water. -2 clarified butter coming from a cow. -घ्न a. 1 destructive to cows. -2 one who has killed a cow. -3 one for whom a cow is killed, a guest. -चन्दनम् a kind of sandal-wood. -चर a. 1 grazed over by cattle. -2 frequenting, dwelling, resorting to, haunting पितृसद्मगोचरः Ku.5.77. -3 within the scope, power, or range of; अवाङ्मनसगोचरम् R.1.15; so बुद्धि˚, दृष्टि˚, श्रवण˚ स्वगोचरे दीप्ततरा बभूव Bu. Ch.1.13. -4 moving on earth. -5 accessible to, attainable; त्याग- सूक्ष्मानुगः क्षेम्यः शौचगो ध्यागोचरः Mb.12.236.12. -6 circulating, having a particular meaning, prevalent. (-रः) 1 the range of cattle, pasturage; उपारताः पश्चिम- रात्रिगोचरात् Ki.4.1. -2 (a) a district, department, province, sphere. (b) an abode, dwelling-place, a place of resort; Śi.1.21; Ms.1.39. -3 range of the organs of sense, an object of sense; श्रवणगोचरे तिष्ठ be within ear-shot; नयनगोचरं या to become visible. -4 scope, range, in general; हर्तुर्याति न गोचरम् Bh.2.16. -5 (fig.) grip, hold, power, influence, control; कः कालस्य न गोचरा- न्तरगतः Pt.1.146; गोचरीभूतमक्ष्णोः U.6.26; Māl.5.24; अपि नाम मनागवतीर्णो$सि रतिरमणबाणगोचरम् Māl.1. -6 horizon. -7 field for action, scope; इन्द्रियाणि हयानाहुर्विषयांस्तेषु गोचरान् Kaṭh.3.4. -8 the range of the planets from the Lagna or from each other. ˚पीडा inauspicious position of stars within the ecliptic; गोचर- पीडायामपि राशिर्बलिभिः शुभग्रहैर्दृष्टः (पीडां न करोति) Bṛi.S.41.13. (गोचरीकृ to place within the range (of sight), make current). -चर्मन् n. 1 a cow's hide. -2 a particular measure of surface thus defined by Vasiṣṭha :-- दशहस्तेन वंशेन दशवंशान् समन्ततः । पञ्च चाभ्यधिकान् दद्यादेतद्गोचर्म चोच्यते ॥ ˚वसनः an epithet of Śiva. -चर्या seeking food like a cow; गोचर्यां नैगमश्चरेत् Bhāg.11.18.29. -चारकः cowherd. -चरणम् the tending or feeding of cows; Bhāg.1.38.8. -ज a. 1 born in the earth (rice &c.). -2 produced by milk; अब्जा गोजा ...... Kaṭh.5.2. -जरः an old ox or bull; नाद्रियन्ते यथापूर्वं कीनाशा इव गोजरम् Bhāg.3.3.13. -जलम् the urine of a bull or cow. -जागरिकम् auspiciousness, happiness. (-कः) a preparer of food, baker. -जात a. born in the heaven (gods); गोजाता अप्या मृळता च देवाः Rv.6.5.11. -जिह्वा N. of a plant (Mar. पाथरी). -जिह्विका the uvula. -जीव a. living on cattle (milkman); Hch.1.7. -तल्लजः an excellent bull or cow. -तीर्थम् a cowhouse. -त्रम् [गां भूमिं त्रायते त्रै-क] 1 a cow-pen. -2 a stable in general. -3 a family, race, lineage; गोत्रेण माठरो$स्मि Sk.; so कौशिकगोत्राः, वसिष्ठगोत्राः &c.; Ms.3.19,9.141. -4 a name, appellation; जगाद गोत्र- स्खलिते च का न तम् N.1.3; Ś.6.5; see ˚स्खलित below; मद्गोत्राङ्कं विरचितपदं गेयमुद्गातुकामा Me.88. -5 a multitude. -6 increase. -7 a forest. -8 a field. -9 a road. -1 possessions, wealth. -11 an umbrella, a parasol. -12 knowledge of futurity. -13 a genus, class, species. -14 a caste, tribe, caste according to families. (-त्रः) a mountain; 'गोत्रं नाम्नि कुले$प्यद्रौ' इति यादवः; Śi.9.8. Hence गोत्रोद्दलनः means Indra; cf. इन्द्रे तु गोत्रोद्दलनः कुलघ्ने गिरिदारणे Nm. (-त्रा) 1 a multitude of cows. -2 the earth. ˚उच्चारः recitation of family pedigree. ˚कर्तृ, -कारिन् m. the founder of a family. ˚कीला the earth. ˚ज a. born in the same family, gentile, a relation; Bhāg.3.7.24; Y.2.135. ˚पटः a genealogical table, pedigree. ˚प्रवरः the oldest member or founder of a family. -भिद् m. an epithet of Indra; हृदि क्षतो गोत्रभिदप्यमर्षणः R.3.53;6.73; Ku.2.52. ˚स्खलनम्, ˚स्खलितम् blundering or mistaking in calling (one) by his name, calling by a wrong name; स्मरसि स्मर मेखलागुणैरुत गौत्रस्खलितेषु बन्धनम् Ku.4.8. -द a. giving cows; Ms.4.231. (-दः) brain. (-दा) N. of the river Godāvarī. -दत्र a. Ved. giving cows. (-त्रः) an epithet of Indra. (-त्रम्) a crown (protecting the head). -दन्त a. armed with a coat of mail. (-तम्) 1 yellow orpiment. -2 a white fossil substance. -दानम् 1 the gift of a cow. -2 the ceremony of tonsure or cutting the hair; रामलक्ष्मणयो राजन् गोदानं कारयस्व ह Rām.1.71.23; अथास्य गोदानविधेरनन्तरम् R.3. 33; (see Mallinātha's explanation of the word); कृत- गोदानमङ्गलाः U.1; अतोनं गोदानं दारकर्म च Kau. A.1.5; (Rām. explains the word differently). -3 the part of the head close to the right ear. -दाय a. intending to give cows. -दारणम् 1 a plough. -2 a spade, hoe. -दा, -दावरी N. of a river in the south. -दुह् m., -दुहः 'cow-milker', a cowherd; सुदुघामिव गोदुहे R.1.4.1; चिरं निदध्यौ दुहतः स गोदुहः Śi. -दोहः 1 the milking of cows. -2 the milk of cows. -3 the time of milking cows. -दोहनम् 1 the time of milking cows. -2 the milking of cows; न लक्ष्यते ह्यवस्थानमपि गोदोहनं क्वचित् Bhāg.1.19. 4. -दोहनी a milk-pail. -द्रवः the urine of a bull or cow. -धनम् 1 a herd or multitude of cows, cattle. -2 possession of cows. (-नः) a broad-pointed arrow. -धरः a mountain. -धर्मः the law of cattle, rules relating to cattle; (open and unconcealed intercourse of the sexes); गोधर्मं सौरभेयाच्च सो$धीत्य निखिलं मुनिः । प्रावर्तत तदा कर्तुं श्रद्धावांस्तमशङ्कया ॥ Mb.1.14.26. -धुमः, -धूमः 1 wheat; Bṛi. Up.6.3.13. -2 the orange. ˚चूर्णम् wheat flour; -सम्भवम् a sour paste. -धूलिः 'dust of the cows', the time of sunset or evening twilight (so called because cows, which generally return home at about sunset, raise up clouds of dust by their treading on the earth). -धेनुः a milch-cow with a calf. -भ्रः a mountain. -नन्दा an epithet of the wife of Śiva. -नन्दी the female of the Sārasa bird. -नर्दः 1 the (Indian) crane. -2 an epithet of Śiva (bellowing like a bull). -3 N. of a country. -नर्दीयः an epithet of Patañjali, author of the Mahābhāṣya. -नसः, -नासः 1 a kind of snake. -2 a kind of gem. -नसा the mouth of a cow. -नाथः 1 a bull. -2 an owner of land. -3 a herdsman. -4 an owner of kine. -नायः a cowherd; तद्यथा गोनायो$श्वनायः पुरुषनाय इत्येवं तदप आचक्षते$शनायेति Ch. Up.6.8.3. -नाशनः a wolf. -नासा the projecting snout of a cow or ox. -नासम् a kind of gem. -निष्यन्दः cow's urine. -पः 1 a cowherd (considered as belonging to a mixed tribe); गोपवेशस्य विष्णोः Me.15. -2 the chief of a cowpen. -3 the superintendent of a village. -4 a king. -5 a protector, guardian; Rv.1.61.1. ˚अनसी the wood of a thatch; गोपानसीषु क्षणमास्थितानाम् Śi.3.49. ˚अष्टमी the eighth day of the bright fortnight of Kārttika when Kṛiṣṇa is said to have worn the dress of a cowherd. ˚आटविका a cowherd. ˚कन्या 1 the daughter of a cowherd. -2 a nymph of Vṛindāvana. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः the chief of herdsmen, an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. ˚चापः the rainbow. ˚दलः the betel-nut tree. ˚भद्रम् the fibrous root of a water-lily. ˚रसः gum myrrh. ˚राष्ट्राः (pl.) N. of a people. ˚वधूः f. a cowherd's wife; Bhāg.1.9.4. ˚वधूटी a young cowherdess, a young wife of a cowherd; गोपवधूटीदुकूलचौराय Bhāṣā P.1. (-पकः) 1 the superintendent of a district. -2 myrrh. (-पिका) 1 a cowherdess; Bhāg.1.9.14-15. -2 protectress. (-पी) a cowherd's wife (especially applied to the cowherdesses of Vṛindāvana, the companions of Kṛiṣṇa in his juvenile sports). -2 a milk-maid. -3 a protectress. -4 Nature, elementary nature. -पतिः 1 an owner of cows. -2 a bull. -3 a leader, chief. -4 the sun; नीहारमिव गोपतिः Bhāg.1.12.1; Mb.1.173.32. -5 Indra; सुराङ्गना गोपतिचापगोपुरं पुरम् (जहुः) Ki.8.1. -6 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -7 N. of Śiva. -8 N. of Varuṇa; एष पुत्रो महाप्रज्ञो वरुणस्येह गोपतेः Mb.5.98.11. -9 a king; नासतो विद्यते राजन् स ह्यरण्येषु गोपतिः Mb.12.135.26. -पथः N. of a Brāhmaṇa of Av. -पर्वतम् the name of the place where Pāṇini is said to have performed penance and propitiated Śiva; गोपर्वतमिति स्थानं शम्भोः प्रख्यापितं मया । यत्र पाणिनिना लेभे वैयाकरणिकाग्ऱ्यता ॥ अरुणाचलमाहात्म्यम्- उत्तरार्धः 2 अ. 68 श्लो. -पशुः a sacrificial cow. -पाः m. Ved. 1 a herdsman. -2 protector, or guardian; मन्द्राग्रे- त्वरी भुवनस्य गोपा Av.2.1.57. -पानसी a curved beam which supports a thatch; गोपानसी तु वलभिच्छादने वक्रदारुणि Ak.2.2.15. -पालः 1 a cowherd; Ms.4.253. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 an epithet of Kṛ&iṣṇa. ˚धानी a cow-pen, cow-shed. -पालकः 1 a cowherd. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva; also of Kṛiṣṇa. -पालिः an epithet of Śiva. -पालिका, -पाली the wife of a cowherd; पार्थः प्रस्थापयामास कृत्वा गोपालिकावपुः Mb.1.221.19. -पालितः N. of a lexicographer. -पित्तम् bile of cows, ox-bile (from which the yellow pigment गोरोचना is prepared; गोपित्ततो रोचना Pt.1.94.). -पीतः a species of wagtail. -पीथः protection; अस्माकमृषीणां गोपीथे न उरुष्यतम् Rv.5.65.6. (-थम्) a holy place, a place of pilgrimage. -पुच्छम् a cow's tail. -2 a particular point of an arrow. (-च्छः) 1 a sort of monkey; Bhāg.8.2.22. -2 a sort of necklace consisting of two or four or thirty-four strings. -3 a kind of drum. -पुटिकम् the head of Śiva's bull. -पुत्रः 1 a young bull. -2 an epithet of Karṇa. -पुरम् 1 a town-gate; उत्तुङ्गसौधसुरमन्दिरगोपुरम् Māl.9.1. -2 a principal gate; दधतमुच्चशिलान्तरगोपुराः Ki.5.5. -3 the ornamental gateway of a temple. -पुरीषम् cowdung. -प्रकाण्डम् an excellent cow or bull. -प्रचारः pasture-ground, pasturage for cattle; ग्राम्येच्छया गोप्रचारो भूमी राजवशेन वा Y.2.166. -प्रत (ता) रः 1 a ford for cattle. -2 a place of pilgrimage on the Śarayū; यद्गोप्रतरकल्पो$भूत्संमर्दस्तत्र मज्जताम् । अतस्तदाख्यया तीर्थं पावनं भुवि पप्रथे ॥ R.15.11. -प्रदानम् same as गोदान. -प्रवेशः the time when cows return home, sunset or evening-twilight; गोप्रवेशसमये Bṛi. S.24.35. -फणा 1 a bandage hollowed out so as to fit the chin or nose &c. -2 a sling. -बालः the hair of cows. -भुज् m. a king; गोभुजां वल्लभा लक्ष्मीः Rāj. T.5.6. -भृत् m. 1 a mountain. -2 a king. -मक्षिका a gadfly. -मघ a. granting cattle or cows कदा गोमघा हवनानि गच्छाः Rv.6.35.3. -मंडलम् 1 the globe. -2 a multitude of cows. -मण़्डीरः a kind of an aquatic bird; L. D. B. -मतम् = गव्यूति q. v. -मतल्लिका a tractable cow, an excellent cow; अरिर्मधोरैक्षत गोमतल्लिकाम् Śi.12.41. -मथः a cowherd. -मध्यमध्य a. slender in the waist. -महिषदा N. of one of the Mātṛis attending on कार्तिकेय. -मांसम् beef. -मायु 1 a kind of frog. -2 a jackal; अनुहंकुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केसरी Śi.16. 25. -3 bile of a cow. -4 N. of a Gandharva. -मीनः a kind of fish. -मुखः, -मुखम् [गोर्मुखमिव मुखमस्य] a kind of musical instrument; Bg.1.13; गोमुखानां च शृङ्गाणाम- नीकद्वयवर्तिनाम् Śiva. B.24.55. (-खः) 1 a crocodile, shark. -2 a hole of a particular shape in a wall made by thieves. (-खम्) 1 a house built unevenly. -2 spreading unguents, smearing; 'गोमुखं कुटिलाकारे वाद्यभाण्डे विलेपने' इति विश्वः; यस्यामलिन्देषु न चक्रुरेव मुग्धाङ्गना गोमयगो- मुखानि Śi.3.48. (-खम्, -खी) a cloth-bag of the shape of a gnomon containing a rosary, the beads of which are counted by the hand thrust inside. -2 a house built unevenly. -3 a particular method of sitting (a योगासन) (-खी) the chasm in the Himālaya mountains through which the Ganges flows. -मूढ a. stupid as a bull. -मूत्रम् cow's urine. -मूत्रकः a variety of lapis lazuli (बैदूर्य); Kau. A.2.11. -कम् a particular attitude (मण्डल) in गदायुद्ध; दक्षिणं मण्डलं सव्यं गोमूत्रकमथापि च । व्यचर- त्पाण्डवो राजन्नरिं संमोहयन्निव ॥ Mb.9.58.23. -a. zigzagging, going unevenly. -मूत्रिका 1 an artificial verse, the second of which repeats nearly all the syllables of the first. (Malli. thus defines it :-- वर्णानामेकरूपत्वं यद्येकान्तरमर्धयोः गोमूत्रिकेति तत्प्राहुर्दुष्करं तद्विदो विदुः ॥ see Śi.19.46.) -2 a form of calculation. -मृगः a kind of ox (गवय). -मेदः a gem brought from the Himālaya and Indus, described as of four different colours:-- white, pale-yellow, red, and dark-blue. -मेदकः 1 see गोमेद. -2 a kind of poison (काकोल). -3 smearing the body with unguents. -मेधः, -यज्ञः a cow-sacrifice; Rām.7.25.8. -यानम्, -रथः a carriage drawn by oxen; Rām.2.82.26; Ms. 11.174. -युक्त a. drawn by oxen. -युतम् 1 a cattle station. -2 a measure of two Krośas (गव्यूत); गोयुते गोयुते चैव न्यवसत्पुरुषर्षभः Mb.14.65.22. -रक्षः 1 a cowherd. -2 keeping or tending cattle. -3 the orange. -4 an epithet of Śiva. ˚जम्बू f. wheat. -रक्षणम् tending cattle (with religious faith). -रङ्कुः 1 a water-fowl -2 a prisoner. -3 a naked man, a mendicant wandering about without clothes. -4 a chanter. -रवम् saffron. -रसः cow's milk. -2 curds. -3 buttermilk. -4 the flavour of a sentence; को रसो गोरसं विना Udb. ˚जम् buttermilk. -राजः an excellent bull. -राटिका, -राटी the Sārikā bird. -रुतम् a measure of distance equal to two Krośas. -रूपम् the form of a cow. (-पः) N. of Śiva. -रोचम् yellow orpiment. -रोचना a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow, or found in the head of a cow. -लवणम् a measure of salt given to a cow. -लाङ्गु- (गू) लः a kind of monkey with a dark body, red cheeks and a tail like that of a cow; गोलाङ्गूलः कपोलं छुरयति रजसा कौसुमेन प्रियायाः Māl.9.3. -लोकः a part of heaven, cow-world. -लोभिका, -लोभी 1 a prostitute. -2 white Dūrvā grass. -3 Zedoary. -4 N. of a shrub. -वत्सः a calf. ˚आदिन m. a wolf. -वधः the killing of a cow; Ms.11.59. -वर्धनः a celebrated hill in वृन्दावन the country about Mathurā. ('This hill was lifted up and supported by Kṛiṣṇa upon one finger for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛiṣṇa's divinity.') ˚धरः, ˚धरिन् m. an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -वरम् pounded cowdung. -वशा a barren cow. -वाटम्, -वासः a cow-pen. -वासन a. covered with an ox-hide. -विकर्तः, -विकर्तृ m. 1 the killer of a cow; Mb.4.2.9. -2 a husbandman. -विततः a horse-sacrifice having many cows. -विन्दः 1 a cowkeeper, a chief herdsman. -2 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -3 Bṛihaspati. ˚द्वादशी the twelfth day in the light half of the month of फाल्गुन -विष् f., -विष्ठा cowdung. -विषाणिकः a kind of musical instrument; Mb.6.44.4. -विसर्गः day-break (when cows are let loose to graze in forests); Rām.7.111.9. -वीथिः f. N. of that portion of the moon's path which contains the asterisms भाद्रपदा, रेवती and अश्विनी, or according to some, हस्त, चित्रा and स्वाती Bṛi. S.9.2. -वीर्यम् the price received for milk. -वृन्दम् a drove of cattle. -वृन्दारकः an excellent bull or cow. -वृषः, -वृषभः an excellent bull; न तां शेकुर्नृपा वोढुमजित्वा सप्त गोवृषान् Bhāg 1.58.33. ˚ध्वजः an epithet of Śiva. -वैद्यः a quack docter. -व्रजः 1 a cow-pen. -2 a herd of cows. -3 a place where cattle graze. -व्रत, -व्रतिन् a. one who imitates a cow in frugality; ...अत्र गोव्रतिनो विप्राः ... ॥ यत्रपत्रशयो नित्यं येन केन- चिदाशितः । येन केनचिदाच्छन्नः स गोव्रत इहोच्यते ॥ Mb.5.99. 13-14. -शकृत् n. cowdung; Ms.2.182. -शतम् a present of a hundred cows to a Brāhmaṇa. -शालम्, -ला a cow-stall. -शीर्षः, -र्षम् a kind of sandal; Kau. A.2.11. -2 a kind of weapon (arrow ?); Mb.7.178. 23. -षड्गवम् three pairs of kine. -षन्, -षा a. Ved. acquiring or bestowing cows. -षा (सा) तिः 1 acquiring cattle; or fighting for cattle. गोषाता यस्य ते गिरः Rv.8.84.7. -2 giving cattle. -ष्टोमः a kind of sacrifice fasting for one day. -संख्यः a cowherd. -सदृक्षः a species of ox (गवय). -सर्गः the time at which cows are usually let loose, day-break; see गोविसर्ग. -सवः a kind of cow-sacrifice (not performed in the Kali age); Mb.3.3.17. -सहस्रम् a kind of present (महादान). (-स्त्री) N. of two holidays on the fifteenth day of the dark half of कार्तिक and ज्येष्ठ. -सावित्री N. of a hymn (cf. गायत्री). -सूत्रिका a rope fastened at both ends having separate halters for each ox or cow. -स्तनः 1 the udder of a cow. -2 a cluster of blossoms, nosegay &c. -3 a pearl-necklace of four strings. -4 a kind of fort. -स्तना, -नी a bunch of grapes. -स्थानम्, -क्रम् a cow-pen. -स्वामिन् m. 1 an owner of cows. -2 a religious mendicant. -3 an honorary title affixed to proper names; (e. g. वोपदेवगोस्वामिन्). -हत्या cow-slaughter. -हल्लम् (sometimes written हन्नम्) cow-dung. -हरः, -हरणम् stealing of cows; गोष्ठमुत्किरति गोहरं वदेत् Bṛi. S.89.9. (v. l.) -हित a. cherishing or protecting kine. (-तः) N. of Viṣṇu.
goṇḍaḥ गोण्डः 1 A fleshy navel. -2 A person with a fleshy navel. -3 A man of a low tribe, a mountaineer, especially one inhabiting the eastern portion of the Vindhya range between the Narmadā and Kṛiṣṇa. -Comp. -किरी N. of a Rāgiṇi. -वनम् N. of a country in Berar.
gauḍaḥ गौडः 1 N. of a country; the स्कन्दपुराण thus describes its position :-- वङ्गदेशं समारभ्य भुवनेशान्तगः शिवे । गौडदेशः समाख्यातः सर्वविद्याविशारदः ॥ -2 A particular subdivision of Brāhmaṇas. -3 see गोण्डः above. L. D. B. -डाः (pl.) The inhabitants of Gauḍa. -डी 1 Spirit distilled from molasses; गौडी पैष्ठी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा Ms. 11.95. -2 One of the Rāgiṇis. -3 (In rhet.) One of the Ritis or Vrittis or styles of poetic composition; S. D. mentions four Ritis, while K. P. only three, गौडी being another name for पुरुषा वृत्ति; ओजःप्रकाशकैस्तैः (वर्णैः) तु परुषा (i. e. गौडी) M. P.7; ओजःप्रकाशकैर्वर्णैर्बन्ध आडम्बरः पुनः समासबहुला गौडी S. D.627. Here is an illustration : उन्मीलन्मधुगन्धलुब्धमधुपव्याधूतचूताङ्कुरः क्रीडत्कोकिलकाकंलीकलकलैरु- द्गीर्णकर्णज्वराः । नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथं कथमपि ध्यानावधानक्षणप्राप्त- प्राणसमासमागमरसोल्लासैरमी वासराः ॥ अलंकारशेखर 6. -डम् Sweet- meats; भोजनानि सुपूर्णानि गौडानि च सहस्रशः Rām.1.53.4. -a. Relating to or prepared from molasses; विविधानि च गौडानि खाण्डवानि तथैव च Rām.7.92.12. -Comp. -पादः N. of a commentator. -मालवः N. of a Rāga.
gaurī गौरी 1 N. of Pārvatī; as in गौरीनाथ. -2 A young girl eight years old; अष्टवर्षा भवेद्गौरी. -3 A young girl prior to menstruation, virgin, maid; स्त्रीणां सहस्रं गौरीणाम् Mb.1.221.49. -4 A woman with a white or yellowish complexion. -5 The earth; गौर्यां गच्छति सुश्रोणि लोकेष्वेषा गतिः सदा Mb.13.146.1. -6 Turmeric. -7 A yellow pigment or dye; (called गोरोचना). -8 The wife of Varuṇa; वरुणस्य तथा गौरी Mb.13.146.5. -9 The Mallikā creeper. -1 The Tulasī plant -11 The Manjishṭhā plant. -12 Speech. -13 N. of a Nāgakanyā. cf. ...... गौरी तु नागकन्योमयोर्मता Nm. -14 N. of a river; L. D. B. -15 Night; L. D. B. -16 N. of a Rāgiṇi. -Comp. -कान्तः, -नाथः an epithet of Śiva. -गुरुः the Himālaya mountain; गौरीगुरोर्गह्वरमाविवेश R.2.26; Ki.5.21. -चतुर्थी, -पूजा the 4th day of the bright half of माघ; a festival on this day. -जः N. of Kārtikeya. (-जम्) talc. -नाथः N. of Śiva; गौरीनाथं पवनतनयं चम्पकं चास्य भावम् Udb. Bh.3.123. -पट्टः the horizontal plate of the Linga of Śiva. -पुत्रः N. of Kārtikeya. -ललितम् a yellow orpiment. -सुतः 1 N. of Kārtikeya. -2 the son of a girl married when 8 years old.
ṅu ङु 1 Ā. (ङवते) To sound. together; (in this sense it is used with each of the words or assertions which it joins together; or it is used after the last of the words or assertions so joined but it never stands first in a sentence); मनो निष्ठाशून्यं भ्रमति च किमप्यालिखति च Māl.1.31; तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रतिननन्दतुः R.1.57; Ms.1.64;3.5; कुलेन कान्त्या वयसा नवेन गुणैश्च तैस्तैर्विनयप्रधानैः R.6.79; Ms.1.15;3.116. -2 Disjunction (but, still, yet); शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदं स्फुरति च बाहुः Ś.1.14. -3 Certainly, determination, (indeed certainly, exactly, quite, having the force of एव); अतीतः पन्थानं तव च महिमा वाङ्मनसयोः G. M.; ते तु यावन्त एवाजौ तावांश्च ददृशे स तैः R.12.45. -4 Condition (if = चेत्); जीवितुं चेच्छसे (= इच्छसे चेद्) मूढ हेतुं मे गदतः शृणु Mb; लोभ- श्चास्ति (अस्ति चेद्) गुणेन किम् Bh.2.45 v. l. -5 It is often used expletively (पादपूरणार्थे); भीमः पार्थस्तथैव च G. M. (Lexicographers give, besides the above, the following senses of च which are included in the general idea of copulation; 1 अन्वाचय joining a subordinate fact with a principal one; भो भिक्षामट गां चानय; see अन्वाचय. -2 समा- हार collective combination; as पाणी च पादौ च पाणिपादम् -3 इतरेतरयोग or mutual connection; as प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्च प्लक्ष- न्यग्रोधौ. -4 समुच्चय aggregation; as पचति च पठति च). च is frequently repeated with two assertions (1) in the sense of 'on the one hand-on the other hand', 'though-yet', to denote antithesis; न सुलभा सफलेन्दुमुखी च सा किमपि चेद- मनङ्गविचेष्टितम् V.2.9;4.3; R.16.7; or (2) to express simultaneous or undelayed occurrence of two events (no sooner than, as soon as); ते च प्रापुरुदन्वन्तं बुबुधे चादि- पूरुषः R.1.6;3.4;11.5,81; Ku.3.58,66; Ś 6.7; Māl.9.39. -Comp. -आदि a Gaṇa of Pāṇini (including the indeclinable particles, P.I.4.57). -कारः the particle च; P.II.3.72, Kāśi. -समासः a Dvandva compound; Vop.
cūrṇi चूर्णिः र्णी f. 1 Pounding, powder. -2 A sum of hundred cowries. -3 N. of Patañjali's Mahābhāṣya on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -4 A selection of an unanswerable argument. -Comp. -कृत् m. 1 an epithet of Patañjali. -2 an annotator, commentator.
chandas छन्दस् n. [छन्दयति असुन्] 1 Wish, desire, fancy, will, pleasure; (गृह्णीयात्) मूर्खं छन्दो$नुवृत्तेन याथातथ्येन पण्डितम् Chāṇ.33. -2 Free will, free or wilful conduct. -3 Meaning, intention. -4 Fraud, trick, deceit. -5 The Vedas, the sacred text of the Vedic hymns; स च कुल- पतिराद्यश्छन्दसां यः प्रयोक्ता U.3.48; बहुलं छन्दसि frequently used by Pāṇini; प्रणवश्छन्दसामिव R.1.11; Y.1.143; Ms.4.95. -6 A metre; ऋक्छन्दसा आशास्ते &Sacute.4; गायत्री छन्दसामहम् Bg.1.35;13.4. -7 Metrical science, prosody; (regarded as one of the six Vedāṅgas or auxiliaries to the Vedas, the other five being शिक्षा, कल्प, व्याकरण, निरुक्त and ज्योतिष). -8 A metrical composition. ... मया काव्यानि तन्वता छन्दो विनिर्मितं तस्मिन् कृतः सर्वस्य संग्रहः Parṇāl.1.23. -9 A festival; वेदे वाक्ये वृत्तभेदे उत्सवे$पि नपुंसकम् । Nm. -Comp. -कृतम् any metrical part of the Vedas or other sacred compositions; यथो- दितेन विधिना नित्यं छन्दस्कृतं पठेत् Ms.4.1. -गः (-छन्दोगः) 1 a reciter in metre. -2 a student or chanter of the Sāmaveda; Ms.3.145; (छन्दोगः सामवेदाध्यायी) -3 The Sāmaveda; साम्नां जैमिनये प्राह तथा छन्दोगसंहिताम् Bhāg. 12.6.53. -भङ्गः a violation of the laws of metre. -विचितिः f. 'examination of metres', N. of a work on metres, sometimes ascribed to Daṇḍin; छन्दोविचित्यां सकलस्तत्प्रपञ्चो निदर्शितः Kāv.1.12. -वृत्तम् a metre in general. -स्तुभ् m. N. of Aruṇa.
chāyā छाया [छो-ण Uṇ.4.19] 1 Shade, shadow (changed at the end of Tat. comp. into छायम् when बाहुल्य or thickness of shade is meant; e. g. इक्षुच्छायनिषादिन्यः R.4.2; so 7.4;12.5; Mu.4.21); छायामधः सानुगतां निषेव्य Ku.1.5;6.46; अनुभवति हि मूर्ध्ना पादपस्तीव्रमुष्णं शमयति परितापं छायया संश्रितानाम् Ś.5.7; R.1.75;2.6;3.7; Me.67. -2 A reflected image, a reflection; छाया न मूर्छति मलोपहतप्रसादे शुद्धे तु दर्पणतले सुलभावकाशा Ś.7.32. -3 Resemblance, likeness; क्षित्यादीनामिहार्थानां छाया न कतमापि हि Bhāg.7.15.59. -4 A shadowy fancy, hallucination; असता छाययोक्ताय सदाभासाय ते नमः Bhāg.8.3.14. -5 Blending of colours. -6 Lustre, light; भ्रष्टश्च स्वरयोगो मे छाया चापगता मन Rām.2.69.2. छायामण्डललक्ष्येण R.4.5; रत्न- च्छायाव्यतिकरः Me.15,35. -7 Colour; Māl.6.5. -8 Colour of the face, complexion; केवलं लावण्यमयी छाया त्वां न मुञ्चति Ś.3; मेघैरन्तरितः प्रिये तव मुखच्छायानुकारी शशी S. D.; Pt.5.88. -9 Beauty क्षामच्छायं भवनम् Me.8,14. -1 Protection. -11 A row, line. -12 Darkness; (metaphorically) Avidyā; छायातपौ यत्र न गृध्रपक्षौ Bhāg.8.5.27. -13 A bribe. -14 N. of Durgā. -15 The shadow of gnomon as indicating the sun's position. -16 The Sun. -17 Nightmare. -18 N. of a wife of the sun (she was but a shadow or likeness of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun; consequently when संज्ञा went to her father's house without the knowledge of her husband, she put छाया in her own place. छाया bore to the sun three children :-two sons Sāvarṇi and Śani, and one daughter Tapanī). -19 A Sanskrit version of a Prākṛit text. -2 The Ganges; L. D. B. -21 Method; L. D. B. -22 A servant's chit; L. D. B. -यः One who grants shade. -Comp. -अङ्कः the moon. -आत्मन् m. a reflected image or form. -करः the bearer of an umbrella. -ग्रहः a mirror, or a sun-dial; प्रसन्नालापसंप्राप्तौ छायाग्रह इवापरः Rāj. T.3.154. -तनयः, -सुतः, -आत्मजः Saturn, son of छाया. -तरुः, -द्रुमः 1 a large umbrageous tree; स्निग्धच्छायातरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु Me.1; Ś.4.11. -2 The Nameru tree; छायावृक्षो नमेरौ स्यात् । Nm. -द्वितीय a. 'accompanied only by one's shadow', alone. -पथः the galaxy, the atmosphere; R.13.2. -भृत m. the moon. (-नम्) a measure of shadow. -मित्रम् a parasol. -मृगधरः the moon. -यन्त्रम् a sun-dial; छायाम्बुयन्त्रसंविदिते Bṛi. S.2.3.
jhillin झिल्लिन् m. N. of a Vṛiṣṇi.
tūṇā तूणा f. A bellows; L. D. B. तूणिः tūṇiḥ तूणीरः tūṇīrḥ रम् ram तूणिः तूणीरः रम् A quiver.
traivargika त्रैवर्गिक a. (-की f.) Relating to the three objects of life (धर्म, अर्थ and काम); Bhāg.3.32.18; cf. त्रिवर्ग. त्रैवर्णः traivarṇḥ त्रैवर्णिक traivarṇika त्रैवर्णः त्रैवर्णिक a. (-की f.) Relating to the first three castes. -कः A member of the first three castes.
dākṣī दाक्षी 1 A daughter of दक्ष. -2 N. of the mother of Pāṇini. -Comp. -पुत्रः N. of Pāṇini.
dākṣeyaḥ दाक्षेयः A metronymic of Pāṇini.
drumaḥ द्रुमः [द्रुः शाखास्त्यस्य-मः, cf. P.V.2.18] 1 A tree; यत्र द्रुमा अपि मृगा अपि बान्धवो मे U.3.8. -2 A tree of Paradise. -3 An epithet of Kubera. -Comp. -अब्जं the Karṇikāra tree; प्रययौ केतुमिव द्रुमाब्जकेतुम् -अरिः an elephant. -आमयः lac, gum. -आश्रयः a lizard. -ईश्वरः 1 the palm tree. -2 the moon. -3 the पारिजात tree. -उत्पलः the Karṇikāra tree. द्रुमोत्पलः कर्णिकारः Ak. -खण्डः, -ण्डम् a group of trees. -नखः, -मरः a thorn. -निर्यासः a kind of frank-incense. -वासिन् m. an ape. -व्याघिः lac, gum. -श्रेष्ठः the palm tree. -षण्डम् a grove of tree.
droṇi द्रोणिका 1 A tub, bucket. -2 The Indigo plant. द्रौणायनः drauṇāyanḥ निः niḥ द्रौणिः drauṇiḥ द्रौणायनः निः द्रौणिः An epithet of Aśvatthāman; यद् रामेण कृतं तदेव कुरुते द्रौणायनिः क्रोधनः Ve.3.31.
