ācārya "knowing or teaching the m. or rules ", a spiritual guide or teacher (especially one who invests the student with the sacrificial thread, and instructs him in the ācāra- s, in the law of sacrifice and religious mysteries[ veda- ]) etc. ācārya a m. Name of (the teacher of the droṇa- s) pāṇḍava- ācārya (also) the son of an outcast m. and a vaiśya- who was before a Brahman's wife, vaiśyā- ( according to to some, read ) cārya- ācāryabhogīna being advantageous or agreeable to a teacher, ( mfn. gaRa kṣsubhnā- di q.v) ācāryadeśīya ( mfn. see ) "somewhat inferior to an "(a title applied by commentators to scholars or disputants whose statements contain only a part of the truth and are not entirely correct;the term is opposed to " ācārya- "and" ācārya- "), siddhāntin- and kaiyaṭa- on nāgojībhaṭṭa- ācāryadeva worshipping one's teacher like a deity mfn. ācāryajāyā a teacher's wife f. ācāryaka ( n. commentator or commentary) the office or profession of a teacher ācāryakaraṇa acting as teacher n. ācāryamiśra venerable, honourable, ( mfn. see gaRa .) matallikā- di ācāryamuṣṭi "a teacher's closed hand", constraint, force, f. ācāryasava m. Name of an sacrifice. ekāha- ācāryatā the office or profession of a teacher f. ācāryatarpaṇa a rite supplementary to the n. - ṛṣi- , t- ācāryatva n. idem or ' the office or profession of a teacher f. ' ācāryavacasa the word of the holy teacher n. ācāryavat ( ) ācāry/a- - one who has a teacher mfn. ādity ācārya m. Name of an author. ādiyog ācārya "first teacher of m. ", yoga- Name of . śiva- amar ācārya ( m. equals amara- guru- q.v), Name of bṛhaspati- amogh ācārya m. Name of an author. an ācāryabhogīna unfit or improper for a spiritual teacher to eat or enjoy. mfn. animiṣ ācārya m. Name of . bṛhaspati- anubhūtisvarūp ācārya m. Name of the author of the grammar . sārasvatī- prakriyā- asur ācārya m. equals asura- guru- q.v bāl ācārya m. Name of a teacher bālamukund ācārya m. Name of an author bhagavatpād ācārya m. Name of an author bhālacandr ācārya m. Name of a teacher bhālayānand ācārya m. Name of a teacher bhārat ācārya m. Name of a preceptor bhārat ācārya of m. ( arjuna- miśra- Scholiast or Commentator on ) bhāratīkṛṣṇ ācārya m. Name of a preceptor bhāskar ācārya m. Name of various authors ( especially of a celebrated astronomer who lived in the 12th century and wrote the siddhānta- śiromaṇi- ) bhaṭṭ ācārya a title given to a learned Brahman or any great teacher or doctor ( m. especially to , but also to various other scholars and authors) kumārila- bhaṭṭa- bhaṭṭ ācāryacūḍāmaṇi m. Name of jānakīnātha- bhaṭṭ ācāryaśatāvadhāna m. Name of rāghavendra- bhaṭṭ ācāryaśiromaṇi m. Name of . raghu- nātha- bhāul ācārya m. Name of an author (also written ) bhāḍalā- cārya bhāv ācārya m. Name of a Scholiast or Commentator on bhīṣaṭ ācārya (?) m. Name of a medical author bodhaghan ācārya m. Name of a teacher bodharāy ācārya (later m. ) a modern (1864) high priest of the satyavīra- tīrtha- sect mādhva- candr ācārya m. Name of a Jain teacher. cāp ācārya an instructor in archery m. carak ācārya a teacher of the m. s caraka- caturbhujabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of an author cūḍāmaṇibhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a teacher. dārak ācārya "boy-preceptor", schoolmaster m. dbanv ācārya teacher of archery ( m. ) śiva- dev ācārya "divine teacher", m. Name of a man dev ācārya of m. several authors dev ācāryadigvijaya m. Name of work dharm ācārya teacher of law or customs, m. dharm ācāryastuti f. Name of work dhvany ācārya m. Name of an author = . ānanda- vardana- doḍḍay ācārya m. Name of a teacher. draviḍ ācārya m. Name of a teacher. droṇ ācārya m. as teacher of the droṇa- and kuru- princes pāṇḍu- durg ācārya m. Name of a commentator on 's yāska- ( nirukta- equals ). durga- durmukh ācārya m. Name of an author. gaṇ ācārya "teacher common to all", teacher of the people m. gauḍeśvar ācārya m. Name of a teacher. gīt ācārya a singing-master m. gopāl ācārya m. Name of a teacher govardhan ācārya the renowned author m. . govardhana- govindabhagavatpād ācārya m. Name of a