m. the sun or its deity (in the veda- the name sūrya- is generally distinguished from savitṛ- [q.v.] , and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods, whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind;in he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad, his place being in the sky, while that of agni- is on the earth, and that of indra- is in the atmosphere;ten hymns in the are entirely in praise of sūrya-exempli gratia, 'for example',also ;he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see saptāśva-, harit-, harid-aśva-];in the later mythology sūrya- is identified with savitṛ- as one of the 12 āditya-s or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year, and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by aruṇa- or the Dawn as its charioteer, who is represented without legs;the Sun, whether named sūrya- or vivasvat-, has several wivesSeesūryā-below) etc. (see)
m. the daughter of sūrya- or the Sun (See;also described as daughter of prajāpati- or of savitṛ- and wife of the aśvin-s, and in other places as married to soma-;in she is called ūrjānī-, and in the sister of pūṣan- [ q.v ], who is described as loving her, and receiving her as a gift from the gods; according to to some she represents a weak manifestation of the Sun; sūryā-sāvitrī- is regarded as the authoress of the sūryā-sūkta-)
m. [svar] sun; sun-god; N. (C.): -ka, m. N.; -kara, m. sunbeam; -kân ta, m. (beloved of the sun), sun-stone, sun crystal; -kandra, m. N.; -tapas, m. N. of a sage; -tegas, n. sunshine;(s&usharp;rya)-tvak, a. having a sun-bright skin or covering (RV.); -pâda, m. sunbeam; -putra, m. son of the sun, pat. of the Asvins, planet Saturn, and Yama: î, f. daughter of the sun, the Yamu nâ; -prabha, a. sun-bright; m. N. among others of the king after whom the eighth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara is called: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prabhava, a. sprung from the sun (race); -prabhîya, a. belonging to king Sûryaprabha; -prasishya, m. ep. of Ganaka; -bimba, m. or n. disc of the sun; -mandala, n. id.; -matî, f. N. of a princess; -ratha, m. car of the sun; -rasmi, m. sun beam; -ruk, f. sunlight; -vamsa, m. solar race of kings; -vams-ya, a.belonging to the solar race; -varman, m. N. of a Dâmara; -vâra, m. Sunday; -sishya, m. ep. of Yâgña valkya: -½antevâsin, m. ep. of Ganaka; -samkrama, m. entrance of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; -samkrânti, f. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of an astronomical trea tise ascribed to the Sun; -suta, m. (son of the sun) planet Saturn; the monkey Sugrîva; -stuti, f., -stotra, n. praise of the sun.
The ‘sun,’ plays a great part in Vedic mythology and religion, corresponding with the importance of the sun as a factor in the physical life of the peninsula. In the Rigveda2 the sun is normally regarded as a beneficent power, a not unnatural view in a people which must apparently have issued from the cold regions of the Himālaya mountains. Its heat is, however, alluded to in some passages of the Rigveda, as well as referred to in the Atharvaveda and the literature of the Brāhmaṇas. In one myth Indra is said to have vanquished Sūrya and to have stolen his wheel: this is possibly a reference to the obscuration of the sun by a thunderstorm. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa presents a naive conception of the course of the sun, which it regards„ as bright on one side only, and as returning from west to east by the same road, but with the reverse side turned towards the earth, thus at night illumining the stars in heaven. In the Rigveda wonder is expressed that the sun does not fall. There are several references to eclipses in the Rigveda. In one passage Svarbhānu, a demon, is said to have eclipsed the sun with darkness, while Atri restores the light of the sun, a similar feat being elsewhere attributed to his family, the Atris. In the Atharvaveda Rāhu appears for the first time in connexion with the sun. Indra’s defeat of Sūrya may also be explained as alluding to an eclipse; in two other passages such an interpretation seems at least probable. Ludwig not only argues that the Rigveda knows the theory of eclipses caused by an occultation of the sun by the moon, and regards the sun as going round the earth, but even endeavours to identify an eclipse referred to in the Rigveda with one that occurred in 1029 B.C. These views are completely refuted by Whitney. The sun as a maker of time determines the year of 360 days, which is the civil year and the usual year (Saipvatsara) of Vedic literature. This solar year is divided into two halves— the Uttarāyaṇa, when the sun goes north, and the Dakṣiṇā- yana, when it goes south. There can be no doubt that these periods denote the time when the sun turns north from the winter solstice, and when it turns south from the summer solstice, for the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa says so in perfectly clear language. The alternative theory is to regard the periods as those when the sun is in the north—i.e., when it is north of the equator, and when it is in the south, taking as points of departure the equinoxes, not the solstices; but this view has no support in Vedic literature, and is opposed to the fact that the equinoxes play no part in Vedic astronomical theory. There are only doubtful references to the solstices in the Rigveda. The Brāhmanas, and perhaps the Rigveda, regard the moon as entering the sun at new moon. According to Hillebrandt, the Rigveda recognizes that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun, but this seems very doubt-ful. See also Aryamṇalj Panthā, Nakṣatra, and Sapta Sūryāh.
noun (masculine) arka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a symbolical expression for the number "twelve" (in allusion to the sun in the 12 signs of the zodiac) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
epithet of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the son of Bali (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun or its deity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the swallow-wort; Calotropis gigantea Beng. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[Yoga] the right nostril Frequency rank 298/72933
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