dvi द्वि num. a. (Nom. du. द्वौ m., द्वे f., द्वे n.) Two, both; सद्यः परस्परतुलामधिरोहतां द्वे R.5.68. (N. B. In comp. द्वा is substituted for द्वि necessarily before दशन्, विंशति and त्रिंशत् and optionally before चत्वारिंशत्, पञ्चाशत्, षष्टि, सप्तति and नवति, द्वि remaining unchanged before अशीति.) [cf. L. duo, bis or bi in comp.; Gr. duo, dis; Zend dva; A. S. twi.] -Comp. -अक्ष a. two-eyed, binocular. द्व्यक्षीं त्र्यक्षीं ललाटाक्षीम् Mb. -अक्षर a. dissyllabic. (-रः) a word of two syllables. -अङ्गुल a. two fingers long. (-लम्) two fingers' length. -अणुकम् an aggregate or molecule of two atoms, a diad. विषयो द्व्यणुकादिस्तु ब्रह्माण्डान्त उदाहृतः Bhāṣāparichchheda. -अन्तर a. separated by two intermediate links. -अर्थ a. 1 having two senses. -2 ambiguous, equivocal. -3 having two objects in view. ˚कर a. accomplishing two objects; आम्रश्च सिक्तः पितरश्च तृप्ता एका क्रिया द्व्यर्थकरीह लोके Vāyu P. ˚त्वम् the state of having to convey two senses; द्व्यर्थत्वं विप्रतिषिद्धम् MS.7.1.6. -अर्ध a. 1. -अवर a. at least two; द्व्यवरान् भोजयेद् विप्रान् पायसेन यथोचितम् Bhāg.8.16.43. -अशीत a. eighty-second. -अशीतिः f. eighty-two. -अष्टम् copper. ˚सहस्रम् 16. -अहः a period of two days. -आत्मक a. 1 having a double nature. -2 being two. -आत्मकाः m. (pl.) the signs of the zodiac Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces. -आमुष्यायणः 'a son of two persons or fathers', an adopted son who remains heir to his natural father though adopted by another. -आम्नात a. twice mentioned. -आहिक a. recurring every day (fever). -ऋचम् (द्वृचम् or द्व्यर्चम्) a collection of two verses or riks. -एकान्तर a. separated by two or by one (degree); द्व्येकान्तरासु जातानां धर्म्यं विद्यादिमं विधिम् Ms.1.7. कः, -ककारः 1 crow (there being two 'Ka's in the word काक). -2 the ruddy goose (there being two 'Ka's in the word कोक). -ककुद् m. a camel. -कर a. Yielding two senses, serving two purposes; तत्र द्विकरः शब्दः स्यात् । न च सकृदुच्चरितः शक्तो ŚB. on MS.12.1.4. -कार्षापणिक a. worth two कार्षापणs -कौडविक a. containing or worth two कुडवs. -गत a ambiguous. -गु a. exchanged or bartered for two cows. (-गुः) a subdivision of the Tatpuruṣa compound in which the first member is a numeral; द्वन्द्वो द्विगुरपि चाहम् Udb. -गुण a. double, twofold; पितुर्वधव्यसनमिदं हि येन मे चिरादपि द्विगुणमिवाद्य वर्धते Mu.5.6 (द्रिगुणाकृ to plough twice; द्विगुणीकृ to double, increase; द्विगुणीभूत a. double, augmented). -गुणित a. 1 doubled, multiplied by two; वैरोचनैर्द्विगुणिताः सहसा मयूखैः Ki.5.46. -2 folded double. -3 enveloped. -4 doubly increased, doubled. -चरण a. having two legs, two-legged; द्विचरणपशूनां क्षितिभुजाम् Śānti.4.15. -चत्वारिंश a. (द्वि-द्वा-चत्वारिंश) fortysecond. -चत्वारिंशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा चत्वारिंशत्) forty-two. -चन्द्रधी, -मतिः The illusion of seeing two moons due to an eye disease called Timira; N.13.42. -जः 'twice-born' 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus (a Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya or Vaiśya); मातुर्यदग्रे जायन्ते द्वितीयं मौञ्जिबन्धनात् । ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशस्तस्मादेते द्विजाः स्मृताः Y.1.39. -2 Brāhmaṇa (over whom the Saṁskāras or purificatory rites are performed); जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारै- र्द्विज उच्यते. -3 any oviparous animal, such as a bird, snake, fish &c.; Mb.12.361.5. (द्विजश्रेष्ठ = द्विजाना- मण्डजानां सर्पाणां श्रेष्ठ); स तमानन्दमविन्दत द्विजः N.2.1; Ś.5.22; R.12.22; Mu.1.11; Ms.5.17. -4 a tooth; कीर्णं द्विजानां गणैः Bh.1.13. (where द्विज means 'a Brāhmaṇa' also). -5 A star; L. D. B. -6 A kind of horse; जलोद्भवा द्विजा ज्ञेयाः Aśvachikitsā. -7 A Brahmachārī; Bhāg.11.18.42. ˚अग्ऱ्य a Brāhmaṇa. ˚अयनी the sacred thread worn by the first three castes of the Hindus. ˚आलयः 1 the house of a dvija. -2 a nest. ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः 1 the moon; द्विजेन्द्रकान्तं श्रितवक्षसं श्रिया Śi.12.3. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚दासः a Sūdra. ˚देवः 1 a Brāhmaṇa; Bhāg.8.15.37. -2 a sage; Bhāg.3.1.23. -3 N. of Brahmadeva; Bhāg. 5.2.16. ˚पतिः, ˚राजः an epithet of 1 the moon; इत्थं द्विजेन द्विजराजकान्तिः R.5.23. -2 Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚प्रपा 1 a trench or basin round the root of a tree for holding water. -2 a trough near a well for watering birds, cattle &c. ˚प्रियः kind of khadira. ˚प्रिया the Soma plant. ˚बन्धुः, ˚ब्रुवः 1 a man who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa. -2 one who is 'twice-born' or a Brāhmaṇa by name and birth only and not by acts; cf. ब्रह्मबन्धु. ˚मुख्यः a Brāhmaṇa. ˚लिङ्गिन् m. 1 a Kṣatriya. -2 a pseudo-Brāhmaṇa, one disguised as a Brāhmaṇa. ˚वाहनः an epithet of Viṣṇu (having Garuḍa for his vehicle). ˚सेवकः a Sūdra. -जन्मन् a. 1 having two natures. -2 regenerated. -3 oviparous (-m.). -जातिः m. 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus; एतान् द्विजातयो देशान् संश्रयेरन् प्रयत्नतः Ms.2.24. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. Ki.1.39; Ku.5.4. गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः H. -3 a bird. -4 a tooth. -5 A kind of horse; लक्षणद्वयसम्बन्धाद् द्विजातिः स्यात् तुरङ्गमः Yuktikalpataru. -जातीय a. 1 belonging to the first three castes of the Hindus. -2 of a twofold nature. -3 of mixed origin, mongrel. (-यः) a mule. -जानि a having two wives. -जिह्व a. double-tongued (fig. also). -2 insincere. (-ह्वः) 1 a snake; परस्य मर्माविधमुज्झतां निजं द्विजिह्वतादोषमजिह्मगामिभिः Śi.1.63; R.11.64;14.41; Bv.1.2. -2 an informer, a slanderer, tale-bearer. -3 an insincere person -4 a thief. -5 particular disease of the tongue. -ज्या the sine of an arc. -ठः 1 the sign visarga consisting of two dots. -2 N. of Svāhā, wife of Agni. -त्र a. (pl.) two or three; द्वित्राण्यहान्यर्हसि सोढुमर्हन् R.5.25; सूक्ष्मा एव पतन्ति चातकमुखे द्वित्राः पयोबिन्दवः Bh.2.121. -त्रिंश (द्वात्रिंश) a. 1 thirty second. -2 consisting of thirty two. -त्रिंशत् (द्वात्रिंशत्) f. thirty-two. ˚लक्षण a. having thirty-two auspicious marks upon the body. -दण्डि ind. stick against stick. -दत् a. having two teeth (as a mark of age). -दन्तः an elephant. -दल a. having two parts, two-leafed. -दश a. (pl.) twenty. -दश a. (द्वादश) 1 twelfth; गर्भात् तु द्वादशे विशः Ms.2.36. -2 consisting of twelve. -दशन् (द्वादशन्) a. (pl.) twelve. ˚अंशुः, ˚अर्चिस् m. an epithet of 1 the planet Jupiter. -2 Bṛihaspati, the preceptor of the gods. ˚अक्षः, ˚करः, ˚लोचनः epithets of Kārtikeya ˚अक्षरमन्त्रः- विद्या the mantra ऊँ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय; गन्धधूपादिभिश्चार्चेद्वाद- शाक्षरविद्यया Bhāg.8.16.39. ˚अङ्गुल a measure of twelve fingers. ˚अध्यायी N. of Jaimini's Mimāṁsā in twelve Adhyāyas. ˚अन्यिक a. committing twelve mistakes in reading. ˚अस्र a dodecagon. ˚अहः 1 a period of twelve days; शुध्येद् विप्रो दशाहेन द्वादशाहेन भूमिपः Ms.5.83;11.168. -2 a sacrifice lasting for or completed in twelve days. ˚अक्षः, ˚आख्यः a Buddha. ˚आत्मन् m. the sun; N.1.52. ˚आदित्याः (pl.) the twelve suns; see आदित्य. ˚आयुस् m. a dog. ˚लक्षणी f. the मीमांसासूत्र of जैमिनि (so called because it comprises twelve chapters); धर्मो द्वादशलक्षण्या व्युत्पाद्यः ŚB. on MS. ˚वार्षिक a. 1 twelve years old, lasting for twelve years; Pt.1. ˚विध a. twelve-fold. ˚सहस्र a. consisting of 12. -दशी (द्वादशी) the twelfth day of a lunar fortnight. -द्वादशान्यिक (द्वादशापपाठा यस्य जाताः द्वादशान्यिकः). -दशम् (द्वादशम्)) a collection of twelve, ˚आदित्याः Twelve Ādityas:- विवस्वान्, अर्यमा, पूषन्, त्वष्टा, सविता, _x001F_3भग, धाता, विधाता, वरुण, मित्र, रुद्र, विष्णु. ˚पुत्रा Twelve types of sons according to Dharmaśāstra:-- औरस, क्षेत्रज, दत्तक, कृत्रिम, गूढोत्पन्न, अपविद्ध, कानीन, सहोढ, क्रीत, पौनर्भव, स्वयंदत्त, पारशव. -दाम्नी a cow tied with two ropes. -दिवः a ceremony lasting for two days. -देवतम् the constellation विशाखा. -देहः an epithet of Gaṇesa. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. -नग्नकः a circumcised man. -नवत (द्वि-द्वा-नवत) a. ninety-second. -नवतिः(द्वि-द्वा-नवतिः) f. ninety-two. -पः an elephant; यदा किञ्चिज्ज्ञो$हं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवम् Bh.3.31; विपूर्यमाणश्रवणोदरं द्विपाः Śi. ˚अधिपः Indra's elephant. ˚आस्य an epithet of Gaṇesa. -पक्षः 1 a bird. -2 a month. -पञ्चाश (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाश) a. fifty-second. -पञ्चाशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाशत्) fifty-two. -पथम् 1 two ways. -2 a cross-way, a place where two roads meet. -पद् see द्विपाद् below. -पद a. having two feet (as a verse). -पदः a biped man. -पदिका, -पदी a kind of Prākṛita metre. -पाद्, a. two footed; द्विपाद बहुपादानि तिर्यग् गतिमतीनि च Mb.14.37. -पादः 1 a biped, man. -2 a bird. -3 a god. -पाद्यः, -द्यम् a double penalty. -पायिन् m. an elephant. -फालबद्धः hair parted in two; N.1.16. -बाहुः man; Ks.53.94. -बिन्दुः a Visarga (:). -भातम् twilight. -भुजः an angle. -भूम a. having two floors (as a palace). -भौतिकः a horse possessing two elements out of the five; द्वयोर्लक्षणसंबन्धात् तुरगः स्याद् द्विभौतिकः Yuktikalpataru. -मातृ, -मातृजः an epithet of 1 Gaṇesa. -2 king Jarāsandha. -मात्रः a long vowel (having two syllabic instants); एकमात्रो भवेद् ह्रस्वो द्विमात्रो दीर्घ उच्यते Śikṣā. -मार्गी a cross-away. -मुखा 1 a leech. -2 kind of water-vessel; ˚अहिः, ˚उरगः a doublemouthed snake. -रः 1 a bee; cf. द्विरेफ. -2 = बर्बर q. v. -मुनि ind. the two Munis, Pāṇini and Kātyāyana; द्विमुनि व्याकरणस्य, विद्याविद्यावतारभेदाद् द्विमुनिव्याकरणमित्यपि साधु Sk. -मूर्वा N. of a plant, presumably some hemp. Mātaṅga. L.9.2. -यामी Two night-watches = 6 hours. -रदः an elephant; सममेव समाक्रान्तं द्वयं द्विरदगामिना R.4.4; Me.61. ˚अन्तकः, ˚अराति, ˚अशनः 1 a lion. -2 the Śarabha. -रसनः a snake. -रात्रम् two nights. -रूप a. 1 biform. -2 written in two ways. -3 having a different shape. -4 bi-colour, bipartite. (-पः) 1 a variety of interpretation or reading. -2 a word correctly written in two ways. -रेतस् m. a mule. -रेफः a large black bee (there being two 'Ra's in the word भ्रमर); अनन्तपुष्पस्य मधोर्हि चूते द्विरेफमाला सविशेषसङ्गा Ku.1.27;3.27,36. -लयः (in music) double time (?); साम्य of two things (like गीत and वाद्य); द्विलयान्ते चर्चरी V.4.35/36. -वक्त्रः 1 a double-mouthed serpent. -2 a kind of demon; एकवक्त्रो महावक्त्रो द्विवक्त्रो कालसंनिभः Hariv. -वचनम् the dual number in grammar. -वज्रकः a kind of house or structure with 16 angles (sides). -वर्गः The pair of प्रकृति and पुरुष, or of काम and क्रोध; जज्ञे द्विवर्गं प्रजहौ द्विवर्गम् Bu. Ch.2.41. -वाहिका a wing. -विंश (द्वाविंश) a. twenty-second. -विंशतिः f. (द्वाविंशति) twenty-two. -विध a. of two kinds or sorts; द्विविधः संश्रयः स्मृतः Ms.7.162. -वेश(स)रा a kind of light carriage drawn by mules. -व्याम, -व्यायाम a. two fathoms long. -शतम् 1 two hundred. -2 one hundred and two. -शत्य a. worth or bought for two hundred. -शफ a. clovenfooted. (-फः) any cloven-footed animal. -शीर्षः an epithet of Agni; also द्विशीर्षकः; सप्तहस्तः चतुःशृङ्गः सप्तजिह्वो द्विशीर्षकः Vaiśvadeva. -श्रुति a. comprehending two intervals. -षष् a. (pl.) twice six, twelve. -षष्ट (द्विषष्ट, द्वाषष्ट) a. sixty-second. -षष्टिः f. (-द्विषष्टिः, द्वाषष्टिः) sixty-two. -सन्ध्य a. having a morning and evening twi-light. -सप्तत (द्वि-द्वा-सप्तत) a. seventy-second. -सप्ततिः f. (द्वि-द्वा सप्ततिः) seventy two. -सप्ताहः a fortnight. -सम a. having two equal sides. -समत्रिभुजः an isosceles triangle. -सहस्राक्षः the great serpent Śeṣa. -सहस्र, -साहस्र a. consisting of 2. (-स्रम्) 2. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed in two ways, i. e. first length-wise and then breadth-wise. -सुवर्ण a. worth or bought for two golden coins. -स्थ (ष्ठ) a. conveying two senses; भवन्ति चद्विष्ठानि वाक्यानि यथा श्वेतो धावति अलम्बुसानां यातेति ŚB. on MS.4.3.4. -हन् m. an elephant. -हायन, -वर्ष a. two years old; शुके द्विहायनं कत्सं क्रौञ्चं हत्वा त्रिहायनम् Ms.11.134. -हीन a. of the neuter gender. -हृदया a pregnant woman. -होतृ m. an epithet of Agni.
dhanya धन्य a. [धनं लब्धा-यत्] 1 Bestowing or conferring wealth; धन्यं यशस्यं पुत्रीयमायुष्यं विजयावहम् Mb.1.67. Ms.3.16; धन्यानि शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत 4.19. -2 Wealthy, rich opulent. -3 Blessed, fortunate, lucky, happy; धन्यं जीवनमस्य मार्गसरसः Bv.1.16;4.37; धन्या केयं स्थिता ते शिरसि M.1.1. -4 Excellent, good, virtuous; धन्यो$सि कृतकृत्यो$सि पावितं ते कुलं त्वया । यदविद्याबन्धमुक्त्या ब्रह्मीभवितु- मिच्छसि ॥ Vivekachūdāmaṇi. -5 Wholesome, healthy; (इदं पायसं) प्रजाकरं गृहाण त्वं धन्यमारोग्यवर्धनम् Rām.1.16.19. -न्यः 1 A lucky or blessed man, a fortunate being; धन्यास्तदङ्गरजसा मलिनीभवन्ति Ś.7.17; Bh.1.41; धन्यः को$पि न विक्रियां कलयते प्राप्ते नवे यौवने 1.72. -2 An infidel, an atheist. -3 N. of a spell. -4 A source of wealth; धन्यानामुत्तमं दाक्ष्यं धनानामुत्तमं श्रुतम् Mb.3.313.74. -न्या 1 A nurse. -2 Coriander. -3 Myrobalan; L. D. B. -न्यम् 1 Wealth, treasure. -2 Coriander. -Comp. -वादः 1 an expression of thanks, thanksgiving. -2 praise, applause.
dharuṇa धरुण a. [धृ-उनन्] Ved. Holding, bearing, carrying, supporting. -णः 1 An epithet of Brahman. -2 Heaven, paradise. -3 Water, (n. also) -4 Opinion. -5 A place where anything is preserved. -6 Fire. -7 A sucking calf. -णम् 1 Basis, prop, support. -2 Firm soil. -3 A reservoir. धर्णस dharṇasa सि si धर्णि dharṇi धर्णस सि धर्णि a. Ved. 1 Supporting. -2 Strong, able. -3 Durable, firm.
dhavala धवल a. [धवं कम्पं लाति ला-क; Tv.] 1 White; धवलातपत्र, धवलगृहम्, धवलवस्त्रम् &c. नीता येन निशा शशाङ्कधवला Ujjvalamaṇi. -2 Handsome. -3 Clear, pure. -लः 1 The white colour. -2 An excellent bull. -3 China camphor (चीनकर्पूर). -4 N. of a tree. (धव). -लम् White-pepper. -ला A woman with a white complexion. -ली A white cow; (धवला also). -Comp. -उत्पलम् the white water-lily (said to open at moonrise). -गिरिः N. of the highest peak of the Himālaya mountain. -गृहम् a house whitened with chunam, a place. -पक्षः 1 a goose; धवलपक्षविहंगमकूजितैः Śi.6.45. -2 the bright half of a lunar month. -मृत्तिका chalk.
dhātuḥ धातुः [धा-आधारे तुन्] 1 A constituent or essential part, an ingredient. -2 An element, primary or elementary substance, i. e. पृथिवी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश; Bhāg.7.15.6. -3 A secretion, primary fluid or juice, essential ingredients of the body (which are considered to be 7:-- रसासृङ्मांसमेदो$स्थिमज्जाशुक्राणि धातवः, or sometimes ten if केश, त्वच् and स्नायु be added); Mb.3.213.1. -4 A humour or affection of the body, (i.e. वात, पित्त and कफ); यस्यात्मबुद्धिः कुणपे त्रिधातुके Bhāg.1.84.13. -5 A mineral, metal, metallic ore; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7; त्वामालिख्य प्रणयकुपितां धातुरागैः शिलायाम् Me.17; R.4.71; Ku.6.51. -6 A verbal root; भूवादयो धातवः P.I.3.1; पश्चादध्ययनार्थस्य धातोरधिरिवाभवत् R.15.9. -7 The soul. -8 The Supreme Spirit; धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः Kaṭha. -9 An organ of sense. -1 Any one of the properties of the five elements, i. e. रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द; तत्र तत्र हि दृश्यन्ते धातवः पाञ्चभौतिकाः । तेषां मनुष्यास्तर्केण प्रमाणानि प्रचक्षते Mb.6.5.11. -11 A bone. -12 A part, portion. -13 A fluid mineral of a red colour. -14 Ved. A supporter. -15 Anything to be drunk, as milk &c. -f. A milch cow. -Comp. -उपलः chalk. -काशीशम्, -कासीसम् red sulphate of iron. -कुशल a. skilful in working in metals, metallurgist. -क्रिया metallurgy, mineralogy -क्षयः waste of the bodily humours, a wasting disease, a kind of consumption. -गर्भः, -स्तपः a receptacle for ashes, Dagoba; Buddh. ˚कुम्भः a relic urn. -ग्राहिन् m. calamine. -घ्नम्, -नाशनम् sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of rice-water). -चूर्णम् mineral powder. -जम् bitumen -द्रावकः borax. -पः the alimentary juice, the chief of the seven essential ingredients of the body. -पाठः a list of roots arranged according to Pāṇini's grammatical system (the most important of these lists called धातुपाठ being supposed to be the work of Pāṇini himself, as supplementary to his Sūtras). -पुष्टिः f. nutrition of the bodily humours. -प्रसक्त a. devoted to alchemy; -भृत् m. a mountain. -मलम् 1 impure excretion of the essential fluids of the body; कफपित्तमलाः केशः प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च । नेत्रविट् चक्षुषः स्नेहो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ॥ Suśruta. -2 lead. -माक्षिकम् 1 sulphuret of iron. -2 a mineral substance. -मारिणी borax. -मारिन् m. sulphur. -रसः a mineral or metalic fluid; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (भूर्जत्वचः) Ku.1.7. -राजकः, -कम् semen. -वल्लभम् borax. -वादः 1 mineralogy, metallurgy. -2 alchemy. -वादिन् m. a mineralogist. -विष् f. lead. -वैरिन् m. sulphur. -शेखरन् green sulphate of iron, green vitriol. -शोधनम्, -संभवम् lead. -साम्यम् good health, (equilibrium of the three humours). -हन् m. sulphur.
niśramaḥ निश्रमः Labour bestowed upon anything, continued practice or labour; स चापि वीरः कृतशस्त्रनिश्रमः Mb.1.137.25. निश्रयणी niśrayaṇī निश्रेणि niśrēṇi निश्रेणी niśrēṇī निश्रयणी निश्रेणि निश्रेणी A ladder, a staircase; cf. निःश्रयणी &c. कुम्भद्रोणीनिश्रेणीपरशु... Kau. A.; निश्रेणिरिव वीराणां सद्यो द्यामारुरुक्षताम् Śiva. B.4.37; निश्रेणीरधिरुह्यान्ये तद्भित्तीः परिरेभिरे Śiva. B.13.92; सम्भूय सम्यक् तैः सर्वैः मालानिःश्रेणि- साधकान् Parnāl.
pañcan पञ्चन् num. a. (Always pl., nom. and acc. पञ्च) Five. (As the first member of comp. पञ्चन् drops its final न्). [cf. Gr. pente.] -Comp. -अंशः the fifth part, a fifth. -अग्निः 1 an aggregate of five sacred fires; i. e. (अन्वाहार्यपचन or दक्षिण, गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय, सभ्य, and आव- सथ्य). -2 a householder who maintains the five sacred fires; पञ्चाग्नयो धृतव्रताः Māl.1; Ms.3.185. -3 five mystic fires supposed to exist in the body; तेजो ह्यग्निस्तथा क्रोधश्चक्षुरूष्मा तथैव च । अग्निर्जरयते यच्च पञ्चाग्नेयाः शरीरिणः ॥ Mb.12.184.21. -4 one who is acquainted with the doctrine of these fires. ˚साधनम् four fires on four sides and the sun above the head. This is a form of penance. -अङ्ग a. five-membered, having five parts or divisions as in पञ्चाङ्गः प्रणामः (i. e. बाहुभ्यां चैव जानुभ्यां शिरसा वक्षसा दृशा); कृतपञ्चाङ्गविनिर्णयो नयः Ki.2.12. (see Malli. and Kāmandaka quoted by him); पञ्चाङ्गमभिनयमुपदिश्य M.1; चित्ताक्षिभ्रूहस्तपादैरङ्गैश्चेष्टादिसाम्यतः । पात्राद्यवस्थाकरणं पञ्चाङ्गे$भिनयो मतः ॥ (-ङ्गः) 1 a tortoise or turtle. -2 a kind of horse with five spots in different parts of his body. (-ङ्गी) a bit for horses. -(ङ्गम्) 1 collection or aggregate of five parts. -2 five modes of devotion (silent prayer, oblations, libations, bathing idols and feeding Brāhmaṇas) -3 the five parts of a tree; त्वक्पत्रकुसुमं मूलफलमेकस्य शाखिनः । एकत्र मिलितं चैतत् पञ्चाङ्ग- मिति संज्ञितम् ॥ -4 a calendar or almanac, so called because it treats of five things:-- (तिथिर्वारश्च नक्षत्रं योगः करणमेव च); चतुरङ्गबलो राजा जगतीं वशमानयेत् । अहं पञ्चा- ङ्गबलवानाकाशं वशमानये ॥ Shbhāṣ. ˚गुप्तः a turtle. ˚पत्रम् a calendar. ˚विनिर्णयः the five rules are as follows; सहायाः साधनोपाया विभागो देशकालयोः । विनिपातप्रतीकारः सिद्धिः पञ्चाङ्ग- मिष्यते ॥ Kāmandak; cf. Ki.2.12. ˚शुद्धिः f. the propitiousness or favourable state of five important points; i. e. तिथि, वार, नक्षत्र, योग and करण (in astrology). -अङ्गिक a. five-membered. -अङ्गुल a. (-ला or -ली f.) measuring five fingers. (-लः) the castor-oil plant. -अ(आ)जम् the five products of the goat; cf. पञ्चगव्य. -अतिग a. liberated (मुक्त); सो$पि पञ्चातिगो$भवत् Mb. 12.59.9. -अप्सरस् n. N. of a lake, said to have been created by the sage Mandakarni; cf. R.13.38. -अमरा The five plants i. e. (Mar. भांग, दूर्वा, बेल, निर्गुडी and तुळस. -अमृत a. consisting of 5 ingredients. -(तम्) 1 the aggregate of five drugs; dry ginger, a species of Moonseed (Cocculus cordifolius, Mar. गुळवेल), Asparagus recemosus (Mar. शतावरी), Hypoxis brevifolia (Mar. मुसळी), गोक्षुरक (Mar. गोखरूं). -2 the collection of five sweet things used in worshipping deities; (दुग्धं च शर्करा चैव घृतं दधि तथा मधु). -3 the five elements; Māl.5.2. -अम्लम् the aggregate of five acid plants (the jujube, pomegranate, sorrel, spondias and citron). -अर्चिस् m. the planet Mercury. -अवयव a. five-membered (as a syllogism, the five members being, प्रतिज्ञा, हेतु, उदाहरण, उपनय and निगमन q. v.). -अवस्थः a corpse (so called because it is resolved into the five elements) cf. पञ्चत्व below. -अविकम् the five products of the sheep; cf. पञ्चगव्य. -अशीतिः f. eighty-five. -अहः a period of five days. -आतप a. doing penance with five fires. (i. e. with four fires and the sun); cf. R.13.41. -आत्मक a. consisting of five elements (as body). -आननः, -आस्यः, -मुखः, -वक्त्रः 1 epithets of Śiva. -2 a lion (so called because its mouth is generally wide open; पञ्चम् आननं यस्य), (often used at the end of names of learned men to express great learning or respect; न्याय˚, तर्क˚ &c. e. g. जगन्नाथतर्कपञ्चानन); see पञ्च a. -3 the sign Leo of the zodiac. (-नी) an epithet of Durgā. -आम्नायाः m. (pl.) five Śāstras supposed to have proceeded from the five mouths of Śiva. -आयतनी, -नम् a group of five deities like गणपति, विष्णु, शंकर, देवी and सूर्य. -इन्द्रियम् an aggregate of the five organs (of sense or actions; see इन्द्रियम्). -इषुः, -बाणः, -शरः epithets of the god of love; (so called because he has five arrows; their names are:-- अरविन्दमशोकं च चूतं च नवमल्लिका । नीलोत्पलं च पञ्चैते पञ्चबाणस्य सायकाः ॥ the five arrows are also thus named:-- संमोहनोन्मादनौ च शोषणस्तापनस्तथा । स्तम्भनश्चेति कामस्य पञ्चबाणाः प्रकीर्तिताः ॥). -उपचारः the five articles of worship i. e. (गन्ध, पुष्प, धूप, दीप and नैवेद्य). -उष्मन् m. (pl.) the five digestive fires supposed to be in the body. -कपाल a. prepared or offered in five cups. -कर्ण a. branded in the ear with the number 'five' (as cattle &c.); cf. P.VI.3.115. -कर्मन् n. (in medicine) the five kinds of treatment; i. e. 1 वमन 'giving emetics'; 2 रेचन 'purging'; 3 नस्य 'giving strenutatories'; 4 अनुवासन 'administering an enema which is oily', and 5 निरूह 'administering an enema which is not oily. वमनं रेचनं नस्यं निरूहश्चानुवासनम् । पञ्चकर्मेदमन्यश्च ज्ञेयमुत्क्षेपणादिकम् ॥ -कल्याणकः a horse with white feet and a white mouth. -कषाय a decoction from the fruits of five plants (जम्बु, शाल्मलि, वाट्याल, बकुल and बदर). -कृत्यम् the five actions by which the Supreme Power manifests itself (सृष्टि, स्थिति, संहार, तिरोभाव and अनुग्रह- करण). -कृत्वस् ind. five times. -कृष्णः A kind of game. (-ष्णाः) The five deities of Mahānubhāva sect namely चक्रवर्ती कृष्ण, Datta of Mātāpura, Gundam Raul of ऋद्धिपुर, चांगदेव राऊळ of द्वारावती and चांगदेव राऊळ of प्रतिष्ठान. -कोणः a pentagon. -कोलम् the five spices taken collectively; पिप्पली पिप्पलीमूलं चव्यचित्रकनागरम् । पञ्चकोलं ......... (Mar. पिंपळी, पिंपळमूळ, चवक, चित्रक व सुंठ). -कोषाः m. (pl.) the five vestures or wrappers supposed to invest the soul; they are:-- अन्नमयकोष or the earthly body (स्थूलशरीर); प्राणमयकोष the vesture of the vital airs; मनो- मयकोष the sensorial vesture; विज्ञानमयकोष the cognitional vesture (these three form the लिङ्गशरीर); and आनन्द- मयकोष the last vesture, that of beatitude. कोषैरन्नमयाद्यैः पञ्चभिरात्मा न संवृतो भाति । निजशक्तिसमुप्तन्नैः शैवालप़टलैरिवाम्बु वापीस्थम् ॥ Vivekachūdāmaṇi. -क्रोशी 1 a distance of five Kroṣas. -2 N. of the city, Banares. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी a collection of five beds. -गत a. (in alg.) raised to the fifth power. -गवम् a collection of five cows. -गव्यम् the five products of the cow taken collectively; i. e. milk, curds, clarified butter or ghee, urine, and cowdung (क्षीरं दधि तथा चाज्यं मूत्रं गोमयमेव च). -गु a. bought with five cows. -गुण a. five-fold. (-णाः) the five objects of sense (रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द). (-णी) the earth. -गुप्तः 1 a tortoise (as drawing in its 4 feet and head). -2 the materialistic system of philosophy, the doctrines of the Chārvākas. -घातः (in music) a kind of measure. -चत्वारिंश a. forty-fifth. -चत्वारिंशत् f. forty-five. -चामरम् N. of 2 kinds of metre; प्रमाणिकापदद्वयं वदन्ति पञ्चचामरम् Vṛittaratnākara. -जनः 1 a man, mankind. -2 N. of a demon who had assumed the form of a conch-shell, and was slain by Kṛiṣṇa; तस्मै प्रादाद्वरं पुत्रं मृतं पञ्चजनोदरात् Bhāg.3.3.2. -3 the soul. -4 the five classes of beings; i. e. gods, men, Gandharvas, serpents and pitṛis; यस्मिन् पञ्च पञ्चजना आकाशश्च प्रतिष्ठितः Bṛi. Up.4.4.17. -5 the four primary castes of the Hindus (ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र) with the Niṣādas or barbarians as the fifth (pl. in these two senses); (for a full exposition see Sārirabhāṣya on Br. Sūtras 1.4.11-13). (-नी) an assemblage of five persons. -जनीन a. devoted to the five races. (-नः) an actor, a mimic, buffoon, one who is devoted to the pentad viz. singer, musician, dancer, harlot and a jester; गायकवादक- नर्तकदासीभण्डरतः खलु पञ्चजनीनः Bhāsāvritti on P.V.1.9. -ज्ञानः 1 an epithet of Buddha as possessing the five kinds of knowledge. -2 a man familiar with the doctrines of the Pāśupatas. -तक्षम्, -क्षी a collection of five carpenters. -तत्त्वम् 1 the five elements taken collectively; i. e. पृत्थी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश. -2 (in the Tantras) the five essentials of the Tāntrikas, also called पञ्चमकार because they all begin with म; i. e. मद्य, मांस, मत्स्य, मुद्रा and मैथुन. -तन्त्रम् N. of a well-known collection in five books containing moral stories and fables by Visnugupta; पञ्चतन्त्रात्तथान्यस्माद् ग्रन्थादाकृष्य लिख्यते H. Pr.9. -तन्मात्रम् the five subtle and primary elements (such as शब्द, रस, स्पर्श and रूप and गन्ध). -तपस् m. an ascetic who in summer practises penance sitting in the middle of four fires with the sun burning right over his head; cf. हविर्भुजामेधवतां चतुर्णां मध्ये ललाटंतपसप्तसप्तिः R.13.41; Ku.5.23; Ms.6.23 and Śi.2.51. also; ग्रीष्मे पञ्चतपा वीरो वर्षास्वासारषाण्मुनिः Bhāg. 4.23.6; Rām.3.6.5. -तय a. five-fold; वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः Mbh. (-यः) a pentad. -तिक्तम् the five bitter things:-- निवामृतावृषपटोलनिदिग्धिकाश्च. -त्रिंश a. thirtyfifth. -त्रिंशत्, -त्रिंशतिः f. thirty-five. -दश a. 1 fifteenth. -2 increased by fifteen; as in पञ्चदशं शतम् 'one hundred and fifteen'. -दशन् a. (pl.) fifteen. ˚अहः a period of fifteen days. -दशिन् a. made or consisting of fifteen. -दशी 1 the fifteenth day of a lunar fortnight (the full or new moon day); Y.1.146. -2 N. of a philosophical work (प्रकरणग्रन्थ) by माधवाचार्य (विद्यारण्य). -दीर्घम् the five long parts of the body; the arms, eyes, belly, nose and breast; बाहू नेत्रद्वयं कुक्षिर्द्वे तु नासे तथैव च । स्तनयोरन्तरं चैव पञ्चदीर्घं प्रचक्षते ॥ -देवताः the five deities:-- आदित्यं गणनाथं च देवीं रुद्रं च केशवम् । पञ्चदैवतमित्युक्तं सर्वकर्मसु पूजयेत् ॥ -धारणक a. upheld by the five elements. -नखः 1 any animal with five claws; such as the hare, alligator, tortoise, porcupine, rhinoceros शशकः शल्लकी गोधा खड्गी कूर्मश्च पञ्चमः । पञ्च पञ्चनखा भक्ष्या ये प्रोक्ताः कृतजैर्द्विजैः Bk.6.131; Ms.5.17,18; Y.1.177. -2 an elephant. -3 a turtle. -4 a lion or tiger. -नखी, -नखराज an iguana (Mar. घोरपड); Gīrvāṇa. -नदः 'the country of five rivers, the modern Panjab (the five rivers being शतद्रु, विपाशा, इरावती, चन्द्रभागा and वितस्ता, or the modern names Sutlej, Beas, Ravee, Chenab and Jhelum). -दा (pl.) the people of this country. -नवतिः f. ninety-five. -निम्बम् the five products of निम्ब viz. (the flowers, fruit, leaves, bark and root). -नीराजनम् waving five things before an idol and then falling prostrate before it; (the five things being:-- a lamp, lotus, cloth, mango and betel-leaf). -पञ्चाश a. fiftyfifth. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-five. -पदी 1 five steps; पुंसो यमान्तं व्रजतो$पिनिष्ठुरै- रेतैर्धनैः पञ्चपदी न दीयते Pt.2.115. -2 the five strong cases, i. e. the first five inflections -पर्वन् n. (pl.) the five parvans q. v.; they are चतुर्दश्यष्टमी चैव अमावास्या च पूर्णिमा । पर्वाण्येतानि राजेन्द्र रविसंक्रान्तिरेव च ॥ a. five-knotted (an arrow). -पल्लवम् The leaves of the mango, fig, banyan, ficus religiosa (Mar. पिंपळ) and Genus Ficus (Mar. पायरी). There are other variations such as पनस, आम्र, पिप्पल, वट and बकुल. The first group is for the Vedic ritual only. -पात्रम् 1 five vessels taken collectively. -2 a Srāddha in which offerings are made in five vessels. -पाद् a. consisting of five feet, steps, or parts; पञ्चपादं पितरम् Praśna Up.1.11. (-m.) a year (संवत्सर). -पादिका N. of a commentary on शारीरकभाष्य. -पितृ m. (pl.) the five fathers:-- जनकश्चोपनेता च यश्च कन्यां प्रयच्छति । अन्नदाता भयत्राता पञ्चैते पितरः स्मृताः ॥ -पित्तम् the bile of five animals viz. (the boar, goat, buffalo, fish and peacock). -प्रस्थ a. having five elevations (a forest). -प्राणाः m. (pl.) the five life-winds or vital airs: प्राण, अपान, व्यान, उदान, and समान. -प्रासादः a temple of a particular size with four pinnacles and a steeple. -बन्ध a fine equal to the fifth part of anything lost or stolen. -बलाः five medicinal herbs, namely बला, नागबला, महाबला, अति- बला and राजबला. -बाणः, -वाणः, -शरः epithets of the god of love; see पञ्चेषु. -बाहुः N. of Śiva. -बिन्दुप्रसृतम् N. of a particular movement in dancing; Dk.2. -बीजानि the five seeds:--कर्कटी, त्रपुस, दाडिम, पद्मबीज, and वानरीबीज. -भद्र a. 1 having five good qualities. -2 consisting of five good ingredients (as a sauce &c.). -3 having five auspicious marks (as a horse) in the chest, back, face and flanks. -4 vicious. -द्रः a kind of pavilion. -भागिन् m. the five deities of पञ्चमहा- यज्ञ; धर्मकामविहीनस्य चुक्रुधुः पञ्चभागिनः Bhāg.11.23.9. -भुज a. pentagonal. (-जः) 1 a pentagon; cf. पञ्चकोण. -2 N. of Gaṇeśa. -भूतम् the five elements; पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश. -भृङ्गाः the five trees, viz. देवदाली (Mar. देवडंगरी), शमी, भङ्गा (Mar. भांग), निर्गुण्डी and तमालपत्र. -मकारम् the five essentials of the left-hand Tantra ritual of which the first letter is म; see पञ्चतत्त्व (2). -महापातकम् the five great sins; see महापातक Ms.11. 54. -महायज्ञाः m. (pl.) the five daily sacrifices enjoined to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृ- यज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो बलिर्भौतो नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7. अहुतं च हुतं चैव तथा प्रहुतमेव च । ब्राह्मं हुतं प्राशितं च पञ्च यज्ञान् प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.3.73; see महायज्ञ. -मारः son of Baladeva; L. D. B. -माश(षि)क a. consisting of five Māṣas (as a fine &c.). -माष(षि)क a. amounting to five māṣas; गर्दभाजाविकानां तु दण्डः स्यात्पञ्चमाषिकः Ms.8.298. -मास्य a. happening every five months. -मुखः an arrow with five points; (for other senses see पञ्चानन.) -मुद्रा five gestures to be made in presenting offerings to an idol; viz आवाहनी, स्थापनी, संनिधापनी, संबोधनी and संमुखीकरणी; see मुद्रा. -मूत्रम् the urine of five female animals; the cow, goat, she-buffalo, sheep, and she-ass.). -मूलम् there are nine varieties of the pentad combinations of roots; लघुपञ्चमूल, बृहत्पञ्चमूल, शतावर्यादि, तृणपञ्चमूल, जीवकादिपञ्चमूल, पुनर्नवादिपञ्चमूल, गोक्षुरादि˚, वल्ली˚. -रत्नम् a collection of five gems; (they are variously enumerated: (1) नीलकं वज्रकं चेति पद्मरागश्च मौक्तिकम् । प्रवालं चेति विज्ञेयं पंचरत्नं मनीषिभिः ॥ (2) सुवर्णं रजतं मुक्ता राजावर्तं प्रवालकम् । रत्नपञ्चकमाख्यातम् ...॥ (3) कनकं हीरकं नीलं पद्मरागश्च मौक्तिकम् । पञ्चरत्नमिदं प्रोक्त- मृषिभिः पूर्वदर्शिभिः ॥ -2 the five most admired episodes of the Mahābhārata; गीता, विष्णुसहस्रनाम, भीष्मस्तवराज, अनुस्मृति and गजेन्द्रमोक्ष). -रसा the आमलकी tree (Mar. आंवळी). -रात्रम् 1 a period of five nights; इत्यर्थं वयमानीताः पञ्चरात्रो$पि विद्यते Pañch.3.24. -2 N. of one of Bhāsa's dramas. -3 N. of a philosophical treatise attributed to Nārada. -4 N. of an अहीन (sacrifice) lasting for 5 days; स एतं पञ्चरात्रं पुरुषमेधं यज्ञक्रतुमपश्यत् Śat. Br.; cf. Mb.12.218. 11. -राशिकम् the rule of five (in math.). -लक्षणम् a Purāṇa; so called because it deals with five important topics:-- सर्गश्च प्रतिसर्गश्च वंशो मन्वन्तराणि च । वंशानुचरितं चैव पुराणं पञ्चलक्षणम् ॥ see पुराण also. -लवणम् five kinds of salt; i. e. काचक, सैन्धव, सामुद्र, बिड and सौवर्चल. -लाङ्गलकम् a gift (महादान) of as much land as can be cultivated with five ploughs. -लोकपालः the five guardian deities viz. Vināyaka, Durgā, Vāyu, Ākāśa and Aśvinīkumāra. -लोहम् a metallic alloy containing five metals (i. e. copper, brass, tin, lead and iron). -लोहकम् the five metals i. e. gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. -वटः the sacred or sacrificial thread worn across the breast (यज्ञोपवीत). -वटी 1 the five fig-trees: i. e. अश्वत्थ, बिल्व, वट, धात्री and अशोक. -2 N. of a part of the Daṇḍakā forest where the Godāvarī rises and where Rāma dwelt for a considerable time with his beloved; it is two miles from Nasik; परिहरन्तमपि मामितः पञ्चवटीस्नेहो बलादाकर्षतीव U.2.27/28; R.13.34. -वर्गः 1 an aggregate of five. -2 the five essential elements of the body. -3 the five organs of sense; संतुष्टपञ्चवर्गो$हं लोकयात्रां प्रवाहये Rām.2.19.27. -4 the five daily sacrifices enjoined to be performed by a Brāhmaṇa; cf. महायज्ञ. -5 the five classes of spies (कापटिक, उदास्थित, गृहपतिव्यञ्जन, वैदेहिकव्यञ्जन and तापसव्यञ्जन); cf. Kull. on Ms.7.154. -वर्षदेशीय a. about five years old. -वर्षीय a. five years old. -वल्कलम् a collection of the barks of five kinds of trees; namely न्यग्रोध, उदुम्बर, अश्वत्थ, प्लक्ष and वेतस. -वल्लभा N. of Draupadī. -वार्षिक a. recurring every five years. -वाहिन् a. drawn by five (as a carriage). -विंश a. twenty-fifth. -शः 1 a Stoma consisting of 25 parts. -2 N. of Viṣṇu (regarded as the 25th तत्त्व); स तु जन- परितापं तत्कृतं जानता ते नरहर उपनीतः पञ्चतां पञ्चविंश Bhāg. 7.8.53. -विंशतिः f. twenty-five. -विंशतिका a collection of twenty-five; as in वेतालपञ्चविंशतिका. -विध a. fivefold, of five kinds. ˚प्रकृतिः f. the five departments of a government; अमात्यराष्ट्रदुर्गार्थदण्डाख्याः पञ्च चापराः Ms.7.157. -वीरगोष्ठम् an assembly room, concert-hall; रागमञ्जरी नाम पञ्चवीरगोष्ठे संगीतकमनुष्ठास्यति Dk.2. -वृत्, -वृतम् ind. five-fold. -वृत्तिता depending on senses; Rām.2.1.65. -शत a. amounting to five hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and five. -2 five hundred. -शाखः 1 the hand; स्वशिरः पश्चशाखाभ्यामभिहत्यायतेक्षणा Mb.11.17.3; कदापि नो मुञ्चति पञ्चशाखः (नारायणस्य) Rām. Ch.1.9; स्फूर्जद्रत्नाङ्गुलीयद्युतिशबलनखद्योतिभिः पञ्चशाखैः Śiva B.3.49. -2 an elephant. -शारदीयः N. of a Yāga. -शिखः a lion. -शीलम् the five rules of conduct; Buddh. -शुक्लम् The holy combination of five days, viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the month (day of the manes) and day time, हरिवासर and सिद्धक्षेत्र (cf. त्रिशुक्लम्). -ष a. (pl.) five or six; सन्त्यन्ये$पि बृहस्पतिप्रभृतयः संभाविताः पञ्चषाः Bh.2.34. -षष्ट a. sixty-fifth. -षष्टिः f. sixty-five. -सटः one with five tufts of hair on the head (सटाः जटाः केशसन्निवेशे मध्ये मध्ये पञ्चसु स्थानेषु क्षौरवद्वापनम्); दासो$यं मुच्यतां राज्ञस्त्वया पञ्चसटः कृतः Mb.3.272.18; (Mar. पांच पाट काढणें). -सप्तत a. seventy-fifth. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-five. -सस्यम् the five grains viz. धान्य, मुद्ग, तिल, यव and माष. -सिद्धान्ती f. the five astronomical doctrines from astronomical book like सूर्यसिद्धान्त etc. -सिद्धौषधयः the five medicinal plants:-- तैलकन्द, सुधाकन्द, क्रोडकन्द, रुदन्तिक, सर्पाक्षी. -सुगन्धकम् the five kinds of aromatic vegetable sub- stances; they are:-- कर्पूरकक्कोललवङ्गपुष्पगुवाकजातीफलपञ्चकेन । समांशभागेन च योजितेन मनोहरं पञ्चसुगन्धकं स्यात् ॥. -सूनाः f. the five things in a house by which animal life may be accidentally destroyed; they are:-- पञ्चसूना गृहस्थस्य चुल्ली पेषण्युपस्करः कण्डनी चोदकुम्भश्च Ms.3.68. -सूरणाः the five medicinal esculent roots; sweet and bitter सूरण, अत्यम्ल- पर्णी, काण्डीर, मालाकन्द. &c. -स्रोतम् n. the mind; पञ्चस्रोतसि निष्णातः Mb.12.218.11. (com. पञ्चस्त्रोतांसि विषयकेदारप्रणालिका यस्य तस्मिन् मनसि). -हायन a. five years old.