teacher, 9; 20; 35 haradattt ācārya m. Name of a preceptor haridāsabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author. ( ) haridāsanyāyavācaspatitarkālaṃkārabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author. ( ) haridāsatark ācārya m. Name of author. ( ) hariharabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author hariharatarkālaṃkārabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of certain man. harināth ācārya m. Name of author. harirāmabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a man. harirāmatarkālaṃkārabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a man. harirāmatarkavāgīśabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a man. īśvaratīrth ācārya m. Name of a teacher. jñānaghan ācārya m. Name of a teacher kālak ācārya m. Name of a teacher and astronomer. jaina- kālik ācārya m. varia lectio for kālakā- c q.v kāñcan ācārya m. Name of the author of the . dhanaṃjaya- vijaya- kapil ācārya the teacher m. . kapila- keśav ācārya m. Name of a teacher. kṛp ācārya m. Name of gautama- kṣam ācārya m. Name of a author of śākta- s. mantra- kul ācārya a family teacher, family priest m. kul ācārya a person well versed in pedigrees and customs of different families and employed to contract marriages between them m. kul ācārya a genealogist m. kundakund ācārya m. Name of a Jain teacher (author of the ). pañcāstikāya- saṃgraha- sūtra- lagaḍ ācārya m. Name of an astronomer laghv ācārya m. Name of an author lakṣmīkumāratāt ācārya m. Name of an author lauh ācārya a teacher of metallurgy or the art of working metals m. loh ācārya m. Name of an ādyāṅga- dhārin- lok ācārya m. Name of an author lok ācāryasiddhānta m. Name of work madan ācārya m. Name of a teacher mādhav ācārya "the learned m. ", mādhava- Name of a celebrated scholar (author of the , the sarva- darśana- saṃgraha- , the kālanirṇaya- etc.;he was the brother of nyāya- mālā- vistara- with whom he is by some identified) sāyaṇa- mādhav ācārya of a pupil of m. (belonging to the svarūpācārya- school) nimbārka- madhv ācārya m. equals madhva- guru- mah ācārya ( m. ) "the great teacher", hā- c Name of śiva- mah ācārya (?) m. Name of an author mahādevakavīś ācāryasarasvatī m. Name of an author mahendr ācāryaśiṣya m. Name of an astronomer nagn ācārya a bard m. ( see above) . nagn/a- nainār ācārya m. Name of an author nandik ācāryatantra n. Name of a medicine work naratroṭak ācārya m. Name of a man narendr ācārya m. Name of a grammarian nāṭy ācārya dancing-master m. nāṭy ācāryaka the office of a dancing-master. n. nyāy ācārya m. Name of śivāditya- miśra- padm ācārya m. Name of a teacher padmapād ācārya m. Name of a teacher paramahaṃsaparivrājak ācārya m. Name of śaṃkarācārya- peḍḍan ācārya m. Name of an author pr ācārya the teacher of a teacher or a former teacher m. ( equals pragata ācārya- ) pradyumn ācārya former m. Name of (died in 1576) veda- nidhi- tīrtha- prāṇ ācārya a physician to a king m. pūrv ācāryavṛttāntadīpikā f. Name of a comm. on works of the school. rāmā- nuja putr ācārya (a father) having his son for his teacher m. rājānakamahim ācārya m. Name of an author raṅg ācārya m. Name of a teacher (who died in 1344) raṅg ācārya of various authors m. reṇuk ācārya m. Name of an author (who lived in the 13th century). romak ācārya m. Name of a teacher of astronomy (author of the above ). siddhānta- rudr ācārya m. Name of a man rudranyāyavācaspatibhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of an author sad ācārya m. Name of an author sadguṇ ācārya m. Name of an author sakalāgam ācārya m. Name of a preceptor samān ācārya a common or universal teacher m. śaṃkar ācārya See below. śaṃkar ācārya m. Name of various teachers and authors, ( especially) of a celebrated teacher of the philosophy and reviver of Brahmanism (he is thought to have lived between A.D. 788 and 820, but according to tradition he flourished 200 vedā- nta B.C.,and was a native of or Malabar;all accounts describe him as having led an erratic controversial life;his learning and sanctity were in such repute that he was held to have been an incarnation