pañcatā पञ्चता त्वम् 1 Five-fold state. -2 A collection of five. -3 The five elements taken collectively. -4 the body; त्रित्वे हुत्वाथ पञ्चत्वं तच्चैकत्वे$जुहोन्मुनिः Bhāg.1.15.42. -5 Death, dissolution; -पञ्चतां, -त्वम् गम्, -या &c. means 'to be resolved into the five elements of which the body consists', 'to die or perish'; -पञ्चतां, -त्वं नी 'to kill or destroy'; पञ्चभिर्निर्मिते देहे पञ्चत्वं च पुनर्गते । स्वां स्वां योनिमनु- प्राप्ते तत्र का परिवेदना ॥ Ratn.3.3; शब्दादिभिः पञ्चभिरेव पञ्च पञ्चत्वमापुः स्वगुणेन बद्धाः Vivekachūdāmaṇi.
patañjaliḥ पतञ्जलिः N. of the celebrated author of the Mahābhāṣya, the great commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras; also of a philosopher, the propounder of the Yoga philosophy.
padma पद्म a. [पद्-मन्] Lotus-hued. -द्मम् 1 A lotus (m. also in this sense); Nelumbium Speciosum (variety red); पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम्. -2 A lotus-like ornament. -3 The form or figure of a lotus. -4 The root of a lotus. -5 The coloured marks on the trunk and face of an elephant; कालः किरातः स्फुटपद्मकस्य वधं व्यधा- द्यस्य दिनद्विपस्य N.22.9; -6 An army arrayed in the form of a lotus; पद्मेन चैव व्यूहेन निविशेत सदा स्वयम् Ms.7. 188. -7 A particular high number (one thousand billions). -8 Lead. -9 N. given by the Tāntrikas to the six divisions of the upper part of the body called Chakras. -1 A mark or mole on the human body. -11 A spot. -12 N. of a particular part of a column. -द्मः A kind of temple. -2 N. of a quarter-elephant. ये पद्मकल्पैरपि च द्विपेन्द्रैः Bu. Ch.2.3. -3 A species of serpent. -4 An epithet of Rāma. -5 One of the nine treasures of Kubera; see नवनिधि. -6 A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment. -7 A particular posture of the body in religious meditation. -8 One of the eight treasures connected with the magical art called पद्मिनी. -द्मा 1 N. of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, and wife of Viṣṇu; (तं) पद्मा पद्मातपत्रेण भेजे साम्राज्य- दीक्षितम् R.4.5. -2 Cloves. -Comp. -अक्ष a. lotuseyed; रामं दूर्वादलश्यामं पद्माक्षं पीतवाससम् Rāmarakśā 25, (-क्षः) an epithet of Viṣṇu or the sun; (-क्षम्) the seed of a lotus. -अटः Cassia Tora (Mar. टाकळा). -अन्तरम्, -रः a lotus-leaf. -आकरः 1 a large tank of pond abounding in lotuses. -2 a pond or pool or water in general. -3 a lotus-pool. -4 an assemblage of lotuses; पद्माकरं दिनकरो विकचीकरोति Bh.2.73. -आलयः an epithet of Brahman, the creator. (-या) 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī. -2 cloves. -आसनम् 1 a lotus-seat; प्रणेमतुस्तौ पितरौ प्रजानां पद्मासनस्थाय पितामहाय Ku.7.86. -2 a particular posture in religious meditation; ऊरुमूले वाम- पादं पुनस्तु दक्षिणं पदम् । वामोरौ स्थापयित्वा तु पद्मासनमिति स्मृतम् ॥; ध्यायेदाजानुबाहुं धृतशरधनुषं बद्धपद्मासनस्थम् Rāmaraṣā 1. -3 a kind of coitus. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Brahman, the creator. -2 of Śiva. -3 of the sun. -आह्वम् cloves. -उद्भवः an epithet of Brahman. -कर, -हस्त a. holding a lotus. (-रः, -स्तः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 a lotus like hand. -3 N. of the sun. (-रा, -स्ता) N. of Lakṣmī. -कर्णिका 1 the pericarp of a lotus. -2 the central part of an army arrayed in the form of a lotus. -कलिका a lotus-bud, an unblown lotus. -काष्ठम् a fragrant wood used in medicine. -केशरः, -रम् the filament of a lotus. -कोशः, -कोषः 1 the calyx of a lotus. -2 a position of the fingers resembling the calyx of a lotus. -खण्डम्, -षण्डम् a multitude of lotuses. -गन्ध, -गन्धि a. lotus-scented, or as fragrant as or smelling like a lotus. (-न्धम्, -गन्धि n.) = पद्मकाष्ठ q. v. -गर्भः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 of Śiva. -4 of Buddha. -5 the sun. -6 the inside or middle of a lotus; पद्मगर्भादिवोद्धृतम् Kāv.2.41. -गुणा, -गृहा 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -2 cloves. -जः, -जातः, -भवः, -भूः, -योनिः, -संभवः epithets of Brahman, the lotus-born god. -तन्तुः the fibrous stalk of a lotus. -नाभः, -भिः an epithet of Viṣṇu; शान्ताकारं भुजगशयनं पद्मनाभं सुरेशम्. -नाभः 1 N. of the eleventh month (reckoned from मार्गशीर्ष). -2 a magical formula spoken over weapons. -नालम् a lotus-stalk. -निधिः a treasure of the value of a Padma. -पाणिः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 N. of Buddha. -3 N. of the sun. -4 of Viṣṇu. -पुष्पः the Karṇikāra plant. -प्रिया the goddess Manasā, the wife of sage Jaratkāru. -बन्धः a kind of artificial composition in which the words are arranged in the form of a lotus-flower; see K. P.9. ad. loc. -बन्धुः 1 the sun, -2 a bee. -बीजम् the seed of a lotus. -भासः an epithet of Śiva. -मालिनी the goddess of wealth. -मुद्रा (-द्रिका) a particular pose according to Tantraśāstra; हस्तौ तु संमुखौ कृत्वा तदधः प्रोथिताङ्गुली । तलान्तर्मिलिताङ्गुष्ठौ कृत्वैषा पद्ममुद्रिका ॥ Tantrasāra. -रागः, -गम् a ruby; R.13.53;17.23; Ku.3.53; Kau. A.2.11.29; आकरे पद्मरागाणां जन्म काचमणेः कुतः ॥ H. -रूपा an epithet of the goddess of wealth. -रेखा a figure on the palm of the hand (of the form of a lotus-flower) which indicates the acquisition of great wealth. -लाञ्छनः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 Kubera. -3 the sun. -4 a king. (-ना) 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -2 or of Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning. -3 N. of Tārā. -वनबान्धवः the sun. -वर्चस् a. lotus-hued. -वासा an epithet of Lakṣmī. -समासनः an epithet of Brahman. -स्नुषा 1 an epithet of Gaṅgā. -2 of Lakṣmī. -3 of Durgā. -हस्तः a particular measure of length. -हासः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
parijalpitam परिजल्पितम् A covert indication (as by a servant) of one's own skill, superiority &c. by pointing out the cruelty, deceitfulness and such other faults of his master; Ujjvalamaṇi thus defines it:-- प्रभोर्निर्दयताशाठ्य- चापलाद्युपपादनात् । स्वविचक्षणताव्यक्तिर्भङ्ग्या स्यात् परिजल्पितम् ॥ (Wilson renders the word by 'the covert reproaches of a mistress neglected or ill-used by her lover'.)
paribhāṣā परिभाषा 1 Speech, discourse; ग्राम्यवैदग्ध्यया परिभाषया Bhāg.5.2.17. -2 Censure, reproof, blame, abuse. -3 An explanation. -4 Terminology, technical phraseology, technical terms (used in a work); इति परिभाषाप्रकरणम् Sk.; इको गुणवृद्धीत्यादिका परिभाषा Mbh; cf. also अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते । कश्चित् परिभाषारूप इति Kaiyaṭa. -5 (Hence) Any general rule, precept or definition which is applicable throughout (अनियमनिवारको न्याय- विशेषः); परितः प्रमिताक्षरापि सर्वं विषयं प्राप्तवती गता प्रतिष्ठाम् । न खलु प्रतिहन्यते कदाचित् परिभाषेव गरीयसी यदाज्ञा Śi.16.8. -6 A list of abbreviations or signs used in any work. -7 (In gram.) An explanatory Sūtra mixed up with the other Sūtras of Pāṇini, which teaches the method of applying them. -8 (In medicine) Prognosis.
ṇinīya पाणिनीय a. Relating to or composed by Pāṇini; पाणिनीयमिवालोकि धीरैस्तत्समराजिरम् Śi.19.75. -यः A follower of Pāṇini; अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः. -यम् The grammar of Pāṇini.
pādaḥ पादः [पद्यते गम्यते$नेन करणे कर्मणि वा घञ्] 1 The foot (whether of men or animals); तयोर्जगृहतुः पादान् R.1.57; पादयोर्निपत्य, पादपतित &c. (The word पाद at the end of comp. is changed to पाद् after सु and numerals; i. e. सुपाद्, द्विपाद्, त्रिपाद् &c.; and also when the first member is used as a standard of comparison, but is a word other than हस्ति &c.; see P.V.4.138-14; e. g. व्याघ्रपाद्. The nom. pl. of पाद is often added to names of persons or titles of address to show great respect or veneration; मृष्यन्तु लवस्य बालिशतां तातपादाः U.6; जीवत्सु तातपादेषु 1.19; देवपादानां नास्माभिः प्रयोजनम् Pt.1; so एवमाराध्यपादा आज्ञापयन्ति Prab.1; so कुमारिलपादाः &c. -2 A ray of light; बालस्यापि रवेः पादाः पतन्त्युपरि भूभृताम् Pt.1.328; Śi.9.34; R.16.53 (where the word has sense 1 also). -3 The foot or leg of an inanimate object, as of a bed-stead; चतुष्पदी हि निःश्रेणी ब्रह्मण्येव प्रतिष्ठिता Mb.12.2.4. -4 The foot or root of a tree; as in पादप. -5 The foot of a mountain, a hill at the foot of a mountain (पादाः प्रत्यन्तपर्वताः); रेवां द्रक्ष्यस्युपलविषमे विन्ध्यपादे विशीर्णाम् Me.19; Ś.6.17. -6 A quarter, fourth part; as in सपादो रूपकः 'one and one fourth rupee'; Ms.8.241; Y.2.174; कार्षापणे दीयमाने पादो$पि दत्तो भवति ŚB. on MS.6.7.2. -7 The fourth part of a stanza, a line. -8 The fourth part of a chapter or book, as of the Adhyāyas of Pāṇini, or of the Brahma-sūtras. -9 A part in general. -1 A column, pillar; सहस्रपादं प्रासादं......अधिरोहन्मया दृष्टः Mb.5.143.3. -11 A foot as a measure equal to twelve Aṅgulis. -12 The quadrant of a circle. -13 The foot-hole or bottom of a water-skin; इन्द्रियाणां तु सर्वेषां यद्येकं क्षरतीन्द्रियम् । तेनास्य क्षरति प्रज्ञा दृतेः पादादिवोदकम् ॥ Ms.2.99. -14 A wheel; गिरिकूबरपादाक्षं शुभवेणु त्रिवेणुमत् Mb.3.175.4; Ki.12 21. -15 A golden coin (weighing one tola); स ह गवां सहस्रमव- रुरोध दश दश पादा एकैकस्याः शृङ्गयोराबद्धा बभुवुः Bṛi. Up.3.1.1. -Comp. -अग्रम् the point or extremity of the foot; पादाग्रस्थितया मुहुः स्तनभरेणानीतया नम्रताम् Ratn.1.1. -अङ्कः a foot-mark. -अङ्गदम्, -दी an ornament for the foot, an anklet. -अङ्गुलिः, -ली f. a toe. -अङ्गुष्ठः the great toe. -अङ्गुष्ठिका a ring worn on the great toe. -अन्तः the point or extremity of the feet. -अन्तरम् the interval of a step, distance of a foot. (-रे) ind. 1 after the interval of a step. -2 close or near to. -अन्तिकम् ind. near to, towards any one. -अम्बु n. butter-milk containing a fourth part of water. -अम्भस् n. water in which the feet (of revered persons) have been washed. -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पङ्कजम्, -पद्मम् a lotus-like foot. -अर्घ्यम् a gift to a Brāhmāṇa or a venerable person. -अर्धम् 1 half a quarter, an eighth; पादं पशुश्च योषिच्च पादार्धं रिक्तकः पुमान् Ms.8.44. -2 half a line of a stanza. -अलिन्दी a boat. -अवनामः bowing to a person's feet; इति कृतवचनायाः कश्चिदभ्येत्य बिभ्यद्गलितनयनवारेर्याति पादावनामम् Śi.11.35. -अवनेजः washing another's feet; विभ्व्यस्तवा- मृतकथोदवहास्त्रिलोक्याः पादावनेजसरितः शमलानि हन्तुम् Bhāg. 11.6.19. -अवसेचनम् 1 washing the feet. -2 the water used for washing the feet; दूरात् पादावसेचनम् Ms. 4.151. -अष्ठीलः the ankle; मर्मस्वभ्यवधीत् क्रुद्धः पादाष्ठालैः सुदारुणैः Mb.1.8.24. -आघातः a kick. -आनत a. prostrate, fallen at the feet of; कयासि कामिन् सुरतापराधात् पादानतः कोपनयावधूतः Ku.3.8. -आवर्तः 1 a wheel worked by the feet for raising up water from a well. -2 a square foot. -आसनम् a foot-stool. -आस्फालनम् trampling or motion of the feet, floundering. -आहतः a. kicked. -आहति f. 1 treading or trampling. -2 a kick. -उदकम्, -जलम् 1 water for washing the feet. -2 water in which the feet of sacred and revered persons are washed, and which is thus considered holy; विष्णु- पादोदकं तीर्थं जठरे धारयाम्यहम्. -उदरः a serpent; यथा पादो- दरस्त्वचा विनिर्मुच्यते Praśna. Up.5.5. -उद्धूतम् stamping the feet. -कटकः, -कम्, -कीलिका an anklet. -कृच्छ्रम् a vow in which taking of meals and observing a fast are done on alternate days; Y. -क्षेपः 1 a footstep. -2 a kick with the foot. -गण्डीरः a morbid swelling of the legs and feet. -ग्रन्थिः the ankle. -ग्रहणम् seizing or clasping the feet (as a mark of respectful salutation); अकारयत् कारयितव्यदक्षा क्रमेण पादग्रहणं सतीनाम् Ku.7.27. -चतुरः, -चत्वरः 1 a slanderer. -2 a goat. -3 the fig-tree. -4 a sand-bank. -5 hail. -चापल्यम् shuffling of the feet. -चारः going on foot, walking; यदि च विहरेत् पादचारेण गौरी Me.62 'if Gaurī should walk on foot'; R.11.1 -2 the daily position of the planets. -चारिन् a. 1 walking or going on foot. -2 fighting on foot. (-m.) 1 a pedestrian. -2 a foot-soldier. -च्छेदनम् cutting off a foot; पादेन प्रहरन् कोपात् पादच्छेदन- मर्हति Ms.8.28. -जः a sūdra; पादजोच्छिष्टकांस्यं यत्...... विशुद्धेद् दशभिस्तु तत् Mb.12.35.31. -जलम् 1 butter-milk mixed with one fourth of water. -2 water for the feet. -जाहम् the tarsus. -तलम् the sole of the foot. -त्रः, -त्रा, -त्राणम् a boot or shoe. -दारी, -दारिका a chap in the feet, chilblain. -दाहः a burning sensation in the feet. -धावनिका sand used for rubbing the feet. -नालिका an anklet. -निकेतः a foot-stool. -न्यासः movement of the feet; पादन्यासो लयमनुगतः M.2.9. -पः 1 a tree; निरस्तपादपे देशे एरण्डो$पि द्रुमायते H.1.67; अनुभवति हि मूर्ध्ना पादपस्तीव्रमुष्णम् Ś.5.7. -2 a foot-stool. (-पा) a shoe. ˚खण्डः, -ण्डम् a grove of trees. ˚रुहा a climbing plant. -पद्धतिः f. a track. -परिचारकः a humble servant. -पालिका an anklet. -पाशः 1 a foot-rope for cattle. -2 an anklet of small bells &c. (-शिकः, -शी) 1 a fetter; हस्तिपक-पादपाशिक-सैमिक-वनचर-पारिकर्मिकसखः Kau. A. -2 a mat. -3 a creeper. -पीठः, -ठम् a foot-stool; चूडामणिभि- रुद्घृष्टपादपीठं महीक्षिताम् R.17.28; Ku.3.11. -पीठिका 1 a vulgar trade (as that of a barber). -2 white stone. -पूरणम् 1 filling out a line; P.VI.1.134. -2 an expletive; तु पादपूरणे भेदे समुच्चये$वधारणे Viśva. -प्रक्षालनम् washing the feet; पादप्रक्षालने वज्री Subhāṣ. -प्रणामः prostration (at the feet). -प्रतिष्ठानम् a foot-stool. -प्रधारणम् a shoe. -प्रसारणम् stretching out the feet. -प्रहारः a kick. -बद्ध a. consisting of verses (as a metre). -बन्धनम् 1 a chain, fetter. -2 a stock of cattle. -भटः a foot soldier. -भागः a quarter. -मुद्रा a footprint. ˚पङ्क्तिः a track, trail. -मूलम् 1 the tarsus. -2 the sole of the foot. -3 the heel. -4 the foot of a mountain. -5 a polite way of speaking of a person; देवपादमूलमागताहम् K.8. -यमकः paronomasia within the Pādas. -रक्षः 1 a shoe. -2 a foot-guard; (pl.) armed men protecting the feet of an elephant in battle; शिरांसि पादरक्षाणां बीजवत् प्रवपन् मुहुः Mb.3.271.1. -रक्षणम् 1 a cover for the feet. -2 a leather boot or shoe. -रजस् n. the dust of the feet. -रज्जुः f. a tether for the foot of an elephant. -रथी a shoe, boot. -रोहः, -रोहणः the (Indian) fig-tree. -लग्नः a. lying at a person's feet. -लेपः an unguent for the feet. -वन्दनम् saluting the feet. -वल्मीकः elephantiasis. -विरजस् f. a shoe, boot. (-m.) a god. -वेष्टनिकः, -कम् a stocking. -शाखा a toe. -शैलः a hill at the foot of a mountain. -शोथः swelling of the foot; अन्योन्योपद्रवकृतः शोथः पादसमुत्थितः । पुरुषं हन्ति नारीं तु मुखजो गुह्यजो ह्ययम् ॥ Mādhava. -शौचम् cleaning the feet by washing, washing the feet; पादशौचेन गोविन्दः (तृप्तः) Pt.1.172. -संहिता the junction of words in a quarter of a stanza. -सेवनम्, -सेवा 1 showing respect by touching the feet. -2 service. -स्तम्भः a supporting beam, pillar, post. -स्फोटः 'cracking of the feet', chilblain. -हत a. kicked. -हर्षः numbness of the feet after pressure upon the crural nerves; हृष्यतः चरणौ यस्य भवतश्च प्रसुप्तवत् । पादहर्षः सः विज्ञेयः कफवातप्रकोपजः ॥ Suśruta. -हीनजलम् Water with a portion boiled, -हीनात् ind. 1 without division or transition -2 all at once.
pāraṃparyam पारंपर्यम् [परंपरैव स्वार्थे ष्यञ्] 1 Hereditary succession, continuous order; तस्मिन् देशे य आचारः पारंपर्यक्रमागतः । वर्णानां सान्तरालानां स सदाचार उच्यते Ms.2.18. -2 Traditional instruction, tradition. -3 Intermediation. -पारं- पर्येण ind. Successively, by degrees; निवृत्तेषु च सैन्येषु पारंपर्येण सर्वशः । निमुर्क्तकवचाः सर्वे भीष्ममीयुर्नराधिपाः ॥ Mb.6. 12.29. -Comp. -उपदेशः traditional instruction, tradition, regarded by the Paurāṇikas as a प्रमाण or proof.
pāvaka पावक a. [पू-ण्वुल्] Purifying; पन्थानं पावकं हित्वा जनको मौढ्यमास्थितः Mb.12.18.4. -कः 1 Fire; पावकस्य महिमा स गण्यते कक्षवज्ज्ज्वलति सागरे$पि यः R.11.75;3.9;16.87. -2 Agni or the god of fire. -3 The fire of lightning. -4 The Chitraka tree. -5 The number 'three'. -6 A person purified by religious abstraction, saint, sage. -7 Good conduct or behaviour. -8 N. of Varuṇa. -की 1 The wife of Agni. -2 Ved. N. of Sarasvatī. -Comp. -अरणिः an epithet of a plant called अग्निमन्य (Mar. थोर ऐरण). -अर्चिस् f. a flash of fire. -अस्त्रम् a fiery weapon; प्रशान्तमेव पावकास्त्रम् U.6.5/6. -आत्मजः 1 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -2 N. of a sage called सुदर्शन who married the daughter of Duryodhana of the Ikṣvāku family. -मणिः m. The Sūryakānta Maṇi. -शिखः (= अग्निशिखः) Saffron; Śiva B.3.19.
pūrṇi पूर्णिका A kind of bird (having a cleft beak = नासाचिन्नी). पूर्णिमा pūrṇimā पूर्णिमासी pūrṇimāsī पूर्णमा pūrṇamā पूर्णिमा पूर्णिमासी पूर्णमा The day of full moon; निखिलान्निशि पूर्णिमा तिथीनुपतस्थे$तिथिरेकिका तिथिः N.2.76.
pūrva पूर्व a. (Declined like a pronoun when it implies relative position in time or space, but optionally so in nom. pl.; and abl. and loc. sing.) 1 Being in front of, first, foremost. -2 Eastern, easterly, to the east of; ग्रामात् पर्वतः पूर्वः Sk.; पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य Ku.1.1. -3 Previous to, earlier than; ब्राह्मणे साहसः पूर्वः Ms.8.276. -4 Old, ancient; पूर्वसूरिभिः R.1.4; इदं कविभ्यः पूर्वेभ्यो नमोवाकं प्रशास्महे U.1.1. -5 Former, previous, anterior, prior, antecedent (opp. उत्तर); in this sense often at the end of comp. and translated by 'formerly.' or 'before'; श्रुतपूर्व &c.; व्यतीता या निशा पूर्वा पौराणां हर्षवर्धिनी Rām.7.37.1. -6 Aforesaid, before-mentioned. -7 Initial. -8 Established, customary, of long standing -9 Early, prime, पूर्वे वयसि Pt.1.165 'in early age or prime of life. -1 Elder (ज्येष्ठ); रामः पूर्वो हि नो भ्राता भविष्यति महीपतिः Rām.2.79.8. -11 (At the end of comp.) Preceded by, accompanied by, attended with; संबन्धमा भाषणपूर्वमाहुः R.2.58; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः Ś2.17; तान् स्मितपूर्वमाह Ku.7.47; बहुमानपूर्वया 5.31; दशपूर्वरथं यमाख्यया दशकण्ठारिगुरुं विदुर्बुधाः R.8.29; so मतिपूर्वम् Ms.11.147 'intentionally', 'knowingly'; 12.89; अबोधपूर्वम् 'unconsciously', Ś.5.2. &c. -र्वः An ancestor, a forefather; पूर्वैः किलायं परिवर्धितो नः R.13.3; पयः पूर्वैः सनिश्वासैः कवोष्णमुपभुज्यते 1.67;5.14; अनुकारिणि पूर्वेषां युक्तरूपमिदं त्वयि Ś.2.17. -र्वम् The forepart; अनवरतधनुर्ज्यास्फालनक्रूरपूर्वम् (गात्रम्) Ś.2.4. -र्वा 1 The east -2 N. of a country to the east of Madhyadeśa. -र्वम् ind. 1 Before (with abl.); मासात् पूर्वम्. -2 Formerly, previously, at first, antecedently, beforehand; तं पूर्वमभिवादयेत् Ms.2.117;3.94;8.25;; R. 12.35; प्रणिपातपूर्वम् K; भूतपूर्वखरालयम् U.2.17 'which formerly was the abode', &c.; समयपूर्वम् Ś.5. 'after a formal agreement.' -3 Immemorially. (पूर्वेण 'in front', 'before', 'to the east of', with gen. or acc.; अद्य पूर्वम् 'till-now', 'hitherto'; पूर्वः -ततः -पश्चात् -उपरि 'firstthen, first-afterwards', 'previously, subsequently', पूर्वम् -अधुना or -अद्य 'formerly-now.' -Comp. -अग्निः the sacred fire kept in the house (आवसथ्य). -अङ्गः the first day in the civil month. -अचलः, -अद्रिः the eastern mountain behind which the sun and moon are supposed to rise. -अधिकारिन् m. the first occupant, a prior owner. -अन्तः the end of a preceding word. -अपर a. 1 eastern and western; कतमो$यं पूर्वापर- समुद्रावगाढः सानुमानालोक्यते Ś.7; पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य Ku. 1.1. -2 first and last. -3 prior and subsequent, preceding and following. -4 connected with another. (-रम्) 1 what is before and behind. -2 connection; न च पूर्वापरं विद्यात् Ms.8.56. -3 the proof and the thing to be proved. ˚विरोधः inconsistency, incongruity. -अभि- मुख a. turned towards or facing the east. -अभ्यासः former practice or experience. -अम्बुधिः the eastern ocean. -अर्जित a. attained by former works. (-तम्) ancestral property. -अर्धः, -र्धम् 1 the first half; दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभिन्ना छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् Bh.2.6; समाप्तं पूर्वार्धम् &c. -2 the upper part (of the body); शकुन्तला पूर्वार्धेन शयनादुत्थाय Ś.3; R.16.6. -3 the first half of a hemistich. -अवसायिन् a. what occurs first or earlier; पूर्वावसायिनश्च बलीयांसो जघन्यावसायिभ्यः ŚB. on MS.12.2.34. -अह्णः the earlier part of the day, forenoon; Ms.4. 96,152. श्वः कार्यमद्य कुर्वीत पूर्वाह्णे चापराह्णिकम् (पूर्वाह्णतन, पूर्वा- ह्णिकः, पूर्वाह्णेतन a. relating to the forenoon). -आवेदकः a plaintiff. -आषाढा N. of the 2th lunar mansion consisting of two stars. -इतर a. western. -उक्त, -उदित a. beforementioned, aforesaid, -उत्तर a. north-eastern. (-रा) the north-east. (-रे dual) the preceding and following, antecedent and subsequent. -कर्मन् n. 1 a former act or work. -2 the first thing to be done, a prior work. -3 actions done in a former life. -4 preparations, preliminary arrangements. -कल्पः former times. -कायः 1 the fore-part of the body of animals; पश्चार्धेन प्रविष्टः शरपतनभयाद् भूयसा पूर्वकायम् Ś.1.7. -2 the upper part of the body of men; स्पृशन् करेणानतपूर्वकायम् R.5.32; पर्यङ्कबन्धस्थिरपूर्वकायम् Ku.3.45. -काल a. belonging to ancient times. (-लः) former or ancient times. -कालिक, -कालीन a. ancient. -काष्ठा the east, eastern quarter. -कृत a. previously done. (-तम्) an act done in a former life. -कोटिः f. the starting point of a debate, the first statement or पूर्वपक्ष q. v. -क्रिया preparation. -गा N. of the river Godāvarī. -गङ्गा N. of the river Narmadā; रेवेन्दुजा पूर्वगङ्गा नर्मदा मेकलीद्रिजा Abh. Chin.183. -चोदित a. 1 aforesaid, above-mentioned. -2 previously stated or advanced (as an objection. -ज a. 1 born or produced before or formerly, first-produced, first-born; यमयोः पूर्वजः पार्थः Mb.3.141. 11. -2 ancient, old. -3 eastern. (-जः) 1 an elder brother; अपहाय महीशमार्चिचत् सदसि त्वां ननु भामपूर्वजः; Śi. 16.44; R.15.36. -2 the son of the elder wife. -3 an ancestor, a forefather; स पूर्वजानां कपिलेन रोषात् R.16.34. -4 (pl.) the progenitors of mankind. -5 the manes living in the world of the moon. (-जा) an elder sister. -जन्मन् n. a former birth. (-m.) an elder brother; स लक्ष्मणं लक्ष्मणपूर्वजन्मा (विलोक्य) R.14.44.;15.95. -जातिः f. a former birth. -ज्ञानम् knowledge of a former life. -तापनीयम् N. of the first half of नृसिंहतापनीयोपनिषद्. -दक्षिण a. south-eastern. (-णा) the south-east. -दिक्पतिः Indra, the regent of the east. -दिनम् the forenoon. -दिश् f. the east. -दिश्य a. situated towards the east, eastern. -दिष्टम् the award of destiny. -दृष्ट a. 1 primæval. -2 declared by the ancients; यथा ब्राह्मण- चाण्डालः पूर्वदृष्टस्तथैव सः Ms.9.87. -देवः 1 an ancient deity. -2 a demon or Asura; भूमिदेवनरदेवसंगमे पूर्वदेवरिपुरर्हणां हरिः Śi.14.58. -3 a progenitor (पितृ). -4 (du.) an epithet of Nara-Nārāyaṇa; सव्यसाचिन् महाबाहो पूर्वदेव सनातन Mb.3. 41.35. (com. पूर्वदेव नरनारायणसख). -देवता a progenitor (पितृ) of gods or of men; अक्रोधनाः शौचपराः सततं ब्रह्म- चारिणः । न्यस्तशस्त्रा महाभागाः पितरः पूर्वदेवताः ॥ Ms.3.192. -देशः the eastern country, or the eastern part of India. -द्वार a. favourable in the eastern region. -निपातः the irregular priority of a word in a compound; cf. परनिपात. -निमित्त an omen. -निविष्ट a. made formerly, in past; यस्तु पूर्वनिविष्टस्य तडागस्योदकं हरेत् Ms.9.281. -पक्षः 1 the fore-part or side. -2 the first half of a lunar month; सर्वं पूर्वपक्षापरपक्षाभ्यामभिपन्नम् Bṛi. Up.3.1.5. -3 the first part of an argument, the prima facie argument or view of a question; विषयो विशयश्चैव पूर्वपक्षस्तथोत्तरम्. -4 the first objection to an argument. -5 the statement of the plaintiff. -6 a suit at law. -7 an assertion, a proposition. ˚पादः the plaint, the first stage of a legal proceeding. -पदम् the first member of a compound or sentence. -पर्वतः the eastern mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. -पश्चात्, -पश्चिम ind. from the east to the west. -पाञ्चालक a. belonging to the eastern Pañchālas. -पाणिनीयाः m. (pl.) the disciples of Pāṇini living in the east. -पालिन् m. an epithet of Indra. -पितामहः a forefather, an ancestor; अब्रवीद् हि स मां क्रुद्धस्तव पूर्वपितामहः । मूत्रश्लेष्माशनः पाप निरयं प्रतिपत्स्यसे ॥ Mb.12.3.21. -पीठिका introduction. -पुरुषः 1 an epithet of Brahmā. -2 anyone of the first three ancestors, beginning with the father (पितृ, पितामह, and प्रपितामह); Pt.1.89. -3 an ancestor in general. -पूर्व a. each preceding one. (-र्वाः) m. (pl.) forefathers. -प्रोष्ठपदा = पूर्वभाद्रपदा; Mb.13.89.13. -फल्गुनी the eleventh lunar mansion containing two stars. ˚भवः an epithet of the planet Jupiter. -बन्धुः first or best friend; Mk. -भवः a former life. -भागः 1 the forepart. -2 the upper part. -भा(भ)द्रपदा the twentyfifth lunar mansion containing two stars. -भावः 1 priority. -2 prior or antecedent existence; येन सहैव यस्य यं प्रति पूर्वभावो$वगम्यते Tarka K. -3 (Rhet.) disclosing an intention. -भाषिन् a. willing to speak first; hence polite, courteous. -भुक्तिः f. prior occupation or possession; Ms.8.252. -भूत a. preceding, previous. -मध्याह्नः the forenoon. -मारिन् a. dying before; एवंवृत्तां सवर्णां स्त्रीं द्विजातिः पूर्वमारिणीम् (दाहयेत्) Ms.5.167. -मीमांसा 'the prior or first Mīmāṁsā', an inquiry into the first or ritual portion of the Veda, as opposed to the उत्तरमीमांसा or वेदान्त; see मीमांसा. -मुख a. having the face turned towards the east. -याम्य a. south-eastern. -रङ्गः the commencement or prelude of a drama, the prologue; यन्नाठ्यवस्तुनः पूर्वं रङ्गविघ्नोपशान्तये । कुशीलवाः प्रकुर्वन्ति पूर्वरङ्गः स उच्यते ॥ D. R; पूर्वरङ्गं विधायैव सूत्रधारो निवर्तते S. D.283; पूर्वरङ्गः प्रसंगाय नाटकीयस्य वस्तुनः Śi.2.8. (see Malli. thereon). -रागः the dawning or incipient love, love between two persons which springs (from some previous cause) before their meeting; श्रवणाद् दर्शनाद् वापि मिथः संरूढरागयोः । दशाविशेषोयो$प्राप्तौ पूर्वरागः स उच्यते ॥ S. D.214. -रात्रः the first part of the night (from dusk to midnight). -रूपम् 1 indication of an approaching change; an omen. -2 a symptom of occuring disease. -3 the first of two concurrent vowels or consonants that is retained. -4 (in Rhet.) a figure of speech which consists in describing anything as suddenly resuming its former state. -लक्षणम् a symptom of coming sickness. -वयस् a. young. (-n.) youth. -वर्तिन् a. existing before, prior, previous. -वाक्यम् (in dram.) an allusion to former utterance. -वादः the first plea or commencement of an action at law; पूर्ववादं परित्यज्य यो$न्यमालम्बते पुनः । पदसंक्रमणाद् ज्ञेयो हीनवादी स वै नरः ॥ Mitā. -वादिन् m. the complainant or plaintiff. -विद् a. knowing the events of the past; historian; पृथोरपीमां पृथिवीं भार्यां पूर्वविदो विदुः Ms.9.44. -विप्रतिषेधः the conflict of two statements contrary to each other. -विहित a. deposited before. -वृत्तम् 1 a former event; पूर्ववृत्तकथितैः पुराविदः सानुजः पितृ- सखस्य राघवः (अह्यमानः) R.11.1. -2 previous conduct. -वैरिन् a. one who first commences hostilities, an aggressor. -शारद a. relating to the first half of autumn. -शैलः see पूर्वपर्वत. -सक्थम् the upper part of the thigh. P. V.4.98. -संचित a. gathered before (as in former birth); त्यजेदाश्वयुजे मासि मुन्यन्नं पूर्वसंचितम् Ms.6.15. -सन्ध्या daybreak, dawn; रजनिमचिरजाता पूर्वसंध्या सुतैव (अनुपतति) Si.11.4. -सर a. going in front. -सागरः the eastern ocean; स सेनां महतीं कर्षन् पूर्वसागरगामिनीम् R.4.32. -साहसः the first of the three fines; स दाप्यः पूर्वसाहसम् Ms.9.281. -स्थितिः f. former or first state.
pṛṣatkaḥ पृषत्कः 1 An arrow; पृषत्कबाणविशिखाः Ak.; तदुपोढैश्च नभश्चरैः पृषत्कः Ki.13.23; Śi.2.18; Vb.1.1; धनुर्भृतां हस्तवतां पृषत्काः R.7.45; चकास्ति यल्लोचनयोः पृषत्कता Rām. Ch.2.5. पृषत्कोत्कृत्तमस्तकाः Śiva B.13.18. -2 A round spot. -3 The versed sine of an arc; Gaṇitādhhyāya.
prakaraṇam प्रकरणम् 1 Treating, explaining, discussing. -2 (a) A subject, topic, department, a subject (of representation); कतमत् प्रकरणमाश्रित्य Ś.1. (b) A head or subject of treatment. (c) A province or department. -3 A section, chapter or any smaller division of a work. तस्यायं प्रकरणाधिकरणसमुद्देशः Kau. A.1.1.1. -4 An opportunity, occasion. -5 An affair, a matter; अस्मिन्नेव प्रकरणे धनंजयमुदारधीः (उवाच) Mb.12.26.1. -6 An introduction, prologue; वयमपि प्रकरणमारभामहे Pratijñā 1. -7 Relation. -8 Doing much or well. -9 A species of drama with invented or fictitious plot; as the मृच्छकटिक, मालतीमाधव, पुष्पभूषित &c. The S. D. thus defines it:-- भवेत् प्रकरणे वृत्तं लौकिकं कविकल्पितं । शृङ्गारो$ङ्गी नायकस्तु विप्रो$मात्यो$थवा वणिक् । सापायधर्मकामार्थपरो धीर- प्रशान्तकः ॥ 511. -1 Context. This is one of the six प्रमाणs helpful in properly construing a विनियोगविधि. These प्रमाणs and their relative strength is stated by जैमिनि in श्रुतिलिङ्गवाक्यप्रकरणस्थानसमाख्यानां पारदौर्बल्यमर्थविप्र- कर्षात् प्रकरणाच्च ज्योतिष्टोमेनैकवाक्यता स्यात् ŚB. on MS.1. 5.37. -Comp. -समः a kind of sophism; an assertion by two opponents of some argument which has the same force. प्रकरणिका prakaraṇikā प्रकरणी prakaraṇī प्रकरणिका प्रकरणी A drama of the same character as the प्रकरण. The S. D. thus defines it:-- नाटिकैव प्रकरणिका सार्थवाहादिनायिका । समानवंशजा नेतुर्भवेद्यत्र च नायिका ॥ 554.
pragraha प्रग्रह a. 1 Holding in front, stretching forth (hands); एवमुक्तस्तु मुनिना प्राञ्जलिः प्रग्रहो नृपः । अभ्यवादयत प्राज्ञः Rām. 7.82.14. -2 Seizing, taking. -हः 1 Holding or stretching forth, holding out. -2 Laying hold of, taking, grasping, seizing; न हि मे मुच्यते कश्चित् कथञ्चित् प्रग्रहं गतः Mb.3.179.16. -3 The commencement of an eclipse. -4 (a) A rein, bridle; धृताः प्रग्रहाः अवतरत्वायुष्मान् Ś.1; Śi.12.31. (b) A whip, lash, scourge. -5 A check, restraint; यः प्रग्रहानुग्रहयोर्यथान्यायं विचक्षणः Rām.2.1.25. -6 Binding, confinement; सो$स्माकं वैरपुरुषो दुर्मतिः प्रग्रहं गतः Mb.12.7.33. -8 A prisoner, captive. -8 Taming, breaking (as an animal). -9 A ray of light. -1 The string of a balance. -11 A vowel not subject to the rules of Sandhi or euphony; see प्रगृह्य. -12 N. of Viṣṇu. -13 The arm. -14 A leader, guide. -15 Kindness, favour, a reward; अपराधं सहेताल्पं तुष्येदल्पे$पि चोदये । महोप- कारं चाध्यक्षं प्रग्रहेणाभिपूजयेत् ॥ Kau. A.2.7.25. -16 The Karṇikāra tree. -17 The gains in the form of gifts to courtiers; राजोपजीविनां प्रग्रहप्रदेशभोगपरिहारभक्तवेतनलाभम् Kau. A.2.7.25. -18 Hoarding, collecting (संग्रह); असाधुनिग्रहरतः साधूनां प्रग्रहे रतः Mb.12.21.14. -19 Folding, joining (hands); श्वश्रूणामविशेषेण प्राञ्जलिप्रग्रहेण च Rām.7. 48.1. -2 Obstinacy, stubbornness. -21 A companion, satellite.
praṇipat प्रणिपत् 1 P. To bow down to, fall prostrate before, bow respectfully to, salute (with acc. or dat.); प्रणिपत्य सुरास्तस्मै शमयित्रे सुरद्विषाम् R.1.15; वागीशं वाग्भिरर्थ्याभिः प्रणिपत्योपतस्थिरे Ku.2.3;3.6. प्रणिपतनम् praṇipatanam प्रणिपातः praṇipātḥ प्रणिपतनम् प्रणिपातः 1 Falling at one's feet, prostration, submission; प्रणिपातप्रतीकारः संरम्भो हि महात्मनाम् R.4.64; तद् विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया Bg.4.34. -2 Obeisance, salutation, reverential bow; प्रणिपातपूर्वं स्वहस्तलूनः (पुष्पोच्चयः) Ku.3.61;4.35; R.3.25. -Comp. -पुरःसरम्, -पूर्वकम् ind. with an obeisance. -प्रतीकार a. averted or counteracted by prostration; R.4.64. -रसः a magical formula pronounced over weapons. -शिक्षा teaching (one) to salute.
prapauṇḍarīkaḥ प्रपौण्डरीकः A kind of shrub (पौण्डर्य); प्रपौण्डरीकमधुक- पिप्पलीचन्दनोत्पलैः ...... Chakrapāṇidatta.
prayojaka प्रयोजक a. Occasioning, causing, effecting, leading to, inciting, stimulating, deputing, appointing &c.; यस्मिन् कृते यन्निष्पद्यते प्रयोजनवत् तत् तस्य प्रयोजकमिति गम्यते । ŚB. on MS.4.1.22; यद्धि येन कर्तव्यं भवति तत्तस्य प्रयोजकम् ŚB. on MS.9.1.2; तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च Pāṇini S. -कः 1 An employer, one who uses or employs. -2 An author. -3 A founder, an institutor. -4 A money-lender. -5 A law-giver, legislator. -6 An instigator.
prahva प्रह्व a. 1 Sloping, slanting, inclined; प्रह्वानतीव क्वचिदु- द्धतिश्रितः Śi.12.56. -2 Stooping, bent down; bowing humbly down; एष प्रह्वो$स्मि भगवन् एषा विज्ञापना च नः Mv.1. 47;6.37; तमाराध्य गुरुं भक्त्या प्रह्वप्रश्रयसेवनैः Vivekachūdāmaṇi. -3 Submissive, humble, modestly submitting; प्रह्वेष्वनिर्बन्धरुषो हि सन्तः R.16.8; प्रह्वग्रीवः पुरोवर्ती Śiva B.24.6; शिवाय प्रेषयामास प्रह्वभावमुपाश्रयन् Śiva B.29.14. -4 Devoted or attached to, engaged in, engrossed by. -Comp. -अञ्जलि a. bowing with the palms of the hand joined and put to the forehead as a mark of respect.
prāṇamaya प्राणमय a. Living, breathing. -Comp. -कोशः the vesture of the vital airs; कर्मेन्द्रियैः पञ्चभिरञ्चितो$सौ प्राणी भवेत् प्राणमयस्तु कोशः Vivekachūdāmaṇi; see कोश.
prāyeṇa प्रायेण ind. 1 Mostly, as a general rule; प्रायेणैते रमणविरहेष्वङ्गनानां विनोदाः Me.89; प्रायेण सत्यपि हितार्थकरे विधौ हि श्रेयांसि लब्धुमसुखानि विनान्तरायैः Ki.5.49; Ku.3.28; Ṛs.6.24. -2 Probably. प्रायाणिक prāyāṇika प्रायात्रिक prāyātrika प्रायाणिक प्रायात्रिक a. (-की f.) Necessary or suitable for a journey; सर्वमाज्ञापयामास प्रायात्रिकमरिन्दम Mb.3.253.27.
phaṇin फणिन् m. [फणा अस्त्यस्य इनि] 1 A hooded serpent, serpent or snake in general; उद्गिरतो यद्गरलं फणिनः पुष्णासि परिमलोद्गारैः Bv.1.12,58; फणी मयूरस्य तले निषीदति Ṛs.1. 13; R.16.17; Ku.2.21. -2 An epithet of Rāhu. -3 An epithet of Patañjali, the author of the Mahābhāṣya on Pāṇini's Sūtras; फणिभाषितभाष्यफक्किका N.2.95. -Comp. -इन्द्रः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of the serpent-demon Śeṣa. -2 of Ananta, the lord of serpents. -3 of Patañjali. -केस(स)रः = नागकेशर. -खेलः a quail. -तल्पगः an epithet of Viṣṇu (who uses Śeṣa as his couch). -पतिः 1 an epithet of Śeṣa or of Vāsuki. -2 of Patañjali. -प्रियः wind. -फेनः opium. -भाष्यम् Mahābhāṣya (the commentary of Patañjali on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -भुज् m. 1 a peacock. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -मुखम् a kind of spade used by house-breakers; Dk. 2.2. -लता, -वल्ली betel-pepper.
babhru बभ्रु a. [भृ-कु द्वित्वम्; बभ्र्-उ वा Uṇ.1.21] 1 Deepbrown, tawny, reddish-brown; ज्वालाबभ्रुशिरोरुहः R.15. 16;19.25; बबन्ध बालारुणबभ्रु वल्कलम् Ku.5.8. -2 Baldheaded through disease. -भ्रुः 1 Fire. -2 An ichneumon; सखिभिर्न्यवसत् सार्धं व्याघ्राखुवृकबभ्रुभिः Mb.1.14.27. -3 The tawny colour. -4 A man with tawny hair. -5 N. of a Yādava; आलप्यालमिदं बभ्रोर्यत् स दारानपाहरत् Śi.2.1. -6 An epithet of Śiva. -7 Of Viṣṇu. -8 The Chātaka bird. -9 A sweeper, cleaner. -1 N. of a country. -n. 1 A tawny or brown colour. -2 Any object of a brown colour. -भ्रूः f. A reddish-brown cow (कपिला); अजानन्नहनद्बभ्रोः शिरः शार्दूलशङ्कया Bhāg.9.2.6. -Comp. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 red chalk (गौरिक), a kind of ochre. -वाहनः N. of a son of Arjuna by Chitrāṅgadā. [The sacrificial horse let loose by king Yudhiṣṭhira and guarded by Arjuna entered, in the course of its wanderings, the country of Maṇipura, which was then ruled by Babhruvāhana, unequalled in prowess. The horse was taken to the king; but when he read the writing on the plate on its head, he knew that it belonged to the Pāṇḍavas, and that his father Arjuna had arrived in the kingdom; and, hastening to him, respectfully offered his kingdom and his treasures along with the horse. Arjuna, in an evil hour, struck the head of Babhruvāhana and upbraided him for his cowardice saying that if he had possessed true valour and had been his true son, he should not have been afraid of his father and submitted to him so meekly. At these words the brave youth was exceedingly irritated and discharged a crescent-shaped arrow at Arjuna which severed his head from his body. He was, however, restored to life by Ulūpī who happened to be then with Chitrāṅgadā; and having acknowledged Babhruvāhana as his true son, he resumed his journey.]
bāṇaḥ बाणः 1 An arrow, shaft, reed; Bṛi. Up.3.8.2; धनुष्यमोघं समधत्त बाणम् Ku.3.66. -2 An aim or mark for arrows. -3 The feathered end of an arrow. -4 The udder of a cow. -5 The body (शरीर); ते प्रकाश्श्याभिवदन्ति वयमेतद्बाणमवष्टभ्य विधारयामः Praśna Up.2.2. -6 N. of a demon, son of Bali; cf. उषा. -7 N. of a celebrated poet who lived at the court of king Harṣavardhana and flourished in the first half of the seventh century; see App. II). He is the author of कादम्बरी, हर्षचरित and of some other works; (Govardhana in his Āryāsaptaśatī 37 speaks in these terms of Bāṇa :-- जाता शिखण्डिनी प्राग् यथा शिखण्डी तथावगच्छामि । प्रागल्भ्यधिकमाप्तुं वाणी बाणो बभूवेति ॥; so हृदयवसतिः पञ्चबाणस्तु बाणः P. R.1.22). -8 A symbolical expression for the number 'five'. -9 A sound voice. -1 Fire. -11 Lightning. -12 A form of Śiva. -13 The versed sine of an arc. -णः, -णा The hinder part or feathered end of an arrow. -णः, -णा, -णम् a blue flowering Barleria -नीलझिण्टी (Mar. कोऱ्हांटी); अनाविलोन्मीलितबाणचक्षुषः Ki.4. 28. Śi.6.46. -Comp. -असनम् a bow; स पार्थबाणासन- वेगमुक्तैर्दृढाहतः पत्रिभिरुग्रवेगैः Mb.8.89.86. ˚यन्त्रम् a kind of bow with a mechanical contrivance at one of its ends for tightening the string and letting off the arrow; Dk.1.1. -आवलिः, -ली f. 1 a series of arrows. -2 a series of five verses forming one sentence. -आश्रयः a quiver. -गङ्गा N. of a river said to have been produced by Rāvaṇa's arrow; सोमेशाद् दक्षिणे भागे बाणेनाभि- बिभिद्य वै । रावणेन प्रकटिता जलधारातिपुण्यदा । बाणगङ्गेति विख्याता या स्नानादघहारिणी ॥ Varāha P. -गोचरः the range of an arrow; अवतीर्णो$सि रतिरमणबाणगोचरम् Māl.1.19/2. -जालम् a number of arrows. -जित् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तूणः, -धिः a quiver; क्षीणबाणो विबाणधिः Mb. 8.63; बबन्धाथ च बाणधी (du.) Bk.14.17; Ki.18.1. -निकृत a. pierced or wounded by an arrow. -पत्रः N. of a bird (कङ्क). -पथः the range of an arrow. -पाणि a. armed with arrows. -पातः 1 an arrowshot (as a measure of distance). -2 the range of an arrow. -3 a bed of arrows (बाणशय्या, शरतल्प); बाणपातान्तरे रामं पातितं पुरुषर्षभम् Rām.6.45.25. ˚वर्तिन् a. being within the range of an arrow. -पुरम् Śoṇitapura, the capital of Bāṇāsura. -मुक्ति f., -मोक्षणम् discharging or shooting an arrow. -योजनम् a quiver. -रेखा a long wound made by an arrow. -लिङ्गम् a white stone found in the river नर्मदा and worshipped as the लिङ्ग of Śiva. -वारः a breast-plate, an armour, cuirass; cf. वारबाणः. -वृष्टिः f. a shower of arrows. -संधानम् the fitting of an arrow to the bow-string; का कथा बाणसंधाने ज्याशब्देनैव दूरतः Ś.3.1. -सिद्धिः f. the hitting of a mark by an arrow. -सुता an epithet of Uṣā, daughter of Bāṇa; see उषा. -हन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu.
bhaṇ भण् 1 P. (भणति, भणित) 1 To say, speak; पुरुषोत्तमे इति भणितव्ये V.3; Bk.14.16. -2 To describe; काव्यः स काव्येन सभामभाणीत् N.1.59. -3 To name, call. -4 To sound. भणनम् bhaṇanam भणितम् bhaṇitam भणितिः bhaṇitiḥ भणनम् भणितम् भणितिः f. Speaking, speech, talk, words, discourse, conversation; न येषामानन्दं जनयति जगन्नाथभणितिः Bv.4.39;2.77; श्रीजयदेवभणितं हरिरमितम् Gīt.7; इह रसभणेन ibid; विनोदाभिजातभणितिः Viś. Guṇa.29.
bhāṣyam भाष्यम् [भाष्-ण्यत्] 1 Speaking, talking. -2 Any work in the common or vernacular language. -3 Exposition, gloss, commentary; as in वेदभाष्य. -4 Especially, a commentary which explains Sūtras or aphorisms word by word with comments of its own; (सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुसारिभिः । स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ॥); संक्षिप्तस्याप्यतो$स्यैव वाक्यस्यार्थगरीयसः । सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे Śi.2.24; फणिभाषितभाष्यफक्किका N.2.95. -5 N. of the great commentary of Patañjali on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -6 A sort of house. -Comp. -करः, -कारः, -कृत् m. 1 commentator, scholiast. -2 N. of Patañjali. -भूत a. serving as a commentary; सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे Śi.2.24.
manuṣyatā मनुष्यता त्वम् 1 Manhood. -2 Humanity; दुर्लभं त्रयमेवैतद् देवानुग्रहहेतुकम् । मनुष्यत्वं मुमुक्षत्वं महापुरुषसंश्रयः ॥ Vivekachūdāmaṇi.
mahā महा The substitute of महत् at the beginning of Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi compounds, and also at the beginning of some other irregular words. (Note : The number of compounds of which महा is the first member is very large, and may be multiplied ad infinitum. The more important of them, or such as have peculiar significations, are given below.) -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Śiva. ˚पटलिक a chief keeper of archives. -अङ्ग a. huge, bulky. -(ङ्गः) 1 a camel. -2 a kind of rat. -3 N. of Śiva. -अञ्जनः N. of a mountain. -अत्ययः a great danger or calamity. -अध्वनिक a. 'having gone a long way', dead. -अध्वरः a great sacrifice. -अनसम् 1 a heavy carriage. -2 cooking utensils. (-सी) a kitchen-maid. (-सः, -सम्) a kitchen; सूपानस्य करिष्यामि कुशलो$स्मि महानसे Mb.4.2.2. -अनिलः a whirlwind; महानिलेनेव निदाघजं रजः Ki.14.59. -अनुभाव a. 1 of great prowess, dignified, noble, glorious, magnanimous, exalted, illustrious; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानु- भावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17; Ś.3. -2 virtuous, righteous, just. (-वः) 1 a worthy or respectable person. -2 (pl.) people of a religious sect in Mahārāṣtra founded by Chakradhara in the 13th century. -अन्तकः 1 death. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -अन्धकारः 1 thick darkness. -2 gross (spiritual) ignorance. -अन्ध्राः (pl.) N. of a people and their country. -अन्वय, -अभिजन a. nobly-born, of noble birth. (-यः, -नः) noble birth, high descent. -अभिषवः the great extraction of Soma. -अमात्यः the chief or prime minister (of a king). -अम्बुकः an epithet of Śiva. -अम्बुजम् a billion. -अम्ल a. very sour. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree. अरण्यम् a great (dreary) forest, large forest. -अर्घ a. very costly, costing a high price; महार्घस्तीर्थानामिव हि महतां को$प्यतिशयः U.6.11. (-र्घः) a kind of quail. -अर्घ्य a. 1 valuable, precious. -2 invaluable; inestimable; see महार्ह below. -अर्चिस् a. flaming high. -अर्णवः 1 the great ocean. -2 N. of Śiva. -अर्थ a. 1 rich. -2 great, noble, dignified. -3 important, weighty. -4 significant. -अर्बुदम् one thousand millions. -अर्ह a. 1 very valuable, very costly; महार्हशय्यापरिवर्तनच्युतैः स्वकेशपुष्पैरपि या स्म दूयते Ku.5.12. -2 invaluable, inestimable; महार्हशयनोपेत किं शेषे निहतो भुवि Rām.6.19. 2. (-र्हम्) white sandal-wood. -अवरोहः the fig-tree. -अशनिध्वजः a great banner in the form of the thunderbolt; जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनि- ध्वजम् R.3.56. -अशन a. voracious, gluttonous; Mb. 4. -अश्मन् m. a precious stone, ruby. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the bright half of Āśvina sacred to Durgā; आश्विने शुक्लपक्षस्य भवेद् या तिथिरष्टमी । महाष्टमीति सा प्रोक्ता ...... -असिः a large sword. -असुरी N. of Durgā. -अह्नः the afternoon. -आकार a. extensive, large, great. -आचार्यः 1 a great teacher. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -आढ्य a. wealthy, very rich. (-ढ्यः) the Kadamba tree. -आत्मन् a. 1 high-souled, high-minded, magnanimous, noble; अयं दुरात्मा अथवा महात्मा कौटिल्यः Mu.7; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75; U.1.49; प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् Bh.1.63. -2 illustrious, distinguished, exalted, eminent; किमाचाराः किमाहाराः क्व च वासो महात्मनाम् Mb.3. 1.4. -3 mighty (महाबल); अथायमस्यां कृतवान् महात्मा लङ्केश्वरः कष्टमनार्यकर्म Rām.5.9.74. (-m.) 1 the Supreme Spirit; युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि Ms.1.54. -2 the great principle, i. e. intellect of the Sāṅkhyas. (महात्मवत् means the same as महात्मन्). -आनकः a kind of large drum. -आनन्दः, -नन्दः 1 great joy or bliss. -2 especially, the great bliss of final beatitude. (-न्दा) 1 spirituous liquor. -2 a festival on the ninth day in the bright half of Māgha. -आपगा a great river. -आयुधः an epithet of Śiva. -आरम्भ a. undertaking great works, enterprizing. (-म्भः) any great enterprize. -आलयः 1 a temple in general. -2 a sanctuary, an asylum. -3 a great dwelling. -4 a place of pilgrimage. -5 the world of Brahman. -6 the Supreme Spirit. -7 a tree &c. sacred to a deity. -8 N. of a particular dark fortnight. -9 पितृश्राद्ध in the month of Bhādrapada. (-या) N. of a particular deity. -आशय a. highsouled, nobleminded, magnanimous, noble; दैवात् प्रबुद्धः शुश्राव वराहो हि महाशयः Ks; राजा हिरण्यगर्भो महाशयः H.4; see महात्मन्. (-यः) 1 a noble-minded or magnanimous person; महाशयचक्रवर्ती Bv.1.7. -2 the ocean. -आस्पद a. 1 occupying a great position. -2 mighty, powerful. -आहवः a great or tumultuous fight. -इच्छ a. 1 magnanimous, noble-minded, high-souled, noble; मही महेच्छः परिकीर्य सूनौ R.18.33. -2 having lofty aims or aspirations, ambitious; विद्यावतां महेच्छानां ...... नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना Pt.1.37. -इन्द्रः 1 'the great Indra', N. of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः Ku.5.53; R.13.2; Ms.7.7. -2 a chief or leader in general. -3 N. of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च R.6.54;4.39,43. ˚चापः rain-bow. ˚नगरी N. of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. ˚मन्त्रिन् m. an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚वाहः the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा Mb.9.17.52. -इभ्य a. very rich. -इषुः a great archer; अधिरोहति गाण्डीवं महेषौ Ki.13.16. -इष्वासः a great archer, a great warrior; अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भामार्जुनसमा युधि Bg.1.4. -ईशः, -ईशानः N. of Śiva; महेशस्त्वां धत्ते शिरसि रसराजस्य जयिनीम् Udb. ˚बन्धुः the Bilva tree. -ईशानी N. of Pārvatī. -ईश्वरः 1 a great lord, sovereign; महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः R.; गोप्तारं न निधीनां कथयन्ति महेश्वरं विबुधाः Pt.2.74. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 a god (opp. प्रकृति). -5 the Supreme Being (परमात्मा); मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं तु महेश्वरम् Śvet. Up.4.1. ˚सखः N. of Kubera; यया कैलासभवने महेश्वरसखं बली Mb.9.11.55. (-री) 1 N. of Durgā. -2 a kind of bell-metal. -उक्षः (for उक्षन्) a large bull; a full grown or strong bull; महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव R.3.32;4.22;6.72; Śi.5.63. -उत्पलम् a large blue lotus. (-लः) the Sārasa bird. -उत्सवः 1 a great festival or occasion of joy; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the god of love. -उत्साह a. possessed of great energy, energetic, persevering; अहं च कर्णं जानामि ...... सत्यसंधं महोत्साहं ...... Mb.3.91.2. (-हः) 1 perseverance. -2 great pride; ये जात्यादिमहो- त्साहान्नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च । तेषामामरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चितं विनिर्मितम् ॥ Pt.1.38. -उदधिः 1 the great ocean; महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दु- दर्शनात् R.3.17. -2 an epithet of Indra. ˚जः a conchshell, shell. -उदय a. very prosperous or lucky, very glorious or splendid, of great prosperity. (-यः) 1 (a) great elevation or rise, greatness, prosperity; नन्दस्त्वतीन्द्रियं दृष्ट्वा लोकपालमहोदयम् Bhāg.1.28.1; अपवर्ग- महोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ R.8.16. (b) great fortune or good luck. (c) greatness, pre-eminence. -2 final beatitude. -3 a lord, master. -4 N. of the district called Kānyakubja or Kanouja; see App. -5 N. of the capital of Kanouja. -6 sour milk mixed with honey. -7 = महात्मन् q. v.; संसक्तौ किमसुलभं महोदयानाम Ki.7.27. ˚पर्वन् a time of union of the middle of श्रवण नक्षत्र and the end of व्यतिपात (generally in the month of माघ or पौष at the beginning of अमावास्या). -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. -(रम्) 1 a big belly. -2 dropsy. -उदार a. 1 very generous or magnanimous. -2 mighty, powerful. -उद्यम a. = महोत्साह q. v; महोद्यमाः कर्म समा- रभन्ते. -उद्योग a. very industrious or diligent, hardworking. -उद्रेकः a particular measure (= 4 प्रस्थs). -उन्नत a. exceedingly lofty. (-तः) the palmyra tree. -उन्नतिः f. great rise or elevation (fig. also), high rank. -उपकारः a great obligation. -उपाध्यायः a great preceptor, a learned teacher. -उरगः a great serpent; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् R.12.98. -उरस्क a. broad-chested. (-स्कः) an epithet of Śiva. -उर्मिन् m. the ocean; ततः सागरमासाद्य कुक्षौ तस्य महोर्मिणः Mb.3.2.17. -उल्का 1 a great meteor. -2 a great fire-brand. -ऋत्विज् m. 'great priest', N. of the four chief sacrificial priests. -ऋद्धि a. very prosperous, opulent. (-f.) great prosperity or affluence. -ऋषभः a great bull. -ऋषिः 1 a great sage or saint; यस्मादृषिः परत्वेन महांस्त- स्मान्महर्षयः; (the term is applied in Ms.1.34 to the ten Prajāpatis or patriarchs of mankind, but it is also used in the general sense of 'a great sage'). -2 N. of Sacute;iva. -3 of Buddha. -ओघ a. having a strong current. -घः a very large number; शतं खर्व- सहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् ॥ Rām.6.28.37. -ओष्ठ (महोष्ठ) a. having large lips. (-ष्ठः) an epithet of Śiva. -ओजस् a. very mighty or powerful, possessed of great splendour or glory; महौजसा मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. (-m.) a great hero or warrior, a champion. (-n.) great vigour. -ओजसम् the discus of Viṣṇu (सुदर्शन). (-सी) N. of plant (Mar. कांगणी). -ओदनी Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. शतावरी). -ओषधिः f. 1 a very efficacious medicinal plant, a sovereign drug. -2 the Dūrvā grass. -3 N. of various plants ब्राह्मी, श्वेतकण्टकारी, कटुका, अतिविष &c. ˚गणः a collection of great or medicinal herbs:-- पृश्निपर्णी श्यामलता भृङ्गराजः शतावरी । गुड्चा सहदेवी च महौषधिगणः स्मृतः ॥ cf. also सहदेवी तथा व्याघ्री बला चातिबला त्वचा । शङ्खपुष्पी तथा सिंही अष्टमी च सुवर्चला ॥ महौषध्यष्टकं प्रोक्तं... . -औषधम् 1 a sovereign remedy, panacea. -2 ginger. -3 garlic. -4 a kind of poison (वत्सनाभ). -कच्छः 1 the sea. -2 N. of Varuṇa. -3 a mountain. -कन्दः garlic. -कपर्दः a kind of shell. -कपित्थः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 red garlic. -कम्बु a. stark naked. (-म्बुः) an epithet of Śiva. -कर a. 1 large-handed. -2 having a large revenue. -कर्णः an epithet of Śiva. -कर्मन् a. doing great works. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -कला the night of the new moon. -कल्पः a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. -कविः 1 a great poet, a classical poet, such as कालिदास, भवभूति, बाण, भारवि &c. -2 an epithet of Śukra. -कषायः N. of a plant (Mar. कायफळ). -कान्तः an epithet of Śiva. (-ता) the earth. -काय a. big-bodied, big, gigantic, bulky. (-यः) 1 an elephant. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of a being attending on Śiva (= नन्दि). -कारुणिक a. exceedingly compassionate. -कार्तिकी the night of full-moon in the month of Kārtika. -कालः 1 a form of Śiva in his character as the destroyer of the world; महाकालं यजेद्देव्या दक्षिणे धूम्रवर्णकम् Kālītantram. -2 N. of a celebrated shrine or temple of Śiva (Mahākāla) (one of the 12 celebrated Jyotirliṅgas) established at Ujjayinī (immortalized by Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta, which gives a very beautiful description of the god, his temple, worship &c., together with a graphic picture of the city; cf. Me.3-38; also R.6.34); महाकालनिवासिनं कालीविलासिनमनश्वरं महेश्वरं समाराध्य Dk.1.1. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -4 N. of a kind of gourd. -5 N. of Śiva's servant (नन्दि). ˚पुरम् the city of Ujjayinī. ˚फलम् a red fruit with black seeds; पक्वं महाकालफलं किलासीत् N.22.29. -काली an epithet of Durgā in her terrific form. -काव्यम् a great or classical poem; (for a full description of its nature, contents &c., according to Rhetoricians see S. D.559). (The number of Mahākāvyas is usually said to be five:-रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, किरातार्जुनीय, शिशुपालवध and नैषधचरित or six, if मेघदूत-- a very small poem or खण़्डकाव्य-- be added to the list. But this enumeration is apparently only traditional, as there are several other poems, such as the भट्टिकाव्य, विक्रमाङ्कदेवचरित, हरविजय &c. which have an equal claim to be considered as Mahākāvyas). -कीर्तनम् a house. -कुमारः the eldest son of a reigning prince, heir-apparent. -कुल, -कुलीन a. of noble birth or descent, sprung from a noble family, nobly born. (-लम्) a noble birth or family, high descent. -कुहः a species of parasitical worm. -कृच्छ्रम् a great penance. -केतुः N. of Śiva. -केशः, -कोशः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a large sheath. -क्रतुः a great sacrifice; e. g. a horse-sacrifice; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतोरमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि R.3.46. -क्रमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -क्रोधः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षत्रपः a great satrap. -क्षीरः sugar-cane. -क्षीरा f. a She-buffalo; Nighaṇṭaratnākara. -खर्वः, -र्वम् a high number (ten billions ?). -गजः a great elephant; see दिक्करिन्. -गणपतिः a form of the god Gaṇeśa. -गदः fever. -गन्ध a. exceedingly fragrant. (-न्धः) a kind of cane. (-न्धम्) a kind of sandalwood. (-न्धा) N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -गर्तः, -गर्भः -गीतः N. of Śiva. -गर्दभगन्धिका N. of a plant, भारङ्गी. -गल a. longnecked. -गवः Bos gavaeus. -गुण a. very efficacious, sovereign (as a medicine); त्वया ममैष संबन्धः कपिमुख्य महागुणः Rām.5.1.12. (-णः) a chief quality, cardinal virtue. -गुरुः a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mother and preceptor; पिता माता तथाचार्यो महागुरुरिति स्मृतः). -गुल्मा the Soma plant. -गृष्टिः f. a cow with a large hump. -ग्रहः 1 an epithet of Rāhu. -2 the sun; महाग्रहग्राहविनष्टपङ्कः Rām.5.5.6. -ग्रामः N. of the ancient capital of Ceylon, the modern Māgama. -ग्रीवः 1 a camel. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -ग्रीविन् m. a camel. -घूर्णा spirituous liquor. -घृतम् ghee kept for a long time (for medicinal purposes). -घोष a. noisy, loud-sounding. (-षम्) a market, fair. (-षः) a loud noise, clamour. -चक्रम् the mystic circle in the शाक्त ceremonial. -चक्रवर्तिन् m. a universal monarch. -चण्डा N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -चपला a kind of metre. -चमूः f. a large army. -छायः the fig-tree. -जङ्घः a camel. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा 1 a great braid of hair. -2 the matted hair of Śiva. -जत्रु a. having a great collar-bone. (-त्रुः) an epithet of Śiva. -जनः 1 a multitude of men, a great many beings, the general populace or public; महाजनो येन गतः स पन्थाः Mb.3.313. 117; आगम्य तु ततो राजा विसृज्य च महाजनम् 6.98.25. -2 the populace, mob; विलोक्य वृद्धोक्षमधिष्ठितं त्वया महाजनः स्मेरमुखो भविष्यति Ku.5.7. -3 a great man, a distinguished or eminent man; महाजनस्य संसर्गः कस्य नोन्नतिकारकः । पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् Pt.3.6. -4 the chief of a caste or trade. -5 a merchant, tradesman. -जवः an antelope. -जातीय a. 1 rather large. -2 of an excellent kind. -जालिः, -ली N. of a plant (Mar. सोनामुखी) -जिह्वः an epithet of Śiva. -ज्ञानिन् m. 1 a very learned man. -2 a great sage. -3 N. of Śiva. -ज्यैष्ठी the day of fullmoon in the month of Jyeṣṭha; ताभिर्दृश्यत एष यान् पथि महाज्यैष्ठीमहे मन्महे N.15.89; पूर्णिमा रविवारेण महाज्यैष्ठी प्रकीर्तिता Agni P.121.63. -ज्योतिस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -ज्वरः great affliction. -ज्वाल a. very brilliant or shining. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a sacrificial fire. -डीनम् a kind of flight; 'यानं महाडीनमाहुः पवित्रामूर्जितां गतिम्' Mb.8.41.27 (com.). -तपस् m. 1 a great ascetic. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तलम् N. of one of the seven lower regions; see पाताल. -तारा N. of a Buddhist goddess. -तिक्तः the Nimba tree. -तिथिः the 6th day of a lunation. -तीक्ष्ण a. exceedingly sharp or pungent. (-क्ष्णा) the markingnut plant. -तेजस् a. 1 possessed of great lustre or splendour. -2 very vigorous or powerful, heroic. (-m.) 1 a hero, warrior. -2 fire. -3 an epithet of Kārtikeya. (-n.) quick-silver. -त्याग, -त्यागिन् a. very generous. (-m.) N. of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a species of big tiger. -दन्तः 1 an elephant with large tusks. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -दण्डः 1 a long arm. -2 a severe punishment. -दम्भः an epithet of Śiva. -दशा the influence exercised (over a man's destiny) by a predominant planet. -दानम् the gift of gold equal to one's own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम्. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -दुर्गम् a great calamity; Pt. -दूषकः a kind of grain. -देवः N. of Śiva. (-वी) 1 N. of Pārvatī. -2 the chief queen. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -द्वारम् a large gate, the chief or outer gate of a temple. -धन a. 1 rich. -2 expensive, costly; हेमदण्डैर्महाधनैः Rām.7. 77.13. (-नम्) 1 gold. -2 incense. -3 a costly or rich dress. -4 agriculture, husbandry. -5 anything costly or precious. -6 great booty. -7 a great battle (Ved.). -धनुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 lymph. -4 N. of Meru. -धी a. having a great understanding. -धुर्यः a full-grown draught ox. -ध्वजः a camel. -ध्वनिक a. dead. -नग्नः an athlete; Buddh. -नटः an epithet of Śiva; महानटः किं नु ...... तनोति ...... साम्प्रतमङ्गहारम् N.22.7; महानटबाहुनेव बद्धभुजाङ्केन Vās. -नदः a great river. -नदी 1 a great river, such as Gaṅgā, Kṛiṣṇā; मन्दरः पर्वतश्चाक्षो जङ्घा तस्य महानदी Mb.8.34.2; संभूयाम्भोधिमभ्येति महानद्या नगापगा Śi.2.1. -2 N. of a river falling into the bay of Bengal. -नन्दा 1 spirituous liquor. -2 N. of a river. -3 ninth day of the bright half of the month of Māgha; माघमासस्य या शुक्ला नवमी लोकपूजिचा । महानन्देति सा प्रोक्ता ... . -नरकः N. of one of the 21 hells. -नलः a kind of reed. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Āśvina, sacred to the worship of Durgā ततो$नु नवमी यस्मात् सा महानवमी स्मृता. -नाटकम् 'the great drama', N. of a drama, also called Hanumannāṭaka, (being popularly ascribed to Hanumat); thus defined by S. D. :-- एतदेव यदा सर्वैः पताकास्थानकैर्युतम् । अङ्कैश्च दशभिर्धीरा महानाटकमूचिरे ॥ -नाडी sinew, tendon. -नादः 1 a loud sound, uproar. -2 a great drum. -3 a thunder-cloud. -4 a shell. -5 an elephant. -6 a lion. -7 the ear. -8 a camel. -9 an epithet of Śiva. (-दम्) a musical instrument. -नाम्नी 1 N. of a परिशिष्ट of Sāmaveda. -2 (pl.) N. of 9 verses of Sāmaveda beginning with विदा मघवन् विदा. -नायकः 1 a great gem in the centre of a string of pearls. -2 a great head or chief. -नासः an epithet of Śiva. -निद्र a. fast asleep. (-द्रा) 'the great sleep', death. -निम्नम् intestines, abdomen. -नियमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् total extinction of individuality (according to the Buddhists). -निशा 1 the dead of night, the second and third watches of the night; महानिशा तु विज्ञेया मध्यमं प्रहरद्वयम् -2 an epithet of Durgā. -नीचः a washerman. -नील a. dark-blue. (-लः) a kind of sapphire or emerald; इन्द्रनीलमहानीलमणिप्रवरवेदिकम् Rām.5.9.16; महा- महानीलशिलारुचः Śi.1.16;4.44; R.18.42; Kau. A.2.11. 29. ˚उपलः a sapphire. -नृत्यः, -नेत्रः an epithet of Śiva. -नेमिः a crow. -न्यायः the chief rule. -पक्ष a. 1 having many adherents. -2 having a large family or retinue; महापक्षे धनिन्यार्थे निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद् बुधः Ms.8.179. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a kind of duck. (-क्षी) an owl. -पङ्क्तिः, -पदपङ्क्तिः a kind of metre. -पञ्चमूलम् the five great roots:-- बिल्वो$ग्निमन्थः श्योनाकः काश्मरी पाटला तथा । सर्वैस्तु मिलितैरेतैः स्यान्महापञ्चमूलकम् ॥ -पञ्चविषम् the five great or deadly poisons:-- शृङ्गी च कालकूटश्च मुस्तको वत्सनाभकः । शङ्खकर्णीति योगो$यं महापञ्चविषाभिधः ॥ -पटः the skin. -पथः 1 chief road, principal street, high or main road; संतानकाकीर्णमहापथं तत् Ku.7.3. -2 the passage into the next world, i. e. death. -3 N. of certain mountain-tops from which devout persons used to throw themselves down to secure entrance into heaven. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -5 the long pilgrimage to mount Kedāra. -6 the way to heaven. -7 the knowledge of the essence of Śiva acquired in the pilgrimage to Kedāra. -पथिक a. 1 undertaking great journeys. -2 one receiving Śulka (toll) on the high way; cf. Mb.12.76.6 (com. महापथिकः समुद्रे नौयानेन गच्छन् यद्वा महापथि शुल्कग्राहकः) -पद्मः 1 a particular high number. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 N. of one of the nine treasures of Kubera. -4 N. of the southernmost elephant supporting the world. -5 an epithet of Nanda. -6 a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-द्मम्) 1 a white lotus. -2 N. of a city. ˚पतिः N. of Nanda. -पराकः a. a particular penance; Hch. -पराङ्णः a late hour in the afternoon. -पवित्रः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः large cattle; महापशूनां हरणे ... दण्डं प्रकल्पयेत् Ms.8.324. -पातः a long flight; Pt.2.58. -पातकम् 1 a great sin, a heinous crime; ब्रह्महत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वङ्गनागमः । महान्ति पातकान्याहुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पञ्चमम् ॥ Ms.1154. -2 any great sin or transgression. -पात्रः a prime minister. -पादः an epithet of Śiva. -पाप्मन् a. very sinful or wicked. -पुराणम् N. of a Purāṇa; महापुराणं विज्ञेयमेकादशकलक्षणम् Brav. P. -पुंसः a great man. -पुरुषः 1 a great man, an eminent or distinguished personage; शब्दं महापुरुषसंविहितं निशम्य U. 6.7. -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पौरुषिकः a worshipper of Viṣṇu; तदहं ते$भिधास्यामि महापौरुषिको भवान् Bhāg.2.1.1. -पुष्पः a kind of worm. -पूजा great worship; any solemn worship performed on extraordinary occasions. -पृष्ठः a camel. -पोटगलः a kind of large reed. -प्रजापतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतीहारः a chief door-keeper. -प्रपञ्चः the great universe. -प्रभ a. of great lustre. (-भः) the light of a lamp. -प्रभुः 1 a great lord. -2 a king, sovereign. -3 a chief. -4 an epithet of Indra. -5 of Śiva -6 of Viṣṇu. -7 a great saint or holy man. -प्रलयः 'the great dissolution', the total annihilation of the universe at the end of the life of Brahman, when all the lokas with their inhabitants, the gods, saints &c. including Brahman himself are annihilated; महाप्रलयमारुत ...... Ve.3.4. -प्रश्नः a knotty question. -प्रसादः 1 a great favour. -2 a great present (of food offered to an idol); पादोदकं च निर्माल्यं नैवेद्यं च विशेषतः । महाप्रसाद इत्युक्त्वा ग्राह्यं विष्णोः प्रयत्नतः -प्रस्थानम् 1 departing this life, death. -2 setting out on a great journey for ending life; इहैव निधनं याम महाप्रस्थानमेव वा Rām.2.47.7 (com. महाप्रस्थानं मरणदीक्षा- पूर्वकमुत्तराभिमुखगमनम्); Mb.1.2.365. -प्राणः 1 the hard breathing or aspirate sound made in the pronunciation of the aspirates. -2 the aspirated letters themselves (pl.); they are:-ख्, घ्, छ्, झ्, ठ्, ढ्, थ्, ध्, फ्, भ्, श्, ष्, स्, ह्. -3 a raven. -प्राणता possession of great strength or essence; अन्यांश्च जीवत एव महाप्राणतया स्फुरतो जग्राह K. -प्रेतः a noble departed spirit. -प्लवः a great flood, deluge; ... क्षिप्तसागरमहाप्लवामयम् Śi.14.71. -फल a. 1 bearing much fruit. -2 bringing much reward. (-ला) 1 a bitter gourd. -2 a kind of spear. (-लम्) 1 a great fruit or reward. -2 a testicle. -फेना the cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः a peculiar position of hands or feet. -बभ्रुः a kind of animal living in holes. -बल a. very strong; नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः Rām (-लः) 1 wind, storm. -2 a Buddha. -3 a solid bamboo. -4 a palm. -5 a crocodile. -बला N. of a plant; महाबला च पीतपुष्पा सहदेवी च सा स्मृता Bhāva. P. (-लम्) lead. ˚ईश्वरः N. of a Liṅga of Śiva near the modern Mahābaleśwara. -बाध a. causing great pain or damage. -बाहु a. long-armed, powerful. (-हुः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -बि(वि)लम् 1 the atmosphere. -2 the heart. -3 a water-jar, pitcher. -4 a hole, cave. -बिसी a variety of skin (चर्म), a product of द्वादशग्राम in the Himālayas. -बी(वी)जः an epithet of Śiva. -बी (वी)ज्यम् the perinæum. -बुध्न a. having a great bottom or base (as a mountain). -बुशः barley. -बृहती a kind of metre. -बोधिः 1 the great intelligence of a Buddha. -2 a Buddha. -ब्रह्मम्, -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a great or learned Brāhmaṇa. -2 a low or contemptible Brāhmaṇa. -भटः a great warrior; तदोजसा दैत्यमहाभटार्पितम् Bhāg. -भद्रा N. of the river Gaṅgā. -भाग a. 1 very fortunate or blessed, very lucky or prosperous. -2 illustrious, distinguished, glorious; उभौ धर्मौ महाभागौ Mb.12.268.3; महाभागः कामं नरपतिरभिन्नस्थितिरसौ Ś.5.1; Ms.3.192. -3 very pure or holy, highly virtuous; पतिव्रता महाभागा कथं नु विचरिष्यति Mb.4.3.16. -भागता, -त्वम्, -भाग्यम् 1 extreme good fortune, great good luck, prosperity. -2 great excellence or merit. -भागवतम् the great Bhāgavata, one of the 18 Purāṇas. (-तः) a great worshipper of Viṣṇu. -भागिन् a. very fortunate or prosperous. -भाण्डम् a chief treasury. -भारतम् N. of the celebrated epic which describes the rivalries and contests of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (It consists of 18 Parvans or books, and is said to be the composition of Vyāsa; cf. the word भारत also); महत्त्वाद्भारतत्वाच्च महाभारतमुच्यते -भाष्यम् 1 a great commentary. -2 particularly, the great commentary of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -भासुरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भिक्षुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भीता a kind of sensitive plant (लाजाळू). -भीमः an epithet of king Śantanu. -भीरुः a sort of beetle or fly. -भुज a. long-armed, powerful. -भूतम् a great or primary element; see भूत; तस्यैतस्य महाभूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः Up.; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1. 29; Ms.1.6. (-तः) 1 the Supreme Being. -2 a great creature. -भोगः 1 a great enjoyment. -2 a great coil or hood; great winding. -3 a serpent. (-गा) an epithet of Durgā. -मणिः 1 a costly or precious jewel; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5. -2 N. of Śiva. -मति a. 1 high-minded. -2 clever. (-तिः) N. of Bṛihaspati or Jupiter. -मत्स्यः a large fish, sea-monster. -मद a. greatly intoxicated. (-दः) an elephant in rut. -मनस्, -मनस्क a. 1 high-minded, nobleminded, magnanimous; ततो युधिष्ठिरो राजा धर्मपुत्रो महामनाः Mb.4.1.7. -2 liberal. -3 proud, haughty. (-m) a fabulous animal called शरभ q. v. -मन्त्रः 1 any sacred text of the Vedas. -2 a great or efficacious charm, a powerful spell. -मन्त्रिन् m. the prime-minister, premier. -मयूरी N. of Buddhist goddess. -मलहारी a kind of Rāgiṇi. -महः a great festive procession; Sinhās. -महस् n. a great light (seen in the sky). -महोपाध्यायः 1 a very great preceptor. -2 a title given to learned men and reputed scholars; e. g. महामहो- पाध्यायमल्लिनाथसूरि &c. -मांसम् 'costly flesh', especially human flesh; न खलु महामांसविक्रयादन्यमुपायं पश्यामि Māl.4; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजं पुरुषाङ्गोपकल्पितम् । विक्रीयते महामांसं गृह्यतां गृह्यतामिदम् 5.12 (see Jagaddhara ad loc.). -माघी the full-moon day in the month of Māgha. -मात्र a. 1 great in measure, very great or large. -2 most excellent, best; वृष्ण्यन्धकमहामात्रैः सह Mb.1.221.27; 5.22.37. (-त्रः) 1 a great officer of state, high stateofficial, a chief minister; (मन्त्रे कर्मणि भूषायां वित्ते माने परिच्छदे । मात्रा च महती येषां महामात्रास्तु ते स्मृताः); Ms. 9.259; गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः कृतमहामात्रापसर्पः (v. l. महामात्यापसर्पः) पौरजानपदानपसर्पयेत् Kau. A.1.13.9; Rām.2.37.1. -2 an elephant-driver or keeper; मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छतः । उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्राः समीपगाः ॥ Pt.1.161. -3 a superintendent of elephants. (-त्री) 1 the wife of a chief minister. -2 the wife of a spiritual teacher. -मानसी N. of a Jain goddess. -मान्य a. being in great honour with; मकरन्दतुन्दिलानामरविन्दानामयं महामान्यः Bv.1.6. -मायः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -माया 1 worldly illusion, which makes the material world appear really existent. -2 N. of Durgā; महामाया हरेश्चैषा यया संमोह्यते जगत् Devīmāhātmya. -मायूरम् a particular drug. (-री) N. of an amulet and a goddess; Buddh. -मारी 1 cholera, an epidemic. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -मार्गः high road, main street. ˚पतिः a superintendent of roads. -मालः N. of Śiva. -माहेश्वरः a great worshipper of Maheśvara or Śiva. -मुखः a crocodile. -मुद्रा a particular position of hands or feet (in practice of yoga). -मुनिः 1 a great sage. -2 N. of Vyāsa. -3 an epithet of Buddha. -4 of Agastya. -5 the coriander plant. (-नि n.) 1 coriander seed. -2 any medicinal herb or drug. -मूर्तिः N. of Viṣṇu. -मूर्धन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मूलम् a large radish. (-लः) a kind of onion. -मूल्य a. very costly. (-ल्यः) a ruby. -मृगः 1 any large animal. -2 an elephant, -3 the fabulous animal called शरभ. -मृत्युः, -मेधः N. of Śiva. -मृत्युंजयः a kind of drug. -मृधम् a great battle. -मेदः the coral tree; महामेदाभिधो ज्ञेयः Bhāva. P. -मेधा an epithet of Durgā. -मोहः great infatuation or confusion of mind. (ससर्ज) महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. (-हा) an epithet of Durgā. -यज्ञः 'a great sacrifice', a term applied to the five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a house-holder; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो (or देवयज्ञः) बलिर्भौतो (or भूतयज्ञः) नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7,71, (for explanation, see the words s. v.). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -यमकम् 'a great Yamaka', i. e. a stanza all the four lines of which have exactly the same words, though different in sense; e. g. see Ki.15.52, where विकाशमीयुर्जगतीशमार्गणाः has four different senses; cf. also बभौ मरुत्वान् विकृतः समुद्रः Bk.1.19. -यशस् a. very famous, renowned, celebrated. -यात्रा 'the great pilgrimage', the pilgrimage to Benares. -यानम् N. of the later system of Buddhist teaching, firstly promulgated by Nāgārjuna (opp. हीनयान). -याम्यः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -युगम् 'a great Yuga', consisting of the four Yugas of mortals, or comprising 4,32, years of men. -योगिन् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a cock. -योनिः f. excessive dilation of the female organ. -रक्तम् coral. -रङ्गः a large stage. -रजतम् 1 gold; उच्चैर्महारजतराजिविराजितासौ Śi.4.28. -2 the thorn-apple. -रजनम् 1 safflower. -2 gold. -3 turmeric; तस्य हैतस्य पुरुषस्य रूपं यथा महारजनं वासः Bṛi. Up.2.3.6. -रत्नम् 1 a precious jewel; वज्रं मुक्ता प्रवालं च गोमेदश्चेन्द्रनीलकः ॥ वैडूर्यः पुष्करागश्च पाचिर्माणिक्यमेव च । महारत्नानि चैतानि नव प्रोक्तानि सूरिभिः ॥ Śukra.4.155-56. -रथः 1 a great chariot. -2 a great warrior or hero; द्रुपदश्च महारथः Bg.1.4; कुतः प्रभावो धनंजयस्य महारथजयद्रथस्य विपत्तिमुत्पादयितुम् Ve.2; दशरथः प्रशशास महारथः R.9.1; Śi.3.22; (a महारथ is thus defined:-- एको दशसहस्राणि योधयेद्यस्तु धन्विनाम् ॥ शस्त्रशास्त्र- प्रवीणश्च विज्ञेयः स महारथः ॥). -3 desire, longing; cf. मनोरथ. -रवः a frog. -रस a. very savoury. (-सः) 1 a sugarcane. -2 quicksilver. -3 a precious mineral. -4 the fruit of the date tree. -5 any one of the eight substances given below :-दरदः पारदं शस्ये वैक्रान्तं कान्तमभ्रकम् । माक्षिकं विमलश्चेति स्युरेते$ष्टौ महारसाः ॥ (-सम्) sour ricewater. -राजः 1 a great king, sovereign or supreme ruler; पञ्चाशल्लक्षपर्यन्तो महाराजः प्रकीर्तितः Śukra.1.184. -2 a respectful mode of addressing kings or other great personages (my lord, your majesty, your highness); इति सत्यं महाराज बद्धो$स्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः Mb. -3 a deified Jaina teacher. -4 a fingernail. ˚अधिराजः a universal emperor, paramount sovereign. ˚चूतः a kind of mango tree. -राजिकः N. of Viṣṇu. -राजिकाः (m. pl.) an epithet of a class of gods (said to be 22 or 236 in number.). -राज्यम् the rank or title of a reigning sovereign. -राज्ञी 1 the reigning or chief queen, principal wife of a king. -2 N. of Durgā. -रात्रम् midnight, dead of night. -रात्रिः, -त्री f. 1 see महाप्रलय; ब्रह्मणश्च निपाते च महाकल्पो भवेन्नृप । प्रकीर्तिता महारात्रिः. -2 midnight. -3 the eighth night in the bright half of Āśvina. -राष्ट्रः 'the great kingdom', N. of a country in the west of India, the country of the Marāṭhās. -2 the people of Mahārāṣṭra; the Marāṭhās (pl.). (-ष्ट्री) N. of the principal Prākṛita; dialect, the language of the people of the Mahārāṣṭra; cf. Daṇḍin:-महाराष्ट्राश्रयां भाषां प्रकृष्टं प्राकृतं विदुः Kāv.1.34. -रिष्टः a kind of Nimba tree growing on mountains. -रुज्, -ज a. very painful. -रुद्रः a form of Śiva. -रुरुः a species of antelope. -रूप a. mighty in form. (-पः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 resin. -रूपकम् a kind of drama. -रेतस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रोगः a dangerous illness, grievous malady; (these are eight :-उन्मादो राजयक्ष्मा च श्वासस्त्वग्दोष एव च । मधुमेहश्चाश्मरी च तथो- दरभगन्दरौ ॥). -रौद्र a. very dreadful. (-द्री) an epithet of Durgā. -रौरवः N. of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9. -लक्ष्मी 1 the great Lakṣmī, or Śakti of Nārāyaṇa; सेवे सैरिभमर्दिनीमिह महालक्ष्मीं सरोजस्थिताम्. -2 a young girl who represents the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival. -लयः 1 a great world destruction. -2 the Supreme Being (महदादीनां लयो यस्मिन्). -लिङ्गम् the great Liṅga or Phallus. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. -लोलः a crow. -लोहम् a magnet. -वंशः N. of a wellknown work in Pali (of the 5th century). -वक्षस् m. epithet of Śiva. -वनम् a large forest in Vṛindāvana. -वरा Dūrvā grass. -वराहः 'the great boar', an epithet of Viṣṇu in his third or boar incarnation. -वर्तनम् high wages; -वल्ली 1 the Mādhavī creeper. -2 a large creeping plant. -वसः the porpoise. -वसुः silver; Gīrvāṇa. -वाक्यम् 1 a long sentence. -2 any continuous composition or literary work. -3 a great proposition, principal sentence; such as तत्त्वमसि, ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् &c. -4 a complete sentence (opp. अवान्तरवाक्य q. v.); न च महावाक्ये सति अवान्तरवाक्यं प्रमाणं भवति ŚB. on MS.6.4.25. -वातः a stormy wind, violent wind; महावातातैर्महिषकुलनीलैर्जलधरैः Mk.5.22. -वादिन् m. a great or powerful disputant. -वायुः 1 air (as an element). -2 stormy wind, hurricane, tempest. -वार्तिकम् N. of the Vārtikas of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -विडम् a kind of factitious salt. -विदेहा N. of a certain वृत्ति or condition of the mind in the Yoga system of philosophy. -विद्या the great lores; काली तारा महाविद्या षोडशी भुवनेश्वरी । भैरवी छिन्नमस्ता च विद्या धूमवती तथा । बगला सिद्धविद्या च मातङ्गी कमला- त्मिका । एता दश महाविद्याः ... ॥ -विपुला a kind of metre. -विभाषा a rule giving a general option or alternative; इति महाविभाषया साधुः. -विभूतिः an epithet of Śiva. -विषः a serpent having two mouths. -विषुवम् the vernal equinox. ˚संक्रान्तिः f. the vernal equinox (the sun's entering the sign Aries). -विस्तर a. very extensive or copious. -वीचिः N. of a hell. -वीरः 1 a great hero or warrior. -2 a lion. -3 the thunderbolt of Indra. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 of Garuḍa. -6 of Hanumat. -7 a cuckoo. -8 a white horse. -9 a sacrificial fire. -1 a sacrificial vessel. -11 a kind of hawk. ˚चरितम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -वीर्य a. of great valour, very powerful. (-र्यः) 1 N. of Brahman. -2 the Supreme Being. (-र्या) the wild cotton shrub. -2 an epithet of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun. -वृषः a great bull. -वेग a. 1 very sw
ṇikyā माणिक्या A small house-lizard. माणिबन्धम् māṇibandham माणिमन्थम् māṇimantham माणिबन्धम् माणिमन्थम् Rock-salt.