of kerala- , and to have worked various miracles;he is said to have died at the age of thirty-two, and to have had four principal disciples, called śiva- , padma- pāda- , hastā- malaka or sureśvara- , and mandana- ;another of his disciples, troṭaka- , wrote a history of his controversial exploits, called ānanda- giri- śaṃkara- vijaya- q.v;tradition makes him the founder of one of the principal sects, the śaiva- s or"Ten-named Mendicants" daśa- nāmi- daṇḍin- ;he is the reputed author of a large number of original works, such as the , ātma- bodha- , ānanda- laharī- , jñāna- bodhinī- , etc.;and commentaries on the maṇi- ratna- mālā- s, and on the upaniṣad- or brahma- mīmāṃsā- , vedānta- sūtra- , and bhagavadgītā- , etc.) mahā- bhārata- śaṃkar ācāryacarita n. Name of work śaṃkar ācāryavijayaḍiṇḍima n. Name of work ( see ) śaṃkara- digvijaya- ḍ- sāṃkhy ācārya a teacher of the m. (also sāṃkhya- Name of an author) sāṃkhy ācārya m. Name of viṣṇu- śāṃtanav ācārya the author of the m. s (on accentuation). phiṭ- sūtra- sāmudrik ācārya m. Name of (the father of kāśi- nātha- and grandfather of rāghavendra- ) ciraṃ- jīva- sārvabhaṭṭabhaum ācārya m. Name of an author (prob. equals ) sārva- bhauma- bhaṭṭā- cārya sarv ācārya the teacher of all m. sarvavidyāvinodabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author śaśadhar ācārya m. Name of an author sasiddh ācārya m. Name of a teacher śataguṇ ācārya m. Name of a man śatakarṇ ācārya m. Name of an author ( wrong reading ). - karaṇ- saty ācārya m. Name of a preceptor siṃh ācārya m. Name of an astronomer śiromaṇibhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of various authors. skandil ācārya m. Name of a preceptor smārtabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of (a celebrated Brahman who lived at the beginning of the 16th century and wrote 28 raghu- nandana- s,the general name of which is tattva- ) smṛti- tattva- somabhāgavat ācārya m. Name of various persons somānand ācārya m. Name of men śramaṇ ācārya a Buddhist or Jain teacher m. śrīkeśav ācārya m. Name of a teacher śrīkṛṣṇanyāyavāgīśabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a man śrīkṛṣṇatarkālaṃkārabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a man śrīśailatāt ācārya m. Name of a preceptor śrutaprakāśik ācāryakṛtarahasyatraya n. Name of vedā- nta work sthūl ācārya m. Name of a man sudhanv ācārya a m. particular mixed caste ( equals ) sudhanvan- ( see ) sudhanv ācārya a worshipper of m. īśāna- id est śiva- śukr ācārya the sage m. (regent of the planet Venus and preceptor of the śukrā- cārya s) daitya- śuṇṭh ācārya m. Name of a great sage or teacher śaiva- śūr ācārya m. Name of an author ( varia lectio for ). sūrā- c sur ācārya "preceptor of the gods", m. Name of bṛhas- pati- sūr ācārya m. Name of an author surāsur ācārya m. Name of a teacher sureśvar ācārya m. Name of author surottam ācārya m. Name of various authors svarūp ācārya m. Name of a teacher śyām ācārya m. Name of a man tilak ācārya m. Name of a pupil of (author of śivaprabha- and of comments on pratyekabuddha- catuṣṭaya- , āvaśyaka- - and śrāvaka- ). sādhu- pratikramaṇa- tridaś ācārya m. equals śa- guru- trivikram ācārya m. Name of an astronomer. udayan ācārya m. Name of a philosopher and author of several works. uddyotakar ācārya m. Name of a teacher. ugr ācārya m. Name of an author. utpal ācārya m. Name of an author. vac ācārya m. Name of a preceptor ( see ). vacchā- c vācak ācārya m. Name of a teacher (also ) umā- svāti- v- vācaspatibhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author vacch ācārya m. Name of the maternal grandfather of . nīla- kaṇṭha- ( see ). vacā- cārya vādibhīkar ācārya m. Name of an author. vaidyanāthavācaspatibhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of author vaikhānas ācārya m. Name of a teacher vaikuṇṭhadīpikānāth ācārya m. Name of an author vaikuṇṭhaśiṣy ācārya m. Name of authors vairucan ācārya (rather ) vairoc- m. Name of an author vajr ācārya m. Name of a preceptor vallabh ācārya m. Name of a celebrated teacher (successor of a less celebrated teacher vaiṣṇava- ;he