muniḥ मुनिः [मन्-इन् उच्च Uṇ.4.122] 1 A sage, a holy man, saint, devotee, an ascetic; मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः Bg.1. 37; दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः । वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थित- धीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ 2.56; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः Ś.2.15; R.1.8;3.49. -2 N. of the sage Agastya. -3 Of Vyāsa; Mb.6.119.4. -4 Of Buddha. -5 of Pāṇini. -6 N. of several plants (पियालु, पराशर and दमनक). -7 The internal conscience (according to Kull. on Ms.8.91 'the Supreme Spirit'). -8 The mango-tree. -9 The number 'seven'. -pl. The seven sages. -Comp. -अन्नम् (pl.) the food of ascetics, (कन्दफलादि); देशे काले च संप्राप्ते मुन्यन्नं हरिदैवतम् Bhāg.7. 15.5. -इन्द्रः 1 'the lord of the sages', a great sage. -2 an epithet of Śākyamuni. -3 of Bharata. -4 of Śiva. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 a great sage. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -3 of Buddha. -च्छदः Alstonia Scholaris (Mar. सातवीण). -त्रयम् 'the triad of sages', i. e. Pāṇini, Kātyāyana, and Patañjali (who are considered to be inspired saints); मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य, or त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम् Sk. -दारकः, -कुमारः a young sage. -द्रुमः the Śyonāka tree. -धान्यम् a kind of wild grain (Mar. देवभात). -परंपरा uninterrupted tradition. -पित्तलम् copper. -पुङ्गवः a great or eminent sage. -पुत्रकः 1 a wagtail. -2 the damanaka tree. -प्रियः Panicum Miliaceum (Mar. नीवार, काङ्ग). -भेषजम् 1 the fruit of the yellow myrobalan. -2 fasting. -वृत्ति a. leading an ascetic life; वार्द्धके मुनि- वृत्तीनाम् R.1.8. -व्रतम् an ascetic vow; keeping silence; मुनिव्रतैस्त्वामतिमात्रकर्शिताम् Ku.5.48; मुनिव्रतमथ त्यक्त्वा निश्चक्रामाम्बिकागृहात् Bhāg.1.53.51.
yama यम a. [यम्-घञ्] 1 Twin, twinborn. -2 Coupled. -मः 1 Restraining, controlling, curbing; यमो राजा धार्मिकाणां मान्धातः परमेश्वरः Mb.12.91.42. -2 Control, restraint. -3 Self control. -4 Any great moral or religious duty or observance (opp. नियम); तप्तं यमेन नियमेन तपो$मुनैव N.13.16; यमनियमकृशीकृतस्थिराङ्गः Ki.1. 1. (यम and नियम are thus distinguished:-- शरीरसाधनापेक्षं नित्यं यत् कर्म तद् यमः । नियमस्तु स यत् कर्म नित्यमागन्तुसाधनम् ॥ Ak.2.49; See Malli. on Śi.13.23 and Ki.1.1 also. The yamas are usually said to be ten, but, their names are given differently by different writers; e. g. ब्रह्मचर्यं दया क्षान्तिर्दानं सत्यमकल्कता । अहिंसा$स्तेयमाधुर्ये दमश्चेति यमाः स्मृताः ॥ Y.3.312; or आनृशंस्यं दया सत्यमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् । प्रीतिः प्रसादो माधुर्यं मार्दवं च यमा दश ॥ sometimes only five yamas are mentioned:-- अहिंसा सत्यवचनं ब्रह्मचर्यमकल्कता । अस्तेयमिति पञ्चैते यमाख्यानि व्रतानि च ॥). -5 The first of the eight aṅgas. or means of attaining Yoga; the eight aṅgas are:-- यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयो$- ष्टाङ्गानि; Śāndilya Up.1.1.2. -6 The god of death, death personified, regarded as a son of the sun; he presides over the पितृs and rules the spirits of the dead; दत्ताभये त्वयि यमादपि दण्डधारे U.2.11. -7 A twin; धर्मात्मजं प्रति यमौ च (i. e. नकुलसहदेवौ) कथैव नास्ति Ve.2.25; यमयो- श्चैव गर्भेषु जन्मतो ज्येष्ठता मता Ms.9.126. -8 One of a pair or couple, a fellow. -9 N. of Saturn. -1 A crow. -11 A symbolical expression for the number 'two'. -12 Ved. A rein, bridle; पृष्ठे सदो नसोर्यमः Ṛv.5. 61.2. -13 Ved. A driver, charioteer; अग्निं रथानां यमम् Ṛv.8.13.1. -14 N. of a deity who chastises beings for their misdeeds; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः Mb.12.2.3. -मम् 1 A pair or couple. -2 (In gram.) The twin letter of any consonant. -3 Pitch of the voice. -मी N. of the river Yamunā. -मौ (m. du.) 1 Twins; कथं त्वमेतौ धृतिसंयमौ यमौ Ki.1. 36. -2 N. of the Aśvins; यमौ यमोपमौ चैव ददौ दानान्यनेकशः Mb.14.61.38. -3 Nakula and Sahadeva; भीमार्जुनयमा- श्चापि तद्युक्तं प्रतिपेदिरे Mb.3.6.14. ˚मैथुनौ twins of different sex. -Comp. -अनुगः, -अनुचरः a servant or attendant of Yama. -अनुजा N. of the river Yamunā मघोनि वर्षत्य- सकृद् यमानुजा Bhāg.1.3.51. -अन्तकः an epithet of 1 Śiva. -2 of Yama. -अरिः, -घ्नः, -रिपुः &c. N. of Viṣṇu. -ईशम् the Nakṣatra Bharaṇī. -किङ्करः a messenger of death. -कीटः 1 a wood-louse. -2 an earth-worm. -कीलः N. of Viṣṇu. -कोटिः, -टी N. of a mythical town to the east of Laṅkā लङ्का कुमध्ये यमकोटिरस्याः Siddhāntaśiromaṇi. -घण्टः N. of an astrological Yoga (this is inauspicious). -जः a. twin-born, twin; यमजौ चापि भद्रं ते नैतदन्यत्र विद्यते Mb.3.14.19; भ्रातरौ आवां यमजौ U.6;4; also यमजात-जातक. -दंष्ट्रा 'Yama's tooth', the jaws of death. (-ष्ट्राः pl.) the last eight days of the month Aśvina and the whole of Kārtika (regarded as a period of general sickness). -दिश् f. the south. -दूतः, -दूतकः 1 a messenger of death. -2 a crow. -दूतिका tamarind. -देवता the asterism Bharaṇī. -द्रुमः Bombax Heptaphyllum (Mar. सांवरी). -द्वितीया the second day in the bright half of Kārtika when sisters entertain their brothers (Mar. भाऊबीज); cf. भ्रातृद्वितीया. -धानी the abode of Yama; नरः संसारान्ते विशति यमधानीजवनिकाम् Bh.3.112. -धारः a kind of double-edged weapon. -पटः, -पट्टिका a piece of cloth on which Yama with his attendants and the punishments of hell are represented (Mar. यमपुरी); याव- देतद् गृहं प्रविश्य यमपटं दर्शयन्न् गीतानि गायामि Mu.1.18/19. -पदम् a repeated word. -पाशः the noose of Yama. -पुरुषः Yama's servant or minister. -प्रियः the fig tree. -भगिनी N. of the river Yamunā. -यातना the tortures inflicted by Yama upon sinners after death, (the word is sometimes used to denote horrible tortures', 'extreme pain'). -रथः a buffalo. -राज् m. Yama, the god of death. -वाहनः = यमरथः q. v. -व्रतम् 1 an observance or vow made to Yama. -2 an impartial punishment (as given by Yama); यथा यमः प्रियद्वेष्यौ प्राप्ते काले नियच्छति । तथा राज्ञा नियन्तव्याः प्रजास्तद् हि यमव्रतम् ॥ Ms.9. 37. -शासनः the lord Śiva; यशो यदीयं यमशासनालय-क्षमाधर- स्पर्धनमाचचार सः Rām. Ch.2.12; (यमशासनालयः = हिमा- लयः). -श्रायम् the abode of Yama; यात यूयं यमश्रायं दिशं नायेन दक्षिणाम् Bk.7.36. -सभा the tribunal of Yama. -सूर्यम् a building with two halls, one facing the west and the other facing the north. -स्वसृ f. 1 N. of the river Yamunā; क्षणमिव पुलिने यमस्वसुस्ताम् Bhāg.3.4.27. -2 N. of Durgā.
rāsaḥ रासः 1 An uproar, a din, confused noise. -2 A sound in general. -3 Speech. -4 A kind of dance practised by Kṛiṣṇa and the cowherds but particularly the gopis or cowherdesses of Vrindāvana; तत्रारभत गोविन्दो रासक्रीडामनुव्रतैः । स्त्रीरत्नैरन्वितः प्रीतैरन्योन्याबद्धबाहुभिः ॥ Bhāg.1.33.2; उत्सृज्य रासे रसं गच्छन्तीम् Ve.1.2; रासे हरिमिह विहितविलासं स्मरति मनो मम कृतपरिहासम् Gīt.2; also Gīt.1. -5 A chain. -6 A sport, play. -Comp. -ईश्वरी N. of Rādhā. -उत्सवः, -क्रीडा, -मण्डलम् a sportive dance, the circular dance of Kṛiṣṇa and the cowherdesses of Vrindāvana; रासोत्सवः संप्रवृत्तो गोपीमण्डलमण्डितः Bhāg.1. 33.3. -गोष्ठी = रासक्रीडा q. v. -यात्रा f. a festival in honour of Kṛiṣṇa on the Kārtikī Paurṇimā.
la लः 1 An epithet of Indra. -2 A short syllable (in prosody). -3 A technical term used by Pāṇini for the ten tenses and moods (there being ten lakāras). -4 (In astr.) The number '5'; Gīrvāṇa.
laṅ लङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Imperfect tense or its terminations.
liṅ लिङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Potential and Benedictive moods or their terminations (the two moods being distinguished as विधिलिङ् and आशीर्लिङ्).
liṭ लिट् A technical term in grammer used by Pāṇini to denote the Perfect tense or its terminations.
lidhu लिधु A technical term in grammar used by Pāṇini for nominal verbs.
luk लुक् ind. A technical term used by Pāṇini to express the dropping or disappearance of affixes.
luṅ लुङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Aorist or its terminations.
luṭ लुट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the First or Periphrastic Future or its terminations.
lṛṅ लृङ् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Conditional Mood or its terminations.
lṛṭ लृट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Second or Simple Future or its terminations.
leṭ लेट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Vedic Subjunctive Mood or its terminations.
loṭ लोट् A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Imperative Mood or its terminations.
vaṇijakaḥ वणिजकः A merchant. वणिज्यम् vaṇijyam वणिज्या vaṇijyā वणिज्यम् वणिज्या Trade, traffic; कृषिर्वणिज्या पशुपालनं च Mb.12.63.1.
vara वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् 'to ask a boon'; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; 'वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे' इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately). -Comp. -अङ्ग a. having an excellent form. (-ङ्गः) 1 an elephant. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Cupid. -4 a Nakṣatra year consisting of 324 days. (-ङ्गी) turmeric. (-ङ्गम्) 1 the head; वराङ्गानि महार्हाणि धनुषा शातयामि वः Rām.1.66.1; वराङ्गमुर्व्यामपतच्चमूमुखे Mb.8.91.53. -2 the best part. -3 an elegant form. -4 pudendum muliebre. -5 green cinnamon. -अङ्गना a lovely woman; वराङ्गनासेवनमल्पभोजनम् Lakṣmīcharitra. -अन्नम् excellent dish; पक्वापक्वं दिवारात्रं वरान्नममृतोपमम् Mb.7.67.2. -अरणिः a mother; ददर्श रावणस्तत्र गोवृषेन्द्रवरारणिम् Rām.7.23.22. -अर्ह a. 1 worthy of a boon. -2 very worthy, highly esteemed; -मत्कृते$द्य वरार्हायाः श्यामतां समुपागतम्(मुखम्) Mb.3.144. 11. -3 very expensive. -आनना a lovely-faced woman. -आजीविन् m. an astrologer. -आरुहः an ox. -आरोह a. having fine hips. (-हः) 1 an excellent rider. -2 a rider on an elephant or horse. -3 mounting, riding. (-हा) an elegant or a beautiful woman; कामं कुरु वरा- रोहे देहि मे परिरम्भणम् Māl.6.11. -आलिः the moon. -आसनम् 1 an excellent seat. -2 the chief seat, a seat of honour. -3 the China rose. -4 a cistern, reservoir. (-नः) 1 a door-keeper. -2 a lover, paramour -इन्द्रः 1 a chief, sovereign. -2 Indra. -3 (also n.) N. of a part of Bengal. -न्द्री the ancient Gaura or Gauda country. -ईश्वरः N. of Śiva. -उरुः, -रूः f. a beautiful woman (lit. having beautiful thighs). -क्रतुः an epithet of Indra. -गात्र a. fair-limbed, beautiful. -चन्दनम् 1 a kind of sandal wood. -2 the pine tree. -तनु a. fairlimbed. (-नुः f.) a beautiful woman; वरतनुरथवासौ नैव दृष्टा त्वया मे V.4.22. -तन्तुः N. of an ancient sage; कौत्सः प्रपेदे वरतन्तुशिष्यः R.5.1. -त्वचः the Nimba tree. -द a. 1 conferring a boon, granting or fulfilling a boon; आगच्छ वरदे देवि जपे मे संनिधौ भव Sandhyā. -2 propitious. (-दः) 1 a benefactor. -2 N. of a class of Manes. -3 fire for propitiatory burnt offerings. ˚चतुर्थी N. of the 4th day in the bright half of माघ, ˚हस्तः the boon-giving or beneficent hand (placed on the head of a suppliant by a deity &c.). (-दा) 1 N. of a river; वरद वरदारोधोवृक्षैः सहावनतो रिपुः M.5.1. -2 a maiden, girl. -दक्षिणा 1 a present made to the bridegroom by the father of the bride. -2 a term for expense incurred in fruitless endeavours to recover a loss. -दानम् the granting of a boon. -दानिक a. arising from the bestowal of a favour or boon; चतुर्दश वने वासं वर्षाणि वरदानिकम् Rām.2.17.7. -द्रुमः agallochum. -धर्मः a noble act of justice. -निमन्त्र- णम् a journey undertaken by the parents of the bride to recall the bridegroom (who pretends to go to Kāśī.). -निश्चयः the choice of a bridegroom. -पक्षः the party of the bridegroom (at a wedding); प्रमुदितवरपक्षमेकतस्तत् R.6.86. -पुरुषः the best of men; अहं वरपुरुषमनुष्यो वासुदेवः कामयितव्यः Mk.1.3/31. -प्रद a. granting wishes. -प्रदा N. of Lopāmudrā. -प्रस्थानम्, -यात्रा the setting out of the bridegroom in procession towards the house of the bride for the celebration of marriage. -फलः the cocoa-nut tree. -बाह्लिकम् saffron. -युवतिः, -ती f. a beautiful young woman. -रुचिः N. of a poet and grammarian (one of the 'nine gems' at the court of king Vikrama; see नवरत्न; he is identified by some with Kātyāyana, the celebrated author of the Vārtikas on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -लक्षणम् the requisites of wedding. पाणिग्रहणमन्त्राश्च प्रथितं वरलक्षणम् Mb.7.55.16. -लब्ध a. received as a boon. (-ब्धः) the Champaka tree. -वत्सला a mother-in-law. -वर्णम् gold. -वर्णिनी 1 an excellent or fair-complexioned woman; मया हीयं वृता पूर्वं भार्यार्थे वरवर्णिनी Mb.1.5.23. -2 a woman in general. -3 turmeric. -4 lac. -5 N. of Lakṣmī. -6 of Durgā. -7 of Sarasvatī. -8 the creeper called Priyaṅgu. -9 a yellow pigment. -वृद्धः N. of Śiva. -शीतम् cinnamon. -सुरत a. 1 very wanton. -2 acquainted with the secrets of sexual intercourse. -स्रज् f. 'the bridegroom's garland', the garland put by the bride round the neck of the bridegroom.
वा ind. 1 As an alternative conjunction it means 'or'; but its position is different in Sanskrit, being used either with each word or assertion or only with the last, but it is never used at the beginning of a clause; cf. च. -2 It has also the following senses:-- (a) and, as well as, also; वायुर्वा दहनो वा G. M.; अस्ति ते माता स्मरसि वा तातम् U.4. (b) like, as; जातां मन्ये तुहिनमथितां पद्मिनीं वान्यरूपाम् Me.85 (v. l.); मणी वोष्ट्रस्य लम्बेते Sk.; हृष्टो गर्जति चाति- दर्पितबलो दुर्योधनो वा शिखी Mk.5.6; स्नानीयवस्त्रक्रियया पत्रोर्णं वोपयुज्यते M.5.12; Śi.3.63;4.35;7.64; Ki.3.13. (c) optionally; (in this sense mostly in grammatical rules as of Pāṇini); दोषो णौ वा चित्तविरागे P.VI.4. 99,91. (d) possibility; (in this sense वा is usually added to the interrogative pronoun and its derivatives like इव or नाम), and may be translated by 'possibly', 'I should like to know'; कस्य वान्यस्य वचसि मया स्थातव्यम् K.; परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते Pt.1.27. (e) sometimes used merely as an expletive. (f) indeed, truly. (g) only. -3 When repeated वा has the sense of 'either-or,' 'whether-or'; सा वा शंभोस्तदीया वा मूर्तिर्जल- मयी मम Ku.2.6; तदत्र परिश्रमानुरोधाद्वा उदात्तकथावस्तुगौर- वाद्वा नवनाटकदर्शनकुतूहलाद्वा भवद्बिरवधानं दीयमानं प्रार्थये Ve.1; एक एक खगो मानी सुखं जीवति चातकः । म्रियते वा पिपासायां याचते वा पुरंदरम् ॥ Subhāṣ. (अथवा or, or rather, or else; see under अथ; न वा not, neither, nor; यदि वा or if; यद्वा or, or else; किं वा whether, possibly &c.; किं वा शकुन्तलेत्यस्य मातुराख्या Ś.7.2/21; को वा or के वा followed by a negative means 'everyone, all'; के वा न स्युः परिभवफला निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56.
ṇijikaḥ वाणिजिकः 1 A merchant; Mb.13.126.24; also वाणिजकः Ms.3.181. -2 A cheat, rogue. -3 The submarine fire. वाणिज्या vāṇijyā वाणिज्यम् vāṇijyam वाणिज्या वाणिज्यम् Trade, traffic; धनमस्तीति वाणिज्यं किंचिदस्तीति कर्षणम् । सेवा न किंचिदस्तीति नाहमस्मीति साहसम् ॥ Subhāṣ.
vāmana वामन a. 1 (a) Short in stature, dwarfish, pigmy; छलवामनम् Śi.13.12. (b) (Hence) Small, short, little, reduced in length; वामनार्चिरिव दीपभाजनम् R.19.51; कथं कथं तानि (दिनानि) च वामनानि N.22.57. -2 Bent down, bent low (नम्र); शिरसि स्म जिघ्रति सुरारिबन्धने छलवामनं विनय- वामनं तदा Śi.13.12. -3 Vile, low, base. -4 Venerable; मध्ये वामनमासीनं विश्वेदेवा उपासते Kaṭh.5.3. -नः 1 A dwarf, pigmy; प्रांशुलभ्ये फले मोहादुद्बाहुरिव वामनः R.1.3; 1.6; सहस्रं वामनान् कुब्जान् ...... दृष्ट्वा ततो$स्मयत वै तदा Mb.7.56.8. -2 N. of Viṣṇu in his fifth incarnation, when he was born as a dwarf to humble the demon Bali, (see बलि); छलयसि विक्रमणे बलिमद्भुतवामन पदनखनीरज- नितजनपावन । केशव धृतवामनरूप जय जगदीश हरे । Gīt.1; Śi. 13.12. -3 N. of the elephant that presides over the south. -4 N. of the author of the Kāśikāvṛitti, a commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -5 The tree called अङ्कोट. -Comp. -आकृति a. dwarfish. -द्वादशी the 12th day in the light half of चैत्र. -निघण्टुः N. of a dictionary. -पुराणम् N. of one of the 18 Purāṇas.
vārttika वार्त्तिक a. (-की f.) [वृत्ति-ठक्] 1 Relating to news. -2 Bringing news. -3 Explanatory, glossarial. -कः 1 An emissary, a spy. -2 A husbandman (a man of the third tribe). -3 A mineralogist; L. D. B. -4 A trader, businessman. -5 A physician. -का 1 Business, trade. -2 News; कः पन्थाः का च वार्त्तिका Mb.3.313.114. -कम् [वृत्तिरूपेण कृतो ग्रन्थः] An explanatory or supplementary rule which explains the meaning of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, of that which is imperfectly said; or a rule which explains what is said or but imperfectly said and supplies omissions; उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तार्थव्यक्ति (or चिन्ता)कारि तु वार्त्तिकम् (the term is particularly applied to the explanatory rules of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -Comp. -कारः N. of Kātyāyana.
vārṣṇeya वार्ष्णेय 1 A descendant of Vṛiṣṇi. -2 Particularly Kṛiṣṇa; स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः Bg.1.41. -3 N. of the charioteer of Nala. वार्ह, वार्हद्रथ, वार्हद्रथि, वार्हस्पत, वार्हसत्य्प, वार्हिण वाल, वालक See, बार्ह, बार्हद्रथ, बार्हद्रथि, बार्हस्पत, बार्हस्पत्य, बार्हिण, बाल, बालक.
vikeśa विकेश a. (-शी f.) 1 Having loose hair. -2 Having no hair, bald (as head). -शी 1 A woman with loose hair. -2 A woman without hair. -3 A small tress of hair tied up separately and then collected into the larger braid or Veṇi. -4 N. of the wife of Śiva in the form of the Earth (one of the 8 forms of Śiva; cf. यामाहुः सर्वभूतप्रकृतिः Ś.1.1.). -Comp. -तारका a comet.
vidāraṇaḥ विदारणः 1 A tree or rock in the middle of a stream (to which a boat is fastened). -2 War, battle. -3 The Karṇikāra tree. -णा War, battle. -णम् 1 Rending, splitting, tearing, ripping up, breaking, (often with the force of an adj. at the end of comp.); श्रुतं सखे श्रवणविदारणं वचः Mu.5.6; युवजनहृदयविदारणमनसिज- नखरुचिकिंशुकजाले Gīt.1; Ki.14.54. -2 Afflicting, tormenting. -3 Killing, slaughter. विदारिका vidārikā विदारिः vidāriḥ विदारिका विदारिः f. A swelling in the groin; (also विदारी in this sense).
viśākhaḥ विशाखः 1 N. of Kārtikeya; वक्षो विशाखविशिखव्रण- लाञ्छितं मे Mv.2.38. -2 An attitude in shooting (in which the archer stands with the feet a span apart). -3 A beggar, petitioner. -4 A spindle. -5 N. of Śiva. -6 N. of a god, frequently mentioned by Paṇini and Patañjali along with Skanda; e. g. see Mbh. on P.VI.3.26, VIII.1.15. -a. also विशाखक; Branched, forked. -Comp. -जः the orange tree.
vṛkṣaḥ वृक्षः [व्रश्च्-क्स Uṇ.3.66] 1 A tree; आत्मापराधवृक्षाणां फलान्येतानि देहिनाम्. -2 A tree bearing visible flowers and fruit; अपुष्पाः फलवन्तो ये ते वनस्पतयः स्मृताः । पुष्पिणः फलिनश्चैव वृक्षास्तूभयतः स्मृताः ॥ Ms.1.47. -3 Wrightia Antidysenterica (Mar. इंद्रजव, कुडा). -Comp. -अङ्घ्रिः the root of a tree. -अदनः 1 a carpenter's chisel. -2 a hatchet. -3 the fig-tree. -4 the Piyāla tree. -अधिरूढः [also वृक्षाधिरूढम्, वृक्षाधिरूढिः f.] a kind of embrace by women resembling the climbing of trees by creepers [बाहुभ्यां कण्ठमालिङ्ग्य मामिनी कान्त उत्थिते । अङ्कमा- रोहते यस्य वृक्षारूढः स उच्यते Nārāyaṇa's com. on N.7.97.]; क्रमोद्गता पीवरताधिजङ्घं वृक्षाधिरूढं विदुषी किमस्याः N.7.97; वल्ली पुरन्ध्रिपटलं घटिताभिरामवृक्षाधिरूढकमुपैति परामभिख्याम् Haravijaya 5.33. -अम्लः the hog-plum. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree; वृक्षाम्लमाममम्लोष्णं वातघ्नं कफ- पित्तलम् । पक्वं तु गुरु संग्राहि कटुकं तुवरं लघु ॥ Bhāva P. -आमयः Lac, resin. -आरोपकः the planter of a tree; Ms.3.163. -आलयः a bird. -आवासः 1 a bird. -2 an ascetic. -आश्रयिन् m. 1 a kind of small owl. -2 a bird. -उत्पलः the Karṇikāra tree. -औकस् m. an ape. -कुक्कुटः a wild cock. -खण्डम् a grove or clump of trees. -गुल्म a. covered with trees and shrubs; Ms.7.192. -गृहः a bird. -चरः a monkey. -छाया the shade of a tree. (-यम्) thick shade, the shade of many trees. -तक्षकः a wood-feller. -धूपः turpentine. -नाथः the fig-tree. -निर्यासः gum, resin; Ms.5.6. -पाकः the fig tree. -भवनम् the hollow of a tree. -भिद् f. an axe. -भेदिनि m. 1 a hatchet. -2 a carpenter's chisel. -मर्कटिका a squirrel. -वाटिका = वाटी a garden, grove of trees. -शः a lizard. -शायिका a squirrel. -संकटम् a forest-thicket.
śatṛ शतृ A technical term used by Pāṇini to denote the Kṛit affix अत् used in forming present participles of the Parasmaipada.
śap शप् A technical term used by Pāṇini for the conjugational sign अ inserted between the root and the terminations of the conjugational tenses in the first class of roots.
śaphaḥ शफः फम् [शप्-अच् पृषो˚ पस्य फः] 1 A hoof; सुरभे- र्महिषा गावो ये चान्ये द्विशफा नृप Bhāg.6.6.27. -2 A claw; यज्ञायज्ञियं पुच्छं धिष्ण्यां शफाम् Vāj.12.4. -3 The root of a tree. -Comp. -ऊरुः f. a woman having thighs resembling the two divisions of a cow's hoof; see P. IV.1.7. The early commentators of Pāṇini of other schools of grammar evidently think that the word is two well-known to require any explanation. Viṭṭhala, Bhaṭṭojī and others think that the word means 'a woman whose thighs press together like hoofs'. But there is not the slightest doubt that the sense of similitude is present here and the word comes within the purview of the previous rule ऊरूत्तरपदादौपम्ये. Or it may mean a woman whose thighs are marked with the sign of hoofs. Sṛiṣṭidhara the commentator of the Bhāṣāvṛitti gives the correct meaning : शफं खुरः । तच्चह्नुयुक्त ऊरूर्यस्याः । शफरः (-री) f.) [शफं राति रा-क Tv.] A kind of small glittering fish; मोघीकर्तुं चटुलशफरोद्वर्तनप्रेक्षितानि Me. 42; मनो$स्य जह्नुः शफरीविवृत्तयः Ki.4.3; Śi.8.24; Ku. 4.39. -Comp. -अधिपः the fish called llīśa.
śabdaḥ शब्दः [शब्द्-घञ्] 1 Sound (the object of the sense of hearing and property of आकाश); अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -2 Sound, note (of birds; men &c.), noise in general; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः Ś.1.14; स शब्दस्तुमुलो$भवत् Bg.1.13; Ś.3.1; Ms.4.31; Ku.1.45. -3 The sound of a musical instrument; वाद्यशब्दः Pt.2; Ku.1.45. -4 A word, sound, significant word (for def. &c. see Mbh. introduction); एकः शब्दः सम्यगधीतः सम्यक् प्रयुक्तः स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति; so शब्दार्थौ. -5 A declinable word, a noun, substantive. -6 A title, an epithet; यस्यार्थुक्तं गिरिराज- शब्दं कुर्वन्ति बालव्यजनैश्चमर्यः Ku.1.13; Ś.2.15; नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक् R.3.35;2.53,64;3.49;5.22;18.42; V.1.1. -7 The name, mere name as in शब्दपति q. v. -3 Verbal authority (regarded by the Naiyāyikas as a Pramāṇa. -9 Grammar; Dk.1.1. -1 Fame; लब्धशब्देन कौसल्ये कुमारेण धनुष्मता Rām.2.63.11; स्वर्गाय शब्दं दिवमात्महेतोर्धर्मार्थमात्मंस्थितिमाचकाङ्क्ष Bu. Ch.2.53; (cf. also 'शब्दो$क्षरे यशोगीत्योः' -हैमः). -11 The sacred syllable ओम्. -12 A technical term. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable ओम् uttered aloud. -अतीत a. beyond the power or reach of words, indescribable. -अधिष्ठानम् the ear. -अध्याहारः supplying a word (to complete an ellipsis). -अनुकृतिः onomatopœia. -अनुरूप a. proportionate or corresponding to the sound; शब्दानुरूपेण पराक्रमेण भवि- तव्यम् Pt.1. -अनुशासनम् the science of words; i. e. grammar. -अर्थः the meaning of a word. (-र्थौ dual) a word and its meaning; अदोषौ शब्दार्थौ K.P.1; न त्वयं शब्दार्थः, व्यामोहादेषा प्रतीतिः ŚB. on MS.4.1.14. -अलं- कारः a figure of speech depending for its charmingness on sound or words and disappearing as soon as the words which constitute the figure are replaced by others of the same meaning (opp. अर्थालंकार); e. g.; see K. P. 9. -आख्येय a. to be communicated in words; शब्दाख्येयं यदपि किल ते यः सखीनां पुरस्तात् Me.15. (-यम्) an oral or verbal communication. -आडम्बरः bombast, verbosity, high-sounding or grandiloquent words. -आदि a. beginning with शब्द (as the objects of sense); शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुं चरितुं दुश्चरं तपः R.1.25. -इन्द्रियम् the ear. -कार a. sounding, sonorous. -कोशः a lexicon, dictionary. -ग a. 1 perceiving sounds. -2 uttering sounds. -गत a. inherent or residing in a word. -गतिः music, song. -गुण a. having sound for its quality; अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः R.13.1. -गोचरः the aim or object of speech. -ग्रहः 1 catching the sound. -2 the ear. -ग्रामः the range or reach of sound. -चातुर्यम् cleverness of style, eloquence. -चित्रम् one of the two subdivisions of the last (अवर or अधम) class of poetry (wherein the charm lies in the use of words which please the ear simply by their sound; see the example given under the word चित्र). -चोरः 'a word-thief', a plagiarist. -तन्मात्रम् the subtle element of sound. -नेतृ m. N. of Pāṇini. -पतिः a lord in name only, nominal lord; ननु शब्दपतिः क्षितरेहं त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः R.8.52. -पातिन् a. hitting an invisible mark the sound of which is only heard, tracing a sound; शब्दपातिनमिषुं विससर्ज R.9.73. -प्रमाणम् verbal or oral evidence. -बोधः knowledge derived from verbal testimony. -ब्रह्मन् n. 1 the Vedas; शब्द- ब्रह्मणि निष्णातः परं ब्रह्माधिगच्छति Maitra. Up.6.22. -2 spiritual knowledge consisting in words, knowledge of the Supreme Sprit or the Spirit itself; शब्दब्रह्मणस्तादृशं विवर्तमितिहासम् U.2;7.2. -3 a property of words called स्फोट q. v. -भाव्यत्वम् the state of becoming known through scriptural word only; कर्मणः शब्दभाव्य- त्वात्... Ms.7.1.9. (on which Śabara writes अथेह कर्मणः शब्दभाव्यत्वम् । नान्यतः शक्यमेतज्ज्ञातुं कस्यापूर्वस्य धर्मा इति ॥ -भिद् f. perversion of words. -भेदिन् a. hitting a mark merely by its sound. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Arjuna. -2 the anus. -3 a kind of arrow. -योनिः f. a root, radical word. -लक्षण a. what is determined by the sacred word; इह शब्दलक्षणे कर्मणि यथाशब्दार्थं प्रवृत्तिः ŚB. on Ms.11.1.26. -वारिधिः a vocabulary. -विद्या, -शास्त्रम् the science of words; i. e. grammar; अनन्तपारं किल शब्द- शास्त्रम् Pt.1; Śi.2.112;14.24. -विरोधः opposition of words (in a sentence). -विशेषः a variety of sound. -विशेषणम् (in gram.) an adjective, adjectival word. -वृत्तिः f. 1 the function of a word (in Rhet.). -2 the power of a word (to convey sense), indicative power (लक्षणा); अदृष्टार्थाच्छब्दवृत्तिर्लघीयसी ŚB. on MS.11.1.48. -वेधिन् a. hitting an invisible mark the sound of which is only heard; see शब्दपातिन्; अभ्याससाध्यं निखिलं मत्वा संतमसे व्यधात् । इषुपातानभूद्येन शब्दवेधविशारदः ॥ Bm.1.632. (-m.) 1 a kind of arrow. -2 an archer. -3 a warrior who pierces his enemies by mere sounds; Rām.2.63.11. -4 an epithet of king Daśaratha. -5 an epithet of Arjuna. -वेध्य a. to be shot at without being seen; एवं मयाप्यविज्ञातं शब्दवेध्यमिदं फलम् Rām.2.63.13. -वैलक्ष्यण्यम् verbal difference. -शक्तिः f. the force or expressive power of a word; signification of a word; see शक्ति. -शासनम् 1 a rule of grammar. -2 the science of grammar. -शुद्धिः f. 1 purity of words. -2 the correct use of words. -श्लेषः a play or pun upon words, a verbal equivoque; (it differs from अर्थश्लेष in-as-much as the pun dissappears as soon as the words which constitute it are replaced by others of the same signification, whereas in अर्थश्लेष the pun remains unchanged; शब्दपरि- वृत्तिसहत्मर्थश्लेषः.) -संग्रहः a vocabulary, lexicon. -संज्ञा (in gram.) a technical term; P.I.1.68. -साधन, -साह a. See शब्दवेधिन्; ततो$स्त्रं शब्दसाहं वै त्वरमाणो महारणे Mb.3.22. 5. -सौष्ठवम् elegance of words, a graceful or elegant style. -सौकर्यम् ease of expression. -स्मृतिः f. philology. -हीनम् the use of a word in a form or meaning not sanctioned by standard authors.