was born, it is said, in the forest of viṣṇusvāmin- in 1479;at an early age he travelling to propagate his doctrines, and at the court of campāraṇya- , king of kṛṣṇadeva- , succeeded so well in his controversies with the vijaya- nagara- s that the śaiva- s chose him as their chief;he then went to other parts of India, and finally settled down at Benares, where he composed seventeen works, the most important of which were a commentary on the vaiṣṇava- and vedā- nta mīmāṃsā- s and another on the sūtra- , on which last the sect rest their doctrines;he left behind eighty-four disciples, of each of whom some story is told, and these stories are often repeated on festive occasions. He taught a non-ascetical view of religion and deprecated all self-mortification as dishonouring the body which contained a portion of the supreme Spirit. His followers in Bombay and Gujarat, and their leaders, are called bhāgavata- purāṇa- s;they are called the epicureans of India) mahā- rāja- vallabh ācāryavaṃśāvalī f. Name of work van ācārya m. Name of an author vaṅkālak ācārya (Prakritfor m. ?) vakrā- l Name of an astronomer (who wrote in Prakrit) varadanāth ācāryasūnu m. Name of author. ( ) vāriṣeṇ ācārya m. Name of a jina- vasant ācārya m. Name of a teacher vasugupt ācārya m. Name of an author vatsavarad ācārya m. Name of two authors ved ācārya " m. -teacher", (with veda- ) āvasathika- Name of the author of the smṛtiratnākara- vedānt ācārya m. Name of various teachers ( especially of a follower of , founder of a separate seat rāmā- nuja ) vedānt ācāryacaritra m. Name of work (with ) vaibhava- prakāśikā- vedānt ācāryadinacaryā f. Name of work vedānt ācāryamaṅgaladvādaśī f. Name of work vedānt ācāryaprapadana n. Name of work vedānt ācāryasaptati f. Name of work vedānt ācāryatārāhārāvalī f. Name of work vedānt ācāryavigrahadhyānapaddhati f. Name of work vedānt ācāryavijaya m. Name of work vedāntanayan ācārya m. Name of authors ver ācārya (?) m. Name of a prince veśy ācārya ( m. ) the master or keeper of harlots or dancing girls veśyā- c veśy ācārya a catamite m. vibudh ācārya "teacher of the gods", m. Name of bṛhas- pati- viddaṇ ācārya m. Name of an author. vidyālaṃkārabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of authors vidyānivāsabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of various men vidyāvāgīśabhaṭṭ ācārya m. Name of a scholar vijñān ācārya m. Name of a teacher vimukt ācārya m. Name of an author vīr ācārya m. Name of an author viśv ācārya m. Name of a teacher viśvanāth ācārya m. Name of author viśvarūp ācārya m. Name of an author viśveśvar ācārya m. Name of author vitaraṇ ācārya m. Name of a preceptor viṭṭhal ācāryasūnu m. Name of a Commentator vyās ācārya m. Name of a teacher of the school (later called mādhva- , died 1560 A.D.) vedavyāsa- tīrtha- vyomaśiv ācārya m. Name of an author yādav ācārya m. Name of a teacher yamun ācārya See . yāmunā- cārya yāmun ācārya m. See above yāmun ācāryastotra n. Name of work yavan ācārya m. Name of an astronomer (also called , author of various works;perhaps any Greek astronomer) yavaneśvara- yog ācārya a teacher of the Yoga system of philosophy m. yog ācārya a teacher of the art of magic (also said to be a teacher of the art of thieving) m. yog ācārya m. wrong reading for above. yogā- cāra yuddh ācārya "war-preceptor", one who teaches the use of arms m.
ācārya preceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।" confer, compare aṇṇaiy ācārya author of लिङ्गनिर्णयभूषण, who was a Tamil Brāhmaṇa by caste. anubhūtisvarūp ācārya a writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India. ācāryadeśīya a partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, confer, compare 2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ācāryasaṃpad necessary qualification to teach the Veda with all its pāṭhas having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrās and the like. पदक्रमविभागज्ञो वर्णक्रमविचक्षणः स्वरमात्राविशेषज्ञो गच्छेदाचार्यसंपदम् R. Prāt.I.8. confer, compare candr ācārya a grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्. confer, compare jayarāmabhaṭṭ ācārya (1) a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद. durval ācārya a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara. piṅgal ācārya an ancient scholar who is believed to be the first writer on Prosody, his work being known as छन्दःशास्त्र of पिङ्गल. Some scholars believe that he wrote a work on Phonetics which is now popularly called पाणिनीयशिक्षा. pṛthvīdhar ācārya a grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote the treatise कातन्त्रविवरण on Katantra Grammar. śiromaṇibhaṭṭ ācārya a grammarian who wrote the grammatical works कारकविवेक, तद्धितकोश and तिङन्तशिरोमणि. sāyaṇa,sāyaṇ ācārya the celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति. As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya: इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसुतेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning. confer, compare akhyātaprakriyā a work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpācārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa. karman (1) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म confer, compare II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; et cetera, and others अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित confer, compare . Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. confer, compare कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः exempli gratia, for example It is called अभिहित in such cases; et cetera, and others P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित confer, compare .The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; et cetera, and others घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; exempli gratia, for example निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् confer, compare on I.4.49: Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also confer, compare on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and confer, compare thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; commentary उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति confer, compare I. 3.4, where Nirukta of Yāska. explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ). Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta. kārakavāda (1) a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. kārakaviveka known as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himsel feminine. kuñcikā (1) a commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghūmañjūṣā by Krṣṇamiśra; ( 2 ) a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Durbalācārya. guṇa (1) degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; exempli gratia, for example गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद confer, compare : et cetera, and others confer, compare Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः confer, compare on Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta. I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, Nirukta of Yāska. in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; et cetera, and others on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; et cetera, and others भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः confer, compare on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च । confer, compare nyāyya proper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति confer, compare on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). उत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय confer, compare . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. patañjali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition viṣamapadavyākhyā or विषमी (1) a critical commentary on Nāgeśa's Laghuśabdenduśekhara written by Rāghavendrācārya Gajendragadkar of Satara who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century and who has also written a gloss named त्रिपथगा on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Cidrūpāśraya: (3) name of a commentary on Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. hemacandra a Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.