śākaṭāyanaḥ शाकटायनः N. of a philologist and grammarian often referred to by Pāṇini and Yāska; cf. व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Nir.
śākalyaḥ शाकल्यः N. of an ancient grammarian mentioned by Pāṇini; (he is supposed to have arranged the Pada text of the Ṛigveda).
śānac शानच् (In gram.) A technical term used by Paṇini for the Kṛit affix आन or मान used in forming present participles of the Ātm.
śārvarīka शार्वरीक a. Nocturnal; शार्वरमिति च Vamana's Kāvyālaṁkārasūtrāṇi 59.
śālaṅkiḥ शालङ्किः m. N. of Pāṇini.
śālāturīyaḥ शालातुरीयः An epithet of Pāṇini (written also शालोत्तरीय; so called from शलातुर the place of his birth).
śālottarīyaḥ शालोत्तरीयः An epithet of Pāṇini; see शालातुरीय.
śup शुप् A technical term used by Pāṇini for उ the sign of the eighth class of roots.
śnam श्नम् A technical term used by Pāṇini for न, the sign of the 7th class of roots.
śnā श्ना A technical term used by Pāṇini for ना, the sign of the 9th class of roots.
śnu श्नु A technical term used by Pāṇini for नु, the sign of the 5th class of roots.
satīnaḥ सतीनः 1 A kind of pulse of pease. -2 A bamboo. सतीर्थः satīrthḥ सतीर्थ्यः satīrthyḥ सतीर्थः सतीर्थ्यः A fellow religious student, (a pupil of the same preceptor); यमात्मनः सतीर्थ्यं पितैव ते जानीते यो$सौ यादृशश्चेति Māl.2. According to Pāṇini (VI.3.87) the latter word alone is correct. शब्दरत्नावली, however, says, "स्यात् सतीर्थः सतीर्थ्यो$पि तथैकगुरुरित्यपि." Bohtlingk and Wackernagel say that the word सतीर्थ is approved to be correct by Vopadeva. But this is wrong because मुग्धबोधव्याकरण accepts सतीर्थ्य alone to be correct.
samā समा (generally in pl., but used by Pāṇini in sing. also, e. g. समां समाम् P.V.2.12.) A year; तेनाष्टौ परिगमिताः समाः कथंचित् R.8.92; तयोश्चतुर्दशैकेन रामं प्राव्राजयत् समाः 12.6; 19.4; Mv.4.41. -ind. With, together with. -Comp. -अतीत a. more than one year old. -निचय a. one who has provision sufficient for a year; Ms.6.18.
samāmnāyaḥ समाम्नायः 1 Traditional repetition or mention,handing down traditionally. -2 A traditional collection (of words &c.); अश्व इति पशुसमाम्नाये पठ्यते U.4. -3 Tradition, repetition (in general). -4 Reading, recitation, enumeration. -5 Totality, an aggregate, a collection; अक्षरसमाम्नायम् Śik.57 (i. e. the letters from अ to ह which are said to have been revealed by Śiva to Pāṇini); वाचं वर्णसमाम्नाये तमोङ्कारे स्वरे न्यसेत् Bhāg. 7.15.53. -6 An epithet of Śiva. -7 The sacred text (like Veda) in general; पुत्र्याः समाम्नायविधौ प्रतीतः Bhāg. 3.22.16.
siddha सिद्ध p. p. 1 Accomplished, effected, performed, achieved, completed. -2 Gained, obtained, acquired. -3 Succeeded, successful; one who has attained his object; याताबला व्रजं सिद्धा मयेमा रंस्थथ क्षपाः Bhāg.1.22.27. -4 Settled, established; नैसर्गिकी सुरभिणः कुसुमस्य सिद्धा मूर्ध्नि स्थितिर्न चरणैरवताडनानि U.1.14. -5 Proved, demonstrated, substantiated; तस्मादिन्द्रियं प्रत्यक्षप्रमाणमिति सिद्धम् T. S.; साक्षिप्रत्ययसिद्धानि (कार्याणि) Ms.8.178. -6 Valid, sound (as a rule). -7 Admitted to be true. -8 Decided, adjudicated (as a law-suit). -9 Paid, discharged, liquidated (as debt). -1 Cooked, dressed (as food); अभ्रच्छाया खलप्रीतिः सिद्धमन्नं च योषितः । किंचित्कालोपभोग्यानि यौवनानि धनानि च ॥Pt.2.117. -11 Matured, ripened. -12 Thoroughly prepared, compounded, cooked together (as drugs). -13 Ready (as money). -14 Subdued, won over, subjugated (as by magic). -15 Brought under subjection, become propitious. -16 Thoroughly conversant with or skilled in, proficient in; as in रस- सिद्ध q. v. -17 Perfected, sanctified (as by penance); अप्रमत्तो$खिलस्वार्थे यदि स्यात् सिद्ध आत्मनि Bhāg.11.23.29. -18 Emancipated. -19 Endowed with supernatural powers or faculties. -2 Pious, sacred, holy. -21 Divine, immortal, eternal. -22 Celebrated, well-known, illustrious; अथर्वशिरसि प्रोक्तैर्मन्त्रैः सिद्धां विधानतः Rām.1.15.2; एवं तौ लोकसिद्धाभिः क्रीडाभिश्चेरतुर्वने Mb.1.18.16. -23 Shining, splendid. -24 Hit (as a mark). -25 Peculiar, singular. -26 Invariable, unalterable. -27 Satisfied; Bhāg.11.23.29. -द्धः 1 A semi-divine being supposed to be of great purity and holiness, and said to be particularly characterized by eight supernatural faculties called Siddhis q. v.; उद्वेजिता वृष्टिभिराश्रयन्ते शृङ्गाणि यस्यातप- वन्ति सिद्धाः Ku.1.5. -2 An inspired sage or seer (like Vyāsa). -3 Any sage or seer, a prophet; सिद्धादेश Ratn.1. -4 One skilled in magical arts, a magician. -5 A law-suit, judicial trial. -6 A kind of hard sugar. -7 The dark thorn-apple. -8 One who has attained his object; सिद्धः कचो वत्स्यति मत्सकाशे Mb.1.76.7. -द्धम् Sea-salt. -Comp. -अङ्गना, -योषित् a beatified woman, a female siddha. -अञ्जनम् magical ointment or collyrium; वसुपूर्णन् कलशान् सिद्धाञ्जनेन ज्ञात्वा Dk.1.4. -अन्तः 1 the established end. -2 the demonstrated conclusion of an argument, established view of any question, the true logical conclusion (following on the refutation of the Pūrvapakṣa). -3 a proved fact, established truth, dogma, settled doctrine. -4 any established text-book resting on conclusive evidence; मध्येसभं दैवविदः सर्वसिद्धान्त- पारगाः Śiva B.6.8. ˚कोटिः f. the point in an argument which is regarded as a logical conclusion. ˚कौमुदी N. of a celebrated commentary on Pāṇini's grammar by भट्टोजी- दीक्षित. ˚पक्षः the logically correct side of an argument. -अन्नम् cooked food. -अर्थ a. one who has accomplished his desired object, successful. (-र्थः) 1 white mustard; यन्त्रस्थसिद्धार्थपदाभिषेकं लब्ध्वाप्यसिद्धार्थममन्यत स्वम् N.1.6; अविरललग्नगौरसिद्धार्थकप्रकारतया काञ्चनरसखचितामिव मालाम् K. (Pūrvabhāga); Bhāg.4.9.59. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of the great Buddha. -आदेशः 1 the prediction of a seer. -2 a prophet, fortune-teller. -आपगा f. the river Gaṅgā. -आसनम् a particular posture in religious meditation. -औषधम् a specific panacea. -काम a. having the wishes fulfilled. -क्षेत्रम् the abode of sages or Siddhas. -गङ्गा, -नदी, -सिन्धुः the celestial Ganges. -ग्रहः N. of a particular kind of madness or dementia. -जलम्, -सलिलम् sour rice-gruel. -देवः N. of Śiva. -द्रव्यम् any magical object. -धातुः quick-silver. -नरः sorcerer, fortune-teller. -पक्षः the established or logical side of an argument. -पथः the atmosphere; छिन्नाः सिद्धपथे देवा- र्लघुहस्तैः सहस्रधा Bhāg.6.1.25. -पुरुषः = सिद्धः (1,3,4) above. -पुष्पः the Karavīra plant. -प्रयोजनः white mustard. -मानस a. having a completely satisfied mind. -मोदकः sugar prepared from bamboo-manna. -यात्रिकः one wandering about for the acquisition of magical power; Pt.5. -योगः magical agency. -योगिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रस a. mineral;, metallic. (-सः) 1 quick-silver; अयोविकारे स्वरितत्वमिष्यते कुतो$यसां सिद्धरस- स्पृशामपि N.9.42. -2 an alchemist. -रूपम् the right or correct thing. -लक्ष a. one who has hit the mark. -लोकः the world of the Blest (सिद्ध). -वस्तिः a strong injection (of oil &c.); Suśr. -विद्या the doctrine relating to perfect beings. -वेदनः an elephant having perfect sensitivity; Mātaṅga L.8.25. -व्यञ्जनः an ascetic-spy; सिद्धव्यञ्जनैर्माणवप्रकाशनम् Kau. A.4. -संकल्प a. one who has accomplished his desired object. -संबन्ध a. one whose kindred are well known. -साधकः N. of Śiva. -साधनः white mustard. (-नम्) 1 the performance of magical rites for the acquisition of supernatural powers &c. -2 the materials employed in mystical or chemical processes. -साधित a. one who has learned by practice (not by study). -साध्य a. accomplished, proved. (-ध्यम्) a dogma, demonstrated conclusion. -सिद्ध a. thoroughly efficacious. -सेनः N. of Kārtikeya. -स्थाली the boiler or pot of a seer (it is supposed to be a vessel which is gifted with the property of overflowing with any kind of food at the desire of the possessor). -हेमन् purified gold.
su सु ind. A particle often used with nouns to form Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhī compounds, and with adjectives and adverbs. It has the following senses:-1 Well, good, excellent; as in सुगन्धि. -2 Beautiful, handsome; as in सुमध्यमा, सुकेशी &c. -3 Well, perfectly, thoroughly, properly; सुजीर्णमन्नं सुविचक्षणः सुतः सुशासिता स्त्री नृपतिः सुसेवितः ......सुदीर्घकाले$पि न याति विक्रियाम् H.1.22. -4 Easily, readily, as in सुकर or सुलभ q. v. -5 Much, very much, exceedingly; सुदारुण, सुदीर्घ &c. -6 Worthy of respect or reverence. -7 It is also said to have the senses of assent, prosperity, and distress. -Comp. -अक्ष a. 1 having good eyes. -2 having keen organs, acute. -अङ्ग a. well-shaped, handsome, lovely. -अच्छ a. see s. v. -अन्त a. having happy end, ending well. -अल्प, -अल्पक a. see s. v. -अस्ति, -अस्तिक see s. v. -आकार, -आकृति a. well-formed, handsome, beautiful. -आगत see s. v. -आदानम् taking justly or properly; स्वादानाद्वर्णसंसर्गात्त्वबलानां च रक्षणात् । बलं संजायते राज्ञः स प्रेत्येह च वर्धते ॥ Ms.8.172. -आभास a. very splendid or illustrious; सारतो न विरोधी नः स्वाभासो भरवानुत Ki.15. 22. -इष्ट a. properly sacrificed; स्विष्टं यजुर्भिः प्रणतो$स्मि यज्ञम् Bhāg.4.7.41. ˚कृत् m. a form of fire; धर्मादिभ्यो यथान्यायं मन्त्रैः स्विष्टकृतं बुधः Bhāg.11.27.41. -उक्त a. well-spoken, well-said; अथवा सूक्तं खलु केनापि Ve.3. (-क्ता) a kind of bird (सारिका). (-क्तम्) 1 a good or wise saying; नेतुं वाञ्छति यः खलान् पथि सतां सूक्तैः सुधा- स्यन्दिभिः Bh.2.6; R.15.97. -2 a Vedic hymn, as in पुरुषसूक्त &c. ˚दर्शिन् m. a hymn-seer, Vedic sage. ˚वाकन्यायः A rule of interpretation according to which some thing that is declared as being subordinate to something else should be understood to signify a part or whole on the basis of expediency or utility. This is discussed by जैमिनि and शबर at MS.3.2.15-18. ˚वाच् f. 1 a hymn. -2 praise, a word of praise. -उक्तिः f. 1 a good or friendly speech. -2 a good or clever saying. -3 a correct sentence. -उत्तर a. 1 very superior. -2 well towards the north. -उत्थान a. making good efforts, vigorous, active. (-नम्) vigorous effort or exertion. -उन्मद, -उन्माद a. quite mad or frantic. -उपसदन a. easy to be approached. -उपस्कर a. furnished with good instruments. -कण्टका the aloe plant. -कण्ठ a. sweetvoiced. (-ण्ठी) the female cuckoo. -कण्डुः itch. -कन्दः 1 an onion. -2 a yam. -3 a sort of grass. -कन्दकः onion. -कर a. (-रा or -री f.) 1 easy to be done, practicable, feasible; वक्तुं सुकरं कर्तुं (अध्यवसातुं) दुष्करम् Ve.3 'sooner said than done'. -2 easy to be managed. (-रः) a good-natured horse. (-रा) a tractable cow. (-रम्) charity, benevolence. -कर्मन् a. 1 one whose deeds are righteous, virtuous, good. -2 active, diligent. (-m.) N. of Visvakarman. -कल a. one who has acquired a great reputation for liberality in giving and using (money &c,) -कलिल a. well filled with. -कल्प a. very qualified or skilled; कालेन यैर्वा विमिताः सुकल्पैर्भूपांसवः खे मिहिका द्युभासः Bhāg.1.14.7. -कल्पित a. well equipped or armed. -कल्य a. perfectly sound. -काण्डः the Kāravella plant. -काण्डिका the Kāṇḍīra creeper. -काण्डिन् a. 1 having beautiful stems. -2 beautifully joined. (-m.) a bee. -काष्ठम् fire-wood. -कुन्दकः an onion. -कुमार a. 1 very delicate or soft, smooth. -2 beautifully young or youthful. (-रः) 1 a beautiful youth. -2 a kind of sugar-cane. -3 a kind of grain (श्यामाक). -4 a kind of mustard. -5 the wild Champaka. (-रा) 1 the double jasmine. -2 the plantain. -3 the great-flowered jasmine. -कुमारकः 1 a beautiful youth. -2 rice (शालि). (-कम्) 1 the Tamālapatra. -2 a particutar part of the ear. -कुमारी the Navamallikā jasmine. -कृत् a. 1 doing good, benevolent. -2 pious, virtuous, righteous. -3 wise, learned. -4 fortunate, lucky. -5 making good sacrifices or offerings. (-m.) 1 a skilful worker. -2 N. of Tvaṣṭri. -कृत a. 1 done well or properly. -2 thoroughly done; कच्चिन्नु सुकृतान्येव कृतरूपाणि वा पुनः । विदुस्ते सर्वकार्याणि Rām.2.1.2. -3 well made or constructed. -4 treated with kindness, assisted, befriended. -5 virtuous, righteous, pious. -6 lucky, fortunate. (-तम्) 1 any good or virtuous act, kindness, favour, service; नादत्ते कस्यचित् पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः Bg.5.15; Me.17. -2 virtue, moral or religious merit; स्वर्गाभिसंधिसुकृतं वञ्चनामिव मेनिरे Ku.6.47; तच्चिन्त्यमानं सुकृतं तवेति R.14.16. -3 fortune, auspiciousness. -4 recompense, reward. -5 Penance; तदभूरिवासरकृतं सुकृतैरुप- लभ्य वैभवमनन्यभवम् Ki.6.29. -कृतिः f. 1 well-doing, a good act. -2 kindness, virtue. -3 practice of penance. -4 auspiciousness. -कृतिन् a. 1 acting well or kindly. -2 virtuous, pious, good, righteous; सन्तः सन्तु निरापदः सुकृतिनां कीर्तिश्चिरं वर्धताम् H.4.132; चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनो$र्जुन Bg.7.16. -3 wise, learned. -4 benevolent. -5 fortunate, lucky. -कृत्यम् a good action; सुकृत्यं विष्णु- गुप्तस्य मित्राप्तिर्भार्गवस्य च Pt.2.45. -केश(स)रः the citron tree. -क्रतुः 1 N. of Agni. -2 of Śiva. -3 of Indra. -4 of Mitra and Varuṇa. -5 of the sun. -6 of Soma. -क्रयः a fair bargain. -क्षेत्र a. sprung from a good womb. -खल्लिका luxurious life. -ग a. 1 going gracefully or well. -2 graceful, elegant. -3 easy of access; अकृत्यं मन्यते कृत्यमगम्यं मन्यते सुगम् । अभक्ष्यं मन्यते भक्ष्यं स्त्रीवाक्यप्रेरितो नरः ॥ Pt.2.148. -4 intelligible, easy to be understood (opp. दुर्ग). (-गः) a Gandharva; गीतैः सुगा वाद्यधराश्च वाद्यकैः Bhāg.1.12.34. (-गम्) 1 ordure, feces. -2 happiness. -गण् m. a good calculator; L. D. B. -a. counting well. -गणकः a good calculator or astronomer. -गत a. 1 well-gone or passed. -2 well-bestowed. (-तः) an epithet of Buddha. -गतिः 1 Welfare, happiness. -2 a secure refuge. -गन्धः 1 fragrance, odour, perfume. -2 sulphur. -3 a trader. (-न्धम्) 1 sandal. -2 small cumin seed. -3 a blue lotus. -4 a kind of fragrant grass. (-न्धा) sacred basil. -गन्धकः 1 sulphur. -2 the red Tulasee. -3 the orange. -4 a kind of gourd, -गन्धमूला a land-growing lotus-plant; L. D. B. -गन्धारः an epithet of Śiva. -गन्धि a. 1 sweet-smelling, fragrant, redolent with perfumes. -2 virtuous, pious. (-न्धिः) 1 perfume, fragrance. -2 the Supreme Being. -3 a kind of sweet-smelling mango. (-न्धि n.) 1 the root of long pepper. -2 a kind of fragrant grass. -3 coriander seed. ˚त्रिफला 1 nutmeg. -2 areca nut. -3 cloves. ˚मूलम् the root Uśīra. ˚मूषिका the musk-rat. -गन्धिकः 1 incense. -2 sulphur. -3 a kind of rice. (-कम्) the white lotus. -गम a. 1 easy of access, accessible. -2 easy. -3 plain, intelligible. -गरम् cinnabar. -गहना an enclosure round a place of sacrifice to exclude profane access. ˚वृत्तिः f. the same as above. -गात्री a beautiful woman. -गृद्ध a. intensely longing for. -गृह a. (-ही f.) having a beautiful house or abode, well-lodged; सुगृही निर्गृहीकृता Pt.1.39. -गृहीत a. 1 held well or firmly, grasped. -2 used or applied properly or auspiciously. ˚नामन् a. 1 one whose name is auspiciously invoked, one whose name it is auspicious to utter (as Bali, Yudhiṣṭhira), a term used as a respectful mode of speaking; सुगृहीतनाम्नः भट्टगोपालस्य पौत्रः Māl.1. -ग्रासः a dainty morsel. -ग्रीव a. having a beautiful neck. (-वः) 1 a hero. -2 a swan. -3 a kind of weapon. -4 N. of one of the four horses of Kṛiṣṇa. -5 of Śiva. -6 of Indra. -7 N. of a monkey-chief and brother of Vāli. [By the advice of Kabandha, Rāma went to Sugrīva who told him how his brother had treated him and besought his assistance in recovering his wife, promising at the same time that he would assist Rāma in recovering his wife Sīta. Rāma, therfore, killed vāli, and installed Sugrīva on the throne. He then assisted Rāma with his hosts of monkeys in conquering Rāvaṇa, and recovering Sīta.] ˚ईशः N. of Rāma; सुग्रीवेशः कटी पातु Rāma-rakṣā.8. -ग्ल a. very weary or fatigued. -घोष a. having a pleasant sound. (-षः) N. of the conch of Nakula; नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणपुष्पकौ Bg.1.16. -चक्षुस् a. having good eyes, seeing well. (-m.) 1 discerning or wise man, learned man. -2 The glomerous fig-tree. -चरित, -चरित्र a. 1 well-conducted, well-behaved; वृषभैकादशा गाश्च दद्यात् सुचरितव्रतः Ms.11.116. -2 moral, virtuous; तान् विदित्वा सुचरितैर्गूढैस्तत्कर्मकारिभिः Ms.9.261. (-तम्, -त्रम्) 1 good conduct, virtuous deeds. -2 merit; तव सुचरितमङ्गुलीय नूनं प्रतनु Ś.6.1. (-ता, -त्रा) a well-conducted, devoted, and virtuous wife. -चर्मन् m. the Bhūrja tree. -चित्रकः 1 a king fisher. -2 a kind of speckled snake. -चित्रा a kind of gourd. -चिन्ता, -चिन्तनम् deep thought, deep reflection or consideration. -चिरम् ind. for a very long time, very long. -चिरायुस् m. a god, deity. -चुटी a pair of nippers or tongs. -चेतस् a. 1 well-minded. -2 wise. -चेतीकृत a. with the heart satiated; welldisposed; ततः सुचेतीकृतपौरभृत्यः Bk.3.2. -चेलकः a fine cloth. -च्छद a. having beautiful leaves. -छत्रः N. of Śiva. (-त्रा) the river Sutlej. -जन a. 1 good, virtuous, respectable. -2 kind, benevolent. (-नः) 1 a good or virtuous man, benevolent man. -2 a gentleman. -3 N. of Indra's charioteer. -जनता 1 goodness, kindness, benevolence, virtue; ऐश्वर्यस्य विभूषणं सुजनता Bh.2. 82. -2 a number of good men. -3 bravery. -जन्मन् a. 1 of noble or respectable birth; या कौमुदी नयनयोर्भवतः सुजन्मा Māl.1.34. -2 legitimate, lawfully born. -जलम् a lotus. -जल्पः 1 a good speech. -2 a kind of speech thus described by Ujjvalamaṇi; यत्रार्जवात् सगाम्भीर्यं सदैन्यं सहचापलम् । सोत्कण्ठं च हरिः स्पृष्टः स सुजल्पो निगद्यते ॥ -जात a. 1 well-grown, tall. -2 well made or produced. -3 of high birth. -4 beautiful, lovely; सुजातं कल्याणी भवतु कृत- कृत्यः स च युवा Māl.1.16; R.3.8. -5 very delicate; खिद्यत् सुजाताङ्घ्रितलामुन्निन्ये प्रेयसीं प्रियः Bhāg.1.3.31. -डीनकम् a kind of flight of birds; Mb.8.41.27 (com. पश्चाद् गतिः पराडीनं स्वर्गगं सुडीनकम्). -तनु a. 1 having a beautiful body. -2 extremely delicate or slender, very thin. -3 emaciated. (-नुः, -नूः f.) a lovely lady; एताः सुतनु मुखं ते सख्यः पश्यन्ति हेमकूटगताः V.1.1; Ś.7.24. -तन्त्री a. 1 well-stringed. -2 (hence) melodious. -तपस् a. 1 one who practises austere penance; a वानप्रस्थ; स्विष्टिः स्वधीतिः सुतपा लोकाञ्जयति यावतः Mb.12.71.3. -2 having great heat. (-m.) 1 an ascetic, a devotee, hermit, an anchorite. -2 the sun. (-n.) an austere penance. -तप्त a. 1 greatly harassed, afflicted. -2 very severe (as a penance); तपसैव सुतप्तेन मुच्यन्ते किल्बिषात्ततः Ms.11.239. -तमाम् ind. most excellently, best. -तराम् ind. 1 better, more excellently. -2 exceedingly, very, very much, excessively; तया दुहित्रा सुतरां सवित्री स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलया चकाशे Ku.1.24; सुतरां दयालुः R.2.53;7.21;14.9;18.24. -3 more so, much more so; मय्यप्यास्था न ते चेत्त्वयि मम सुतरा- मेष राजन् गतो$ स्मि Bh.3.3. -4 consequently. -तर्दनः the (Indian) cuckco. -तर्मन् a. good for crossing over; सुतर्माणमधिनावं रुहेम Ait. Br.1.13; (cf. also यज्ञो वै सुतर्मा). -तलम् 1 'immense depth', N. of one of the seven regions below the earth; see पाताल; (याहि) सुतलं स्वर्गीभिः प्रार्थ्यं ज्ञातिभिः परिवारितः Bhāg.8.22.33. -2 the foundation of a large building. -तान a. melodious. -तार a. 1 very bright. -2 very loud; सुतारैः फूत्कारैः शिव शिव शिवेति प्रतनुमः Bh.3.2. -3 having a beautiful pupil (as an eye). (-रः) a kind of perfume. (-रा) (in Sāṁkhya) one of the nine kinds of acquiescence. -तिक्तकः the coral tree. -तीक्ष्ण a. 1 very sharp. -2 very pungent. -3 acutely painful. (-क्ष्णः) 1 the Śigru tree. -2 N. of a sage; नाम्ना सुतीक्ष्णश्चरितेन दान्तः R.13.41. ˚दशनः an epithet of Śiva. -तीर्थः 1 a good preceptor. -2 N. of Śiva. -a. easily crossed or traversed. -तुङ्ग a. very lofty or tall. (-ङ्गः) 1 the cocoa-nut tree. -2 the culminating point of a planet. -तुमुल a. very loud. -तेजन a. well-pointed, sharpened. (-नः) a well-pointed arrow. -तेजस् a. 1 very sharp. -2 very bright, or splendid. -3 very mighty. (-m.) a worshipper of the sun. -दक्षिण a. 1 very sincere or upright. -2 liberal or rich in sacrificial gifts; यज्ञैर्भूरिसुदक्षिणैः सुविहितैः संप्राप्यते यत् फलम् Pt.1. 31. -3 very skilful. -4 very polite. (-णा) N. of the wife of Dilīpa; तस्य दाक्षिण्यरूढेन नाम्ना मगधवंशजा पत्नी सुदक्षिणेत्यासीत् R.1.31;3.1. -दण्डः a cane, ratan. -दत् a. (-ती f.) having handsome teeth; जगाद भूयः सुदतीं सुनन्दा R.6.37. -दन्तः 1 a good tooth. -2 an actor; a dancer. (-न्ती) the female elephant of the north-west quarter. -दर्श a. lovely, gracious looking; सुदर्शः स्थूललक्षयश्च न भ्रश्येत सदा श्रियः Mb.12.56.19 (com. सुदर्शः प्रसन्नवक्त्रः). -दर्शन a. (-ना or -नी f.) 1 good-looking, beautiful, handsome. -2 easily seen. (-नः) the discus of Viṣṇu; as in कृष्णो$प्यसु- दर्शनः K. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of mount Meru. -4 a vulture. (-नी, -नम्) N. of Amarāvatī, Indra's capital. (-नम्) N. of Jambudvīpa. -दर्शना 1 a handsome woman. -2 a woman. -3 an order, a command. -4 a kind of drug. -दास् a. very bountiful. -दान्तः a Buddhist. -दामन् a. one who gives liberally. (-m.) 1 a cloud. -2 a mountain. -3 the sea. -4 N. of Indra's elephant. -5 N. of a very poor Brāhmaṇa who came to Dvārakā with only a small quantity of parched rice as a present to his friend Kṛiṣṇa, and was raised by him to wealth and glory. -दायः 1 a good or auspicious gift. -2 a special gift given on particular solemn occasions. -3 one who offers such a gift. -दिनम् 1 a happy or auspicious day. -2 a fine day or weather (opp दुर्दिनम्); so सुदिनाहम् in the same sense. -दिह् a. well-polished, bright. -दीर्घ a. very long or extended. (-र्घा) a kind of cucumber. -दुराधर्ष a. 1 very hard to get. -2 quite intolerable. -दुरावर्त a. a very hard to be convinced. -दुरासद a. unapproachable. -दुर्जर a. very difficult to be digested. -दुर्मनस् a. very troubled in mind. -दुर्मर्ष a. quite intolerable. -दुर्लभ a. very scarce or rare. -दुश्चर a. 1 inaccessible. -2 very painful. -दुश्चिकित्स a. very difficult to be cured. -दुष्प्रभः a chameleon. -दूर a. very distant or remote. (-सुदूरम् means 1 to a great distance. -2 to a very high degree, very much; सुदूरं पीडयेत् कामः शरद्गुणनिरन्तरः Rām.4.3.12. -सुदूरात् 'from afar, from a distance'). -दृढ a. very firm or hard, compact. -दृश् a. having beautiful eyes. (-f.) a pretty woman. -देशिकः a good guide. -धन्वन् a. having an excellent bow. (-m.) 1 a good archer or bowman. -2 Ananta, the great serpent. -3 N. of Viśvakarman. ˚आचार्यः a mixed caste; वैश्यात्तु जायते व्रात्यात् सुधन्वाचार्य एव च Ms.1.23. -धर्मन् a. attentive to duties. (-f.) the council or assembly of gods. (-m.) 1 the hall or palace of Indra. -2 one diligent in properly maintaining his family. -धर्मा, -र्मी 1 the council or assembly of gods (देवसभा); ययावुदीरितालोकः सुधर्मानवमां सभाम् R.17.27. -2 (सुधर्मा) N. of Dvārakā; दिवि भुव्यन्तरिक्षे च महोत्पातान् समु- त्थितान् । दृष्ट्वासीनान् सुधर्मायां कृष्णः प्राह यदूनिदम् ॥ Bhāg.11.3. 4;1.14.34. -धात a. well cleaned. -धार a. well-pointed (as an arrow). -धित a. Ved. 1 perfect, secure. -2 kind, good. -3 happy, prosperous. -4 well-aimed or directed (as a weapon). -धी a. having a good understanding, wise, clever, intelligent. (-धीः) a wise or intelligent man, learned man or pandit. (-f.) a good understanding, good sense, intelligence. ˚उपास्यः 1 a particular kind of royal palace. -2 N. of an attendant on Kṛiṣṇa. (-स्यम्) the club of Balarāma. ˚उपास्या 1 a woman. -2 N. of Umā, or of one of her female companions. -3 a sort of pigment. -ध्रूम्रवर्णा one of the seven tongues of fire. -नन्दम् N. of Balarāma's club; प्रतिजग्राह बलवान् सुनन्देनाहनच्च तम् Bhāg.1.67.18. -नन्दः a kind of royal palace. -नन्दा 1 N. of a woman. -2 N. of Pārvatī; L. D. B. -3 yellow pigment; L. D. B. -नयः 1 good conduct. -2 good policy. -नयन a. having beautiful eyes. (-नः) a deer. (-ना) 1 a woman having beautiful eyes. -2 a woman in general. -नाभ a. 1 having a beautiful navel. -2 having a good nave or centre. (-भः) 1 a mountain. -2 the Maināka mountain, q. v. (-भम्) a wheel, discus (सुदर्शन); ये संयुगे$चक्षत तार्क्ष्यपुत्रमंसे सुनाभायुधमापतन्तम् Bhāg.3.2.24. -नालम् a red water-lily. -निःष्ठित a. quite ready. -निर्भृत a. very lonely or private. (-तम्) ind. very secretly or closely, very narrowly, privately. -निरूढ a. well-purged by an injection; Charaka. -निरूहणम् a good purgative. -निर्णिक्त a. well polished. -निश्चलः an epithet of Śiva. -निषण्णः (-कः) the herb Marsilea Quadrifolia (Mar. कुऱडू). -निहित a. well-established. -नीत a. 1 well-conducted, well-behaved. -2 polite, civil. (-तनि) 1 good conduct or behaviour. -2 good policy or prodence. -नीतिः f. 1 good conduct, good manners, propriety. -2 good policy. -3 N. of the mother of Dhruva, q. v. -नीथ a. well-disposed, well conducted, righteous, virtuous, good. (-थः) 1 a Brāhmaṇa. -2 N. of Śiśupāla, q. v.; तस्मिन्नभ्यर्चिते कृष्णे सुनीथः शत्रुकर्षणः Mb.1.39.11. -3 Ved. a good leader. -नील a. very black or blue. (-लः) the pomegranate tree. (-ला) common flax. (-लम्), -नीलकः a blue gem. -नु n. water. -नेत्र a. having good or beautiful eyes. -पक्व a. 1 well-cooked. -2 thoroughly matured or ripe. (-क्वः) a sort of fragrant mango. -पठ a. legible. -पत्नी a woman having a good husband. -पत्र a. 1 having beautiful wings. -2 well-feathered (an arrow). -पथः 1 a good road. -2 a good course. -3 good conduct. -पथिन् m. (nom. sing. सुपन्थाः) a good road. -पद्मा orris root. -परीक्षित a. well-examined. -पर्ण a. (-र्णा or -र्णी f.) 1 well-winged; तं भूतनिलयं देवं सुपर्णमुपधावत Bhāg.8.1.11. -2 having good or beautiful leaves. (-र्णः) 1 a ray of the sun. -2 a class of bird-like beings of a semi-divine character. -3 any supernatural bird. -4 an epithet of Garuḍa; ततः सुपर्णव्रजपक्षजन्मा नानागतिर्मण्डलयन् जवेन Ki.16.44. -5 a cock. -6 the knowing (ज्ञानरूप); देहस्त्वचित्पुरुषो$यं सुपर्णः क्रुध्येत कस्मै नहि कर्ममूलम् Bhāg.11.23.55. -7 Any bird; द्वा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते Muṇd. 3.1.1. ˚केतुः N. of Viṣṇu; तमकुण्ठमुखाः सुपर्णकेतोरिषवः क्षिप्तमिषुव्रजं परेण Śi.2.23. -पर्णकः = सुपर्ण. -पर्णा, -पर्णी f. 1 a number of lotuses. -2 a pool abounding in lotuses. -3 N. of the mother of Garuḍa. -पर्यवदात a. very clean. -पर्याप्त a. 1 very spacious; तस्य मध्ये सुपर्याप्तं कारयेद् गृहमात्मनः Ms.7.76. -2 well-fitted. -पर्वन् a. welljointed, having many joints or knots. (-m.) 1 a bamboo. -2 an arrow. -3 a god, deity; विहाय या सर्वसुपर्व- नायकम् N.4.9;14.41,76. -4 a special lunar day (as the day of full or new moon, and the 8th and 14th day of each fortnight). -5 smoke. (-f.) white Dūrvā grass. -पलायित a. 1 completely fled or run away. -2 skilfully retreated. -पाक्यम् a kind of medicinal salt (Mar. बिडलोण). -पात्रम् 1 a good or suitable vessel, worthy receptacle. -2 a fit or competent person, any one well-fitted for an office, an able person. -पाद् (-पाद् or -पदी f.) having good or handsome feet. -पार्श्वः 1 the waved-leaf fig-tree (प्लक्ष). -2 N. of the son of Sampāti, elder brother of Jaṭāyu. -पालि a. distinguished. -पीतम् 1 a carrot. -2 yellow sandal. (-तः) the fifth Muhūrta. -पुंसी a woman having a good husband. -पुरम् a strong fortress. -पुष्प a. (-ष्पा or -ष्पी f.) having beautiful flowers. (-ष्पः) 1 the coral tree. -2 the Śirīṣa tree. (-ष्पी) the plantain tree. (-ष्पम्) 1 cloves. -2 the menstrual excretion. -पुष्पित a. 1 well blossomed, being in full flower. -2 having the hair thrilling or bristling. -पूर a. 1 easy to be filled; सुपूरा स्यात् कुनदिका सुपूरो मूषिकाञ्जलिः Pt.1.25. -2 well-filling. (-रः) a kind of citron (बीजपूर). -पूरकः the Baka-puṣpa tree. -पेशस् a. beautiful, tender; रत्नानां पद्मरागो$स्मि पद्मकोशः सुपेशसाम् Bhāg.11.16.3. ˚कृत् m. a kind of fly; Bhāg.11.7.34. -प्रकाश a. 1 manifest, apparent; ज्येष्ठे मासि नयेत् सीमां सुप्रकाशेषु सेतुषु Ms.8.245. -2 public, notorious. -प्रतर्कः a sound judgment. -प्रतिभा spirituous liquor. -प्रतिष्ठ a. 1 standing well. -2 very celebrated, renowned, glorious, famous. (-ष्ठा) 1 good position. -2 good reputation, fame, celebrity. -3 establishment, erection. -4 installation, consecration. -प्रतिष्ठित a. 1 well-established. -2 consecrated. -3 celebrated. (-तः) the Udumbara tree. -प्रतिष्णात a. 1 thoroughly purified. -2 well-versed in. -3 well-investigated, clearly ascertained or determined. -प्रतीक a. 1 having a beautiful shape, lovely, handsome; भगवान् भागवतवात्सल्यतया सुप्रतीकः Bhāg.5.3.2. -2 having a beautiful trunk. (-कः) 1 an epithet of Kāmadeva. -2 of Śiva. -3 of the elephant of the north-east quarter. -4 An honest man; स्तेयोपायैर्विरचितकृतिः सुप्रतीको यथास्ते Bhāg.1.8.31. -प्रपाणम् a good tank. -प्रभ a. very brilliant, glorious. (-भा) one of the seven tongues of fire. -प्रभातम् 1 an auspicious dawn or day-break; दिष्टथा सुप्रभातमद्य यदयं देवो दृष्टः U.6. -2 the earliest dawn. -प्रभावः omnipotence. -प्रमाण a. large-sized. -प्रयुक्तशरः a skilful archer. -प्रयोगः 1 good management or application. -2 close contact. -3 dexterity. -प्रलापः good speech, eloquence. -प्रसन्नः N. of Kubera. -प्रसाद a. very gracious or propitious. (-दः) N. of Śiva. -प्रातम् a fine morning. -प्रिय a. very much liked, agreeable. (-यः) (in prosody) a foot of two short syllables. (-या) 1 a charming woman. -2 a beloved mistress. -प्रौढा a marriageable girl. -फल a. 1 very fruitful, very productive. -2 very fertile. (-लः) 1 the pomegranate tree. -2 the jujube. -3 the Karṇikāra tree. -4 a kind of bean. (-ला) 1 a pumpkin, gourd. -2 the plantain tree. -3 a variety of brown grape. -4 colocynth. -फेनः a cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः sesamum. -बभ्रु a. dark-brown. -बल a. very powerful. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 N. of the father of Śakuni. -बान्धवः N. of Śiva. -बाल a. very childish. -बाहु a. 1 handsomearmed. -2 strong-armed. (-हुः) N. of a demon, brother of Mārīcha, who had become a demon by the curse of Agastya. He with Mārīcha began to disturb the sacrifice of Viśvāmitra, but was defeated by Rāma. and Lakṣmaṇa; यः सुबाहुरिति राक्षसो$परस्तत्र तत्र विससर्प मायया R.11.29. -बीजम् good seed; सुबीजं चैव सुक्षेत्रे जातं संपद्यते तथा Ms.1.69. (-जः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 the poppy. -बोध a. 1 easily apprehended or understood. (-धः) good information or advice. -ब्रह्मण्यः 1 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -2 N. of one of the sixteen priests employed at a sacrifice. -भग a. 1 very fortunate or prosperous, happy, blessed, highly favoured. -2 lovely, charming, beautiful, pretty; न तु ग्रीष्मस्यैवं सुभगमपराद्धं युवतिषु Ś.3.9; Ku.4.34; R.11.8; Māl.9. -3 pleasant, grateful, agreeable, sweet; दिवसाः सुभगा- दित्याश्छायासलिलदुर्भगाः Rām.3.16.1; श्रवणसुभग M.3.4; Ś.1.3. -4 beloved, liked, amiable, dear; सुमुखि सुभगः पश्यन् स त्वामुपैतु कृतार्थताम् Gīt.5. -5 illustrious. (-गः) 1 borax. -2 the Aśoka tree. -3 the Champaka tree. -4 red amarnath. (-गम्) good fortune. ˚मानिन्, सुभगं- मन्य a. 1 considering oneself fortunate, amiable, pleasing; वाचालं मां न खलु सुभगंमन्यभावः करोति Me.96. -2 vain, flattering oneself. -भगा 1 a woman beloved by her husband, a favourite wife. -2 an honoured mother. -3 a kind of wild jasmine. -4 turmeric. -5 the Priyaṅgu creeper. -6 the holy basil. -7 a woman having her husband alive (सौभाग्यवती); जयशब्दैर्द्विजाग्र्याणां सुभगानर्तितै- स्तथा Mb.7.7.9. -8 a five-year old girl representing Durgā at festivals. -9 musk. ˚सुत the son of a favourite wife. -भङ्गः the cocoa-nut tree. -भटः a great warrior, champion, soldier. -भट्टः a learned man. -भद्र a. very happy or fortunate. (-द्रः) N. of Viṣṇu; साकं साकम्पमंसे वसति विदधती बासुभद्रं सुभद्रम् Viṣṇupāda S.31. (-द्रा) N. of the sister of Balarāma and Kṛiṣṇa, married to Arjuna q. v. She bore to him a son named Abhimanyu. -भद्रकः 1 a car for carrying the image of a god. -2 the Bilva tree. -भाषित a. 1 spoken well or eloquent. (-तम्) 1 fine speech, eloquence, learning; जीर्णमङ्गे सुभाषितम् Bh.3.2. -2ल a witty saying, an apophthegm, an apposite saying; सुभाषितेन गीतेन युवतीनां च लीलया । मनो न भिद्यते यस्य स वै मुक्तो$थवा पशुः Subhāṣ. -3 a good remark; बालादपि सुभाषितम् (ग्राह्यम्). -भिक्षम् 1 good alms, successful begging. -2 abundance of food, an abundant supply of provisions, plenty of corn &c. -भीरकः the Palāśa tree. -भीरुकम् silver. -भूतिः 1 well-being, welfare. -2 the Tittira bird; Gīrvāṇa. -भूतिकः the Bilva tree. -भूषणम् a type of pavilion where a ceremony is performed on a wife's perceiving the first signs of conception; सुभूषणाख्यं विप्राणां योग्यं पुंसवनार्थकम् Māna.34.354. -भृत a. 1 well-paid. -2 heavily laden. -भ्रू a. having beautiful eyebrows. (-भ्रूः f.) a lovely woman. (N. B. The vocative singular of this word is strictly सुभ्रूः; but सुभ्रु is used by writers like Bhaṭṭi. Kālidāsa, and Bhavabhūti; हा पितः क्वासि हे सुभ्रु Bk.6.17; so V.3.22; Ku.5.43; Māl.3.8.) -मङ्गल a. 1 very auspicious. -2 abounding in sacrifices. -मति a. very wise. (-तिः f.) 1 a good mind or disposition, kindness, benevolence, friendship. -2 a favour of the gods. -3 a gift, blessing. -4 a prayer, hymn. -5 a wish or desire. -6 N. of the wife of Sagara and mother of 6, sons. -मदनः the mango tree. -मदात्मजा a celestial damsel. -मधुरम् a very sweet or gentle speech, agreeable words. -मध्य, -मध्यम a. slender-waisted. -मध्या, -मध्यमा a graceful woman. -मन a. very charming, lovely, beautiful. (-नः) 1 wheat. -2 the thorn-apple. (-ना) the great-flowered jasmine. -मनस् a. 1 good-minded, of a good disposition, benevolent; शान्तसंकल्पः सुमना यथा स्याद्वीतमन्युर्गौतमो माभिमृत्यो Kaṭh.1.1. -2 well-pleased, satisfied; (hence -सुमनीभू = to be at ease; जिते नृपारौ समनीभवन्ति शद्बायमानान्यशनैरशङ्कम् Bk.2.54.). (-m.) 1 a god, divinity. -2 a learned man. -3 a student of the Vedas. -4 wheat. -5 the Nimba tree. (-f., n.; said to be pl. only by some) a flower; मुमुचुर्मुनयो देवाः सुमनांसि मुदान्विताः Bhāg.1.3.7; रमणीय एष वः सुमनसां संनिवेशः Māl.1. (where the adjectival; sense in 1 is also intended); किं सेव्यते सुमनसां मनसापि गन्धः कस्तू- रिकाजननशक्तिभृता मृगेण R.G; Śi.6.66. ˚वर्णकम् flowers, unguent or perfume etc. for the body; सा तदाप्रभृति सुमनो- वर्णकं नेच्छति Avimārakam 2. (-f.) 1 the great-flowered jasmine. -2 the Mālatī creeper. ˚फलः the woodapple. ˚फलम् nutmeg. -मनस्क a. cheerful, happy. -मन्तु a. 1 advising well. -2 very faulty or blameable. (-m.) a good adviser. -मन्त्रः N. of the charioteer of Daśāratha. -मन्दभाज् a. very unfortunate. -मर्दित a. much harassed. -मर्षण a. easy to be borne. -मित्रा 1 N. of one of the wives of Daśāratha and mother of Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna. -मुख a. (-खा or -खी f.) 1 having a beautiful face, lovely. -2 pleasing. -3 disposed to, eager for; सुरसद्मयानसुमुखी जनता Ki.6.42. -4 favourable, kind. -5 well-pointed (as an arrow). -6 (सुमुखा) having a good entrance. (-खः) 1 a learned man. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -3 of Gaṇeśa; सुमुखश्चैकदन्तश्च कपिलो गजकर्णकः Maṅgal. S.1. -4 of Śiva. (-खम्) 1 the scratch of a finger-nail. -2 a kind of building. (-खा, -खी) 1 a handsome woman. -2 a mirror. -मूलकम् a carrot. -मृत a. stone-dead. -मेखलः the Muñja grass. -मेधस a. having a good understanding, wise, intelligent; इमे अङ्गिरसः सत्रमासते$द्य सुमेधसः Bhāg.9.4.3. (-m.) a wise man. (-f.) heart-pea. -मेरुः 1 the sacred mountain Meru, q. v. -2 N. of Śiva. -यन्त्रित a. 1 well-governed. -2 self-controlled. -यमाः a particular class of gods; जातो रुचेरजनयत् सुयमान् सुयज्ञ आकूति- सूनुरमरानथ दक्षिणायाम् Bhāg.2.7.2. -यवसम् beautiful grass, good pasturage. -यामुनः 1 a palace. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -युक्तः N. of Śiva. -योगः 1 a favourable juncture. -2 good opportunity. -योधनः an epithet of Duryodhana q. v. -रक्त a. 1 well coloured. -2 impassioned. -3 very lovely. -4 sweet-voiced; सुरक्तगोपी- जनगीतनिःस्वने Ki.4.33. -रक्तकः 1 a kind of red chalk. -2 a kind of mango tree. -रङ्गः 1 good colour. -2 the orange. -3 a hole cut in a house (सुरङ्गा also in this sense). (-ङ्गम्) 1 red sanders. -2 vermilion. ˚धातुः red chalk. ˚युज् m. a house-breaker. -रङ्गिका the Mūrvā plant. -रजःफलः the jack-fruit tree. -रञ्जनः the betel nut tree. -रत a. 1 much sported. -2 playful. -3 much enjoyed. -4 compassionate, tender. (-तम्) 1 great delight or enjoyment. -2 copulation, sexual union or intercourse, coition; सुरतमृदिता बालवनिता Bh.2. 44. ˚गुरुः the husband; पर्यच्छे सरसि हृतें$शुके पयोभिर्लोलाक्षे सुरतगुरावपत्रपिष्णोः Śi.8.46. ˚ताण्डवम् vigorous sexual movements; अद्यापि तां सुरतताण्डवसूत्रधारीं (स्मरामि) Bil. Ch. Uttara.28. ˚ताली 1 a female messenger, a go-between. -2 a chaplet, garland for the head. ˚प्रसंगः addiction to amorous pleasures; कालक्रमेणाथ योः प्रवृत्ते स्वरूपयोग्ये सुरत- प्रसंगे Ku.1.19. -रतिः f. great enjoyment or satisfaction. -रस a. well-flavoured, juicy, savoury. -2 sweet. -3 elegant (as a composition). (-सः, -सा) the plant सिन्धुवार. (-सा) N. of Durgā. (-सा, -सम्) the sacred basil. (-सम्) 1 gum-myrrh. -2 fragrant grass. -राजन् a. governed by a good king; सुराज्ञि देशे राजन्वान् Ak. (-m.) 1 a good king. -2 a divinity. -राजिका a small house-lizard. -राष्ट्रम् N. of a country on the western side of India (Surat). ˚जम् a kind of poison. -2 a sort of black bean (Mar. तूर). ˚ब्रह्मः a Brāhmaṇa of Surāṣṭra. -रूप a. 1 well-formed, handsome, lovely; सुरूपा कन्या. -2 wise, learned. (-पः) an epithet of Śiva. -रूहकः a horse resembling an ass. -रेतस् n. mental power (चिच्छक्ति); सुरेतसादः पुनराविश्य चष्टे Bhāg. 5.7.14. -रेभ a. fine-voiced; स्यन्दना नो चतुरगाः सुपेभा वाविपत्तयः । स्यन्दना नो च तुरगाः सुरेभा वा विपत्तयः ॥ Ki.15.16. (-भम्) tin. -लक्षण a. 1 having auspicious or beautiful marks. -2 fortunate. (-णम्) 1 observing, examining carefully, determining, ascertaining. -2 a good or auspicious mark. -लक्षित a. well determined or ascertained; तुलामानं प्रतीमानं सर्वं च स्यात् सुलक्षितम् Ms.8.43. -लग्नः, -ग्नम् an auspicious moment. -लभ a. 1 easy to be obtained, easy of attainment, attainable, feasible; न सुलभा सकलेन्दुमुखी च सा V.2.9; इदमसुलभवस्तुप्रार्थनादुर्नि- वारम् 2.6. -2 ready for, adapted to, fit, suitable; निष्ठ्यूतश्चरणोपभोगसुलभो लाक्षारसः केनचित् Ś.4.4. -3 natural to, proper for; मानुषतासुलभो लघिमा K. ˚कोप a. easily provoked, irascible. -लिखित a. well registered. -लुलित a. 1 moving playfully. -2 greatly hurt, injured. -लोचन a. fine-eyed. (-नः) a deer. (-ना) 1 a beautiful woman. -2 N. of the wife of Indrajit. -लोहकम् brass. -लोहित a. very red. (-ता) one of the seven tongues of fire. -वक्त्रम् 1 a good face or mouth. -2 correct utterance. (-क्त्रः) N. of Śiva. -वचनम्, -वचस् n. eloquence. -a. eloquent. -वयस् f. a hermaphrodite. -वर्चकः, -वर्चिकः, -का, -वर्चिन् m. natron, alkali. -वर्चला 1 N. of the wife of the sun; तं चाहमनुवर्तिष्ये यथा सूर्यं सुवर्चला Rām.2.3.3. -2 linseed. -वर्चसः N. of Śiva. -वर्चस्क a. splendid, brilliant. -वर्ण see s. v. -वर्तित 1 well rounded. -2 well arranged. -वर्तुलः a water-melon. -वसन्तः 1 an agreeable vernal season. -2 the day of full moon in the month of Chaitra, or a festival celebrated in honour of Kāmadeva in that month (also सुवसन्तकः in this sense). -वह a. 1 bearing well, patient. -2 patient, enduring. -3 easy to be borne(-हा) 1 a lute. -2 N. of several plants like रास्ना, निर्गुण्डी &c.; Mātaṅga L.1.1. -वासः 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a pleasant dwelling. -3 an agreeable perfume or odour. -वासकः a water-melon. -वासरा cress. -वासिनी 1 a woman married or single who resides in her father's house. -2 a married woman whose husband is alive. -विक्रान्त a. very valiant or bold, chivalrous; सुविक्रान्तस्य नृपतेः सर्वमेव महीतलम् Śiva. B.16.45. (-न्तः) a hero. (-न्तम्) heroism. -विग्रह a. having a beautiful figure. -विचक्षण a. very clever, wise. -विद् m. a learned man, shrewd person. (-f.) a shrewd or clever woman. -विदः 1 an attendant on the women's apartments. -2 a king. -विदग्ध a. very cunning, astute. -विदत् m. a king -विदत्रम् 1 a household, family. -2 wealth. -3 grace, favour. -विदल्लः an attendant on the women's apartments (wrongly for सौविदल्ल q. v.). (-ल्लम्) the women's apartments, harem. -विदल्ला a married woman. -विध a. of a good kind. -विधम् ind. easily. -विधिः a good rule, ordinance. -विनीत a. 1 well trained, modest. -2 well executed. (-ता) a tractable cow. -विनेय a. easy to be trained or educated. -विभक्त a. well proportioned, symmetrical. -विरूढ a. 1 fully grown up or developed. -2 well ridden. -विविक्त a. 1 solitary (as a wood). -2 well decided (as a question). -विहित a. 1 well-placed, well-deposited. -2 well-furnished, wellsupplied, well-provided, well-arranged; सुविहितप्रयोगतया आर्यस्य न किमपि परिहास्यते Ś.1; कलहंसमकरन्दप्रेवशावसरे तत् सुविहितम् Māl.1. -3 well done or performed. -4 well satisfied (by hospitality); अन्नपानैः सुविहितास्तस्मिन् यज्ञे महात्मनः Rām.1.14.16. -वी(बी)ज a. having good seed. (-जः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 the poppy. (-जम्) good seed. -वीरकम् 1 a kind of collyrium. -2 sour gruel (काञ्जिक); सुवीरकं याच्यमाना मद्रिका कर्षति स्फिचौ Mb.8.4.38. -वीराम्लम् sour rice-gruel. -वीर्य a. 1 having great vigour. -2 of heroic strength, heroic, chivalrous. (-र्यम्) 1 great heroism -2 abundance of heroes. -3 the fruit of the jujube. (-र्या) wild cotton. -वृक्तिः f. 1 a pure offering. -2 a hymn of praise. -वृत्त a. 1 well-behaved, virtuous, good; मयि तस्य सुवृत्त वर्तते लघुसंदेशपदा सरस्वती R. 8.77. -2 well-rounded, beautifully globular or round; मृदुनातिसुवृत्तेन सुमृष्टेनातिहारिणा । मोदकेनापि किं तेन निष्पत्तिर्यस्य सेवया ॥ or सुमुखो$पि सुवृत्तो$पि सन्मार्गपतितो$पि च । महतां पादलग्नो$पि व्यथयत्येव कष्टकः ॥ (where all the adjectives are used in a double sense). (-त्तम्) a good or virtuous con
suṭ सुट् A technical term used by Pāṇini for the first five case-inflections; cf. सर्वनामस्थान.
sup सुप् 1 A technical term used by Pāṇini for the termination of the Locative plural. -2 A name for any one of the several case-endings or terminations.
saurabhyam सौरभ्यम् 1 Fragrance, odour, sweet scent; सौरभ्यं भुवनत्रये$पि विदितम् Bv.1.38; पुनाना सौरभ्यैः G. L.43; R. 5.69. -2 Agreeableness, beauty. -3 Good character, reputation, glory, fame. [Dr. Kṣitīśachandra Chatterjee writes in Mañjūṣā, "Like चापल and चापल्य, both सौरभ and सौरभ्य are found in Sanskrit, but Pāṇini has made provision for both चापल and चापल्य by including the word चपल both in the युवादि group and in the ब्राह्मणादि group. सुरभि is included in neither of these groups but comes under the purview of the rule इगन्ताच्च लघुपूर्वात् and so the only form sanctioned by Pāṇini is सौरभ. It would appear that सौरभ्य came into use later on after the analogy of सौगन्ध्य.]
haṃsaḥ हंसः [हस्-अच्-पृषो˚ वर्णागमः] (said to be derived from हस्; cf. भवेद्वर्णागमाद् हंसः Sk.) 1 A swan, goose, duck; हंसाः संप्रति पाण्डवा इव वनादज्ञातचर्यां गताः Mk. 5.6; न शोभते सभामध्ये हंसमध्ये बको यथा Subhāṣ; R.17. 25. (The description of this bird, as given by Sanskrit writers, is more poetical than real; he is described as forming the vehicle of the god Brahman, and as ready to fly towards the Mānasa lake at the approach of rains; cf. मानस. According to a very general poetical convention he is represented as being gifted with the peculiar power of separating milk from water e. g. सारं ततो ग्राह्यमपास्य फल्गु हंसो यथा क्षीरमिवाम्बुमध्यात् Pt.1; हंसोहि क्षीरमादत्ते तन्मिश्रा वर्जयत्यपः Ś.6.28; नीरक्षीरविवेके हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् । विश्वस्मिन्नधुनान्यः कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति कः Bv.1.13; see Bh.2.18 also). -2 The Supreme Soul, Brahman. -3 The individual soul (जीवात्मन्); प्रीणीहि हंसशरणं विरम- क्रमेण Bhāg.4.29.56. -4 One of the vital airs. -5 The sun; हंसः शुचिषद्वसुरन्तरिक्षसद्धोता वेदिषत् Ka&tod;h.2.5.2; उषसि हंसमुदीक्ष्य हिमानिकाविपुलवागुरया परियन्त्रितम् Rām. ch.4.91. -6 Śiva. -7 Viṣṇu. -8 Kāmadeva. -9 An unambitious monorch. -1 An ascetic of a particular order; Bhāg.3.12.43. -11 A spiritual preceptor; Bhāg.7. 9.18. -12 One free from malice, a pure person. -13 A mountain. -14 Envy, malice. -15 A buffalo. -16 A horse. -17 A particular incantation; L. D. B. -18 The best of its kind (at the end of a compound; cf. कविहंस); L. D. B. -19 A temple of a particular form. -2 Silver. -a. 1 moving, going (गतिमान्); नव- द्वारं पुरं गत्वा हंसो हि नियतो वशी Mb.12.239.31 (see com.). -2 Pure; हंसाय संयतगिरे निगमेश्वराय Bhāg.12.8.47;6.4. 26. -साः (m. pl.) N. of a tribe said to live in the Plakṣa-Dvīpa. -Comp. -अंशुः a. white. -अङ्घ्रिः vermilion. -अधिरूढा an epithet of Sarasvatī. -अभिख्यम् silver. -आरूढः N. of Brahman. -उदकम् a kind of cordial liquor (prepared from infusion of cardamoms). -कान्ता a female goose. -कालीतनयः a buffalo. -कीलकः, -नीलकः a particular mode of sexual enjoyment. -कूटः 1 N. of one of the peaks of the Himālaya. -2 the hump on the shoulder of an ox (for अंसकूट). -गति a. having a swan's gait, stalking in a stately manner. -गद्गदा a sweetly speaking woman. -गामिनी 1 a woman having graceful gait like that of a swan; अव्यङ्गाङ्गीं सौम्यनाम्नीं हंसवारणगा- मिनीम् (उद्वहेत् स्त्रियम्) Ms.3.1. -2 N. of Brahmāṇi. -गुह्यम् N. of a particular hymn; अस्तौषीद्धंसगुह्येन भगवन्त- मधोक्षजम् Bhāg.6.4.22. -च्छत्रम् dry ginger. -तूलः, -लम् the soft feathers of down of a goose; रत्नखचितहेमपर्यङ्के हंसतूलगर्भशयनमानीय Dk.1.4;2.2. -दाहनम् aloewood. -नादः the cackling of a goose. -नादिनी a woman of a particular class (described as having a slender waist, large hips, the gait of an elephant and the voice of a cuckoo; गजेन्द्रगमना तन्वी कोकिलालापसंयुता । नितम्बे गुर्विणी या स्यात् सा स्मृता हंसनादिनी). -पक्षः a particular position o the hand. -पदः a particular weight (कर्ष). -पादम् 1 vermilion. -2 quick-silver. -बीजम् a goose's egg. -माला a flight of swans; तां हंसमालाः शरदीव गङ्गाम् Ku.1.3. -यानम् a car drawn by swans. -युवन् m. a young goose or swan. -रथः, -वाहनः epithets of Brahman. -राजः a king of geese, a large gander. -लिपिः a particular mode of writing (with Jainas). -लोमशम् green sulphate of iron. -लोहकम् brass. -श्रेणी a line of geese.
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ghṛṇi ghṛ́-ṇi, f. heat, ii. 33, 6 [ghṛ = hṛ be hot].
ghṛtanirṇij ghṛtá-nirṇij, a. (Bv.) having a garment of ghee, ii. 35, 4 [nir-níj, f. splendour from nís out + nijwash].
taraṇi tar-áṇi, a. speeding onward, vii. 63, 4 [tṝ cross].
du du go: is ao. sb. daviṣāṇi, x. 34, 5.
bhūrṇi bhú̄r-ṇi, a. angry, vii. 86, 7.
vicarṣaṇi ví-carṣaṇi, a. active, i. 35, 9.
hiraṇyapāṇi híraṇya-pāṇi, a. (Bv.) golden-handed, i. 35, 9.
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"ṇi" has 231 results.
     
ṇicommon term for णिङ् ( signifying Atmanepada ) and णिच्: cf; णेरणौ यस्कर्मं P. I. 3.67, णेरनिटि VI. 4.51 ; cf also P. I. 3.86, I. 4.52, II.4.46, 51: III. 2.137: VI. 1.31, 48, 54, VI. 4.90; VII. 2.26, VII. 3.36; VII.4.1, VIII. 4.80.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
apāṇinīyanot in conformity with the rules of Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare सिध्यत्वेवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. I.1.
alākṣaṇika(1)not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: confer, compareनिपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदलाक्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
auṣṇihabeginning with a stanza of the Uṣṇih metre; confer, compare उष्णिहापूर्वः सतोबृहत्यन्तः प्रगाथः औष्णिह इत्युच्यते । यथा यमादित्यासो अद्रुहः Uvaṭa on R.Pr.XVIII.5.
kaṃsavijayagaṇia Jain grammarian who wrote a commentary by name शब्दचन्द्रिकोद्धार on the सारस्वतव्याकरण.
karmaṇipādaname given by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand other grammarians to the second pāda of the third adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., which begins with the sūtra कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1 .
kuṇiname of an ancient Vṛttikāra the Sūtras of Pāṇini, mentioned in their works by Kaiyata and Haradatta; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on P. I.1.74, also Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.1.1
kṣamāmāṇikyaa Jain grammarian who wrote a small grammar work known as Aniṭkārikāvivaraṇa.
guṇinpossessed of a quality ; cf इह कदाचिद् गुणो गुणिविशेपको भवति । तद्यथा पट: शुक्ल इति । कदाचिच्च गुणिना गुणो व्यपदिश्यते। पटस्य शुक्ल इति। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.21.
goṇikāputraa grammarian whose wiew in connection with the correctness of the expressions नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नं and नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नस्य is given by the Mahabhasyakara in the words 'both expressions are justified' ( उभयथा गेणिकापुत्रः ). Nagesa has observed that गेोणिकापुत्र is nobody else but the Mahabhasyakara himself; confer, compare गोणिकापुत्रः भाष्यकार इत्याहुः । NageSa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahabhasyapradipa on P. I. 4.5I.
cakrapāṇi( शेष )a grammarian of the Sesa family of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against Bhattoji Diksita and wrote प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन, कारकतत्व and कारकविचार.
cintāmaṇiname of a commentary on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.
cintāmaṇiprakāśikāa commentary on the चिन्तामाणि of यक्षवर्मन्, written by अाजतसेन in the twelfth century. See विन्तामणि.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
ṇiaffix इ causing vrddhi, prescribed after the root कम् , the base ending in इ i. e. कामि being called a root: confer, compare P. III. 1.30, 32. The mute letter ङ् signifies that the root कामि is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e. g. कामयते, अचीकमत.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇijantaroots ending in णिच्; the term is generally applied to causal bases of roots. See णिच्.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇittvapossession of ण् as a mute letter for the purpose of vrddhi. See the word णित् .
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇilopaelision of the affix णि (णिच् or णिङ् see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ) before an ardhadhtuka affix without the augrnent इ ( इट् ) prefixed to it; confer, compare णेरनिटि P. VI. 4.51, and VI.4.52, 53, 54 also.
tiṅantaśiromaṇia work dealing with verbal forms written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.
droṇia kind of the position of the tongue at the time of pronouncing the letter ष्.
ṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
ṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
ṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
ṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
ṇinīyaśikṣāa short work on phonetics which is taken as a Vedāņga work and believed to have been written by Pāņini. Some say that the work was written by Pińgala.
ṇinīyaśikṣāṭīkāname of a commentary on the Śikşā of Pāņini by धरणीधर as ordered by king उत्पलसिंह.
puṇyasundaragāṇia jain grammarian who has written a commentary work । on the धातुपाठ of हेमच​न्द्र.
prasāraṇinthat which gets, or is liable to get the Prasarana or Samprasarana substitute; confer, compare कविधौ सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III.2.3 Vart. 1.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
ṇikyadevaa Jain writer who has written a gloss on the Unadisutras consisting of ten chapters popularly called उणादिसूत्रदशपादी.
yaḍlugantaśiromaṇia grammar work dealing with the frequentative roots written by Pandita Sesakrsna.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
lākṣaṇika(1)secondary; taken or understood in the secondary sense; (2) stated by a rule ( लक्षण ); confer, compare एवं तर्हि न लाक्षणिकस्य स्वरस्य प्रतिषेधं शिष्मः M.Bh. on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
varavarṇiname of a commentary on the Paribhsendusekhara written by Guruprasada Sastri, a reputed grammarian of the present cenutry.
varṇikuberanāthaor वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others.
vārṣyāyaṇian ancient grammarian quoted in the Mahabhasya and the Nirukta in connection with the six-fold division of bhava or verbal activity; confer, compare षड् भावविकारा भवन्तीति वाप्यार्यणि: l जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यतीति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.
vijayagaṇina.Jain grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on the Haimalaghuprakriya.
śākapūṇian ancient writer of Nirukta who is quoted by Yaska; confer, compare विद्युत् तडिद्भवतीति शाकपूणि; Nirukta of Yāska.III. 11, or मानेन अन्यत् जहातीति महानिति शाकपूणिः Nirukta of Yāska.III. 13 or ऋत्विक्कस्मात् । ईरणः । ऋग्यष्टा भवतीति शाकपूणिः Nir.III.19
śiromaṇibhaṭṭācāryaa grammarian who wrote the grammatical works कारकविवेक, तद्धितकोश and तिङन्तशिरोमणि.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
saṃvādacintāmaṇiname of a small treatise on roots and their meanings written by : a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय who has also written a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha called कौस्तुभगुण and सिद्धान्तकौमुदीगूढफक्किकाप्रकाश,
hariṇiname of a kind of svarabhakti when r ( र् ) followed by s ( श् ) and s ( स् ) is read as र + इ +श् and र + इ +स् respectively.
hetumaṇṇicthe affix णिच् added to a root in the sense of the activity of the causal agent; see हेतुमत् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare तत्र हेतुमण्णिचः प्रतिषेधः .P. I.1. 62, Vart. 7.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
aka(1)affix अक substituted for the afiix वु given in Pāṇini's Grammar as ण्वुच् as in अाशिका,शायिका (P.III. 3.111); ण्वुल् as in कारकः, भोजको व्रजति, विचर्चिका (P.III.1.133, III.3. 10,108); वुच् as in उपकः (P.V.3.80); वुञ् as in निन्दकः, राजकम्, भालवकः (P. III.2.146, IV.2.39, 53 et cetera, and others); वुन् as in प्रवकः, सरकः; क्रमकः, पदकः. III.1.149, IV.2.6l et cetera, and others
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
akṛtavyūhashort expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agravāla(Vasudeva-Śarana Agravāla), a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the author of "India as known to Pāṇini".
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
aṅgavṛttaan operation prescribed in the section named aṅgādhikara, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of Pāṇini.
aṅgādhikāraa large section of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes et cetera, and others are prescribedition
acthe short term or pratyāhāra in Pāṇini's Grammar representing a vowel, exempli gratia, for example अजन्त (ending with a vowel), अच्संधि (vowel coalescence or combination).
ajitasenaauthor of the Cintāmaṇiprakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣavarman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.
aṇudicchāstrathe rule prescribing cognateness (सावर्ण्य) of letters. The term refers to Pāṇini's sūtra अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69. The terms ग्रहणकशास्त्र and सवर्णशास्त्र are used in the same sense.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atatkālanot taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expression is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, except when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances: confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiśayaexcess or excellence as shown by the affixes तर and तम confer, compare तरतमयोश्चातिशये V.Pr.V.2; क्रियाप्रधानमाख्यातं तस्मादतिशये तखुत्पद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 2.139; VIII.1.71 ; (2) desire as shown by the affix क्यच् in Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare यश्च अतिशये Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 126.
atushort term used by Pāṇini to signify together the five affixes क्तवतु, ड्वतुप्, ड्मतुप् मतुप् and वतुप् ;confer, compareअत्वसन्तस्य चाधातोः P. VI.4.14.
atvatpossessing or having a short अ vowel in it; archaic form used by Pāṇini in उपदेशेsत्वतः (P. VII. 2.62) instead of अद्वत् the correct one; confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1 and I.4.3.
athuckṛt (affix). affix अथु with उ accented, applied to roots marked by Pāṇini with the mute syllable टु in the sense of verbal activity: c. g. वेपथुः श्वयथुः, cf ट्वितोथुच् P.III.3.89.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
aniṭkārikāvivaraṇaa short commentary by Kṣamāmāṇikya on the work Aniṭkārikā, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anukṛṣṭaattracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in Pāṇini's rules. See the word अनुकर्षण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anumnot allowing the addition of the augment नुम् (id est, that is letter न् ) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present participle. affix, by Pāṇini in his rule शतुरनुमो नद्यजादी VI.1.173.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anūddeśastatement or mention immediately afterwards; the same as the word अनुदेश used by Pāṇini in I.3.10, confer, compare संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् । अनूद्देशः पश्चादुद्देशः Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 143.
anekaśeṣahaving no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Grammar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.
anekasvarahaving many vowels or syllables in it; the same as अनेकाच् of Pāṇini; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 4.46
anekāchaving many vowels (two or more) in it; opp. to एकाच् : a term frequently used in Pāṇini's grammar meaning the same as अनेकस्वर or अनेकाक्षर, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P. VI.3.42,VI.4.82
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
anyatarasyāmoptionally; literally in another way. The term is very common in the rules of Pāṇini, where the terms वा and विभाषा are also used in the same sense.
anvarthasaṃjñāA technical term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. सर्वनाम, संख्या, अव्यय उपसर्जन,कारक, कर्मप्रवचनीय, अव्ययी-भाव, प्रत्यय, उपपद et cetera, and others All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pāṇini: confer, compare तत्र महत्याः संज्ञाया एतत् प्रयोजनम् । अन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत । संख्यायते अनया संख्येति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.23; also confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.27,I. 1.38,I.2.43, I.4.83, II.1,5, III. 1.1, III.1.92 et cetera, and others
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardhamātrāhalf of a mātra or 'mora'., confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utterance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
ala प्रत्याहार or a short term signifying any letter in the alphabet of Pāṇini which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants.
aluksamāsaa compound in which the case-affixes are not droppedition The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.
alpragrahaṇa(1)the word अल् actually used in Pāṇini's rule e. g. अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P.I.2.41.(2) the wording as अल् or wording by mention of a single letter exempli gratia, for example अचि श्रुधातुभ्रुवांय्वो P, VI.4.77.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
aśvatthanārāyaṇaa commentator who wrote a gloss on Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. in the Tamil language.
aṣṭakaanother name for the famous work of Pāṇini popularly called the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; confer, compare अष्टावध्यायाः परिमाणमस्य सूत्रस्य अष्टकं पाणिनीयम् । दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् । त्रिंकं काशकृत्स्नम् । Kāś on P.IV. 1.58; (2) students of Pāṇini's grammar, e. g. अष्टकाः पाणिनीयाः; confer, compare सूत्राच्च कोपधात् । Kāś. on P.IV. 2. 65.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
ākarṣaka( a word )attracting another word stated previously in the context e. g. the word च in the rules of Pāṇini.
aākṛtigaṇaa class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned and room is left to include others which are found undergoing the same operation; confer, compare श्रेण्यादयः कृतादिभिः । श्रेण्यादयः पठ्यन्ते कृतादिराकृतिगणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.59. Haradatta defines the word as प्रयोगदर्शनेन आकृतिग्राह्यो गणः अाकृतिगण:। अत्र अादिशब्दः प्रकारे । अाकृतिगणेपि उदाहरणरूपेण कतिपयान् पठति कृत मत इत्यादि Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.I.59 ; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.of Kaiyaṭa also on II.1. 59.Some of the gaṇas mentioned by Pāṇini are ākṛtigaṇas, exempli gratia, for example अर्शआदिगण, मूलविभुजादिगण, स्नात्व्यादिगण, शिवादिगण, पचादिगण, and others.
ākṣarasamāmnāyikadirectly or expressly mentioned in the fourteen Pratyāhāra Sūtras of Pāṇini; a letter actually mentioned by Pāṇini in his alphabet 'अइउण्', 'ऋलृक्' et cetera, and others
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
aāṅgaan operation prescribed in the section, called aṅgādhikāra, in the the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, made up of five Pādas consisting of the fourth quarter of the 6th adhyāya and all the four quarters of the seventh adhyāya. आङ्गात् पूर्वं विकरणा एषितव्याः M. Bh on I.3.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; confer, compare also वार्णादाङ्गं बलीयो भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 55: also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.3.
ācāryapreceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"
ācāryadeśīyaa partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ānumānikaobtained or made out by inference such as Paribhāṣā rules as opposed to Śrauta rules such as the Sūtras of Pāṇini; confer, compare आनुमानिकं स्थानित्वमवयवयो; Kāś. on VI.1.85; also confer, compare आनुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्यादेशभावस्य न त्यागः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 11; confer, compare also किं च पूर्वत्रेत्यस्य प्रत्यक्षत्वेन अानुमानिक्या अस्या बाध एवोचितः Pari. Śek. on Pari. 50.
āp(1)common term for the feminine. endings टाप्, डाप् and चाप् given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; confer, compare also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. et cetera, and others; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the locative case plural confer, compare अनाप्यकः P. VII.2.112.
āpiśalian ancient grammarian mentioned by Pāṇini and his commentators like Patañjali, Helarāja and others; confer, compare वा सुप्यापिशलेः P. IV.3.98; तथा चापिशलेर्विधिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.45.
ābhīyaprakaraṇaa section of Pāṇini's grammar from VI.4.-2 to VI. 4.129, called अाभीय, as it extends to the rule भस्य VI.4.129, including it but as the governing rule भस्य is valid in every rule upto the end of the Pāda, the आभीयप्रकरण also extends upto the end of the Pāda.See अाभाच्छास्त्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
āraḍeKRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.
ārdhadhātukādhikārathe topic or section in Pāṇini's grammar where operations, caused by the presence of an ārdhadhātuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the rule आर्धधातुके VI.4.46 and ending with न ल्यपि VI.4.69, Such operations are summed up in the stanza अतो लोपो चलोपश्च णिलोपश्च प्रयोजनम् । आल्लोप इत्वमेत्वं च चिण्वद्भावश्च सीयुटि; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). as also Kāś, on VI.4.46.
ārhīyatad-affixes ठक्, ठञ् et cetera, and others as also the senses in which the affixes are applied, given in the section of Pāṇinis grammar P.V.1.19-71.
ahikaname of Pāṇini. confer, compareपााणनिश्चाहिको दाक्षीपुत्रः.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itnukṛt affix mentioned by Pāṇini in VI.4.55 as causing the substitution of अय् for णि before it; e. g गदयित्नुः, स्तनयित्नुः M.Bh. on VI.4.55.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
ut(1)Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; exempli gratia, for example परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
utpalaauthor of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as उत्पल-भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upamānastandard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् ।
upamitaan object which is comparedition The word is found in Pāṇinisūtra उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः P.II.1.56, where the Kāśikā paraphrases it by the word उपमेय and illustrates it by the word पुरुष in पुरुषव्याघ्र.
upavarṣaan ancient grammarian and Mīmāmsaka believed to have been the brother of Varṣa and the preceptor of Pāṇini. He is referred to, many times as an ancient writer of some Vṛttigranthas.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
ubhayatobhāṣaliterally speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.
fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; confer, compare R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.
ṛkārathe letter ऋ with its 18 varieties made up of the ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत, and सानुनासिक varieties and characterized by the three accents. ऋ and लृ are looked upon as cognate in Pāṇini's grammar and hence, ऋ could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of लृ.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the prevention of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् et cetera, and others confer, compare नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
ekadikin the same direction, given as the sense of the taddhita affix. affix तस् by Pāṇini; confer, compare तेनैकदिक् | तसिश्च । P.IV. .3. 112, 113.
ekamunipakṣaa view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; confer, compare एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekavarṇa( a pada)made up of a single letter; confer, compare एकवर्णं पदम् आ, उ इति: commentary on R.Pr. X.2; confer, compare also V.Pr.IV. 144-145 where एकवर्ण is defined as एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य capable of being produced with a single effort. Pāṇini gives the term अपृक्त to an affix made up of one single letter; confer, compareअपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्यय: P.I.2.41.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekasvarapossessed of one vowel,monosyllabic; a term used by Hemacandra in his grammar for the term एकाच् of Pāṇini: confer, compare आद्योंश एकस्वरे Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.IV.1.2, which means the same as एकाचेा द्वे प्रथमस्य P.VI.1.1.
ekācpādaname given by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand other grammarians to the first pāda of the sixth adhyāya cf Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., as it begins with the sūtra एकाचो द्वे प्रथमस्य VI.1.1.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
eca short term (प्रत्याहार) in Pāṇini's grammar standing for diphthongs or letters ए,ऐ,ओ, औ, exempli gratia, for example एचोयवायावः P.VI.1.78, एच इग् ह्रस्वादेशे P.I.1.48.
epa term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term गुण of Pāṇini standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ; confer, compare ऋतः समादेरेप् Jain. Vy. V.2.122.
aidiphthong vowel ऐ; composite form of आ and ए, also termed वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
aipa term used in the Jainendra Grammar instead of the term वृद्धि of Pāṇini which stands for अा, ऐ and औ; cf P.I.1.1.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
oraṃbhaṭṭa scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.
aauṇādikaan afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; confer, compare नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on Māheśvarasūtras. 2. See the word उणादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
aut(1)the letter औ included in the वृद्धि vowels अा, ऐ and औ, and hence called वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar, (2) substitute for the caseending इ ( ङि ) in Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare P. VII.3.118, 119.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
kan(1)Uṇādi affix as in the words एक, भेक, शल्क etc; (2) taddhita affix.affix क as given by Pāṇini sūtras IV.2.13l, IV.3.32, 65, 147, IV.4.21; V.1.22, 23, 51, 90, V.2.64, 65, 66, 68-75, 77-82, V.3.51, 52, 75,81,82,87, 95, 96, 97. V.4.3,4,6, 29-33.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
a technical term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term पञ्चमी used in Pāṇini's grammar.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrapariśiṣṭasiddhāntaratnāṅkuraa gloss on the Kātantra-pariśiṣṭa by Śivarāmendra, who is believed to have written a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini also.
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kāmadhenusudhārasaa commentary on the Kāvyakāmadhenu by Ananta, son of Cintāmaṇi who lived in the sixteenth century A. D.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kārakapādaname given by Śivadeva and other grammarians to the fourth pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. which begins with the Sūtra कारके I. 4. 1 and which deals with the Kārakas or auxiliaries of action.
kārakavicāraa work on Kārakas ascribed to Maṇikaṇṭha. See Kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍana a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kārita(1)ancient term for the causal Vikaraṇa, (णिच् in Pāṇini's grammar and इन् in Kātantra); (2) causal or causative as applied to roots ending in णिच् or words derived from such roots called also 'ṇyanta' by the followers of Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare इन् कारितं धात्वर्थे Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III.2.9, explained as धात्वर्थक्रियानाम्न इन् परो भवति धात्वर्थे स च कारितसंज्ञक;।
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kāśyapaname of an ancient grammarian quoted by Pāṇini, possibly an author of some Prātiśākhya work now lost.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kuṭādipādaname given by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand later grammarians to the second pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., as the pāda begins with the Sūtra गाङ्कुटादिभ्यो ञ्णिन्डित् P.I.2.1.
kuṇaravāḍavaname of an ancient granmarian who lived possibly after Pāṇini and before Patañjali and who is referred to in the Mahābhāṣya as giving an alternative forms for the standard form of certain words; confer, compare कुणरवाडवस्त्वाह नैषां शंकरा शंगरैषा M.Bh. on III.2.14; cf also कुणरवस्त्वाह नैष वहीनरः । कस्तर्हि । विहीनर एषः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.3.1.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtyaliterally that which should be done; the word कृत्य is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य but he has introduced a topic ( अधिकार ) by the name कृत्य (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य right on upto the mention of the affix ण्वुल्. in P.III. 1.133; confer, compare कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, commonly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय and य ( यत्, क्यप् and ण्यत् ).
kṛdantathe word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; confer, compare कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns derived from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्.
keśavawriter of a commentary named प्रकाश on the Śikṣā of Pāṇini. He lived in the 17th century.
kauṇḍinyaan ancient grammarian referred to in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 38) and Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., (P.II.4.70).
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktrikṛt affix त्रि added to the roots marked with the syllable डु by Pāṇini in his Dhātupāṭha; after this affix त्रि, the taddhita affix. affix म ( मप् ) in the sense of निर्वृत्तम् (accomplished) is necessarily added, e. g. पक्त्रिमम्, कृत्रिमम्; confer, compare P. III. 3.88. and P. IV. 4.20.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
kroṣṭrīyaan ancient school of grammarians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3.
kanipkṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; confer, compare Pāṇini III.2.94-96.
kṣīrataraṅgiṇīa kind of commentary on the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini written by Kṣīrasvāmin.
gaṇaa class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; exempli gratia, for example स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि et cetera, and others The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gaṇasūtravicāraa commentary on the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini written by Mannudeva who flourished in the nineteenth century.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhāṣyeṣṭithe brief pithy assertions or injunctions of the type of Sūtras given by Patañjali in a way to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Vārttikas thereon. See the word इष्टि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. and the word भाष्यसूत्र also.
bhūpādaname popularly given by Śiradeva and other grammarians to the third pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyi as it begins with the Sūtra भूवादयो धातव: P.I.3.1.
bhūvādilit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
mātuthe same as मतुप् a taddhita affix. affix showing possession; the word is frequently used in Pāṇini's rules for मतुप्. confer, compare मतोश्च बह्वजङ्गात् | P. IV 2.72; confer, compare also, P.IV. 4.125, 136; V. 2.59, VI.1.215, VI.3.118,130; VIII. 2.9; for the sense of मतु see मतुप् below. The affix मतु (instead of मतुप् of Pāṇini) is found in the Atharva Prātiśakhya.
matuppādaa conventional name given by grammarians to the third pāda of the eighth Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. as the pāda begins with the sūtra मतुवसोरु संबुद्धौ छन्दसि P. VIII. 3.1.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
viprarājendraa grammarian who has written पाणिनिसूत्रविवरण, a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhattipādaconventional name given to the third pāda of the fifth Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., as it begins with the Sūtra प्राग्दिशो विभक्तिः P.V.3.1.
vibhāṣāoptionally, alternatively; the word is explained by Pāṇini as नवा in the rule न वेति विभाषा (P.I.1.44)in consonance with its derivation from the root भाष् with वि; confer, compare नेति प्रतिषेधे वेति विकल्पस्तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोर्विभाषेत्ति संज्ञा भवति । विभाषाप्रदेशेषु प्रतिषेधविकल्पावुपतिष्ठते | तत्र प्रतिषेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चाद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते. The option (विभाषा) is further divided into three kind प्राप्ते विभाषा, अप्राप्ते विभाषा and उभयत्र विभाषा. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P. I.1.44.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vilopathe same as लोप which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term विलोप was possibly in use before Pāṇini's time; cf उदात्तपूर्वै नियतस्वरोदये परो विलोपोsनियतो यदावरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 26: confer, compare also विलोपो विनाशः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.28,
viśleṣaseparation of vowels that are in coalescence: showing separately the two vowels that are combined together in the Saṁhitā Text.The term is contrasted with प्रश्लेष which is the same as एकादेश in the terminology of Pāṇini.
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
vṛta word signifying the end of a particular group of words; the word frequently occurs in the Dhātupāṭha of Pāṇini but not necessarily at the end of each class or group therein; exempli gratia, for example टुओश्चि गतिवृद्धयोः । वृत् | अयं वदतिश्च उदात्तौ परस्मैभाषौ | Dhātupāṭha at the end of the First Conjugation. Similarly वृत् is used at the end of the fourth, fifth, and sixth conjugations.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
śākalyaname of an ancient grammarian and Vedic scholar who is supposed to have revised the Vedic texts and written their Pada-pātha. He is often quoted by Pāṇini and the writers of the Prātiśākhya works: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य संहितामनुप्रावर्षत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.84; also on P.I.1.18, IV.1.18; confer, compare also उपचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धं अाचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्या: R.Pr.XIII.12.
     DCS with thanks   
642 results
     
ṇi noun (masculine) [gramm.] das Wurzeln bildende Suffix -+i (ārdhadh.) nach Abwerfung der stummen Laute
Frequency rank 10362/72933
ṇic noun (masculine) [gramm.] causative [gramm.] Wurzeln bildendes ārdhadh.
Frequency rank 21352/72933
ṇin noun (masculine) [gramm.] the kṛt affix ṇin
Frequency rank 53209/72933
ṇini noun (masculine) [gramm.] a kṛt affix
Frequency rank 53208/72933
ṇit noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 53207/72933
ṇi noun (masculine) [gramm.] a denominative affix
Frequency rank 35258/72933
akarṇika adjective earless without helmsman
Frequency rank 26064/72933
akṣaṇika adjective
Frequency rank 31354/72933
akṣaṇitva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 41587/72933
agaṇita adjective inconsiderable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uncounted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18706/72933
agnikarṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 41670/72933
aghṛṇin adjective not contemptuous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not disdainful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31409/72933
aṅgārakamaṇi noun (masculine) coral (amber) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31419/72933
acūrṇita adjective
Frequency rank 41859/72933
ajīrṇin adjective suffering from indigestion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10544/72933
aṇiman noun (masculine feminine) atomic nature (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fineness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meagreness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
minuteness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the superhuman power of becoming as small as an atom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thinness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4233/72933
aṇiṣṭha adjective most minute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26163/72933
atiparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 42114/72933
adrikarṇi noun (feminine) Salvadora persica Linn.
Frequency rank 31654/72933
adhamarṇika noun (masculine) a debtor
Frequency rank 18756/72933
anaparāhṇika adjective
Frequency rank 42669/72933
anirṇikta adjective not having performed atonement for an offence
Frequency rank 31857/72933
anṛṇin adjective free from debt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unindebted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26380/72933
aparāhṇika adjective relating to the afternoon
Frequency rank 17537/72933
apāṇi adjective without hands
Frequency rank 13315/72933
apekṣaṇika adjective ignoring neglecting
Frequency rank 43808/72933
apraṇidhāna noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 43852/72933
apraṇihita adjective
Frequency rank 43853/72933
aprāṇin adjective not living
Frequency rank 26490/72933
amaṇi noun (masculine) not a jewel
Frequency rank 44552/72933
amalamaṇi noun (masculine) crystal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sphaṭika
Frequency rank 32437/72933
ambaramaṇi noun (masculine) the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32468/72933
amlaparṇi noun (feminine) amlaparṇī
Frequency rank 44730/72933
amlaloṇi noun (feminine) wood sorrel (Oxalis Corniculata) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44735/72933
araṇi noun (masculine) the plant Premna Spinosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23183/72933
araṇi noun (feminine) a mother (figuratively) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the piece of wood (taken from the Ficus Religiosa or Premna Spinosa) used for kindling fire by attrition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6970/72933
araṇi noun (masculine feminine) the plant Premna Spinosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23184/72933
aruṇi noun (masculine) name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent which was burnt in Janamejayas sarpasattra
Frequency rank 16473/72933
aruṇita adjective reddened
Frequency rank 17585/72933
aruṇiman noun (masculine) redness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ruddiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32532/72933
avakīrṇin adjective (ifc.) having sex with ... who has violated his vow of chastity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10287/72933
aśoṇita adjective not bloody
Frequency rank 45619/72933
ākīrṇita adjective ākīrṇa
Frequency rank 46177/72933
ākhukarṇi noun (feminine) the plant Salvinia Cucullata
Frequency rank 18967/72933
ākhuparṇi noun (feminine) Salvinia cucullata Roxb.
Frequency rank 20845/72933
āgārakarṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 46235/72933
āgrahāyaṇika adjective containing a full moon of Agrahāyaṇa (as a month or half a month or a year) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be paid (as a debt) on the day of full moon of the month Agrahāyaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46247/72933
āghūrṇita adjective whirled round (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46258/72933
āṇi noun (masculine feminine) a boundary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a linch-pin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a peg the corner of a house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26916/72933
āṇi noun (masculine feminine) the part of the leg just above the knee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pin of the axle of a cart (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15512/72933
ātharvaṇika adjective belonging or relating to the Atharvaveda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33039/72933
ādityaparṇin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 46356/72933
ādityaparṇi noun (feminine) Polanisia Icosandra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33046/72933
āpaṇika noun (masculine) a merchant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
assize (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dealer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
market-rate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shop-keeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tax on markets or shops (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33084/72933
āparāhṇika adjective belonging to or occurring in the afternoon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33087/72933
ābharaṇin adjective wearing ornaments
Frequency rank 46491/72933
āruṇi noun (masculine) name of Auddālaki (Śvetaketu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Taṭāyu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Uddālaka (a renowned Brāhmaṇa teacher) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vainateya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17679/72933
ārohaṇika adjective relating to ascent or mounting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26979/72933
āvartamaṇi noun (masculine) rājāvarta
Frequency rank 26996/72933
āśuśukṣaṇi noun (masculine) air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33205/72933
indravāruṇi noun (feminine neuter) a wild bitter gourd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.; die Koloquinte Colocynth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cucumis Colocynthis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11960/72933
indrāṇika noun (neuter) [erotics] a kind of coitus
Frequency rank 46946/72933
indrāṇi noun (feminine) the plant Vitex Negundo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46947/72933
īkṣaṇika noun (masculine feminine) a fortune-teller (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a looker into the future (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23432/72933
uttamakarṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant (?)
Frequency rank 47143/72933
uttamarṇika noun (masculine) a creditor
Frequency rank 33365/72933
uttarāraṇi noun (feminine) the upper araṇi which is also called Pramantha or churner (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27105/72933
udumbaraparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 47372/72933
undurukarṇi noun (feminine) Salvinia cucullata Roxb.
Frequency rank 27159/72933
upaviṣāṇi noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 47639/72933
uṣṇiman noun (masculine) heat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47863/72933
uṣṇih noun (feminine) a brick sacred to the above metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vedic metre (consisting of twenty-eight syllabic instants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the sun's horses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20972/72933
ṇin adjective one who is in debt or indebted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47896/72933
ṇin noun (masculine) a debtor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14069/72933
ṇika noun (masculine) a debtor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10054/72933
ekaparṇi noun (feminine) ekapattrikā, Beng. gandhasati name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47972/72933
etraveṇika noun (masculine) name of a serpent which was burnt in Janamejayas sarpasattra
Frequency rank 48064/72933
evaṃsāraṇika adjective performing sāraṇā in such a way
Frequency rank 48099/72933
aikavarṇika adjective relating to one caste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48108/72933
aurṇika noun (masculine) name of a people
Frequency rank 48208/72933
aurṇika adjective woollen (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27320/72933
kaṅguṇi noun (feminine neuter) Name einer Pflanze (vielleicht kaṅgunī)
Frequency rank 27333/72933
kaṭuparṇi noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 48321/72933
kaṇi noun (feminine) a handle (?) a kind of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
atom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meal of parched wheat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Premna longifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Premna Spinosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small particle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small spot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10901/72933
kaṇika noun (masculine) an enemy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ear of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heart of wheat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meal of parched wheat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a minister of king DhRtarAzfra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purificatory ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small particle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33758/72933
kaṇiśa noun (masculine) an ear or spike of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48360/72933
kapotavarṇi noun (feminine) small cardamoms
Frequency rank 48569/72933
kaphoṇi noun (masculine feminine) elbow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27387/72933
karaṭagarbhiṇi noun (feminine) ?
Frequency rank 48639/72933
kariṇi noun (feminine) Piper Chaba
Frequency rank 48681/72933
karṇin noun (masculine) a missile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a steersman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
arrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the seven principal ranges of the mountains dividing the universe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the part near the ear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the side of the neck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
āragvadha
Frequency rank 10320/72933
karṇin adjective barbed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished with flaps or anything similar (said of shoes) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished with knots etc. (as a missile) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having (a ring etc.) attached to the ear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having a helm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having ears (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating to the ears (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21032/72933
karṇika noun (neuter) a kind of arrow (the top being shaped like an ear) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33871/72933
karṇika noun (masculine neuter) the pericarp of a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19128/72933
karṇi noun (feminine) a bawd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a knot-like tubercle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pen (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a round protuberance (as at the end of a reed or a tube) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ear-ring or ornament for the ear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
central point (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
centre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
chalk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flour of dried wheat name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Odina pinnata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Premna spinosa or longifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small brush (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the middle finger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pericarp of a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tip of an elephant's trunk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] Geschwulst in Form eine "Lotuskapsel" an der Vagina [medic.] name of a venereal disease
Frequency rank 2991/72933
karṇikāra noun (masculine) a kind of weapon Cathartocarpus fistula Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. [rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 4498/72933
karṇikāra noun (neuter) the flower of Pterospermum acerifolium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pericarp of a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23644/72933
karṇikārapriya noun (masculine) name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48753/72933
karṇi noun (feminine) a disease of the uterus (prolapsus or polypus uteri) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21033/72933
karpūramaṇi noun (masculine) a kind of white mineral (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48774/72933
karmaṇi adjective
Frequency rank 33879/72933
kalāraṇi noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 48856/72933
kalyāṇin adjective auspicious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
good (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
happy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
illustrious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lucky (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prosperous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
virtuous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48902/72933
kalyāṇi noun (feminine) red arsenic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
manaḥśilā
Frequency rank 48910/72933
kalyāṇi noun (feminine) name of a Saptamī the aquatic plant Sida cordifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21044/72933
kākaṇi noun (feminine) a small coin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27452/72933
kācamaṇi noun (masculine) crystal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quartz (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33941/72933
kāraṇika noun (masculine) a judge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23694/72933
kāruṇika adjective compassionate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12891/72933
kāruṇikatā noun (feminine) compassion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49214/72933
kārṣṇi noun (masculine) a son or descendant of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Devagandharva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the god of love (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viśvaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śuka
Frequency rank 7176/72933
kiṅkiṇika noun (masculine) name of a Tantric teacher
Frequency rank 49413/72933
kiṅkiṇi noun (feminine) a small bell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49414/72933
kiṇi indeclinable a kind of bīja
Frequency rank 49426/72933
kiṇi noun (feminine) Achyranthes aspera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9155/72933
kīṭamaṇi noun (masculine) a glow-worm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49508/72933
kīṭamāriṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant; kīṭamāriṇī
Frequency rank 49511/72933
kuṇi adjective having a crooked or withered arm or an arm without a hand or finger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14102/72933
kuṇi noun (masculine) a whitlow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a ṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (son of Jaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Asaṅga name of Garga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree Cedrela Toona (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16688/72933
kuṇitva noun (neuter) lameness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mutilation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the state of being maimed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49607/72933
kuṇinda noun (masculine) name of a king of the Kirāṭas name of a people sound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15627/72933
kuṇibāhu noun (masculine) name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27568/72933
kupāṇi adjective having a deformed or maimed hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49678/72933
kumaṇi adjective having bad jewels (??)
Frequency rank 49697/72933
kulīraviṣāṇi noun (feminine) kind of oak-apple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49810/72933
kṛṣṇamaṇi noun (masculine) rājāvarta
Frequency rank 50027/72933
kṛṣṇika adjective black
Frequency rank 50064/72933
kṛṣṇi noun (feminine) a kind of bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black mustard (Sinapis ramosa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50065/72933
kekaṇi noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 50072/72933
kaumbhakarṇi noun (masculine) a patronymic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Rākṣasa Nikumbha
Frequency rank 50271/72933
ṇita adjective closed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contracted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shut (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27687/72933
krīṇita adjective (irreg. Part. von krī??)
Frequency rank 34357/72933
kvaṇita noun (neuter) sound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
twang (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21153/72933
kṣaṇin adjective momentary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
transient (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21154/72933
kṣaṇika adjective having leisure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
momentary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
profiting of an opportunity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
transient (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9358/72933
kṣaṇi noun (feminine) lightning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50493/72933
kṣaṇikatva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 34394/72933
kṣārapāṇi noun (masculine) name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34404/72933
kṣīraparṇin noun (masculine) Calotropis gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34427/72933
vikāṇika noun (neuter) kṣīrakākolī
Frequency rank 34429/72933
kṣīraviṣāṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 27720/72933
kṣoṇi noun (feminine) the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bhūja-kañcuka
Frequency rank 34466/72933
kṣoṇināga noun (masculine) bhūnāga
Frequency rank 50738/72933
kṣoṇināgaka noun (masculine) bhūnāga
Frequency rank 34467/72933
kṣoṇinātha noun (masculine) a king
Frequency rank 34468/72933
kṣoṇipāla noun (masculine) a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50739/72933
kharaparṇi noun (feminine) Phlomis esculenta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50845/72933
gajakarṇi noun (feminine) Cucumis melo Linn.
Frequency rank 27775/72933
gaṇin noun (masculine) a teacher (Jain.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50986/72933
gaṇin adjective one who has attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
surrounded by (instr. or in comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23848/72933
gaṇika noun (masculine) [rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 51003/72933
gaṇi noun (feminine) Aeschynomene Sesban (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a female elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a harlot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
apprehension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
counting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
courtesan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
enumerating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Jasminum auriculatum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4567/72933
gaṇikārī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 27785/72933
gaṇikārikā noun (feminine) Premna spinosa (commonly Gaṇiyārī or also Gaṇiyārī) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19248/72933
gaṇita noun (neuter) calculating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reckoning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
science of computation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sum (in general) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the astronomical or astrological part of a Jyotiḥśāstra (with the exception of the portion treating of nativities) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sum of a progression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13475/72933
gaṇima adjective (anything) that is calculated or counted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27786/72933
gardabhamaṇi noun (masculine) a kind of gem (?)
Frequency rank 51159/72933
gāvalgaṇi noun (masculine) patr. of Saṃjaya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10073/72933
girikarṇi noun (feminine) aparājitā; Clitoria ternatea Linn. a variety of Achyranthes with white blossoms (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Salvadora indica Wight. Salvadora persica Linn. the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7811/72933
gucchakaṇiśa noun (masculine) a kind of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51341/72933
guṇin noun (masculine) a bow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
noun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
object (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
substantive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23884/72933
guṇin adjective auspicious (a day) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
containing parts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cosisisting of parts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
endowed with good qualities or merits (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
endowed with the good qualities of or contained in (in comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
requiring the first gradation (a vowel) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6784/72933
guṇakarṇi noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 51372/72933
guṇita adjective augmented (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connected or filled with (in comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intensified (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multiplied (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
often practised (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27847/72933
guṇiliṅga adjective taking the same gender as a substantive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51384/72933
guhāraṇi noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 51440/72933
goṇikāputra noun (masculine) name of the author of a work on the relations towards the wives of others (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16744/72933
gophaṇi noun (feminine) [medic.] a kind of suture ~ gophaṇā [Ḍalhaṇa ad Suśr. Sū. 25.22: gophaṇākārā]
Frequency rank 34721/72933
goviṣāṇika noun (masculine) a kind of musical instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
trumpet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21235/72933
gauṇika adjective relating to or connected with qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating to the three qualities (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subordinate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51637/72933
grahaṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 15687/72933
grāmaṇi noun (masculine) a village barber (chief person of a village) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leader of a troop or army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lord of the manor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pre-eminent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
squire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superintendent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the leader or chief of a village or community (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17883/72933
ghāṇikāyantra noun (neuter) a kind of alchemical apparatus
Frequency rank 51827/72933
ghṛṇin noun (masculine) name of a son of Devakī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51847/72933
ghṛṇin adjective abusive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
censorious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
compassionate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
passionate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tenderhearted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
violent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8104/72933
ghṛṇi noun (masculine) sunray
Frequency rank 34806/72933
ghṛṇitva noun (neuter) censoriousness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
compassion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
contempt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disregard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34807/72933
ghoṇin noun (masculine) a hog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51872/72933
ghūrṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 34823/72933
ghūrṇi noun (feminine) name of a woman (servant of Devayānī) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17889/72933
cakrapāṇi noun (masculine) Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13491/72933
cakralakṣaṇi noun (feminine) Cocculus cordifolius
Frequency rank 51915/72933
caṇi noun (feminine) a kind of grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34844/72933
caṇḍapāṇi noun (masculine) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 51958/72933
candramaṇi noun (masculine) the moon-gem (Candra~kānta)
Frequency rank 34890/72933
cintāmaṇi noun (masculine) a fabulous gem supposed to yield its possessor all desires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various treatises (e.g. one on astrol. by) and commentaries (esp. also ifc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 10351/72933
cintāmaṇi noun (feminine) name of a courtesan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19317/72933
cuccuparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of vegetable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35009/72933
cūḍāmaṇi noun (masculine) a jewel worn by men and women on the top of the head (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre of 4 107 syllables (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular way of foretelling the future (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an eclipse of the sun on a Sunday or an eclipse of the moon on a Monday (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kṣatriya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work on music (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work. on astron (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the (gem) best or most excellent of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the seed of Abrus precatorius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6677/72933
cūrṇita noun (neuter) [medic.] a particular fracture of the bones
Frequency rank 35038/72933
jatumaṇi noun (masculine) a mole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19325/72933
jīvaśoṇita noun (neuter) healthy blood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21336/72933
ṭiṇṭiṇi noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher of the Yoga
Frequency rank 53152/72933
tapanamaṇi noun (masculine) the sun-stone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35289/72933
tamomaṇi noun (masculine) a fire-fly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gomedaka
Frequency rank 28168/72933
taraṇi noun (masculine) a ray of light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Calotropis gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
copper [rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 17944/72933
taraṇi noun (feminine) Aloe perfoliata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a boat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24078/72933
tāmraparṇika adjective (a pearly) coming from Tāmraparṇa
Frequency rank 53433/72933
tintriṇi noun (masculine feminine) Tamarindus indica Roxb. (Dagens, Bruno (1977), 22)
Frequency rank 19380/72933
tiraskariṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 53559/72933
tilakarṇi noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 53577/72933
tilakṣīriṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 35403/72933
tilaparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of pot-herb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Pterocarpus santalinus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16812/72933
tilaparṇika noun (neuter) sandal-wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the resin of Pinus longifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53589/72933
tīkṣṇaparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 53612/72933
tṛṇaśoṇita noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 53760/72933
tairaṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72853/72933
tailaparṇika noun (neuter) the wood of that tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53820/72933
tailaparṇika noun (masculine) the sandal tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53821/72933
ṇi noun (masculine) ūṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yugaṃdhara's father (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21397/72933
ṇi noun (feminine) a quiver
Frequency rank 21398/72933
ṇika noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 53866/72933
trayyāruṇi noun (masculine) name of the Vyāsa of the 15th Dvāpara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53894/72933
trāyamāṇi noun (feminine) Ficus heterophylla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53904/72933
triparṇi noun (feminine) Alhagi Maurorum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a bulb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19400/72933
traiyyāruṇi noun (masculine) name of a Vyāsa in the 15th parivarta
Frequency rank 54042/72933
traivaṇi noun (masculine) metron. from tri-veṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54051/72933
traivarṇika noun (masculine) a member of the first 3 (varṇa) castes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54052/72933
tryāruṇi noun (masculine) name of a Vyāsa
Frequency rank 54074/72933
dakṣasāvarṇi noun (masculine) name of the 9th Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54128/72933
daṇḍapāṇi noun (masculine) a policeman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a physician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince; son of Vahīnara and grandfather of Kṣemaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Buddha's wife Gopā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the leader of 2 of Śiva's troops (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15751/72933
dākṣāyaṇin noun (masculine) a Brāhman student (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54321/72933
dākṣiṇika adjective connected with a sacrificial fee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54324/72933
dārbhāyaṇi noun (masculine) name of a Muni
Frequency rank 35635/72933
dālbhyāyaṇi noun (masculine) name of a Muni
Frequency rank 54395/72933
dinamaṇi noun (masculine) the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28350/72933
devatāmaṇi noun (masculine) name of a medic. plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35822/72933
devamaṇi noun (masculine) prec (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a twist of hair on a horse's neck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
divine amulet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a drug belonging to the Aṣṭavarga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35836/72933
devavarṇi noun (feminine) name of a daughter of Bharadvāja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24262/72933
dyumaṇi noun (masculine) calcined copper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24274/72933
droṇi noun (feminine) a valley (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
trough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tub (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55160/72933
droṇi noun (feminine) the indigo plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tongue bent in the form of a trough (to pronounce ṣ) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
trough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tub (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 55164/72933
drauṇi noun (masculine) name of Vyāsa in a future Dvāpara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patr. of Aśvatthāman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1915/72933
drauṇika noun (neuter) a kind of salt
Frequency rank 55168/72933
drauṇika adjective drauṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a field sown with a Dvāpara of grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28493/72933
dvātriṃśatāguṇita adjective 32-fold
Frequency rank 35919/72933
dviguṇika adjective double
Frequency rank 55202/72933
dhanuṣpāṇi adjective armed with a bow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bow in hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6790/72933
dharaṇi noun (feminine) the earth (personified as the wife of Dhruva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19472/72933
dharaṇika adjective
Frequency rank 55327/72933
dharaṇidhara noun (masculine) a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35971/72933
dharmasāvarṇi noun (masculine) name of the 11th Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55360/72933
dhāraṇika adjective
Frequency rank 55430/72933
dhiṣṇi noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 36032/72933
niruddhamaṇi noun (masculine) Verengung der Glans Verengung der Harnröhre [medic.] name of a disease
Frequency rank 36297/72933
nirṇij verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to cleanse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to dye to wash off (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to wash or dress or adorn one's self (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10123/72933
nirmāṇika adjective
Frequency rank 56272/72933
nirvāṇin adjective gelangend to nirvāṇa
Frequency rank 36357/72933
niśāmaṇi noun (masculine) the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56392/72933
niṣpravāṇi adjective fresh from the loom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quite new (cloth etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56497/72933
nistraiṇipuṣpaka noun (masculine) a kind of thorn-apple
Frequency rank 56528/72933
niḥśoṇita adjective bloodless
Frequency rank 36444/72933
niḥśreṇi noun (feminine) a kind of grass
Frequency rank 36446/72933
nīlamaṇi noun (masculine) a sapphire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36471/72933
nairmāṇika adjective miraculous (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24458/72933
pañcaparṇi noun (feminine) a species of small shrub (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56900/72933
paṭuparṇi noun (feminine) a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56976/72933
paṇin noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56995/72933
paṇi noun (masculine) a bargainer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a market (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thief appearing as a Purohita (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
miser (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of envious demons watching over treasures (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niggard (esp. one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36585/72933
paṇika adjective (ifc.) consisting of ... paṇas
Frequency rank 36588/72933
paṇita noun (neuter) a bet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wager (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19569/72933
paṇihārī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 56998/72933
payoṣṇijātā noun (feminine) the river Sarasvatī
Frequency rank 57126/72933
pariṇinamayiṣu adjective about to be transformed (?)
Frequency rank 57271/72933
pariṇihan verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to encompass (with stakes etc. fixed in) around (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57272/72933
parinirṇij verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to cleanse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to wash (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57302/72933
parimāṇin adjective to be measured
Frequency rank 57365/72933
parihāṇi noun (feminine) decrease (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deficiency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loss (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36732/72933
parṇin adjective leafy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
made of the wood of the Butea Frondosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plumed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
winged (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24556/72933
parṇin noun (masculine) a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Butea Frondosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18124/72933
parṇi noun (feminine) name of an Apsaras a kind of plant a kind of pṛśniparṇī
Frequency rank 21698/72933
parṇi noun (feminine) a collect. name for 4 particular plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14273/72933
parvaṇi noun (feminine) a kind of disease of the joint of the eye (saṃdhi)
Frequency rank 36751/72933
pavitrapāṇi noun (masculine) name of an ancient sage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Śiva
Frequency rank 28955/72933
pākaṇika noun (masculine) a kind of rice
Frequency rank 57630/72933
ṇi noun (masculine) a hoof (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 534/72933
ṇi noun (feminine) a kind of song or singing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of spoon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hand
Frequency rank 24577/72933
ṇikacchapa noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 36791/72933
ṇikhāta noun (neuter) name of a sacred bathing-place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57665/72933
ṇigṛhītā noun (feminine) a bride or wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57666/72933
ṇigṛhītikā noun (feminine) a woman who has performed the marriage ceremony
Frequency rank 57667/72933
ṇigraha noun (masculine) marriage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking (the bride) by the hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36792/72933
ṇigrahaṇa noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 12119/72933
ṇigrahaṇaka adjective relating to marriage
Frequency rank 57668/72933
ṇigrahaṇika adjective relating to marriage
Frequency rank 36793/72933
ṇigrāha noun (masculine) hand taking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
husband (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18130/72933
ṇija noun (masculine) a finger-nail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Unguis Odoratus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36794/72933
ṇitala noun (neuter) 1 karṣa a particular weight (2 Tolakas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12547/72933
ṇidharma noun (masculine) form of marriage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57669/72933
ṇina noun (masculine) patr. from paṇin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24578/72933
ṇinīya adjective relating to Pāṇini (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57670/72933
ṇipīḍana noun (neuter) marriage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57671/72933
ṇimant noun (masculine) name of a Nāga
Frequency rank 57672/72933
ṇimant adjective possessed of hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21712/72933
ṇimantha noun (masculine) a kind of surgical instrument; ārā
Frequency rank 57673/72933
ṇimarda noun (masculine) Carissa Carandas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57674/72933
ṇimānikā noun (feminine) a particular weight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57675/72933
ṇimukta noun (neuter) (sc. astra) a weapon thrown with the hand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a dart (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36795/72933
ṇiyālu noun (masculine) a kind of potatoe
Frequency rank 36796/72933
ṇiruha noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 57676/72933
ṇiśukti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 36797/72933
ṇisaṃgraha noun (masculine) clasping the hand (in confirmation of a promise) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57677/72933
ṇisvanika noun (masculine) one who clasps the hand together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36798/72933
pārihīṇika noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 57846/72933
pārṣṇi noun (masculine feminine) a foolish or licentious woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
enquiry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the back (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the extremity of the fore-axle to which the outside horses of a four-horse chariot are attached (the two inner horses being harnessed to the dhur) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the heel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the rear of an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5561/72933
pārṣṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 57878/72933
pārṣṇigrahaṇa noun (neuter) attacking or threatening an enemy in the rear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57879/72933
pārṣṇigrāha noun (masculine) a commander in the rear of an army (applied also to hostile planets) an enemy in the rear
Frequency rank 29001/72933
pārṣṇiyantṛ noun (masculine) a charioteer who drives side-horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57880/72933
pārṣṇisārathi noun (masculine) the two charioteers who drive the outside horses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10417/72933
pāṣāṇin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 57910/72933
pittaśoṇita noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 29027/72933
pinākapāṇi noun (masculine) a name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15887/72933
pītatūṇika noun (masculine) tūṇi
Frequency rank 58079/72933
pītamaṇi noun (masculine) a topaz (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
puṣparāga
Frequency rank 36947/72933
pīluparṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 36957/72933
purāṇika noun (masculine) Cyperus
Frequency rank 58206/72933
pṛthakparṇi noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 58363/72933
pṛthāraṇi noun (feminine) name of Kuntī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58368/72933
pṛśniparṇi noun (feminine) Hemionitis Cordifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Uraria Lagopodioides (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29082/72933
potavaṇij noun (masculine) a voyaging merchant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37056/72933
pauraścaraṇika adjective
Frequency rank 58483/72933
paurāṇika adjective of the value of one Purāṇa (coin) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
versed in ancient legends and stories (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11349/72933
paurāṇika noun (masculine) a Brāhman well read in the Purāṇas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mythologist (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10711/72933
paurṇi noun (feminine) a day or night of full moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29103/72933
paurvāhṇika adjective matutinal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
produced in the forenoon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating to the morning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15044/72933
pūtikarṇika noun (masculine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 58525/72933
praguṇita adjective made even or smooth or straight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
put in order properly arranged (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58617/72933
praṇigad verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to declare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to define to describe to say (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to speak (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58699/72933
praṇi verb (class 3 parasmaipada) to give
Frequency rank 37138/72933
praṇidhi noun (masculine) a spy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an attendant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
attention (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
care (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
emissary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
follower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
observing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prayer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
request (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
secret agent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sending out (spies or emissaries) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
solicitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
watching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7447/72933
praṇidhā verb (class 3 ātmanepada) to apply (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bring into (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to precede (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to deposit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to find out or ascertain anything (acc.) to be (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to place in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to place in front (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to put on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to send out or employ (a spy or emissary) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to set (a gem) in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to spy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to touch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to turn or direct (the eyes or thoughts) upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4086/72933
praṇidhāna noun (neuter) abstract contemplation of (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
access (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
applying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
attention (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
endeavour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
entrance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exertion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fixing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
laying on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
paid to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prayer (threefold) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
profound religious meditation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
respectful conduct (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehement desire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6619/72933
praṇidhyā verb (class 4 parasmaipada) to attend to (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58700/72933
praṇipat verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to bow respectfully to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to throw one's self down before (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2538/72933
praṇipatana noun (neuter) falling at a person's feet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
throwing one's self down before (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58701/72933
praṇipāta noun (masculine) falling at a person's feet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humble submission to (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
obeisance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prostration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reverence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
salutation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7318/72933
praṇipātin adjective falling at a person's feet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
submissive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58702/72933
pratigaṇi noun (feminine) a rivaling prostitute
Frequency rank 29141/72933
prapaṇinikā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 59193/72933
prapāṇi noun (masculine) the fore-arm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37308/72933
prapāṇika noun (masculine) the forearm
Frequency rank 37309/72933
pramāṇika adjective weighing
Frequency rank 24752/72933
pramāṇita adjective adjusted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
demonstrated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proved (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shown clearly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37333/72933
pravālamaṇi noun (masculine) [erotics] a kind of bite
Frequency rank 29242/72933
prahāṇi noun (feminine) cessation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deficiency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappearance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37433/72933
prākaraṇika adjective being the subject of any statement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
belonging to the matter in question or to a chapter or to a class or genus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37439/72933
prāghūrṇika noun (masculine) wandering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59593/72933
prāṇin adjective alive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
breathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
living (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14320/72933
prāṇin noun (masculine) a living or sentient being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
animal or man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
living creature (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1365/72933
prāṇikalpadruma noun (masculine) name of a remedy
Frequency rank 59626/72933
prāṇimātṛ noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 59627/72933
prāpaṇika noun (masculine) a trader (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dealer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59657/72933
prāmāṇika adjective a president (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
admitting of proof (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
authentic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
credible (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
forming or being a measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
founded on evidence or authority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one who accepts proof or rests his arguments on authority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the chief or head of a trade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19713/72933
preṣaṇika noun (masculine) a messenger
Frequency rank 59753/72933
pūrṇita adjective full of
Frequency rank 29329/72933
pūrṇi noun (feminine) the night or day of full moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8156/72933
pūrvāhṇika adjective relating to the morning
Frequency rank 19723/72933
phaṇin noun (neuter) tin or lead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59851/72933
phaṇin noun (masculine) a serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of shrub (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Coluber Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Rāhu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
nāga lead ?
Frequency rank 6806/72933
phaṇi noun (masculine) a kind of plant a serpent (only gen. phaṇnām) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29338/72933
phaṇicampaka noun (masculine) a kind of Campaka
Frequency rank 59857/72933
phaṇijihvā noun (feminine) name of 2 plants (mahāśatāvarī and mahā-samaṅga) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37541/72933
phaṇijihvikā noun (feminine) Emblica Officinalis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59858/72933
phaṇijja noun (masculine) a kind of plant (phaṇijjha??) Majorana hortensis Moench. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579) Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579)
Frequency rank 37542/72933
phaṇijjaka noun (masculine) a kind of tulasī with small leaves (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579) a species of Ocimum (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579) Majorana hortensis Moench. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579) Name einer Pflanze (wahrsch. phaṇijjha) Origanum majorana Piper nigrum Linn. [probably a wrong identification] (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579) Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 579)
Frequency rank 18230/72933
phaṇijjha noun (masculine) marjoram and another similar plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59859/72933
phaṇijjhakā noun (masculine feminine) a species of basil with small leaves (commonly called rāmadūti) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15083/72933
phaṇiñjhaka noun (masculine) a kind of Ocimum
Frequency rank 59860/72933
phaṇita noun (masculine) name of a Nāga
Frequency rank 59861/72933
phaṇitrijihvā noun (feminine) a kind of plant (=mahāśatāvari or śvetaśatāvarī) (Ray, Rasārṇava)
Frequency rank 59862/72933
phaṇinayana noun (neuter) sarpākṣī
Frequency rank 59863/72933
phaṇinetra noun (masculine) sarpākṣī
Frequency rank 37543/72933
phaṇimukha noun (neuter) a kind of spade used by housebreakers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59864/72933
phaṇilatā noun (feminine) Piper Betel
Frequency rank 59865/72933
phaṇivallī noun (feminine) Piper Betel
Frequency rank 29339/72933
phaṇihantrī noun (feminine) Piper Chaba(?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59866/72933
phāṇijihvikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 59914/72933
phāṇita noun (masculine neuter) the inspissated juice of the sugar cane and other plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6159/72933
phāṇitībhāva noun (masculine) being a phāṇita
Frequency rank 59915/72933
phāṇitībhūta adjective inspissated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59916/72933
bahukarṇi noun (feminine) Salvinia cucullata Roxb. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60094/72933
bahudalakaṇiśa noun (masculine) a kind of grain
Frequency rank 60106/72933
ṇin adjective having an arrow or arrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24838/72933
bādarāyaṇi noun (masculine) (patr. from prec.) name of Śuka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
badarāyaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29380/72933
brāhmaṇi noun (feminine) (prob.) a species of lizard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of venomous insect (kīṭa) Trigonella Corniculata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29431/72933
bhaṇiti noun (feminine) discourse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speech (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
talk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60516/72933
bhaṇitārava noun (masculine) a kind of bird
Frequency rank 60517/72933
bhadrakarṇi noun (feminine) name of Dākṣāyaṇi in Gokarṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37758/72933
bhadraparṇi noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 37760/72933
bhavāraṇi noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 60606/72933
bhujagaparṇi noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 60801/72933
mañjumaṇi noun (masculine) a topaz (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
puṣparāga
Frequency rank 61164/72933
maṇi noun (masculine) a jewel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a large water-jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a magnet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any ornament or amulet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clitoris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
crystal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
glans penis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
globule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loadstone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a companion of Skanda (associated with Sumaṇi) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Kimṇaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yuyudhāna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the jewel-lotus prayer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various wks. and a collection of magical formulas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the dependent fleshy excrescences on a goat's neck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hump (of a camel) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wrist (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thyroid cartilage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sūryakānta
Frequency rank 733/72933
maṇi noun (feminine) śarāva a kind of vessel
Frequency rank 12608/72933
maṇika noun (masculine) a jewel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-jar or pitcher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
globular formations of flesh on an animal's shoulder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precious stone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18287/72933
maṇikamantha noun (neuter) saindhava
Frequency rank 61175/72933
maṇikarṇa noun (masculine) name of a Liṅga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61176/72933
maṇikarṇi noun (feminine) an ear-ornament consisting of pearls or jewels (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Caṇḍaghosha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sacred pool in Benares (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61177/72933
maṇikāra noun (masculine) a lapidary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the adulterous off spring of Vaiśya parents whose mother's husband is still alive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29527/72933
maṇicchidrā noun (feminine) a particular bulb growing on the Hima-vat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a root resembling ginger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21960/72933
maṇijalā noun (feminine) name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61178/72933
maṇita noun (neuter) an inarticulate sound said to be uttered (by women) during cohabitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
murmur libidinosum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61179/72933
maṇituṇḍaka noun (masculine) a kind of bird living on the water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61180/72933
maṇidvīpa noun (masculine) name of a mythical island in the ocean of nectar Ānand (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hood of the serpent Aninta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37956/72933